WO2012040376A1 - Chip-to-chip communications using sub-millimeter waves and dielectric waveguide - Google Patents

Chip-to-chip communications using sub-millimeter waves and dielectric waveguide Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2012040376A1
WO2012040376A1 PCT/US2011/052630 US2011052630W WO2012040376A1 WO 2012040376 A1 WO2012040376 A1 WO 2012040376A1 US 2011052630 W US2011052630 W US 2011052630W WO 2012040376 A1 WO2012040376 A1 WO 2012040376A1
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receptacle
ic
apparatus
housing
dielectric waveguide
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PCT/US2011/052630
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French (fr)
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Baher S. Haroun
Marco Corsi
Siraj Akhtar
Nirmal C. Warke
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Texas Instruments Incorporated
Texas Instruments Japan Limited
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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L25/00Assemblies consisting of a plurality of individual semiconductor or other solid state devices ; Multistep manufacturing processes thereof
    • H01L25/03Assemblies consisting of a plurality of individual semiconductor or other solid state devices ; Multistep manufacturing processes thereof all the devices being of a type provided for in the same subgroup of groups H01L27/00 - H01L51/00, e.g. assemblies of rectifier diodes
    • H01L25/04Assemblies consisting of a plurality of individual semiconductor or other solid state devices ; Multistep manufacturing processes thereof all the devices being of a type provided for in the same subgroup of groups H01L27/00 - H01L51/00, e.g. assemblies of rectifier diodes the devices not having separate containers
    • H01L25/065Assemblies consisting of a plurality of individual semiconductor or other solid state devices ; Multistep manufacturing processes thereof all the devices being of a type provided for in the same subgroup of groups H01L27/00 - H01L51/00, e.g. assemblies of rectifier diodes the devices not having separate containers the devices being of a type provided for in group H01L27/00
    • H01L25/0655Assemblies consisting of a plurality of individual semiconductor or other solid state devices ; Multistep manufacturing processes thereof all the devices being of a type provided for in the same subgroup of groups H01L27/00 - H01L51/00, e.g. assemblies of rectifier diodes the devices not having separate containers the devices being of a type provided for in group H01L27/00 the devices being arranged next to each other
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L23/00Details of semiconductor or other solid state devices
    • H01L23/58Structural electrical arrangements for semiconductor devices not otherwise provided for, e.g. in combination with batteries
    • H01L23/64Impedance arrangements
    • H01L23/66High-frequency adaptations
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L2224/00Indexing scheme for arrangements for connecting or disconnecting semiconductor or solid-state bodies and methods related thereto as covered by H01L24/00
    • H01L2224/01Means for bonding being attached to, or being formed on, the surface to be connected, e.g. chip-to-package, die-attach, "first-level" interconnects; Manufacturing methods related thereto
    • H01L2224/42Wire connectors; Manufacturing methods related thereto
    • H01L2224/47Structure, shape, material or disposition of the wire connectors after the connecting process
    • H01L2224/48Structure, shape, material or disposition of the wire connectors after the connecting process of an individual wire connector
    • H01L2224/4805Shape
    • H01L2224/4809Loop shape
    • H01L2224/48091Arched
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L2224/00Indexing scheme for arrangements for connecting or disconnecting semiconductor or solid-state bodies and methods related thereto as covered by H01L24/00
    • H01L2224/01Means for bonding being attached to, or being formed on, the surface to be connected, e.g. chip-to-package, die-attach, "first-level" interconnects; Manufacturing methods related thereto
    • H01L2224/42Wire connectors; Manufacturing methods related thereto
    • H01L2224/47Structure, shape, material or disposition of the wire connectors after the connecting process
    • H01L2224/48Structure, shape, material or disposition of the wire connectors after the connecting process of an individual wire connector
    • H01L2224/481Disposition
    • H01L2224/48151Connecting between a semiconductor or solid-state body and an item not being a semiconductor or solid-state body, e.g. chip-to-substrate, chip-to-passive
    • H01L2224/48221Connecting between a semiconductor or solid-state body and an item not being a semiconductor or solid-state body, e.g. chip-to-substrate, chip-to-passive the body and the item being stacked
    • H01L2224/48225Connecting between a semiconductor or solid-state body and an item not being a semiconductor or solid-state body, e.g. chip-to-substrate, chip-to-passive the body and the item being stacked the item being non-metallic, e.g. insulating substrate with or without metallisation
    • H01L2224/48227Connecting between a semiconductor or solid-state body and an item not being a semiconductor or solid-state body, e.g. chip-to-substrate, chip-to-passive the body and the item being stacked the item being non-metallic, e.g. insulating substrate with or without metallisation connecting the wire to a bond pad of the item
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L24/00Arrangements for connecting or disconnecting semiconductor or solid-state bodies; Methods or apparatus related thereto
    • H01L24/01Means for bonding being attached to, or being formed on, the surface to be connected, e.g. chip-to-package, die-attach, "first-level" interconnects; Manufacturing methods related thereto
    • H01L24/42Wire connectors; Manufacturing methods related thereto
    • H01L24/47Structure, shape, material or disposition of the wire connectors after the connecting process
    • H01L24/48Structure, shape, material or disposition of the wire connectors after the connecting process of an individual wire connector
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L2924/00Indexing scheme for arrangements or methods for connecting or disconnecting semiconductor or solid-state bodies as covered by H01L24/00
    • H01L2924/0001Technical content checked by a classifier
    • H01L2924/00014Technical content checked by a classifier the subject-matter covered by the group, the symbol of which is combined with the symbol of this group, being disclosed without further technical details
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L2924/00Indexing scheme for arrangements or methods for connecting or disconnecting semiconductor or solid-state bodies as covered by H01L24/00
    • H01L2924/10Details of semiconductor or other solid state devices to be connected
    • H01L2924/11Device type
    • H01L2924/12Passive devices, e.g. 2 terminal devices
    • H01L2924/1204Optical Diode
    • H01L2924/12041LED
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L2924/00Indexing scheme for arrangements or methods for connecting or disconnecting semiconductor or solid-state bodies as covered by H01L24/00
    • H01L2924/10Details of semiconductor or other solid state devices to be connected
    • H01L2924/11Device type
    • H01L2924/12Passive devices, e.g. 2 terminal devices
    • H01L2924/1204Optical Diode
    • H01L2924/12043Photo diode
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L2924/00Indexing scheme for arrangements or methods for connecting or disconnecting semiconductor or solid-state bodies as covered by H01L24/00
    • H01L2924/10Details of semiconductor or other solid state devices to be connected
    • H01L2924/11Device type
    • H01L2924/14Integrated circuits
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L2924/00Indexing scheme for arrangements or methods for connecting or disconnecting semiconductor or solid-state bodies as covered by H01L24/00
    • H01L2924/15Details of package parts other than the semiconductor or other solid state devices to be connected
    • H01L2924/181Encapsulation
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L2924/00Indexing scheme for arrangements or methods for connecting or disconnecting semiconductor or solid-state bodies as covered by H01L24/00
    • H01L2924/30Technical effects
    • H01L2924/301Electrical effects
    • H01L2924/3011Impedance

Abstract

A system 300-1 provides a "wireless" interconnect system between ICs 302-1 and 304-1 using a dielectric waveguide 316. Each of ICs 302-1 and 304-1 respectively includes a transmitter 306-1 or 306-2 and a receiver 308-1 or 308-2 which are each respectively coupled to a directional antenna 314-1 or 314-2. Typically, the antennas 314-1 and 314-2 generate radio frequency (RF) signals in the sub-millimeter range (i.e., wavelength of <lmm), establishing RF links over dielectric waveguide. A similar system is disclosed for one-way communications.

Description

CHIP-TO-CHIP COMMUNICATIONS USING SUB-MILLIMETER WAVES

AND DIELECTRIC WAVEGUIDE

[0001] This relates generally to an interconnect system and, more particularly, to chip-to- chip communications with sub-millimeter waves using a dielectric waveguide.

BACKGROUND

[0002] An example of a conventional interconnect system 100 is shown in FIG. 1. In this system 100, integrated circuits (ICs) 102 and 104 communicate with one another over a communication channel 106. Typically, this communication channel 106 is part of a backplane and is generally a trace (or several metal traces). A problem with this arrangement is that the physical limit for data rates or data transmission is being reached. As a result, several different types of communications links have been or are being developed: optical and wireless links. Each of these developing technologies employs the use of a transmission medium, namely an optical fiber for optical links and a metal waveguide for wireless links. Each of these two technologies, however, have issues related to misalignment.

[0003] FIG. 2 shows an example of an interface between an IC 202 and optical fiber 204. In order to provide a communication link, the IC 202 generally includes an on-die light emitting diode (LED) or photodiode 210, which has an optical axis 206. Usually, the LED 210 (on the transmitter side) is a laser diode, which has a particular wavelength or frequency, and the optical fiber 204 is dimensioned to accommodate the wavelength of the light emitted from LED 210. Typically, the optical fiber 204 is a monomode fiber to improve bandwidth, which has a diameter that is related to the wavelength of the light emitted from LED 210. For example, for near infrared (i.e., wavelength between about 0.7μιη and about 3μιη), a monomode optical fiber will generally have a diameter between about 8μιη and about ΙΟμιη. Thus, a misalignment (of even a few microns) between the optical axis 208 of the optical fiber 204 and the optical axis 206 of the LED (or photodiode) 210 may result is a poor interconnect or no interconnect. Therefore, precision machining or other more exotic micro-optical structures would generally be necessary. The same would also be true for metal waveguides; namely, precision machining would generally be necessary for proper alignment. Metallic waveguides for sub-millimeter waves are also quite lossy substantially limiting the distance over which the waveguides would work.

[0004] There is a need for improved interconnect systems.

[0005] Other examples of conventional systems are described in U.S. Patent Nos. 5,754,948; 7,768,457; 7,379,713; 7,330,702; and 6,967,347; and in U.S. Patent Publ. No. 2009/0009408.

SUMMARY

[0006] An example embodiment of the invention, accordingly, provides an apparatus comprising: a housing having a receptacle formed therein, wherein the receptacle is adapted to receive at least a portion of a dielectric waveguide; and an integrated circuit (IC) secured within the housing, wherein the IC includes: a directional antenna that is adapted to provide a communication link with the dielectric waveguide; and a steering circuit that is coupled to directional antenna, wherein the steering circuit is adapted to adjust the directional antenna to couple the IC with the dielectric waveguide if the receptacle and directional antenna are misaligned.

[0007] In accordance with an example embodiment of the invention, the directional antenna further comprises a phased array having a plurality of radiators.

[0008] In accordance with an example embodiment of the invention, each of the radiators further comprises a patch antenna.

[0009] In accordance with an example embodiment of the invention, the directional antenna further comprises: a radiator; and a plurality directional elements that substantially surround the radiator, wherein the steering circuit is coupled to each directional element.

[0010] In accordance with an example embodiment of the invention, the radiator further comprises a patch antenna.

[0011] In accordance with an example embodiment of the invention, the apparatus further comprises: a leadframe; and a plurality of bond wires that are secured to the IC and to the leadframe, wherein each bond wire is secured within the housing.

[0012] In accordance with an example embodiment of the invention, an apparatus is provided. The apparatus comprises a plastic housing having a receptacle therein, wherein the receptacle is adapted to receive at least a portion of a dielectric waveguide; an IC encapsulated within the plastic housing, wherein the IC includes: a directional antenna that is adapted to provide a communication link with the dielectric waveguide; and a steering circuit that is coupled to directional antenna, wherein the steering circuit is adapted to adjust the directional antenna to couple the IC with the dielectric waveguide if the receptacle and directional antenna are misaligned; a leadframe that is at least partially encapsulated within the plastic housing; and a plurality of wire bonds to secured to the IC and to the leadframe, wherein each bond wire is encapsulated within the plastic housing.

[0013] In accordance with an example embodiment of the invention, an apparatus is provided. The apparatus comprises a plastic housing having a receptacle therein, wherein the receptacle is adapted to receive at least a portion of a dielectric waveguide; an IC encapsulated within the plastic housing, wherein the IC includes: communication circuitry; a directional antenna that is coupled to the communication circuitry and that is adapted to provide a communication link with the dielectric waveguide; and a steering circuit that is coupled to directional antenna, wherein the steering circuit is adapted to adjust the directional antenna to couple the IC with the dielectric waveguide if the receptacle and directional antenna are misaligned; a leadframe that is at least partially encapsulated within the plastic housing; and a plurality of wire bonds to secured to the IC and to the leadframe, wherein each bond wire is encapsulated within the plastic housing.

[0014] In accordance with an example embodiment of the invention, the communication circuitry further comprise a transmitter.

[0015] In accordance with an example embodiment of the invention, the communication circuitry further comprises a receiver.

[0016] In accordance with an example embodiment of the invention, an apparatus is provided. The apparatus comprises a first packaged integrated circuit (IC) that includes: a first housing having a first receptacle formed therein; and a first IC that is secured within the first housing and that includes a first antenna that is located in proximity to the first receptacle; a second packaged IC that includes: a second housing having a second receptacle formed therein; and a second IC that is secured within the second housing and that includes a second antenna that is located in proximity to the second receptacle; and a dielectric waveguide that is secured to the first housing in the first receptacle and the second housing in the second receptacle, wherein the dielectric waveguide is adapted to provide a sub-millimeter wave radio frequency (RF) link between the first and second antennas. [0017] In accordance with an example embodiment of the invention, the first antenna and first receptacle are separated by a portion of the first housing, and wherein the second antenna and second receptacle are separated by a portion of the second housing.

[0018] In accordance with an example embodiment of the invention, the dielectric waveguide is between about 1mm and about 10,000mm in length.

[0019] In accordance with an example embodiment of the invention, each of the first and second antennas are directional antennas, and wherein each of the first and second ICs further comprise first and second steering circuits, respectively, that are each adapted to adjust the respective first and second directional antennas to couple with the dielectric waveguide if the respective first and second receptacles and the respective first and second directional antennas are misaligned.

[0020] In accordance with an example embodiment of the invention, the each of the first and second directional antennas further comprises a phased array having a plurality of radiators.

[0021] In accordance with an example embodiment of the invention, each of the radiators further comprises a patch antenna.

[0022] In accordance with an example embodiment of the invention, the each of the first and second directional antennas further comprises: a radiator; and a plurality directional elements that substantially surround the radiator, wherein the steering circuit is coupled to each directional element.

[0023] In accordance with an example embodiment of the invention, the radiator further comprises a patch antenna.

[0024] In accordance with an example embodiment of the invention, an apparatus is provided. The apparatus comprises a first packaged IC that includes: a first plastic housing having a first receptacle formed therein; a first IC that is encapsulated within the first housing and that includes a first antenna that is located in proximity to the first receptacle; a first leadframe that is at least partially encapsulated within the first plastic housing; and a first set of wire bonds to secured to the first IC and to the first leadframe, wherein each bond wire from the first set is encapsulated within the first plastic housing; a second packaged IC that includes: a second plastic housing having a second receptacle formed therein; a second IC that is encapsulated within the second housing and that includes a second antenna that is located in proximity to the second receptacle; a second leadframe that is at least partially encapsulated within the second plastic housing; and a second set of wire bonds to secured to the second IC and to the second leadframe, wherein each bond wire from the second set is encapsulated within the second plastic housing; and a dielectric waveguide that is secured to the first housing in the first receptacle and the second housing in the second receptacle, wherein the dielectric waveguide is adapted to provide a sub-millimeter wave RF link between the first and second antennas.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0025] Example embodiments are described with reference to accompanying drawings, wherein:

[0026] FIG. 1 is a block diagram of a conventional interconnect system;

[0027] FIG. 2 is a block diagram illustrated the an interface an IC and a optical fiber.

[0028] FIGS. 3 through 5 are block diagrams of examples of interconnect systems in accordance with an example embodiment of the invention;

[0029] FIG. 6 is a block diagram illustrating an example of misalignment of a dielectric waveguide and a directional antenna for the examples of FIGS. 3 through 5; and

[0030] FIGS. 7 and 8 are block diagrams of examples of ICs of FIGS. 3 through 5.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF EXAMPLE EMBODIMENTS

[0031] A system 300-1 in accordance with an example embodiment of the invention is shown in FIG. 3. System 300-1 provides a "wireless" interconnect system between ICs 302-1 and 304-1 using a dielectric waveguide 316. Each of ICs 302-1 and 304-1 respective includes a transmitter 306-1 or 306-2 and a receiver 308-1 or 308-2 which are each respectively coupled to a directional antenna 314-1 or 314-2. Typically, the antennas 314-1 and 314-2 generate radio frequency (RF) signals in the sub-millimeter range (i.e., wavelength of <lmm), establishing RF links over dielectric waveguide. A similar system for one-way communications (instead of a two-way transceiver as shown with system 300-1) can be seen with system 300-2 in FIG. 4.

[0032] FIG. 5 shows an example of a physical layout of system 300-1 or 300-2. As shown, each of ICs 302-1/302-2 and 304-1/304-2 (hereinafter referred to as ICs 302 and 304) are packaged ICs having a silicon substrate 504 (with circuitry formed thereon) that is, for example, wire-bonded (via wire bonds 506) to, for example, a leadframe 502. The silicon substrate 504 (also called an IC or "chip") and wire bonds 506 are encapsulated in a plastic or other dielectric housing or packaging material 508. Typically, substrate 504 includes communication circuitry (i.e., transmitter 306-1 or receiver 308-1), a directional antenna (i.e., 314-1), and other functional circuitry. The dielectric waveguide 316 can then be secured to the housing 508 in recess 316 to allow for chip-to-chip communications. Other alternative examples of packages that can be used are ceramic packages, "flip-chip" packages, wafer level chip scale packages (WCSP), and so forth.

[0033] Area 510, which depicts an example of the interface between substrate 504 and dielectric waveguide 316, is shown in greater detail in FIG. 6. As shown, directional antenna 314-1 or 314-2 (hereinafter 314) and dielectric waveguide 316 are misaligned. Such a misalignment for a metal waveguide or optical fiber could (and likely would) severely attenuate a signal. Here, however, because antenna 314 is a directional antenna, the beam formed by antenna 314 can be adjusted to couple with the dielectric waveguide 316, obviating any need for precision machining that may be necessary for optical fibers or metal waveguides. As shown, the recess 514 is formed in the top surface of housing 508, but it can also be formed in a sidewall of housing 508. Additionally, waveguide 316 can be formed of multiple sections or segments that can be coupled together by proximity, which would generally enable easier chip-to-chip communications across different circuit boards or devices.

[0034] To accomplish this, high frequency oscillators are built on substrate 504.

Advanced CMOS process technologies have transistors as part of the regular process that have power gains of greater than unity at very high frequencies. A high performance 65nm CMOS process, for example, can have a maximum frequency of greater than 300GHz, whereas 45nm, 32nm, and 28nm process technologies have progressively faster transistors and within the next decade it is probable that a maximum frequency may exceed ITHz. Thus, present CMOS process technologies allow oscillators that oscillate at frequencies in the range of about 100- 300GHz. As a result, a high frequency digital signals (i.e., >10GBPS) can be encoded into such a high frequency carrier (i.e., between about 100-300GHz) since the fractional bandwidth is relatively small (i.e., the signal frequency is a small fraction of the carrier). Additionally, since the wavelengths of signals in the 100GHz-lTHz range generally are quite small, the antennas (i.e., 314) can be quite small (i.e. about 10-400μιη).

[0035] FIG. 7 shows an example of a directional antenna 314. In this example, directional antenna 314 generally comprises a patch antenna 702 having directional elements 704-1 to 704-4 along the periphery of patch antenna 702. These directional elements 704-1 to 704-4 are typically metal deflectors that are grounded or allowed to float by the steering circuit 706, which controls the direction of the beam emitted by patch antenna 702. Alternatively, Yagi-Uda bond wire antennas, folded dipole antennas, mono-poles antennas, and other radiating structures with a single feed may be used instead of a patch antenna.

[0036] FIG. 8 shows another example of a directional antenna 314. Here, patch antennas

802-1 to 802-4 form a phased array antenna. This phased array antenna can be controlled by steering circuit 804 so as to control the direction of the beam. An example of such a on-chip phased array system is described in U.S. Application No. 12/878,484, entitled "Terahertz Phased Array System," filed September 9, 2010, considered with U.S. Application No. 12/871,626, entitled "Downconversion Mixer," filed August 30, 2010, and U.S. Application No. 12/888,208, entitled "Low Impedance Transmission Line," filed September 22, 2010, all of which are hereby incorporated by reference.

[0037] Those skilled in the art to which the invention relates will appreciate that modifications may be made to the described example embodiments and that other embodiments may be realized within the scope of the claimed invention.

Claims

1. An apparatus comprising:
a housing having a receptacle formed therein, wherein the receptacle is adapted to receive at least a portion of a dielectric waveguide; and
an integrated circuit (IC) secured within the housing, wherein the IC includes:
a directional antenna that is adapted to provide a communication link with the dielectric waveguide; and
a steering circuit that is coupled to directional antenna, wherein the steering circuit is adapted to adjust the directional antenna to couple the IC with the dielectric waveguide if the receptacle and directional antenna are misaligned.
2. The apparatus of Claim 1, wherein the directional antenna further comprises a phased array having a plurality of radiators.
3. The apparatus of Claim 2, wherein each of the radiators further comprises a patch antenna.
4. The apparatus of Claim 1, wherein the directional antenna further comprises a radiator; and a plurality directional elements that substantially surround the radiator; wherein the steering circuit is coupled to each directional element.
5. The apparatus of claim 4, wherein the radiator further comprises a patch antenna.
6. The apparatus of Claim 1, wherein the apparatus further comprises a leadframe; and a plurality of bond wires that are secured to the IC and to the leadframe; wherein each bond wire is secured within the housing.
7. An apparatus comprising:
a plastic housing having a receptacle therein, wherein the receptacle is adapted to receive at least a portion of a dielectric waveguide; an IC encapsulated within the plastic housing, wherein the IC includes:
a directional antenna that is adapted to provide a communication link with the dielectric waveguide; and
a steering circuit that is coupled to directional antenna, wherein the steering circuit is adapted to adjust the directional antenna to couple the IC with the dielectric waveguide if the receptacle and directional antenna are misaligned;
a leadframe that is at least partially encapsulated within the plastic housing; and a plurality of wire bonds secured to the IC and to the leadframe, wherein each bond wire is encapsulated within the plastic housing.
8. An apparatus comprising:
a plastic housing having a receptacle therein, wherein the receptacle is adapted to receive at least a portion of a dielectric waveguide;
an IC encapsulated within the plastic housing, wherein the IC includes:
communication circuitry;
a directional antenna that is coupled to the communication circuitry and that is adapted to provide a communication link with the dielectric waveguide; and
a steering circuit that is coupled to directional antenna, wherein the steering circuit is adapted to adjust the directional antenna to couple the IC with the dielectric waveguide if the receptacle and directional antenna are misaligned;
a leadframe that is at least partially encapsulated within the plastic housing; and a plurality of wire bonds to secured to the IC and to the leadframe, wherein each bond wire is encapsulated within the plastic housing.
9. An apparatus comprising:
a housing having a receptacle formed therein, wherein the receptacle is adapted to receive at least a portion of a dielectric waveguide; and
an integrated circuit (IC) that includes:
a first housing having a first receptacle formed therein; and
a first IC that is secured within the first housing, wherein the IC includes: a directional antenna that is adapted to provide a communication link with the dielectric waveguide; and
a second packaged IC that includes:
a second housing having a second receptacle formed therein; and
a second IC that is secured within the second housing and that includes a second antenna that is located in proximity to the second receptacle; and
a dielectric waveguide that is secured to the first housing in the first receptacle and the second housing in the second receptacle, wherein the dielectric waveguide is adapted to provide a sub-millimeter wave radio frequency (RF) link between the first and second antennas.
10. The apparatus of Claim 9, wherein the first antenna and first receptacle separated by a portion of the first housing; and wherein the second antenna and second receptacle are separated by a portion of the second housing.
11. The apparatus of Claim 10, wherein the dielectric waveguide is between about lmm and about 10,000mm in length.
12. The apparatus of Claim 10, wherein each of the first and second antennas are directional antennas; and wherein each of the first and second ICs further comprise first and second steering circuits, respectively, that are each adapted to adjust the respective first and second directional antennas to couple with the dielectric waveguide if the respective first and second receptacles and the respective first and second directional antennas are misaligned.
13. The apparatus of Claim 12, wherein the each of the first and second directional antennas further comprises a phased array having a plurality of radiators.
14. The apparatus of Claim 10, wherein each of the radiators further comprises a patch antenna.
15. The apparatus of Claim 9, wherein the each of the first and second directional antennas further comprises: a radiator; and
a plurality directional elements that substantially surround the radiator, wherein the steering circuit is coupled to each directional element.
16. The apparatus of claim 12, wherein the radiator further comprises a patch antenna.
17. An apparatus comprising:
a first packaged IC that includes:
a first plastic housing having a first receptacle formed therein, wherein the first receptacle is adapted to receive at least a portion of a dielectric waveguide;
a first IC that is encapsulated within the first plastic housing, wherein the first IC includes:
a directional antenna that is adapted to provide a communication link with the dielectric waveguide;
a first leadframe that is at least partially encapsulated within the first plastic housing; and
a plurality of wire bonds secured to the first IC and to the first leadframe, wherein each bond wire from the first set is encapsulated within the first plastic housing; and
a second packaged IC that includes:
a second plastic housing having a plurality of radiators.
18. The apparatus of claim 17, wherein the second package IC includes:
a second plastic housing having a second receptacle formed therein, wherein the second receptacle is adapted to receive at least a portion of a dielectric waveguide;
a second IC that is encapsulated within the second plastic housing, wherein the second IC includes:
communication circuitry;
a second directional antenna that is located in proximity to the second receptacle; a second leadframe that is at least partially encapsulated within the second plastic housing; and a second set of wire bonds to secured to the second IC and to the second leadframe, wherein each bond wire from the second set is encapsulated within the second plastic housing; and
a dielectric waveguide that is secured to the first housing in the first receptacle and the second housing in the second receptacle, wherein the dielectric waveguide is adapted to provide a sub-millimeter wave RF link between the first and second antennas.
19. The apparatus of Claim 18, wherein the first antenna and first receptacle are separated by a portion of the first housing, and wherein the second antenna and second receptacle are separated by a portion of the second housing.
20. The apparatus of Claim 19, wherein the dielectric waveguide is between about 1 mm and about 10,000 mm in length.
21. The apparatus of Claim 19, wherein each of the first and second antennas are directional antennas, and wherein each of the first and second ICs further comprise first and second steering circuits, respectively, that are each adapted to adjust the respective first and second directional antennas to couple with the dielectric waveguide if the respective first and second receptacles and the respective first and second directional antennas are misaligned.
22. The apparatus of Claim 21, wherein the each of the first and second directional antennas further comprises a phased array having a plurality of radiators.
23. The apparatus of Claim 22, wherein each of the radiators further comprises a patch antenna.
24. The apparatus of Claim 21, wherein the each of the first and second directional antennas further comprises:
a radiator; and
a plurality directional elements that substantially surround the radiator, wherein the steering circuit is coupled to each directional element.
PCT/US2011/052630 2010-09-21 2011-09-21 Chip-to-chip communications using sub-millimeter waves and dielectric waveguide WO2012040376A1 (en)

Priority Applications (4)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US12/887,323 2010-09-21
US12887270 US9070703B2 (en) 2010-09-21 2010-09-21 High speed digital interconnect and method
US12/887,270 2010-09-21
US12887323 US9123737B2 (en) 2010-09-21 2010-09-21 Chip to dielectric waveguide interface for sub-millimeter wave communications link

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CN 201180045040 CN103119714B (en) 2010-09-21 2011-09-21 Chip using sub-millimeter and the dielectric waveguide-to-chip communication
JP2013530289A JP5859008B2 (en) 2010-09-21 2011-09-21 Inter-chip communications with submillimeter and dielectric waveguide

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JP5859008B2 (en) 2016-02-10 grant
JP2014500636A (en) 2014-01-09 application
CN103119714A (en) 2013-05-22 application
CN103119714B (en) 2016-08-17 grant

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