WO2013004872A1 - Mortar for covering structural elements, with high acoustic performance levels - Google Patents

Mortar for covering structural elements, with high acoustic performance levels

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Publication number
WO2013004872A1
WO2013004872A1 PCT/ES2012/070486 ES2012070486W WO2013004872A1 WO 2013004872 A1 WO2013004872 A1 WO 2013004872A1 ES 2012070486 W ES2012070486 W ES 2012070486W WO 2013004872 A1 WO2013004872 A1 WO 2013004872A1
Authority
WO
Grant status
Application
Patent type
Prior art keywords
mortar
coke
cement
wall
wool
Prior art date
Application number
PCT/ES2012/070486
Other languages
Spanish (es)
French (fr)
Inventor
DE ROJAS GÓMEZ María Isabel SÁNCHEZ
ADÁN Manuel OLAYA
ROJAS Moisés FRÍAS
MONTOLIO Javier OLMEDA
VÁZQUEZ Borja FRUTOS
LOZANO Julián RIVERA
SAIZ José Luis ESTEBAN
Original Assignee
Consejo Superior De Investigaciones Científicas (Csic)
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date

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Classifications

    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C04CEMENTS; CONCRETE; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES
    • C04BLIME, MAGNESIA; SLAG; CEMENTS; COMPOSITIONS THEREOF, e.g. MORTARS, CONCRETE OR LIKE BUILDING MATERIALS; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES; TREATMENT OF NATURAL STONE
    • C04B28/00Compositions of mortars, concrete or artificial stone, containing inorganic binders or the reaction product of an inorganic and an organic binder, e.g. polycarboxylate cements
    • C04B28/02Compositions of mortars, concrete or artificial stone, containing inorganic binders or the reaction product of an inorganic and an organic binder, e.g. polycarboxylate cements containing hydraulic cements other than calcium sulfates
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C04CEMENTS; CONCRETE; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES
    • C04BLIME, MAGNESIA; SLAG; CEMENTS; COMPOSITIONS THEREOF, e.g. MORTARS, CONCRETE OR LIKE BUILDING MATERIALS; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES; TREATMENT OF NATURAL STONE
    • C04B2111/00Mortars, concrete or artificial stone or mixtures to prepare them, characterised by specific function, property or use
    • C04B2111/52Sound-insulating materials

Abstract

The incorporation of a covering mortar based on cement and granulated coke with particle diameters between 1 and 6 mm, into structural elements such as a brickwork extrados, gives a dual effect of enhanced acoustic insulation. This effect is due to the increase in the mass by the spraying of the mortar and to acoustic absorption as a consequence of the porous network of the material applied. The acoustic performance levels achieved exceed those of the same configuration as a double wall but with the incorporation of mineral wool into the cavity, and also that of conventional cement and sand mortar. Furthermore, covering mortars are in any event necessary to guarantee the external leaktightness of brickwork. Moreover, the fact that the coke mortar is thinner (15 mm) than mineral wool mortar (50-80 mm) reduces the total thickness of the elevation and thereby increases the useful surface area of the built structure.

Description

MORTAR COATING OF CONSTRUCTIVE ELEMENTS WITH HIGH

PERFORMANCES ACOUSTIC TECHNICAL FIELD

The present invention is in the construction sector, and specifically in the industry of acoustic products, further enforced by increased foreseeable demand must have alternative products that can efficiently replace mineral wool, as can be the case mortars based porous cokes.

STATE OF THE ART

To achieve an absorbent product of the sound wave is required of a material having a large open porosity, meaning open porosity of a material as a solid skeleton tour of pores communicated with each other and with the outside as sound dampening occurs the tortuous path through the pore space, resulting in heat degradation of the sound wave by interference and friction of the air molecules against the walls of the pores of the material. Currently, many acoustic materials in the form of plates or rolls, either sandwiched sheet or simply sold, and in many cases are formed from materials of different natures. Usual materials in acoustic applications are wood chips, wood fiber and cork, mineral wool (glass wool and rock wool); polymers: polyester, polyurethane, vinyl, polyethylene, polymethylmethacrylate and other less common, such as mylar and melamine; metals mainly steel and lead; textile fibers, bitumens, asphalt and bitumen and others as concrete, glass, ceramic, clay, gypsum, vermiculite, etc.

The materials used today as acoustic absorbers are rock wool and glass. Although today they are not considered toxic, it is true that is a material that has just degraded over time, escaping into the environment as fibrillar powder and therefore, by its nature, it is suspected to cause toxicological problems. Thus, given the progressive hardening of toxicological regulations, it is perfectly conceivable that eventually these materials end up being considered potentially hazardous, carcinogenic and triggers other lung diseases such as silicosis, as already occurred asbestosrelated with whom mineral wool are chemically related.

Various publications have demonstrated the possibility of using concrete or cement mortar enriched with other components favoring sound insulation in construction (US patent 3,979,870; US 4,720,295 or patent application CN 1478972-A). These components are added to the mortar, are residues from the oil industry. Coke is a material which originally has good conditions for use as a sound absorber, derived from its physical properties: low density (real and apparent), high open porosity and configuration particulate granular form (Frias et al, 2006 . Coal 2006 Short Abstract Number: SA-185, Sanchez de Rojas et al, 2009. Annual World Conference on Coal, Coal 2009, Biarritz, France, June 2009. Frías et al, 2011 Construction & Building Materials, 25: 1086- 1092). Coke offers advantages over alternative materials. One advantage is the ability to be cleaned with water, while others like to get dirty fiberglass loses its absorbent properties. In addition, this material can be kneaded and molded, exhibiting good ability worked in on-site installation without losing its characteristics as sound absorber.

Although we have analyzed the acoustic performance of coke and its potential as an alternative to other insulating materials noise commonly used in the industry, it has not been discussed so far use as coating constructive elements, such as walls or inner walls and exterior.

In the case described in the invention, the mortar coke is coated in building elements, and very sale osamente on the inner face of the main wall, which functions as support for the application of mortar, and usually located contact with the outside environment settings facade walls.

Furthermore, it has been found that the walls consist of double walls with inner tube get high acoustic insulation due to the mass-spring-mass effect. The acoustic wave transmitted between the two masses (walls) is attenuated by the intermediate air chamber which functions as a spring with a stiffness K of air. However, the wave reflections between the inner faces of the partitions produce a coupling between the two rigid walls at a certain frequency. This phenomenon is called "resonance frequency" and is based on the natural tendency to oscillate has a double or vibrate partition, and for which the capacity is reduced insulation. To mitigate this effect and to avoid a loss of insulation in this frequency range is necessary to introduce absorbent material in the air, along the walls that make up the solution to double ho possess different surface densities.

In the case of the present invention it has been developed a composition in the form of mortar, as are commonly known in the field of construction, but among its components comprising a petroleum residue or coke. The acoustic performance of the coating described are due to a double combined effect:

a) On the one hand, it is an absorbent material as demonstrated in laboratory tests with the impedance tube. However, until now, the use of cement mortar and coke for making mortar for coating building elements full scale has not been studied, and its use in enclosures allowing check their actual applicability and high value as an absorbent material noise in buildings and construction. In the case of systems double walled inner tube, the mortar is able to attenuate the effect of the resonance frequency that occurs in the air chambers by the reflections of the sound waves not only by incorporating acoustic absorbing material inside the chamber, as would happen with other fibrous materials such as mineral wool, commonly used for this purpose, but also to generate a difference in thickness and areal density between sheets that make up the wall of the building system. b) On the other hand, this material, with a significantly higher than that of mineral wool, applied on the inner face (or back face) of one wall, significantly increases the mass of said wall and therefore also its insulation density what it is known as the law of mass action. This effect mass increase not get mineral wool for its low density, which binds to the fact that the material described solves the disadvantages listed above for mineral wool.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

The main object of the present invention consists of a composition of a mortar as a coating of construction materials or construction elements comprises at least a cement matrix and carbon residue (coke) granules with diameters equal particle or greater than 1 mm and equal to or less than 6 mm, the interval between 2 and 5 mm and the recommended preferred, both limits included.

This mortar coating that insulates composition constructive elements, exhibits high performance as an acoustic absorbent (ie, it acts as acoustic insulation by coating a component), for air, similar or better than that of the noise mineral without the disadvantages associated with prior commented this material wool. It has been empirically found that this improved coating mortar 3 dBA isolation of the component with respect to the mineral wool. This phenomenon occurs because of the physical and structural properties of the coke which is added to the cement mortar (low and particle density, high porosity open, granular form ...). This material, unlike the mineral wool can be washed with water and does not lose its attenuating noise properties with time.

Furthermore, it has unexpectedly been found that incorporation of coke cement mortar coating a component achieves a double effect of increased sound insulation, due on one hand to an increased mass by projecting mortar, and another sound absorption within the component (for example, the inner chamber of a double wall) by the porosity of the applied mortar. The acoustic performance achieved with this coating object of interest exceed those of the same configuration of the construction element but with addition of mineral wool as insulation, and the conventional cement mortar and sand.

Furthermore, this coating acts as acoustic insulation further ensures Impermeabili tion of the building to which it is applied. The ease of application of mortar, using devices and projection systems, also manages to reduce the execution times on site, lowering final costs.

The present invention also relates to the use of the mortar mix as acoustic insulation, for example to isolate a component acoustically as well as default, the construction in which that element is used.

Another object of the present invention is an inner lining of construction elements consisting of the mortar composition coke described above.

Likewise, another object of the present invention is constituted by a component or construction material comprising a mortar coating as described herein, in any of its variants.

The present invention also encompasses the preparation method based coating cement mortar with coke, in any of its variants, comprising:

subjecting the coke to a saturation in water for a period of time between 2 and 24 hours both limits included, preferably 24 hours, drain coke for a time between 15 and 60 minutes both limits included, preferably for 30 minutes; Y

- preparing a mixture (a mortar) of cement and coke.

By subjecting the coke to water saturation in a first step it is achieved that the material pores remain occluded water. After the breakthrough time, the coke is drained to remove excess water. Performing this process has the advantage of removing adhering fines of the large particles and maintains the porosity of the material intact, thus preventing the entry of cement into the pores during kneading. The end result of this treatment is a wet material with water saturated pores, later disappear leaving a granular aggregate that provide high porosity structural element.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

In a preferred embodiment, the mortar layer is shaped, and more preferably has a thickness between 10 and 30 mm, both limits included. More preferably still, the thickness is 15 mm; this is also the preferred form in the coating or plaster construction elements consisting mortar coke, ie, preferably as a layer, more preferably 10 to 30 mm thickness from both limits included and more preferably still is with a thickness of 15 mm. As shown, this mortar mix allowed for acoustic insulation get thinner industry to commonly used, which saves on material cost. In short, the present invention represents a highly advantageous advance in the field of acoustic insulation because achieves high sound absorption with significantly lower material thicknesses. Furthermore, the reduced thickness of the mortar based on cement and coke (15 mm) from the mineral wool (50-80 mm) requires a component reduces the total thickness of the enclosure increases and thus the edi useful surface of the cation.

Also preferably, the ratio of cement matrix and coke is between 1: 1 and 1: 3 by weight of the total composition of the mortar, both limits included.

Preferably, but not limiting, the cement is Portland cement.

Additionally, the cement mortar containing coke may comprise other binders and components, such as sand. As for the structural element or construction material comprising mortar, said element is preferably a wall or wall, even more preferably a double wall with inner chamber, as is preferably the type used in factories, such as brickworks.

Practically, the mortar coating is projected (applied) on the inside (not seen) of the component, such as may be on the inner face of one wall of a system (wall) double walled chamber inside (more preferably on the inner face of the main wall or wall system), increasing its effectiveness in acoustic insulation. Thus, as already noted above, a double combined acoustic effect is achieved, so that the acoustic performance of the construction element, such as this constructive solution double wall with mortar coke projected onto one of the inner faces, is are increased significantly, and this has been demonstrated by comparative tests between this solution and the like in the mortar coke is replaced by a conventional cement and sand, and other replaced by mineral wool, as demonstrated in the Examples herein.

As regards the method of preparation of the mortar, it should be noted that the ratio of cement and coke matrix is ​​preferably between 1: 1 and 1: 3 by weight of the total composition of the mortar, both limits included.

The mixture or cement mortar and coke can be prepared according to conventional methods widely known in the field.

After preparation of mortar, it is preferably applied by spraying onto the component. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE FIGURES

Figure 1. Preparation of a double sheet wall insulated with mineral wool inside, according to Example 1.

Figure 2: Preparation of a portland cement mortar and coke, according to the present invention and Example 2. Figure 2.a: Saturation in water for 24 hours; Figure 2.b: Appearance coke after saturation.

Figure 3. Mortar cement and coke on a sheet of bricks on its inner side, according to Example 2. Figure 3.a: overview; Figure 3.b: detail of the mortar mix.

Figure . Aspect of cement mortar and coke after being applied on the inner face of the wall, according to Example 2. Figure 4.a: overview mortar coating; Figure 4.b: detail.

EXAMPLES OF REALIZATION OF THE INVENTION

The invention is illustrated by means of tests carried out, which shows the applicability in the construction industry mortar cement siding and coke object of this invention as well as its effectiveness as an insulator airborne noise, when compared with the behavior of a mineral wool commonly used. We proceeded to construct a solution tabiqueria double wall with inner chamber, where the mineral wool and cement mortar lining and coke were incorporated.

Example 1. Manufacture of double walls with inner chamber wall insulated with mineral wool.

As an example, a solution was run double - walled partition 10 m 2 double gap with gypsum plaster on the visible surfaces and with the addition of a mineral wool inside. The materials used for manufacturing were the following:

• Double wall: Brick large format double hollow

70 mm thick. • acoustic insulation: mineral wool 80 mm thick.

• composition connection between wall and insulation: Gypsum vertical surfaces.

The methodology for the construction of the enclosure was to build a wall of bricks, plaster revoke paste on the inside and paste the mineral wool panel (Figure 1). Then the second brick wall rises. Finally a lying and plaster is applied on both sides views of 8 mm thick.

After lifting the double wall, they measure transmission acoustic enclosure with corresponding mineral wool were taken.

Example 2. Manufacture of double walls with inner chamber wall insulated with mortar cement siding and coke of the present invention.

After the measurements of acoustic transmission system double walled insulated with mineral wool have been taken, topples one of the two brick walls and mineral wool is removed. In the inner wall of the partition it left standing cement mortar and coke is applied with a thickness of 15 mm. Therefore, the materials used are:

• wall: Brick double hollow large format 70 mm thick.

• acoustic insulation: Portland cement mortar type II 32.5 N, mixed with petroleum coke having particle diameters between 5 and 2 mm.

• composition connection between wall and insulation: Gypsum vertical surfaces.

To prepare the mortar, given the specific characteristics sought was necessary prior to the addition of coke in the cementitious matrix treatment. The coke was subjected to a saturation in water for 24 hours (Figure 2D), sufficient to achieve the replacement of air with water in the pores of the material time; Elapsed time saturation coke was drained for 30 minutes to remove excess water. The end result of this treatment is a wet material with water saturated pores, later disappear leaving a granular aggregate that provide high porosity to component (Figure 2.b).

1.5: cement mortar and coke ratio 1 was manufactured.

The coating mortar was applied to the zip covering with a thickness of 15 mm (Figure 3.a; mortar detail in Figure 3.b coating).

When the mortar cement siding and coke was completed (Figure 4) proceeded to lift the second sheet of bricks, which is located 60 mm away from the mortar mix.

Finally, a plaster lining and 8 mm thick on both sides of the wall is applied. The facing was allowed 28 days of curing prior to the study of acoustic behavior.

Additionally a double wall with inner chamber, but with a conventional cement mortar and sand without coke was manufactured.

Example 3. Comparative study of the acoustic performance mortar commented and coke off the mineral wool in systems with double walls inside chamber

To evaluate the acoustic performance of mortar coating described here assays soundproofing were performed in standard laboratory chambers (UNE EN ISO 140 Parts 1 and 3 standards), both system prepared in Example 1 and commonly used in today's building double wall with mineral wool insulation in the inner chamber, as the proposed here in Example 2, in which the mineral wool is replaced by a projection mortar coke 15 mm thick and the other in which mortar is used conventional cement and sand. The results obtained, evaluated according to the UNE EN ISO 717-1, show an increase of 3 dBA acoustic insulation in the solution incorporating the cement mortar and coke in the backfill with respect to the solution of mineral wool (global isolation RA = 50 dBA to solution coke and RA = 47dBA for mineral wool) and 2dBA regarding incorporating conventional cement mortar and sand (RA = 48dBA for conventional mortar).

Claims

RE IVINDICACIONES
1. Mortar coating of building elements characterized by comprising at least a cement matrix and granulated coke particle diameters ranging from 1 to 6 mmm, both limits included.
2. mortar coating according to claim 1, characterized in that the granular coke has a diameter between 2 and 5 mm, both limits included.
3. Mortar coating according to any one of claims 1 or 2, characterized by having a ratio by weight of cement and coke comprised between 1: 1 and 1: 3 by weight of the total mortar composition, including both limits.
Four . Mortar mix according to any one of claims 1 to 3, characterized in that the cement is Portland cement.
5 . Mortar mix according to any one of claims 1 to 4, characterized in that the mortar comprises at least one binder.
6. mortar coating according to claim 5, wherein the binder is sand.
7. Internal lining of construction elements consisting of the mortar described in any one of claims 1 to 6.
8. Coating according to claim 7, characterized in that it is in layer form.
9. Cladding according to any one of claims 7 or 8, characterized by having a thickness between 10 and 30 mm, both limits included.
10. Coating according to the preceding claim, characterized by having a thickness of 15 mm.
eleven . Method for preparing a mortar mix according to any one of claims 1 to 6, comprising:
subjecting the granular coke to saturation in water for a period of time between 2 and 24 hours;
drain coke for a time between 15 and 60 minutes; Y
- preparing a mixture of cement and drained coke.
12. Method according to claim 11, wherein the ratio of cement and coke matrix is ​​preferably between 1: 1 and 1: 3 by weight of the total composition of the mortar, both limits included.
13. Method according to any one of claims 11 or 12, characterized in that the granulated coke is subjected to saturation in water for 24 hours.
14. Method according to any one of claims 11 to 13, characterized in that the coke is drained for 30 minutes.
fifteen . Wall double wall with inner chamber and function of acoustic attenuation, characterized by comprising the mortar coating described in any one of claims 1 to 6 applied on the inner face of the main wall which is in contact with the outside environment configuration facade walls, which functions as a support for mortar application.
16. Using a mortar mix according to any one of claims 1 to 6 as soundproofing air noise in building elements.
PCT/ES2012/070486 2011-07-01 2012-06-29 Mortar for covering structural elements, with high acoustic performance levels WO2013004872A1 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
ESP201131115 2011-07-01
ES201131115A ES2395660B1 (en) 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 Mortar coating of building elements with acoustic performance.

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Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
GB1026935A (en) *
USRE26597E (en) * 1968-01-12 1969-06-03 Sieve analysis of some commercial fluid cokes
US4957555A (en) * 1989-11-09 1990-09-18 Capitol Aggregates, Inc Cementing compositions and method
WO2001072657A2 (en) * 2000-03-29 2001-10-04 National Research Council Of Canada Conductive concrete composition

Family Cites Families (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CA1049708A (en) * 1975-03-21 1979-03-06 Robert W. Gaines Shrinkage inhibition of cementitious systems through the addition of specially processed carbonaceous materials

Patent Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
GB1026935A (en) *
USRE26597E (en) * 1968-01-12 1969-06-03 Sieve analysis of some commercial fluid cokes
US4957555A (en) * 1989-11-09 1990-09-18 Capitol Aggregates, Inc Cementing compositions and method
WO2001072657A2 (en) * 2000-03-29 2001-10-04 National Research Council Of Canada Conductive concrete composition

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date Type
ES2395660A1 (en) 2013-02-14 application
ES2395660B1 (en) 2014-02-13 grant

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