WO2012138315A1 - Carbon electrodes and electrochemical capacitors - Google Patents

Carbon electrodes and electrochemical capacitors Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2012138315A1
WO2012138315A1 PCT/US2011/000619 US2011000619W WO2012138315A1 WO 2012138315 A1 WO2012138315 A1 WO 2012138315A1 US 2011000619 W US2011000619 W US 2011000619W WO 2012138315 A1 WO2012138315 A1 WO 2012138315A1
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capacitor
carbon
electrode
electrolyte
comprises
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PCT/US2011/000619
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French (fr)
Inventor
Novis W. Smith
Joel Mccloskey
James J. GORMLEY
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Lithdyne, LLC
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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01GCAPACITORS; CAPACITORS, RECTIFIERS, DETECTORS, SWITCHING DEVICES OR LIGHT-SENSITIVE DEVICES, OF THE ELECTROLYTIC TYPE
    • H01G11/00Hybrid capacitors, i.e. capacitors having different positive and negative electrodes; Electric double-layer [EDL] capacitors [EDLCs]; Processes specially adapted for the manufacture thereof or of parts thereof
    • H01G11/54Electrolytes
    • H01G11/58Liquid electrolytes
    • H01G11/62Liquid electrolytes characterised by the solute, e.g. salts, anions or cations therein
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01GCAPACITORS; CAPACITORS, RECTIFIERS, DETECTORS, SWITCHING DEVICES OR LIGHT-SENSITIVE DEVICES, OF THE ELECTROLYTIC TYPE
    • H01G11/00Hybrid capacitors, i.e. capacitors having different positive and negative electrodes; Electric double-layer [EDL] capacitors [EDLCs]; Processes specially adapted for the manufacture thereof or of parts thereof
    • H01G11/22Electrodes
    • H01G11/30Electrodes characterised by their materials
    • H01G11/32Carbon-based, e.g. activated carbon materials
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01GCAPACITORS; CAPACITORS, RECTIFIERS, DETECTORS, SWITCHING DEVICES OR LIGHT-SENSITIVE DEVICES, OF THE ELECTROLYTIC TYPE
    • H01G11/00Hybrid capacitors, i.e. capacitors having different positive and negative electrodes; Electric double-layer [EDL] capacitors [EDLCs]; Processes specially adapted for the manufacture thereof or of parts thereof
    • H01G11/22Electrodes
    • H01G11/30Electrodes characterised by their materials
    • H01G11/32Carbon-based, e.g. activated carbon materials
    • H01G11/34Carbon-based, e.g. activated carbon materials characterised by carbonisation or activation of carbon
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01GCAPACITORS; CAPACITORS, RECTIFIERS, DETECTORS, SWITCHING DEVICES OR LIGHT-SENSITIVE DEVICES, OF THE ELECTROLYTIC TYPE
    • H01G11/00Hybrid capacitors, i.e. capacitors having different positive and negative electrodes; Electric double-layer [EDL] capacitors [EDLCs]; Processes specially adapted for the manufacture thereof or of parts thereof
    • H01G11/54Electrolytes
    • H01G11/58Liquid electrolytes
    • H01G11/60Liquid electrolytes characterised by the solvent
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01GCAPACITORS; CAPACITORS, RECTIFIERS, DETECTORS, SWITCHING DEVICES OR LIGHT-SENSITIVE DEVICES, OF THE ELECTROLYTIC TYPE
    • H01G11/00Hybrid capacitors, i.e. capacitors having different positive and negative electrodes; Electric double-layer [EDL] capacitors [EDLCs]; Processes specially adapted for the manufacture thereof or of parts thereof
    • H01G11/84Processes for the manufacture of hybrid or EDL capacitors, or components thereof
    • H01G11/86Processes for the manufacture of hybrid or EDL capacitors, or components thereof specially adapted for electrodes
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01GCAPACITORS; CAPACITORS, RECTIFIERS, DETECTORS, SWITCHING DEVICES OR LIGHT-SENSITIVE DEVICES, OF THE ELECTROLYTIC TYPE
    • H01G11/00Hybrid capacitors, i.e. capacitors having different positive and negative electrodes; Electric double-layer [EDL] capacitors [EDLCs]; Processes specially adapted for the manufacture thereof or of parts thereof
    • H01G11/22Electrodes
    • H01G11/26Electrodes characterised by the structures of the electrodes, e.g. multi-layered, shapes, dimensions, porosities or surface features
    • H01G11/28Electrodes characterised by the structures of the electrodes, e.g. multi-layered, shapes, dimensions, porosities or surface features arranged or disposed on a current collector; Layers or phases between electrodes and current collectors, e.g. adhesives
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01GCAPACITORS; CAPACITORS, RECTIFIERS, DETECTORS, SWITCHING DEVICES OR LIGHT-SENSITIVE DEVICES, OF THE ELECTROLYTIC TYPE
    • H01G11/00Hybrid capacitors, i.e. capacitors having different positive and negative electrodes; Electric double-layer [EDL] capacitors [EDLCs]; Processes specially adapted for the manufacture thereof or of parts thereof
    • H01G11/66Current collectors
    • H01G11/68Current collectors characterised by their materials
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E60/00Enabling technologies or technologies with a potential or indirect contribution to GHG emissions mitigation
    • Y02E60/10Energy storage
    • Y02E60/13Ultracapacitors, supercapacitors, double-layer capacitors

Abstract

Carbon electrodes for a capacitor having conditioned carbon elements in combination with a high concentration of an electrolyte tetrafluoroborate salt and a non-aqueous aprotic solvent to provide an operational voltage up to 4.5 V and capacitors used with the carbon electrodes.

Description

Carbon Electrodes and Electrochemical Capacitors

Field of the Invention

The present invention relates to conditioned carbon for electrodes and

electrochemical capacitors containing the electrodes. More particularly, there is provided a synergistic improvement when a capacitor utilizes a conditioned carbon for electrodes of the invention in combination with a non-aqueous non-acetonitrile electrolyte having a high concentration of an electrolyte salt which is a quaternary tetrafluoroborate salt.

Background of the Invention

Activated carbon is the preferred material for use in preparing electrodes for carbon electrode capacitors. This activated carbon is prepared from a number of different sources such as coconut shells, wood, sugar, cellulosics and phenolic resins. After converting these materials to carbon under steam controlled conditions, the carbons are "activated" in a second step using steam or catalyzed with KOH, or carbon dioxide and KOH to increase the surface area to very high surface areas such as 1000 to 2400 m2/g. These activated carbons usually contain about 2% oxygen after they have been thoroughly dried and traces of inorganic salts. This oxygen is probably present as quinones, hydroquinones, phenols, carboxylic acids, furans and possibly ketones etc. with some nitrogen compounds - all of which under higher voltage conditions greater than 3 V. will undergo electrochemical oxidation/reduction as the voltage is increased past 3.3 V. At lower voltages, these functional groups actually improve the energy storage capacity of the carbon and are desirable at voltages below 3.2 V. However as the voltage is pushed higher than 3.2 V a high leakage current with gas formation, an increase in the ESR (resistance), and loss of performance occurs.

Electrochemical double layer capacitors capable of high energy density, known as "super-capacitors", have been assembled from a variety of materials. In general, it is desirable to construct super-capacitors with light weight materials and electrolytes that are stable and non reactive, as described in U.S. Patent No. 5,260,855 issued to

Kaschmitter et al, the teachings of which are hereby incorporated by reference. This type of super-capacitor incorporates electrodes based on carbon may be prepared from organic gels.

U.S. Patent No. 6,902,683 to Smith et al, which is herein incorporated by reference relates to electrolytes of a complex salt formed by mixing of a tetraalkyl ammonium salt of hydrogen fluoride with an imidazolium compound in a nitrile solvent which operate at temperatures between -60 and 150°C.

The article of Ue in J. electrochem. Soc. Vol 141, No. 11, Nov. 1994 entitled "Electrochemical Properties of Organic Liquid Electrolytes Based on Quaternary Onium Salts for Electrical Double-Layer Capacitors" which is herein incorporated by reference, discloses high permittivity solvents and onium salts for double-layer capacitors.

Specifically studied were quaternary onium tetrafluoroborate salts which showed greater solubility in the solvents with good stability and conductivity.

U.S. Patent No. 5,418,682 to Warren et al, which is herein incorporated by reference discloses a method of preparing tetraalkyl ammonium tetrafluoroborate salts for use as electrolytes with dinitrile mixtures as solvents. U.S. Patent Nos. 6,535,373 and 6,902,684 to Smith et al, which are herein incorporated by reference, disclose similar electrolytes which primarily utilize nitrile solvents.

Summary of the Invention

According to one embodiment of the invention there is provided improved carbon electrodes for higher voltage electrochemical double layer capacitors (EDLC) and their method of preparation.

The carbon electrodes are prepared in discs formed from carbon particles which have been heat treated between 850°C and 1300°C, preferably about 1050°C to 1190°C in an inert atmosphere or vacuum for about 30 to 60 minutes. This carbon was formed into 4mm sheets with a Kynar binder and then cut into electrode discs. Then these electrodes were tested using a voltage ramp upon the disc in a capacitor test cell of 2 to 4.4 volts in 0.5 increments while holding for three cycles in each step under an inert atmosphere.

In accordance with another feature of the invention the electrolyte of the EDLC comprises an aprotic non-acetonitrile non-aqueous solvent and at least one tetraalkyl ammonium tetrafluoroborate salt in a higher concentration (2.0 to 4.0 M; 20-55% by weight).

Advantageously, an aluminum metal collector is used with the capacitor electrode. It is a general object of the invention to provide an EDLC having an operating voltage up to 4.0 - 4.5 V. According to a feature of the invention, the activated carbon particles which have been treated are formed into a sheet and then cut into a disc for an electrode which is comprised of a metal collector wherein the carbon is on the top and bottom surfaces of the collector, a second conductive carbon layer on which said heat treated carbon layers is placed and a porous inert separator between said conductive carbon layer.

It is a general object of the invention to prepare a carbon electrode for a capacitor which contains discs comprised of post treated activated carbon particles which do not contain ash, silica or functional oxygen or sulfur compounds.

It is another object of the invention to provide a capacitor with a carbon electrode which operates at higher voltage (>3.0 to 4.5 V). .

The invention will become better understood from a reading of the preferred embodiment of the invention and the drawings.

Brief Description of the Drawing

Fig. 1 is an elevational view of a carbon disc for an electrochemical double layer capacitor electrode of the invention.

Fig. 2 is a cross-sectional view of an electrode with the disc of Fig. 1

Fig. 3 is a cross-sectional view of another electrode of the invention.

Fig. 4 is an exploded view of the electrode of Fig. 3. Description of the Preferred Embodiments

According to the present invention there is provided an improved electrochemical carbon electrode double layer capacitor (EDLC) which has electrochemical stable carbon electrodes with an electrolyte having a conductivity of about 20-30 mS/cm at 25°C and rises to 65mS/cm at about 80°C which comprises a non-aqueous, non-acretonitrile electrolyte and at least one conductive ammonium salt of the formula:

Figure imgf000006_0001
wherein R, R1; R2 and R3 are ethyl or methyl groups or R, Rj, R2 and R3 are one or two pyrrolidinyl groups in a concentration of 2.0 to 4.0M in a solvent selected from the group consisting of ethylene carbonate, propylene carbonate, gamma butyrolactone or dimethyl carbonate mixtures thereof. The carbon of the electrode is activated carbon which has been heated between 850°C to 1300°C in an inert atmosphere for about 30 to 60 minutes, and then formed into discs. Preferably the carbon has been acid washed before to remove ash. The capacitor with the discs is tested at constant voltage of 3.5 to 4.5 V.

The preferred ammonium salts have the molecular weight in the range of 175 to 250. More preferable salts are diethyldimethylammonium tetrafluoroborate (DEDMA BF4) and ethylmethyl pyrrolidinyl tetrafluoroborate. The preferred solvents are ethylene carbonate (EC) in combination with gammabutyrolactone (GBL) or propylene carbonate (PC) or dimethyl carbonate (DMC) at a ratio of about 40% EC to 70% of GBL, PC, DMC or mixtures thereof. An electrode to be used in the capacitor is prepared by acid washing then heat treating the activated carbon used in the electrode between 850°C and 1300°C preferably 1000-1300°C in an inert atmosphere or vacuum for about 30 to 60 minutes, forming carbon discs for the electrode and then subjecting a capacitor with the electrode to a constant voltage cycling in the range 3.5 to 5 V.

As shown in Figs. 1 and 2, the electrode of the invention (10) comprises an aluminum metal foil collector (11) on the top and bottom which are about 1 to 4 mils in thickness. On the collector (11) are an optional conductive carbon coatings (12) in a thickness of about 0.5 to 1 mil. On coatings (12) are the discs (13) which comprises conditioned higher surface area conductive carbons with a binder in a thickness of about 2 to 5 mils. A conventional porous insulating separator (14) having a thickness of about 0.5 to 3 mils is used between the conductive carbons (13). The coatings (12) may also comprise the same treated carbon found in layers (13).

The separator (14) can comprise any conventional inert separator used in making carbon electrodes. A preferred separator is porous Teflon. The electrodes used may be symmetrical or asymmetrical.

The discs with conductive carbon layer (13) comprise the pretreated conductive carbon prepared according to the invention in combination with an inert polymeric binder such as polytetrafluoroethane , Surlyn or Kynar that is present in an amount of about 6% by weight. The disc layers (13) can be prepared by mixing about 0.02 grams of the treated carbon with about 6% of polytetrafluoroethane or Kynar in an acetone solvent, rolling back and forth the mixture under pressure to form a layer of about 2 to 5 mils in thickness and 5/8" circular that is die cut and vacuum dried. The particle size of the carbon particles is about 0.5-10 microns. The disc can comprise different shapes, i.e. square, rectangular, circular, etc.

Alternatively, the active carbon can be prepared by treating the carbon particles used to form the electrode disc (13) after acid ball milling to about 0.5 to 10 microns, preferably 3-6 microns and then by a heat treatment in a furnace to remove oxygen and sulfur functional groups at 850-1300°C, preferably 1100°C, followed by washing and drying under vacuum. The heat treatment steps being carried out in an inert atmosphere.

The post treated activated carbon is then formed into a disc (13) and then placed into a capacitor test cell with an electrolyte subjected to a constant voltage cycling from 2 to 4.1 V.

The capacitor is provided with a means for degassing the carbon disc in the electrode to remove gasses formed during the initial voltage cycling (less than 10 cycles). The Aluminum Collector

The aluminum collector used in the electrode is preferably made from plain annealed aluminum foil with a coating of a water based conductive carbon acrylic coating such as a commercial Acheson's carbon acrylic conductive coating which is then baked on at 200°C. The aluminum after the burn-in and degassing is suitable for the anode or the cathode.

The past treated activated carbon may be formulated with Kynar® and coated directly on the aluminum collector foil in a 3-6 mm thick electrode layer. This can be on one or both sides.

Preferred Electrolyte

A preferred solvent comprises the combination of ethylene carbonate (EC) and one or more of the group gamma butyrolactone (GBL), propylene carbonate or dimethyl carbonate wherein ethylene carbonate comprises at least 20% by weight, preferably 40 to 60% by weight.

The salt concentration is at least 1.0M, preferably 1.5 to 5.2M most preferred range is 1.5-3.5M. A mixture with spiro or bis-pyrrolidinyl ammonium tetrafluoroborate also provides good low temperature efficiency.

These improvements are seen more significant for those electrolytes when the ionic salt content is more than 2.5 to 4.0 M and twice as much as the current electrolytes which results in even better efficiency in charge/discharge capacitance than implied from the conductivity values alone. It was found that ethylene carbonate (EC) was essential to achieve significant improvement in conductivity over the current non-acetonitrile aprotic electrolytes (18-19 mS/cm) based on propylene carbonate (PC) alone.

Example 1

Preparation of Electrode

A. The carbon electrodes can be seen in Figs. 1 and 2 prepared by forming an

acetone slurry of 10% Kynar® resin and 90% carbon (0.5-10 microns) which have been treated to remove ash and silica. The mixture is cast onto a flat Teflon sheet and then the acetone is allowed to evaporate. The dried sheet is removed from the Teflon and 5/8" circular electrodes are die cut and vacuum dried. The electrodes weigh about 0.01 gram and are 4 mil in thickness.

B. Alternatively, a carbon electrode (20) can be prepared as seen in Figs. 3 and 4 by preparing the end plates (21) from a sheet of aluminum coated with a thin liquid conductive carbon dispersion and then baked. One dry, proper sized discs (21) are punched from the sheet and put on a roller to flatten the edges. Surlyn® rings (23) are then heat sealed to the end plates (21). The heat treated carbon is then made into a paste with 10% Surlyn binder and acetone. The paste is rolled into a sheet of about 4 mm of Teflon sheeting. The acetone is evaporated and then punched to size to fit within the Surlyn rings. The carbon electrodes (24) are then baked under vacuum to remove any moisture. The separator (22) is a 0.5 mil thick porous Teflon disc which is slightly smaller than end plates (21) but larger than the electrodes (24). The electrodes (24) are soaked in the proper electrolyte before assembly then placed within the Surlyn rings. The separator is centered on one Surlyn ring assembly. The other Surlyn ring assembly is then placed on top of the other assembly and the entire assembly is heat sealed together.

Example 2

Comparison of Capacitor Test Cells with DEDMABF4 in EC/GBL Electrolyte

Using Post-Treated OSAKA PC Carbon Electrode (0.008 g)

RELATIVE

CONCENTRATION MACCOR OF ELECTROLYTE LEAKAGE CAPACITANCE ENERGY

DED -BF4. EC-GBL ESR EIS (FARADS') mAh

LOO M, 1100°C 1.5 VG 0.29 (2.0V) 0.09

(Carbon none

Treatment) 0.30 (3.0V) 0.13

0.32 (4.2V) 0.24

2.50 M, 1000°C 1.8 VG 0.29 (2.0V) 0.09

none

0.30 (3.0V) 0.13

0.32 (4.2V) 0.24

2.50 M, 1100°C 1.4 VG 0.37 (2.0V) 0.09

none

0.38 (3.0V) 0.13

0.38 (4.2V) 0.29

3.25 M, 1100°C 1.4 VG 0.37 (2.0V) 0.12

none

0.38 (3.0V) 0.15

0.38 (4.2V) 0.31

The greater molarity results in improved energy Example 2

Comparison of Capacitor Test Cells with DEDMABF4 in 50/50 EC/PC Electrolyte

Using Post-Treated Norit 30 Carbon (0.008 g)

RELATIVE

CONCENTRATION MACCOR OF ELECTROLYTE LEAKAGE CAPACITANCE ENERGY DEDM-BF4, EC-PC ESR EIS (FARADS) (100 cycles) mAh

LOO M VG 0.50 (2.0V) NA none 0.69 (4.1V) 0.29

1.5 M VG 0.56 (2.0V) NA none 0.72 (4.1V) 0.35

2. 0 M VG 0.37 (2.0V) NA none 0.84 (4.1V) 0.34

3.0 M VG 0.72 (4.1V) none

The greater molarity results in improved energy

Claims

What is Claimed is
1. In a non-aqueous electrochemical capacitor having sealed carbon electrodes, the improvement which comprises at least one carbon electrode comprising;
a) a metal collector on the top and bottom surfaces;
b) optionally a first conductive carbon layer on each of the top and bottom interior surfaces of the collectors;
c) a porous second conductive carbon layer on each of said first conductive carbon layers, said second conductive carbon layers being substantially free of oxygen and heteroatom containing functional groups and being degassed,
d) a porous inert separator between said second conductive carbon layers; and
e) an electrolyte having a quaternary ammonium tetrafluoroborate salt concentration of at least 1.5M in an aprotic solvent.
2. The capacitor of claim 1 comprising a non-acetonitrile electrolyte.
3. The capacitor of claim 2 wherein said electrolyte comprises an aprotic solvent and at least one tetraalkyl ammonium tetrafluoroborate salt.
4. The capacitor of claim 3 wherein the salt concentration is 2.0 to 4.8 M.
5. The capacitor of claim 1 comprising an aluminum metal collector.
6. The capacitor of claim 2 wherein the electrolyte solvent comprises two members selected from the group consisting of ethylene carbonate, propylene carbonate, gamma butyrolactone and dimethyl carbonate.
7. In a capacitor having a carbon electrode the improvement which comprises that said carbon in the electrode was heat treated to remove oxygen and sulfur functional groups and silica by heating at a temperature between 850 and 1300°C, formed into at least one disc that is used in the electrode which is placed in said capacitor and which undergoes a burn-in with a voltage ramp-up to 4.4 and degassed.
8. The capacitor of claim 7 in which the electrolyte for the electrode comprise a conductive tetraammonium salt of the formula:
R, R!, R2, R3, N B F4 wherein R, Rj, R2, R3 are ethyl or methyl groups or together R, R1? R2 and R3 are one or two pyrrolidinyl groups in an aprotic solvent.
9. The capacitor of claim 7 wherein the electrolyte solvent is at least two members of the group consisting of ethylene carbonate, propylene carbonate dimethyl carbonate and gamma butyrolactone.
10. The capacitor of claim 7 wherein the salt concentration is about 1.5
to 4.8 M.
11. The capacitor of claim 7 wherein the electrolyte solvent comprises about 40-60% ethylene carbonate.
12. The capacitor of claim 7 which comprises an annealed aluminum collector.
13. The capacitor of claim 7 wherein said carbon in the electrode is acid washed prior to heat treatment to remove ash and salts.
PCT/US2011/000619 2011-04-07 2011-04-07 Carbon electrodes and electrochemical capacitors WO2012138315A1 (en)

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JP2014503634A JP2014513423A (en) 2011-04-07 2011-04-07 Carbon electrodes and electrochemical capacitors
EP20110862944 EP2695176A4 (en) 2011-04-07 2011-04-07 Carbon electrodes and electrochemical capacitors
KR20137029506A KR20140037074A (en) 2011-04-07 2011-04-07 Carbon electrodes and electrochemical capacitors
PCT/US2011/000619 WO2012138315A1 (en) 2011-04-07 2011-04-07 Carbon electrodes and electrochemical capacitors

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WO2015125594A1 (en) * 2014-02-19 2015-08-27 住友電気工業株式会社 Capacitor and method for charging and discharging same

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EP2695176A1 (en) 2014-02-12 application
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KR20140037074A (en) 2014-03-26 application

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