WO2012025684A1 - Photovoltaic facility and method for supplying electrical power equal to a predetermined value - Google Patents

Photovoltaic facility and method for supplying electrical power equal to a predetermined value Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2012025684A1
WO2012025684A1 PCT/FR2011/051925 FR2011051925W WO2012025684A1 WO 2012025684 A1 WO2012025684 A1 WO 2012025684A1 FR 2011051925 W FR2011051925 W FR 2011051925W WO 2012025684 A1 WO2012025684 A1 WO 2012025684A1
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WO
WIPO (PCT)
Prior art keywords
generator
individual
general
photovoltaic
means
Prior art date
Application number
PCT/FR2011/051925
Other languages
French (fr)
Inventor
Jean-Yves Le Roux
Fabrice Despres
Original Assignee
Solairemed
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to FR1056735 priority Critical
Priority to FR1056735A priority patent/FR2964264A1/en
Application filed by Solairemed filed Critical Solairemed
Publication of WO2012025684A1 publication Critical patent/WO2012025684A1/en

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Classifications

    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J3/00Circuit arrangements for ac mains or ac distribution networks
    • H02J3/38Arrangements for parallely feeding a single network by two or more generators, converters or transformers
    • H02J3/381Dispersed generators
    • H02J3/382Dispersed generators the generators exploiting renewable energy
    • H02J3/383Solar energy, e.g. photovoltaic energy
    • H02J3/385Maximum power point tracking control for photovoltaic sources
    • GPHYSICS
    • G05CONTROLLING; REGULATING
    • G05FSYSTEMS FOR REGULATING ELECTRIC OR MAGNETIC VARIABLES
    • G05F1/00Automatic systems in which deviations of an electric quantity from one or more predetermined values are detected at the output of the system and fed back to a device within the system to restore the detected quantity to its predetermined value or values, i.e. retroactive systems
    • G05F1/66Regulating electric power
    • G05F1/67Regulating electric power to the maximum power available from a generator, e.g. from solar cell
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02MAPPARATUS FOR CONVERSION BETWEEN AC AND AC, BETWEEN AC AND DC, OR BETWEEN DC AND DC, AND FOR USE WITH MAINS OR SIMILAR POWER SUPPLY SYSTEMS; CONVERSION OF DC OR AC INPUT POWER INTO SURGE OUTPUT POWER; CONTROL OR REGULATION THEREOF
    • H02M3/00Conversion of dc power input into dc power output
    • H02M3/02Conversion of dc power input into dc power output without intermediate conversion into ac
    • H02M3/04Conversion of dc power input into dc power output without intermediate conversion into ac by static converters
    • H02M3/10Conversion of dc power input into dc power output without intermediate conversion into ac by static converters using discharge tubes with control electrode or semiconductor devices with control electrode
    • H02M3/145Conversion of dc power input into dc power output without intermediate conversion into ac by static converters using discharge tubes with control electrode or semiconductor devices with control electrode using devices of a triode or transistor type requiring continuous application of a control signal
    • H02M3/155Conversion of dc power input into dc power output without intermediate conversion into ac by static converters using discharge tubes with control electrode or semiconductor devices with control electrode using devices of a triode or transistor type requiring continuous application of a control signal using semiconductor devices only
    • H02M3/156Conversion of dc power input into dc power output without intermediate conversion into ac by static converters using discharge tubes with control electrode or semiconductor devices with control electrode using devices of a triode or transistor type requiring continuous application of a control signal using semiconductor devices only with automatic control of output voltage or current, e.g. switching regulators
    • H02M3/158Conversion of dc power input into dc power output without intermediate conversion into ac by static converters using discharge tubes with control electrode or semiconductor devices with control electrode using devices of a triode or transistor type requiring continuous application of a control signal using semiconductor devices only with automatic control of output voltage or current, e.g. switching regulators including plural semiconductor devices as final control devices for a single load
    • H02M3/1582Buck-boost converters
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02BCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO BUILDINGS, e.g. HOUSING, HOUSE APPLIANCES OR RELATED END-USER APPLICATIONS
    • Y02B10/00Integration of renewable energy sources in buildings
    • Y02B10/10Photovoltaic [PV]
    • Y02B10/14PV hubs
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E10/00Energy generation through renewable energy sources
    • Y02E10/50Photovoltaic [PV] energy
    • Y02E10/56Power conversion electric or electronic aspects
    • Y02E10/58Maximum power point tracking [MPPT] systems
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P80/00Climate change mitigation technologies for sector-wide applications
    • Y02P80/20Sector-wide applications using renewable energy
    • Y02P80/23Solar energy

Abstract

The main aim of the invention is to provide a method enabling electrical power equal to the maximum legal admissible power to be supplied constantly over time. The invention relates to a method for supplying electrical power using photovoltaic panels (2), said photovoltaic panels (2) outputting a direct electrical current and/or voltage when exposed to incident solar radiation, a common generator (4), or an individual generator for each photovoltaic panel (2), comprising an internal resistor and supplying an alternating electrical current and/or voltage from the direct electrical current and/or voltage supplied by said photovoltaic panels, wherein, for the common generator, or for each individual generator: the electrical power supplied by the common generator or by the individual generator is measured; and, when the photovoltaic panels undergo losses, the impedance of the internal resistor of the common generator (4) or of the individual generator (4') is adjusted so as to compensate for said losses and such that the electrical power supplied by said common generator or said individual generator (4') is equal to a predetermined value.

Description

 PHOTOVOLTAIC INSTALLATION AND METHOD

 METHOD FOR DELIVERING AN ELECTRIC POWER EQUAL TO A PREDETERMINED VALUE.

Description

Technical Field of the Invention

The invention relates to a photovoltaic installation and a method for delivering an electric power equal to a predetermined value.

The invention relates to the technical field of facilities for the production of electricity and more particularly to photovoltaic installations intended to equip houses, industrial buildings, photovoltaic farms, space stations, radio-transmission piers, mobile devices, etc.

State of the art

Photovoltaic installations (100) are known, as shown schematically in FIG. 1, allowing the production of electrical energy. These photovoltaic installations (100) generally comprise:

photovoltaic panels (101) configured to deliver a current and / or a DC voltage when they are subjected to incident solar radiation, and means (102) for delivering a current and / or an alternating electrical voltage from the current and / or the DC voltage delivered by the photovoltaic panels. This means is connected to an electrical distribution network (103) so as to allow the resale of the current and / or the voltage produced to a third party company operating the electrical distribution network.

These photovoltaic installations (100) are generally dimensioned so as to deliver an electric power equal to the maximum permissible legal power. For example, in France, for an individual, the maximum permissible legal power for a photovoltaic installation is 3 kilowatts peak (kWp).

However, the efficiency of a photovoltaic installation (100) fluctuates over time, various parameters may induce temporarily or irremediably power losses resulting in the fall of the efficiency of said installation. In particular we can distinguish:

 the losses caused by the shadow formed on the photovoltaic panels (101) by an environment such as trees, mountains, walls, buildings, or the like, said shadow reducing the absorption surface of said photovoltaic panels,

 - losses caused by dust or dirt deposited on the surface of the photovoltaic panels (101) reducing the absorption of the latter; these losses can lead to a decrease of 3% to 6% in the efficiency of the photovoltaic system (100),

the angular or spectral losses, the photovoltaic panels (101) being spectrally and angularly selective, the variation of the solar spectrum and the inclination of the solar radiation during a day affects the current and / or the electric voltage generated by said photovoltaic panels; these losses increase with the amount of dust and dirt deposited on the surface of said photovoltaic panels, the losses by raising the temperature of the photovoltaic panels (101), the efficiency of said photovoltaic panels being able to fall by 0.4% per degree higher than their nominal operating temperature (in general 25 ° C); the temperature of said photovoltaic panels depending on both the incident irradiation, the ambient temperature and the wind speed. In practice, the losses by temperature rise can reduce the efficiency of the photovoltaic system (100) from 5% to 14%.

 - The losses due to the aging of photovoltaic panels (102), their peak power decreasing over time by about 1% per year, 10% after 10 years and 20% after 20 years.

Therefore, the photovoltaic system (100) initially sized to deliver an electric power equal to the maximum permissible legal power, will deliver from the first years of use significantly less power.

Faced with this state of affairs, the main purpose of the invention is to provide a photovoltaic installation configured to deliver, in a constant manner over time, an electric power equal to the maximum permissible legal power.

The invention also aims to provide a photovoltaic installation of simple design, easy to use and inexpensive.

Disclosure of the invention.

The solution proposed by the invention is a photovoltaic installation comprising: photovoltaic panels configured to deliver a current and / or a DC voltage when they are subjected to incident solar radiation, and

 a general generator, or an individual generator for each photovoltaic panel, comprising an internal resistance and delivering a current and / or an alternating electrical voltage from the current and / or the DC voltage delivered by the photovoltaic panels.

 This photovoltaic installation is remarkable in that it also comprises, for the general generator, or for each individual generator:

 a means for measuring the electric power delivered by the general generator, or the individual generator, and

 adjustment means for adjusting the impedance of the internal resistance of the general generator, or of the individual generator, so that the electrical power delivered by said general generator, or said individual generator, is equal to a predetermined value.

Thus, the photovoltaic installation is capable of varying the impedance of the internal resistance of the general generator, or of each individual generator as a function of more or less significant drops in the efficiency of the photovoltaic panels, so that the electrical power delivered by the installation photovoltaic power shall be maintained equal to the permissible maximum permissible power.

According to an advantageous characteristic of the invention making it possible to precisely, simply and quickly determine the electric power delivered by the general generator, or by each of said individual generators, the means for measuring the electrical power is in the form of a power meter. connected to said general generator, or to said individual generator.

According to another advantageous characteristic of the invention enabling the photovoltaic installation to be reactive and self-managing, the resistance internal of the general generator, or of each individual generator, is in the form of one or more potentiometers arranged on an electric circuit, the or said potentiometers being each equipped with a movable cursor between a position for which the impedance of said potentiometer is minimal and a position for which the impedance of said potentiometer is maximum. The adjustment means is, for each potentiometer, in the form of a drive means configured to move the cursor of said potentiometer, said one or more drive means being controlled by a control unit. Indeed, the use of potentiometers, whose cursor is moved by a drive means controlled by a control unit, allows the photovoltaic system to quickly and automatically change, in real time, the impedance of the potentiometers regulating the electrical power delivered by the photovoltaic installation.

According to yet another advantageous characteristic of the invention enabling the operation of each photovoltaic panel to be made autonomous, the photovoltaic installation comprises a control unit by means of adjustment dedicated to the displacement of the drive means of said adjustment means, said control units control being configured to communicate with each other, so as to move in a determined manner the cursor of each of said potentiometers.

According to yet another advantageous characteristic of the invention enabling the photovoltaic installation to be reactive and self-managing, the internal resistance of the general generator, or of each individual generator, is in the form of several resistors arranged on a electrical circuit, the adjustment means being in the form of switches arranged on said electrical circuit and configured to short circuit or not each of said resistors. Indeed, the use of switches controlled by a control unit allows the photovoltaic system to change quickly and automatically, in real time, the resistance impedance internal of the general generator, or of each individual generator so as to regulate the electrical power delivered by the photovoltaic installation.

According to yet another advantageous characteristic of the invention enabling the operation of each photovoltaic panel to be made autonomous, the installation comprises a control unit by means of adjustment dedicated to the control of the switches of said adjustment means, said control units being configured to dialogue with each other, so as to control the short circuit of a determined number of resistors.

According to yet another advantageous characteristic of the invention enabling the photovoltaic installation to be reactive and self-managing, the internal resistance of the general generator, or of each individual generator, is in the form of an electronic circuit of switching means, a setting means in the form of switches, arranged in the switching circuit are closed and periodically open at a duty cycle determined so as to adjust the impedance of the internal resistance of the general generator, or the individual generator.

According to yet another advantageous characteristic of the invention enabling the operation of each photovoltaic panel to be made autonomous, a control unit, by adjustment means, is dedicated to controlling the switches of said adjustment means, said control units being configured to dialogue between them, so as to periodically close and open the switches in a specific duty cycle.

According to yet another advantageous characteristic of the invention making it possible to establish a map of the photovoltaic installation, the photovoltaic panels each include a control unit equipped with a radio wave dialogue means, each control unit being configured to determine its position in relation to the said other units of control as a function of the intensity of the radio signal received by each of said other control units.

According to yet another advantageous characteristic of the invention making it possible to sell to a third company the electricity delivered by the general generator, or the individual generators, the photovoltaic installation comprises means for connecting said general generator, or said individual generators, to an electrical distribution network.

Another aspect of the invention relates to a method for delivering, by means of photovoltaic panels, an electric power, said photovoltaic panels delivering at the output a current and / or a continuous electrical voltage when they are subjected to an incident solar radiation, a general generator, or an individual generator for each photovoltaic panel, comprising an internal resistance and delivering a current and / or an alternating electrical voltage from the current and / or the DC voltage delivered by said photovoltaic panels, in which, for the general generator, or for each individual generator:

 the electrical power delivered by the general generator, or the individual generator, is measured,

 the impedance of the internal resistance of the general generator (4) or of the individual generator (4 ') is regulated so that the electric power delivered by the said general generator, or the said individual generator (4'), is equal to a predetermined value.

Description of the figures.

Other advantages and characteristics of the invention will appear better on reading the description of a preferred embodiment which follows, in reference to the accompanying drawings, given as indicative and non-limiting examples and in which:

 FIG. 1 schematically represents a photovoltaic installation of the prior art,

 FIG. 2 diagrammatically represents a first exemplary embodiment of the photovoltaic system that is the subject of the invention,

 FIG. 3 schematically represents a second exemplary embodiment of the photovoltaic installation which is the subject of the invention

 FIG. 4 schematically represents a first embodiment of a photovoltaic panel and individual generator assembly of the photovoltaic system that is the subject of the invention,

 FIG. 5 schematically represents a second exemplary embodiment of a photovoltaic panel and individual generator assembly of the photovoltaic system which is the subject of the invention,

 - Figure 6 schematically shows a third embodiment of a photovoltaic panel assembly and individual generator of the photovoltaic system object of the invention.

Embodiments of the invention

Referring to Figures 2 and 3, the photovoltaic system (1) object of the invention comprises photovoltaic panels (2) configured to output a current and / or a DC voltage when subjected to radiation solar incident. The photovoltaic panels (2) are in the form of a plate of metal, plastic, or the like, on which are arranged side by side several photovoltaic cells (3). The photovoltaic panels (2) can have a square, rectangular, hexagonal, circular shape, etc. Their surface can vary from 50 cm 2 to several m 2 . An anti-reflective layer may be applied to the surface of the photovoltaic panels (2) so as to ensure good absorption of the solar radiation. The photovoltaic panels (2) are intended to be installed, in series or in parallel, on supports fixed to the ground, on roofs, on walls, etc.

The photovoltaic cells (3) generally consist of semiconductors based on silicon (Si), cadmium sulphide (CdS), cadmium telluride (CdTe), an alloy of copper, indium, gallium and selenium (CIGS) etc. They are generally in the form of thin sheets, round or square, whose dimensions (side, diameter) vary from millimeters to several centimeters. These sheets are sandwiched between two metal contacts, for a thickness ranging from several microns to a few millimeters. The photovoltaic cells (3) can also be multi-junctions, that is to say they can be composed of different layers that make it possible to convert different parts of the solar radiation spectrum and thus obtain better yields. The photovoltaic cells (3) can also combine layers of semiconducting polymers with silicon nanowires in the form of a 3 mm thick mat improving the absorption of incident solar radiation.

The photovoltaic cells (3) are connected together, in series or in parallel via an electrical circuit. As diagrammatically shown in FIGS. 4 and 5, by-pass diodes (14) can protect the photovoltaic cells (3) from overheating, individually or in groups. Indeed, when a photovoltaic cell (3) is partially or entirely in the shade, it delivers a smaller amount of current and / or voltage than that delivered by the other photovoltaic cells (3) without shadow. This difference in the amount of current and / or voltage induces overheating of the photovoltaic cell (3) in the shade, which can lead to its destruction. When the bypass diode (14) detects that a photovoltaic cell (3) is in the shade, said bypass diode disconnects from the electrical circuit said photovoltaic cell or the group of cells to which said photovoltaic cell is connected. In practice, a photovoltaic panel (2) comprises one to three bypass diodes (14), depending on its number of cells, but may include more.

Under the effect of incident solar radiation, the photovoltaic cells (3) and thus the photovoltaic panels (2) deliver electrical energy in the form of a current and / or a DC voltage. Thus, with reference to FIG. 2, and in such a way that this current and / or this electrical voltage can be used for the supply of electrical appliances, such as electrical appliances, computers, or other devices, the photovoltaic installation (1) also comprises a general generator (4) delivering a current and / or an alternating electric voltage from the current and / or the DC voltage delivered by the photovoltaic cells (3). As an alternative to the general generator, and as shown diagrammatically in FIG. 3, the photovoltaic system (1) can comprise for each photovoltaic panel (2) an individual generator (4 ') delivering a current and / or an alternating electric voltage from the current and / or the DC voltage delivered by the photovoltaic cells (3). The general generator (4), or each of the individual generators (4 '), is in the form of a voltage or intensity inverter. It generally comprises a parallelepipedal, cylindrical, or other housing, incorporating an electronic circuit having a bridge architecture and consisting of electronic switches such as insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs), power transistors, thyristors, or others, as well as any other electronic components suitable for the skilled person. The general generator (4), or the individual generators (4 '), comprise an internal resistor formed by one or more electronic components of the resistor type (10'), potentiometer (10), rheostat, thermistor, varistor, etc. The general generator (4), or the individual generators (4 '), can be equipped with an automatic means of decoupling the network. The latter is equipped with a mechanical or electronic switch allowing the general generator (4), or each of the individual generators (4 '), to disconnect instantly from the electrical network to which it is connected when a voltage drop occurs. A voltage drop can for example be due to a malfunction of the general generator (4), or the individual generator (4 '), photovoltaic cells (3), or any other means of the photovoltaic system (1). The general generator (4), or the individual generators (4 '), can also be equipped with a means of protection against current delivery and / or continuous electrical voltage so as to avoid deterioration of the downstream connected electrical devices. said general generator, or said individual generators. The general generator (4), or the individual generators (4 '), are advantageously connected to an electrical distribution network (5) so as to allow the resale of the current and / or the electrical voltage produced to a third party company operating said electrical distribution network.

In order to measure the instantaneous electrical power produced by the photovoltaic installation (1), the latter also comprises, for the general generator (4), or for each individual generator (4 '), a means (6) for measuring the electric power delivered by said general generator, or said individual generator. In practice, for the general generator (4), or for each individual generator (4 '), this means (6) for measuring the electrical power is in the form of a power meter connected to said general generator, or to said individual generator. The wattmeter (s) are in the form of housings integrating an electronic circuit equipped with:

 an intensity sensor (ammeter) configured to measure the intensity delivered by the general generator (4), or the individual generator (4 ') to which it is connected,

 a voltage sensor (voltmeter) configured to measure the voltage at the terminals of the general generator (4), or of the individual generator (4 ') to which it is connected,

a multiplier configured to calculate the value of the instantaneous electric power delivered by the general generator (4), or the generator individual (4 ') to which it is connected by multiplying the value of the measured voltage by the value of the measured intensity,

 and any other electronic component that is suitable for those skilled in the art.

Once the electric power delivered by the general generator (4) or the individual generators (4 ') is measured, the photovoltaic system (1) can adjust its output via a setting means (7) to adjust the impedance of the internal resistance of said general generator, or said individual generators (4 '), so that the electric power delivered by said general generator, or said individual generator, is equal to a predetermined value. In practice, when the impedance of the internal resistance varies, the current and / or the alternating electric voltage delivered by the general generator (4), or the individual generators (4 '), varies, and it is thus possible to obtain an electric power equal to a determined value. For a general generator (4), this predetermined value is generally equal to the maximum permissible legal power, for example, 3 kWp for a photovoltaic installation (1), in France, for an individual. For an individual generator (4 '), the predetermined value is generally equal to the permissible maximum permissible power divided by the number of individual generators (4') included in the photovoltaic system (1), for example 3 / n kWc for a photovoltaic installation (1) comprising "n" individual generators (4 '), in France, at an individual's home.

Thus, to deliver, by means of the photovoltaic panels (2), an electric power equal to the predetermined value, for the general generator (4), or for each individual generator (4 '):

 the electrical power delivered by the general generator, or the individual generator, is measured,

the impedance of the internal resistance of the general generator (4) or of the individual generator (4 ') is regulated so that the electric power delivered by said general generator, or said individual generator, is equal to a predetermined value.

According to a first exemplary embodiment shown in FIG. 4, the internal resistance of the general generator (4) or of each individual generator (4 ') is in the form of one or more potentiometers (10) arranged on a circuit electric. The one or more potentiometers (10) are each equipped with a slider (1 1) movable between a minimum position for which the impedance of said potentiometer is minimal and a maximum position for which the impedance of said potentiometer is maximum. Each potentiometer (10) may be rectilinear or rotatable, and its impedance may vary linearly, logarithmically or anti-logarithmically as the cursor (1 1) moves between the minimum and maximum positions. In practice, when the general generator (4), or the individual generators (4 '), comprise several potentiometers (10), the latter are arranged in series on the electrical circuit so as to summed the ranges of impedance variation of said potentiometers .

The adjustment means (7) is then, for each potentiometer (10), in the form of a drive means (8) configured to move the cursor (1 1) of said potentiometer. This drive means (8) may be in the form of a stepper motor, a linear motor or in any other form suitable to those skilled in the art. The driving means may be controlled by a control unit (9). The latter is generally in the form of an electronic box incorporating a processor. The control unit (9) is connected via wire means (electrical cable, Ethernet, or other) or wireless means (wifi, wimax, infrared, or other) by means (6) for measuring the electrical power delivered by the general generator (4), or the individual generators (4 ') so as to recover the measured electrical power values. The control unit (9) is also connected to the drive means (8) by similar means so as to act on said drive means. The processor integrated in the housing of the control unit (9) is configured to execute one or more computer programs. The computer program (s) are stored in a memory also integrated in the housing and of the memory type register, mass memory, ROM, etc. The computer program is in the form of short sequences of instructions which, when executed in a precise order by the processor, allow:

 determining, from the electrical power values measured for the general generator (4), or the individual generators (4 '), the value of the impedance of the internal resistance of said general generator, or of said individual generators, so the electric power delivered by said general generator, or said individual generator, is equal to the predetermined value,

 - To act on the drive means (8) so as to adjust the value of the impedance of the internal resistance of the general generator (4), or individual generators (4 ').

For example, if a photovoltaic installation (1) comprising twenty photovoltaic panels (2) each delivering a maximum electrical power equal to 200 Wc, the photovoltaic installation can then deliver a maximum electrical power equal to 4 kWp. However, the maximum permissible legal power for a photovoltaic installation (1), in France, for an individual is equal to 3 kWp.

For a photovoltaic installation (1) comprising a general generator (4), the impedance of the internal resistance of said general generator is adjusted so as to reduce the electrical power delivered by the photovoltaic panels (2) and to obtain an electric power delivered by said general generator equal to 3 kWp. For a photovoltaic installation (1) comprising individual generators (4 '), the impedance of the internal resistance of each of said individual generators is adjusted so as to decrease the electrical power delivered by the photovoltaic panels (2) and to obtain a power electrical delivered by each of said individual generators equal to 150 Wc (3000Wc / 20). However, it can happen that a photovoltaic panel (2) undergoes losses such that the maximum power delivered by said panel is less than the predetermined value. Therefore, for each of the other photovoltaic panels (2), the impedance of the internal resistance of each of the individual generators (4 ') associated is adjusted to compensate for these losses. Using the previous example of a photovoltaic installation

(I) comprising twenty photovoltaic panels (2), if one of said photovoltaic panels delivers a power only equal to 55 Wc, then, for each of the other photovoltaic panels (2), the impedance of the internal resistance of each of the generators the associated individual generators (4 ') deliver a power equal to 155 Wc.

As shown in FIG. 2, and when the photovoltaic installation (1) comprises individual generators (4 '), said photovoltaic installation can comprise a control unit (9) by means of control (7) dedicated to the control of the means driving (8) of said adjusting means. In this case, the control units are configured to interact with one another so as to move the cursor in a determined manner.

(II) of each of the potentiometers (10), in order to obtain an electric power delivered by the general generator (4), or the individual generators (4 '), equal to the predetermined value. This dialogue is in the form of an exchange of information between the different control units (9), said information comprising codes or pieces of code and information on the power delivered by the photovoltaic panels (3) of each of the panels photovoltaic (2). The dialogue can be done via connectors wired or via a wireless link such as WiFi, Mimo, infrared, etc. Each control unit (9) analyzes the information it receives so as to determine, depending on the power delivered the general generator (4), or the individual generators (4 '), the value of the impedance of the resistance internal of said general generator, or said individual generators, via the drive means (8) of the adjusting means (7) that it controls.

In practice, the control units (9) are electrically powered by an auxiliary power supply circuit, but they can also be integrated with the photovoltaic panels (2) and be directly electrically powered by said photovoltaic panels. In the latter case, when the photovoltaic panels (2) suffer losses, said photovoltaic panels can deliver a current and / or voltage zero or insufficient to supply electricity to the control unit (9) integrated. These losses can for example be due to a malfunction of the photovoltaic cells (3), the fact that said photovoltaic cells are in the shade, the fact that the photovoltaic panel (2) is disconnected or removed from the installation, etc. The other control units (9) of the photovoltaic installation (1) then detect the absence of dialogue with this control unit (9), and adapt their dialogue so as to determine, according to the power delivered by the panels operating photovoltaic (2), the value of the impedance of the internal resistance of each of the individual generators (4 ') associated with said photovoltaic panels operating.

Furthermore, when the photovoltaic panels (2) each include a control unit (9), and said control units are equipped with radio wave dialogue means, each control unit can be configured to determine its position by relative to said other control units as a function of the intensity of the radio signal received by each of said other control units. It is thus possible for the control units to establish a mapping of the photovoltaic installation (1) according to the intensity of the radio signal emitted by each control unit. Mapping of the photovoltaic system (1) means that it is possible to determine the position of the control units (9) relative to each other, and therefore, to determine the position of the photovoltaic panels (2). ) one to another. Therefore, the control units can detect whether one of the photovoltaic panels (2) is moved or removed. This detection can in particular be useful to prevent theft. The control units (9) can then be connected to an audible, visual, or other alarm that said control units trigger when they detect the displacement or removal of one of the photovoltaic panels (2).

In an embodiment variant not shown, the photovoltaic installation (1) may, however, comprise an overall control unit (9) configured to control the drive means (8) of the set of adjustment means (7). In this case the control unit (9) is connected to all the means (6) for measuring the electrical power delivered by the individual generators (4 '). From the electric power values measured by the means (6), the control unit (9) is able to determine for each photovoltaic panel (2) the value of the impedance of the internal resistance of each of the individual generators. (4 ') associated with said photovoltaic panels via the drive means (8) of the adjustment means (7) which it controls.

According to a second exemplary embodiment shown in FIG. 5, the internal resistance of the general generator (4) or of each individual generator (4 ') is in the form of several resistors (10') arranged on an electric circuit. The adjusting means (7) is in the form of switches (8 ') arranged on said electric circuit. The switches (8 ') are configured to short-circuit each of said resistors (10') or not so as to obtain a desired impedance value. The switches (8 ') can be in the form of mechanical switches as shown schematically in FIG. 5, or in the form of electronic switches such as insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs), power transistors, thyristors, etc. .

The switches (8 ') can be controlled by a control unit (9). The latter is generally in the form of an electronic box incorporating a processor. The control unit (9) is connected via wire means (electrical cable, Ethernet, or other) or wireless means (wifi, wimax, infrared, or other) by means (6) for measuring the electrical power delivered by general generator (4), or the individual generators (4 ') so as to recover the measured electrical power values. It is also connected to the switches (8 ') by similar means so as to act on said switches. The processor integrated in the housing of the control unit (9) is configured to execute one or more computer programs. The computer program (s) are stored in a memory also integrated in the housing and of the memory type register, mass memory, ROM, etc. The computer program is in the form of short sequences of instructions which, when executed in a precise order by the processor, allow:

 determining, from the electrical power values measured for the general generator (4), or the individual generators (4 '), the value of the impedance of the internal resistance of said general generator, or of said individual generators, so the electric power delivered by said general generator, or said individual generator, is equal to the predetermined value,

- To act on the switches (8 ') so as to adjust the value of the impedance of the internal resistance of the general generator (4), or individual generators (4'). The determination and the adjustment of the impedance of the internal resistance of the general generator (4), or of the individual generators (4 '), during a lossless or operationless operation is carried out in a manner similar to that described in FIG. first embodiment.

As represented in FIG. 2, and when the photovoltaic installation (1) comprises individual generators (4 '), said photovoltaic installation may comprise a control unit (9) by setting means (7) dedicated to the control of the switches (8 ') of said adjusting means. As in the previous embodiment, the control units (9) can be configured to communicate with each other, so as to control the short circuit of a determined number of resistors (10 '), in order to obtain a electric power delivered by said general generator, or said individual generators, equal to the predetermined value. This dialogue is of the same form as previously mentioned. In practice, each control unit (9) analyzes the information it receives so as to control the short-circuiting of a determined number of resistors (10 '), via the switches (8') of the adjustment means (7). ) that he commands.

The control units (9) can also be electrically powered by an auxiliary power supply circuit, or be integrated with the photovoltaic panels (2) and be directly electrically powered by said photovoltaic panels. As previously the control units (9) of the photovoltaic installation (1) can detect the absence of dialogue with one of the control units (9), when the photovoltaic panel (2) to which it is integrated dysfunction . Similarly, the control units (9) adapt their dialogue so as to determine, according to the power delivered by the photovoltaic panels (2) operating, the new number of resistors (10 ') to be short-circuited for each generator individual (4 ') associated with functioning photovoltaic panels. As before when the control units (9) are equipped with radio wave dialogue means, each control unit (9) can be configured to determine its position with respect to said other control units as a function of the intensity of the radio signal received by each of said other control units. Similarly, the control units (9) can detect whether one of the photovoltaic panels (2) is moved or removed.

In an alternative embodiment not shown, the installation may however comprise a control unit (9) configured overall to control the switches (8 ') of all the adjustment means (7). In this case the control unit (9) is connected to all the means (6) for measuring the electrical power delivered by the individual generators (4 '). From the electric power values measured by the means (6), the control unit (9) is able to determine for each photovoltaic panel (2), the number of resistors (10 ') to be short-circuited for each generator individual (4 '), via the switches (8') of the adjustment means (7) that it controls.

According to a third exemplary embodiment, the internal resistance of the general generator (4) or of each individual generator (4 ') is in the form of an electronic switching circuit of the H bridge type, Flyback converter, Buck converter -Boost, or any other switching circuit suitable for the skilled person. In practice, an electronic switching circuit comprises:

an internal resistance portion formed of one or more coils, of one or more capacitors, and possibly of one or more resistors, the impedance of the internal resistance varying as a function of the impedance of each coil, of the impedance of each capacitor and the impedance of each resistor. a switching part formed of switches (8 ") of the mechanical switch type as shown diagrammatically in FIG. 6, or of the type electronic switches such as insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs), power transistors, thyristors, etc .;

The setting means (7) is in the form of the switches (8 ") arranged in the switching circuit and the switches (8") are configured to close and open periodically at a given duty cycle so as to set the impedance of the internal resistance of the general generator (4), or of the individual generator (4 '). By cyclic ratio is meant the ratio between the duration during which the switches (8 ") are closed during a period and the duration of this same period The value of the impedance of the internal resistance of the switching circuit varies with the ratio cyclic switching of the switches (8 ").

Referring to the exemplary embodiment shown in FIG. 6, the electrical switching circuit is in the form of an H-bridge switching circuit comprising a coil (10 ") and two capacitors. (8 ") are arranged in the H-bridge arrangement. The switches (8") are configured to periodically reverse the polarity across the coil (10 ") so as to obtain a current-boost switch circuit operation, respectively voltage, or step-down current, respectively voltage. To do this, the switches (8 ") are periodically closed individually or in pairs according to a specific duty cycle.

The switches (8 ") can be controlled by a control unit (9), which is generally in the form of an electronic box incorporating a processor.The control unit (9) is connected via wire means ( electric cable, Ethernet, or other) or wireless means (wifi, wimax, infrared, or other) by means (6) to measure the electric power delivered by general generator (4), or the individual generators (4 ') so as to recover the values of measured electrical powers. It is also connected to the switches (8 ") by similar means so as to act on said switches.The processor integrated in the housing of the control unit (9) is configured to execute one or more computer programs. The computer program is in the form of short sequences of instructions which, when executed in a specific order, are stored in a memory that is also integrated in the box and in the memory type of the register, mass memory, read-only memory, etc. by the processor, allow:

 determining, from the electrical power values measured for the general generator (4), or the individual generators (4 '), the value of the impedance of the internal resistance of said general generator, or of said individual generators, so the electric power delivered by said general generator, or said individual generator, is equal to the predetermined value,

 determining, from the determined value of the impedance of the internal resistance for the general generator, or for each individual generator, the value of the duty cycle of the switching circuit fitted on said general generator, or said individual generators, so as to the real value of the impedance of the internal resistance of said general generator, or of each individual generator, is equal to the determined value of the impedance of the internal resistance for the general generator, or for each individual generator,

 - For each switching circuit, act on the switches (8 ") so as to close and open them periodically according to the determined duty cycle.

The determination and the adjustment of the impedance of the internal resistance of the general generator (4), or of the individual generators (4 '), during a operation without or loss, is performed in a similar manner to that described in the first embodiment.

As represented in FIG. 2, and when the photovoltaic installation (1) comprises individual generators (4 '), said photovoltaic installation may comprise a control unit (9) by setting means (7) dedicated to the control of the switches (8 ") of said adjustment means As in the previous embodiment, the control units (9) can be configured to communicate with each other, so as to periodically close and open the switches (8") according to the ratio cyclic determined, in order to obtain an electric power delivered by said general generator, or said individual generators, equal to the predetermined value. This dialogue is of the same form as previously mentioned. In practice, each control unit (9) analyzes the information it receives so as to control the closing and periodic opening of the switches (8 ") according to the determined duty cycle.

The control units (9) can also be electrically powered by an auxiliary power supply circuit, or be integrated with the photovoltaic panels (2) and be directly electrically powered by said photovoltaic panels. As previously the control units (9) of the photovoltaic installation (1) can detect the absence of dialogue with one of the control units (9), when the photovoltaic panel (2) to which it is integrated dysfunction . Similarly, the control units (9) adapt their dialogue so as to determine, according to the power delivered by the photovoltaic panels (2) operating, the new switching duty ratio of the switches (8 ") for each individual generator (4 ') associated with functioning photovoltaic panels. As before when the control units (9) are equipped with radio wave dialogue means, each control unit (9) can be configured to determine its position with respect to said other control units as a function of the intensity of the radio signal received by each of said other control units. Similarly, the control units (9) can detect whether one of the photovoltaic panels (2) is moved or removed.

In an alternative embodiment not shown, the installation may however comprise a global control unit (9) configured to control the switches (8 ") of the set of adjustment means (7). control (9) is connected to the set of means (6) for measuring the electric power delivered by the individual generators (4 '), From the electric power values measured by the means (6), the control unit (9) is able to determine for each photovoltaic panel (2), the new switching duty ratio of the switches (8 ") for each individual generator (4 ').

As explained above, this electric power regulated and delivered by the general generator (4), or the individual generators (4 '), is generally intended to be sold to a third party operating a distribution power grid (5). Thus, the photovoltaic installation (1) comprises means for connecting the general generator (4), or the individual generators (4 '), to the electrical distribution network (5). This means is generally in the form of an electric meter configured to measure the amount of current and / or voltage delivered to the electrical distribution network (5). The electric meter is generally in the form of a housing incorporating electronic or electromechanical components. It may comprise a mechanical or digital display making it possible to quantify the electrical power delivered to the distribution grid (5) by the general generator (4), or the generators individual (4 '). Thus quantified, the electric power can be billed and sold.

Claims

claims
1. A method for delivering, by means of photovoltaic panels (2), an electrical power, said photovoltaic panels (2) delivering at output a current and / or a DC voltage when subjected to incident solar radiation, a generator general (4), or an individual generator for each photovoltaic panel (2), having an internal resistance and delivering a current and / or an alternating electric voltage from the current and / or the DC voltage delivered by said photovoltaic panels, in which, for the general generator, or for each individual generator:
the electrical power delivered by the general generator, or the individual generator, is measured,
 when photovoltaic panels suffer losses, the impedance of the internal resistance of the general generator (4) or of the individual generator (4 ') is adjusted so as to compensate for said losses and for the electrical power delivered by said general generator, or said individual generator (4 '), is equal to a predetermined value.
2. Method according to claim 1, wherein, for the general generator (4), or for each individual generator (4 '), a wattmeter connected to said general generator, or said individual generator makes it possible to measure the electrical power delivered by the generator general, or the individual generator.
3. Method according to one of claims 1 or 2, wherein the internal resistance of the general generator (4), or each individual generator (4 '), is in the form of one or more potentiometers (10) arranged on an electrical circuit, the potentiometer or potentiometers being each equipped with a slider (1 1) movable between a position for which the impedance of said potentiometer is minimal and a position for which the impedance of said potentiometer is maximum, and wherein for each potentiometer (10), a setting means (7) being in the form of a driving means (8), moves the slider (1 1) of said potentiometer, so as to adjust the impedance of the internal resistance of the general generator (4), or the generator individual (4 '), said one or more drive means being controlled by a control unit (9).
4. Method according to claim 3, wherein a control unit (9), by adjusting means (7), is dedicated to the displacement of the drive means (8) of said adjustment means, said control units being configured to dialogue between them, so as to move in a determined manner the cursor (1 1) of each of the potentiometers (10).
5. Method according to one of claims 1 or 2, wherein the internal resistance of the general generator (4), or each individual generator (4 '), is in the form of several resistors (10') arranged on a electrical circuit, and wherein, a setting means (7) in the form of switches (8 ') arranged on said electric circuit or not short circuit each of said resistors so as to adjust the impedance of the internal resistance the general generator (4), or the individual generator (4 ').
6. Method according to claim 5, wherein a control unit (9), by adjusting means (7), is dedicated to the control of the switches (8 ') of said adjusting means, said control units being configured for dialogue between them, so as to control the short circuit of a determined number of resistors (10 ').
7. Method according to one of claims 1 or 2, wherein the internal resistance of the general generator (4), or each individual generator (4 '), is in the form of an electronic switching circuit, and in an adjustment means (7) in the form of switches (8 "), arranged in the switching circuit, are closed and periodically open at a given duty cycle to adjust the resistance impedance. internal of the general generator (4), or of the individual generator (4 ').
8. Method according to claim 5, wherein a control unit (9), by adjusting means (7), is dedicated to the control of the switches (8 ") of said adjustment means, said control units being configured for dialogue between them, so as to periodically close and open the switches (8 ") according to a specific duty cycle.
The method according to any one of claims 3 to 8, wherein the photovoltaic panels (2) each include a control unit (9) equipped with a radio wave dialogue means, each control unit being configured to determining its position relative to said other control units as a function of the intensity of the radio signal received by each of said other control units.
10. Method according to any one of claims 3 to 9, wherein the general generator (4), or the individual generators (4 '), is connected to an electrical distribution network (5).
1 Photovoltaic installation comprising:
photovoltaic panels (2) configured to deliver a current and / or a DC voltage when they are subjected to incident solar radiation, and a general generator (4), or an individual generator (4 ') for each photovoltaic panel (2), comprising an internal resistor and delivering a current and / or an alternating electric voltage from the current and / or the electrical voltage continuous delivered by the photovoltaic panels (2), characterized in that it further comprises, for the general generator (4), or for each individual generator (4 '):
 means (6) for measuring the electric power delivered by the general generator (4), or the individual generator (4 '), and
 an adjustment means (7) for adjusting the impedance of the internal resistance of the general generator (4), or of the individual generator (4 '), when photovoltaic panels suffer losses, so as to compensate for said losses and that the electric power delivered by said general generator or said individual generator is equal to a predetermined value.
PCT/FR2011/051925 2010-08-24 2011-08-17 Photovoltaic facility and method for supplying electrical power equal to a predetermined value WO2012025684A1 (en)

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FR1056735A FR2964264A1 (en) 2010-08-24 2010-08-24 Photovoltaic installation and method for delivering electric power equal to a predetermined value.

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