WO2012018229A2 - Bidirectional controller for ensuring stable remote control in time delay using time domain passivity approach, haptic interface device and method, and remote control robot system - Google Patents

Bidirectional controller for ensuring stable remote control in time delay using time domain passivity approach, haptic interface device and method, and remote control robot system Download PDF

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WO2012018229A2
WO2012018229A2 PCT/KR2011/005713 KR2011005713W WO2012018229A2 WO 2012018229 A2 WO2012018229 A2 WO 2012018229A2 KR 2011005713 W KR2011005713 W KR 2011005713W WO 2012018229 A2 WO2012018229 A2 WO 2012018229A2
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force
calculated
remote control
stored
controller
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PCT/KR2011/005713
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French (fr)
Korean (ko)
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WO2012018229A3 (en
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유지환
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한국기술교육대학교 산학협력단
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Priority to KR1020100074937A priority Critical patent/KR101180994B1/en
Priority to KR10-2010-0074937 priority
Priority to KR20110052085A priority patent/KR101268604B1/en
Priority to KR10-2011-0052085 priority
Application filed by 한국기술교육대학교 산학협력단 filed Critical 한국기술교육대학교 산학협력단
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B25HAND TOOLS; PORTABLE POWER-DRIVEN TOOLS; MANIPULATORS
    • B25JMANIPULATORS; CHAMBERS PROVIDED WITH MANIPULATION DEVICES
    • B25J9/00Programme-controlled manipulators
    • B25J9/16Programme controls
    • B25J9/1679Programme controls characterised by the tasks executed
    • B25J9/1689Teleoperation

Abstract

A bidirectional controller for ensuring a stable remote control in a time delay using a time domain passivity approach of the present invention enables accurate analysis for stability, can specifically add a general framework, and can be utilized for manufacturing various position-force bidirectional controllers. In addition, the bidirectional controller for ensuring the stable remote control in the time delay using the time domain passivity approach according to the present invention can prevent a sudden change of force and enables a user to perform a remote control efficiently by filtering a force element of a high frequency using a virtual passivity system including virtual mass and a virtual spring.

Description

      Bidirectional controller, haptic interface device and method, and remote control robot system to guarantee stable remote control in time delay using time domain passiveness technique

The present invention relates to a bidirectional controller that guarantees stable remote control in time delay using a time-domain passive technique. In particular, a time that enables stable remote control even under time-varying time delay using a 2-port network and a passive controller. The present invention relates to a bidirectional controller that guarantees a stable remote control in a time delay using a domain passiveness technique. The present invention also relates to a haptic interface device and method, and a remotely controlled robot system.

In general, remote control technologies including remote surgery and remote maintenance have attracted a lot of attention due to their high applicability. When the robot is controlled remotely, the feedback force can kinematically connect the remote control user to the remote control object, increasing the efficiency of the remote control user when performing complex tasks. However, data transmission in computer networks has inherent time-delays, and even small values have a large unstable effect on feedback forces.

Many studies have been conducted to solve this problem. Anderson and Spong proposed bidirectional control rules to maintain stability in time delays, and Niemeyer and Slotine extended the idea and presented the wave changes. These various studies have been extended to apply inherent wave variation methods to time-varying time delays. In addition, Leung proposed a bidirectional controller with time delay based on H optimization controller and μ-synthesis framework. Oboe, Fiorini, and Lee tried to solve the time delay problem on the Internet with a simple PD type controller.

In order to ensure stability in the haptic interface, a new concept of energy-based research, called Time Domain Passivity Approach (hereinafter referred to as TDPA), was conducted. TDPA has been extended to remote control systems with no time delay. Although TDPA has been recognized as a simple and efficient control method in haptic interfaces and remote control systems, there are still problems such as time delays to extend this idea.

Therefore, many attempts have been made to allow TDPA to account for time delays. In the bidirectional controller, the slave manipulator and the control target are set up as one one-port network system, and the passive observer and the passive controller are attached to the gate of the one-port network, so that the one-port network can be operated manually. However, the prior art has a problem that the internal energy of the 1-port network is not controlled according to the state of the slave manipulator, and there is a problem that the active energy is not delivered to the remote control user when the control target is active.

The present invention is proposed to solve the above problems of the existing proposed methods, it is possible to precisely analyze the stability and to add a general framework in detail, various position-force (bidirectional) It is an object of the present invention to provide a bidirectional controller that ensures stable remote control in time delay by using a time domain passiveness technique that can be utilized in the manufacture of a controller.

In addition, the present invention, by filtering the high-frequency force element using a virtual passive system including a virtual mass and a virtual spring, to prevent the sudden change of force so that the remote control user can perform the remote control efficiently Another object of the present invention is to provide a bidirectional controller that guarantees stable remote control in a time delay using a time-domain passive technique.

In addition, another object of the present invention is to provide a haptic interface device and method for stabilizing an interaction upon contact with a rigid virtual environment, and a remotely controlled robot system.

In accordance with an aspect of the present invention for achieving the above object, a bidirectional controller for ensuring stable remote control in time delay using a time domain passiveness technique,

A master manipulator (hereinafter referred to as “master”) that allows a remote control user to input a desired operation;

A slave manipulator (hereinafter referred to as a slave manipulator) for receiving a motion signal from the master manipulator to implement a motion;

A two-port network comprising a first port for receiving a master input energy from the master and transmitting the master input energy to the slave and a second port for receiving a slave input energy from the slave and transmitting the master input energy to the master;

A passiveness observer (Passivity Observer, hereinafter referred to as 'PO') that monitors energy in real time and checks the passiveness of the two-port network; And

Its configuration features include a Passivity Controller (hereinafter referred to as "PC") that controls the two-port network to dissipate the required amount of energy based on the PO.

Preferably,

The PC may be a PC of impedance type or an PC of admittance type.

More preferably,

The impedance type PC is attached between the master and the two-port network,

The admittance type PC may be attached between the slave and the two-port network.

More preferably,

The admittance type PC uses the damping element β defined by Equation a below to lower the output energy at the slave than the delayed input energy at the master,

The impedance type PC may use the damping element α defined by Equation b below to lower the output energy at the master than the delayed input energy at the slave.

Equation a

Figure PCTKR2011005713-appb-I000001

<Equation b>

Figure PCTKR2011005713-appb-I000002

Preferably,

The PO is composed of a pair and attached to each port of the two-port network to monitor the input energy and the output energy, respectively.

Preferably,

A virtual mass having a certain mass and a virtual spring having a certain rigidity can be set between the PC and the master to prevent a sudden change in force.

Preferably,

The passive observer may distinguish between input energy and output energy of each network port based on a sign of power.

Meanwhile, the impedance type haptic interface device according to another embodiment of the present invention for solving the above-described problem is switched as the operator presses or releases the virtual environment to switch the operation mode of the haptic interface device between the press mode and the release mode. A switch for switching, a memory for storing reference force values calculated from the virtual environment corresponding to the positions pressed when the virtual environment is pressed, and a reference force stored corresponding to the position released when the virtual environment is released Reading a value from the memory and receiving a calculated reference force value from the virtual environment, comparing the calculated reference force value with the stored force value, and if the calculated reference force value is greater than the stored force value, Lower the calculated reference force value to the stored force value and In accordance with the power reference value and a controller for controlling the motor for applying a physical force to the operator.

Here, the memory, switch, and controller may be implemented by a field programmable gate array (FPGA).

The impedance type haptic interface device receives a increased position when the virtual environment is pressed to switch the switch to the press mode, and when the virtual environment is released a switch control unit for switching the switch to the release mode by receiving the reduced position It may further include.

In addition, the haptic interface method according to an embodiment of the present invention comprises the steps of storing the force values in the memory corresponding to the pressed position when the operator presses the virtual environment, and when the operator releases the virtual environment Reading a stored force value from the memory corresponding to the released position, calculating a force value for the released position, comparing the calculated reference force value with the stored force value, Lowering the calculated reference force value to the stored force value if the calculated reference force value is greater than the stored force value, and controlling a motor exerting a physical force on the operator according to the calculated reference force value. Include.

In addition, the admittance type haptic interface device according to another embodiment of the present invention is switched as the operator presses or releases the virtual environment switch to switch the operation mode of the haptic interface device between the press mode and the release mode, and the operator A memory for storing each pressed force and a reference speed calculated correspondingly when the virtual environment is pressed, and a reference speed stored corresponding to each of the forces when the operator releases the virtual environment from the memory. And compare the calculated speed corresponding to each of the forces with the stored reference speed, and if the calculated speed is greater than the stored reference speed, lower the calculated speed to the stored reference speed and according to the calculated speed Control the motor to exert physical force It includes a controller.

In addition, the haptic interface method according to another embodiment of the present invention comprises the steps of storing each of the pressed force and the reference speed calculated correspondingly when the operator presses the virtual environment, the operator is to release the virtual environment When the reference speed stored in correspondence with the respective forces is read from the memory, comparing the speed calculated in response to the respective forces with the stored reference speed, and the calculated speed is greater than the stored reference speed. Lowering the calculated speed to the stored reference speed and exerting a physical force on the operator in accordance with the calculated speed.

In addition, the remote control robot system that moves the remote robot according to the movement of the haptic device according to another embodiment of the present invention, when the remote robot is pressed by the haptic device, the movement of the haptic device or the movement of the remote robot A memory for storing a reference force calculated corresponding to each positional error of the reference force; and a reference force stored corresponding to each positional error of the movement of the haptic device or the movement of the remote robot when the remote robot is released by the haptic device. Reads a value from the memory, compares the calculated reference force value with the calculated force for each positional error of the movement of the haptic device or the movement of the remote robot, and calculates if the calculated reference force is greater than the stored force The calculated reference force to the stored force, and according to the calculated reference force And a controller for controlling the motor for generating the force applied to the haptic device, or the remote robot.

In addition, the haptic interface method in the remote control robot system in which the remote robot moves according to the movement of the haptic device according to another embodiment of the present invention, when the remote robot is pressed by the haptic device, the movement of the haptic device or the Storing a reference force calculated in correspondence with each positional error of the movement of the remote robot in a memory, and each positional error of the movement of the haptic device or the movement of the remote robot when the remote robot is released by the haptic device; Reading a reference force value stored in correspondence from the memory, comparing the calculated reference force value with a force calculated for each positional error of the movement of the haptic device or the movement of the remote robot, and the calculation If the calculated reference force is greater than the stored force, the calculated reference force Depending on the method to lower the stored power, the calculated reference power comprises the step of generating the force applied to the haptic device, or the remote robot.

According to the bidirectional controller which guarantees stable remote control in time delay using the time domain passiveness technique proposed in the present invention, it is possible to precisely analyze the stability and to add a general framework in detail, It can be utilized in the manufacture of a position-force bidirectional controller.

In addition, the bi-directional controller that ensures stable remote control in time delay using the time domain passiveness technique according to the present invention, by filtering the high frequency force element using a virtual passive system including a virtual mass and a virtual spring, It prevents the sudden change of force so that the remote control user can perform the remote control efficiently.

In addition, according to the haptic interface device according to the present invention, the interaction is stabilized upon contact with the stiff virtual environment.

1 illustrates a conventional one-port network system.

2 is a diagram illustrating a conventional two-port network-based remote control system.

3 is a diagram illustrating a method of determining energy flow to a 1-port network according to a sign of a power by a bidirectional controller that guarantees stable remote control in a time delay using a time-domain passive technique according to an embodiment of the present invention. drawing.

4 is a diagram illustrating an ideal input energy and output energy flow in each network of a bidirectional controller for ensuring stable remote control in time delay using a time domain passive technique according to an embodiment of the present invention.

5 is a schematic diagram of a force-position based bidirectional controller in time delay.

Figure 6 is a block diagram of a bidirectional controller to ensure stable remote control in time delay using a time domain passive technique according to an embodiment of the present invention.

FIG. 7 is a diagram illustrating an impedance type PC (a) and an admittance type PC (b) of a bidirectional controller for ensuring stable remote control in time delay using a time domain passiveness technique in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention.

8 is a diagram illustrating physically the generation of feedback force on the master side in a force-position based bidirectional remote controller using a conventional TDPA.

9 is a two-way controller that ensures stable remote control in time delay by using the time-domain passivation technique according to an embodiment of the present invention by inserting a virtual mass and spring between the master and the PC to generate a feedback force Physical representation of ensuring stable remote control in delay and prevention of sudden force changes.

10 is a block diagram of a bidirectional controller using a virtual mass and a spring to ensure stable remote control in a time delay by using a time-domain passivation technique according to an embodiment of the present invention.

FIG. 11 is a diagram illustrating a time delay shown during an experiment of a bidirectional controller for ensuring stable remote control in a time delay using a time domain passiveness technique according to an embodiment of the present invention.

12 is a diagram illustrating a configuration of a haptic display system according to the present invention.

FIG. 13 is a diagram illustrating an ideal force versus position graph for explaining the theory of the present invention. FIG.

14 is a block diagram of a haptic interface device according to a preferred embodiment of the present invention.

15 is a flowchart illustrating an operation in a press mode of a haptic interface device according to an embodiment of the present invention.

16 is a view for explaining the operation in the press mode in the present invention.

17 is a flowchart illustrating an operation in a release mode of a haptic interface device according to an embodiment of the present invention.

18 illustrates a case in which the present invention is implemented in an admittance type haptic interface device according to an embodiment of the present invention.

19 illustrates a case in which the present invention is implemented in a teleoperation robot system according to an embodiment of the present invention.

Hereinafter, exemplary embodiments of the present invention will be described in detail with reference to the accompanying drawings so that those skilled in the art may easily implement the present invention. However, in describing the preferred embodiment of the present invention in detail, if it is determined that the detailed description of the related known function or configuration may unnecessarily obscure the subject matter of the present invention, the detailed description thereof will be omitted. In addition, the same or similar reference numerals are used throughout the drawings for parts having similar functions and functions.

In addition, throughout the specification, when a part is 'connected' to another part, it is not only 'directly connected' but also 'indirectly connected' with another element in between. Include. In addition, "including" a certain component means that it may further include other components, except to exclude other components unless specifically stated otherwise.

1 is a diagram illustrating a conventional one-port network system. As shown in FIG. 1, the conventional one-port network system is a method in which force and speed are input to a one-port network from a remote control user, and operate manually in a condition that satisfies Equation (1). Thus, energy in passive network systems must be positive.

Equation 1

Figure PCTKR2011005713-appb-M000001

The utilization variables that define the flow of forces in a network system are time dependent. In addition, the sampling rate used for analysis of network systems is limited to values that are essentially faster than the sampling rate in dynamic systems. In this case, a passivity observer may be included to check the passivity of the 1-port network system. The check of passiveness follows Equation 2. ΔT is the sampling time and t j is j × ΔT.

Equation 2

Figure PCTKR2011005713-appb-M000002

If E obsv (t k ) is greater than or equal to 0 for all k, this means that the 1-port network system does not generate energy. On the other hand, if E obsv (t k ) is less than 0, it means that the 1-port network system generates energy, and the amount of energy generated is -E obsv (t k ).

2 is a diagram illustrating a conventional two-port network-based remote control system. As shown in Fig. 2, the remote control user can input the speed and the force to the remote controller using the conventional 1-port network system to operate the control object as desired. Where v h and v e represent the velocity at the point of interaction between the remote control user and the master manipulator (hereinafter referred to as the 'master'), the controlled object and the slave manipulator (hereinafter referred to as the 'slave'). Each means. f h denotes the force applied by the user to the master, and f e denotes the force applied by the slave to the control object.

As is known through the prior art, the passiveness of the bidirectional remote controller ensures the stability of the remote control system. PO can be used to monitor the energy flow of the bidirectional remote controller. The energy flow of the bidirectional remote controller is shown in Equation 3.

Equation 3

Figure PCTKR2011005713-appb-M000003

Without time delay, conventional TDPA shows satisfactory results in terms of ensuring passiveness. However, when time delays occur, the passivity conditions are difficult to meet in normal situations. This is because the conventional PO does not integrate the flow of power at each port of the bidirectional remote controller at the same sampling time.

3 is a diagram illustrating a method of determining energy flow to a 1-port network according to a sign of a power by a bidirectional controller that guarantees stable remote control in a time delay using a time-domain passive technique according to an embodiment of the present invention. Drawing. As shown in FIG. 3, in each network of the bidirectional controller that ensures stable remote control in time delay using a time domain passiveness technique according to an embodiment of the present invention, the power flow (f × v) is positive. If the value of the energy means that the input to the network system, on the contrary, if the power flow is negative value means that the energy is output from the network system. That is, the energy at each port of the network may be classified into input energy and output energy as shown in Equation 4. K denotes a step of sampling time. In addition, each input energy and output energy can be calculated by integrating the flow of power as shown in Equation (5). ΔT is the sampling time and P (k) is f (k) × v (k), which means the flow of power at each port.

Equation 4

Figure PCTKR2011005713-appb-M000004

Equation 5

Figure PCTKR2011005713-appb-M000005

Based on the above equations, if the existing equations are converted to be more suitable for the 2-port network system proposed by the present invention, equations 1 and 3, which are equations for time-varying passive control in the 1-port network system, are provided. May be represented by Equations 6 and 7, respectively. In addition, the input energy and output energy at each port can be calculated by Equation 8. Where E 1 in is the input energy at the first port and E 2 out is the output energy at the second port. P 1 (k) is f 1 (k) × v 1 (k), meaning the flow of power at the first port, P 2 (k) is f 1 (k) × v 1 (k) It means the power flow in the port.

Equation 6

Figure PCTKR2011005713-appb-M000006

Equation 7

Figure PCTKR2011005713-appb-M000007

Equation 8

Figure PCTKR2011005713-appb-M000008

E 1 out (k) and E 2 out (k) can satisfy Equation 7 by adding a suitable damping factor. However, if there is a time delay, it is difficult to satisfy the condition of Equation 7 in real time with the prior art. This is because E 1 in and E 1 out cannot be compared at the same sampling time as E 2 in and E 2 out .

FIG. 4 is a diagram illustrating an ideal input energy and output energy flow in each network of a bidirectional controller that guarantees stable remote control in time delay by using a time domain passive technique according to an embodiment of the present invention. As shown in FIG. 4, in each network of a bidirectional controller that ensures stable remote control in time delay using a time domain passive technique according to an embodiment of the present invention, the main source of output energy at one port Is the input energy at the other port, and the output energy is smaller than the input energy. As shown in Equation 9, regardless of the amount of time delay (D 12 , which means the number of sampling steps), the output energy (E 2 out ) at the second port is always the input energy (E 1 ) at the first port. was equal to or less than in), at the same time the amount of time delay (D 21) the first output energy (E 1 out) of the second port regardless of the always equal to or less than the second energy input (E 2 in) of the second port If E 1 in = E 2 in = 0 under n <0, then the 2-port network system is passive. This can be confirmed that Equation 10 is derived when the time-domain passive condition is separated in the 2-port network system. In this case, Equation 10 may be represented by Equation 11.

Equation 9

Figure PCTKR2011005713-appb-M000009

Equation 10

Figure PCTKR2011005713-appb-M000010

Equation 11

Figure PCTKR2011005713-appb-M000011

If the input energy is a monotonically increasing function, i.e., regardless of the time delay, the input energy in the sampling step k is always greater than or equal to the input energy in the previous sampling step, then the equation (10) is satisfied. You will be satisfied automatically. Therefore, as shown in Equation 12, Equation 9 for ensuring the passiveness in the two-port network system is sufficiently satisfied.

Equation 12

Figure PCTKR2011005713-appb-M000012

These equations are effective conditions even if there is a time-varying time delay. E, the output energy of eachOne                 out, E2                 outEquation 9 can be satisfied by modifying through a PC at each port. In theory, time-varying time delays are not limited, but the problem of unorganized packets is difficult to solve by theory alone. This can be solved by using time stamps on data packets and ignoring uncleaned packets. However, there is a problem of packet loss, which allows a limited amount of output energy proportional to the input energy by using a bidirectional controller that ensures stable remote control in time delay using the time-domain passiveness technique proposed in the present invention. Thus, in the blackout state without energy exchange, the output energy can be limited to the value by the input energy input before blackout. Therefore, packet loss has no effect on the passiveness.

5 is a schematic diagram of a force-position based bidirectional controller in time delay. As shown in Figure 5, the force-position-based bidirectional controller in the time delay, the master input from the slave, the master to receive the operation signal from the master, the master can input the desired operation by the remote control to implement the movement It may be configured to include a two-port network consisting of a first port for receiving energy and transmitting to the slave and a second port for receiving and transmitting slave input energy from the slave to the master. Where v sd is the design speed on the slave, which includes a time delay at the master speed (v m ). f md is the control force at the master and includes the time delay at the control force f s at the slave. K stands for position controller on the slave.

Based on the passive theory, the passiveness in a two-port remote controller connected from master to slave is sufficient to satisfy the stability of the remote control system. If the master and slave without controller are inherently passive and the position controller in the slave can be designed passively, then only the network channel becomes the active part under time delay. Therefore, a bidirectional controller that ensures stable remote control in time delay using a time domain passiveness technique according to an embodiment of the present invention can be applied to a two-port network system.

FIG. 6 is a block diagram of a bidirectional controller that ensures stable remote control in time delay using a time domain passiveness technique according to an embodiment of the present invention. A bidirectional controller that ensures stable remote control in time delay using a time domain passiveness technique according to an embodiment of the present invention includes a pair of POs that monitor energy in real time and check the passiveness of a 2-port network. A pair of POs can be attached to each port of the two-port network to monitor the input energy and output energy, respectively. It can also include a PC that controls the PO-based two-port network to dissipate the required amount of energy. The PC will be described in detail with reference to FIG. 7.

FIG. 7 is a diagram illustrating an impedance type PC (a) and an admittance type PC (b) of a bidirectional controller for ensuring stable remote control in time delay using a time domain passive technique according to an embodiment of the present invention. . As shown in FIG. 7, the PC of the bidirectional controller that guarantees stable remote control in time delay using a time domain passiveness technique according to an embodiment of the present invention may be a PC having an impedance type or an admittance type. (Admittance Type) may be a PC. An impedance type PC may be attached between the master and the two-port network, and an admittance type PC may be attached between the slave and the two-port network.

In order to satisfy the equation (9), the admittance type PC monitors the input energy (E M in ) at the master and transmits the damping factor β to the slave. Attenuation factor β according to Equation 13 serves to lower the output energy at the slave than the delayed input energy at the master. As a result, the design speed (v sd ) on the slave is modified so that D MS can represent the time delay value from master to slave.

Equation 13

Figure PCTKR2011005713-appb-M000013

In addition, in order to satisfy Equation 9, the impedance type PC monitors the input energy (E S in ) of the slave and simultaneously transmits the damping element α to the master. Attenuation factor α according to Equation 14 serves to lower the output energy at the master than the delayed input energy at the slave. As a result, the feedback force on the master is modified so that D SM can represent the time delay value from slave to master.

Equation 14

Figure PCTKR2011005713-appb-M000014

Therefore, Equation 9 may be expressed as a condition for the passiveness of the 2-port network system by adding the damping element β in Equation 13 and the damping element α in Equation 14. However, this equation is derived assuming that the sampling time is the same in the master and the slave, but can be extended and applied even when the sampling time is not the same in the master and slave.

FIG. 8 is a diagram illustrating physically the generation of feedback force on the master side in a force-position based two-way remote controller using a conventional TDPA. The problem with TDPA is that the force can change suddenly in an impedance type PC. As shown in FIG. 8, since the feedback force is directly applied to the master, when the feedback force is suddenly changed by the use of a PC, the remote control user may feel a sudden change in the efficiency of the remote control. Can fall.

9 is a two-way controller that ensures stable remote control in time delay by using the time-domain passivation technique according to an embodiment of the present invention by inserting a virtual mass and spring between the master and the PC to generate a feedback force The figure shows physically to ensure stable remote control in delay and prevention of sudden force change. As shown in FIG. 9, a bidirectional controller that ensures stable remote control in time delay by using a time domain passiveness technique according to an embodiment of the present invention may include a virtual mass and a virtual mass. A virtual spring can be installed between the master and the impedance type PC. Thus, due to the inertia of the virtual mass and the virtual spring, the PC can escape from the sudden change of force.

10 is a block diagram of a bidirectional controller using a virtual mass and a spring to ensure stable remote control in a time delay by using a time domain passiveness technique according to an embodiment of the present invention. As shown in FIG. 10, a bidirectional controller that ensures stable remote control in time delay using a time domain passiveness technique according to an embodiment of the present invention includes a virtual mass having a constant mass and a virtual spring having a constant rigidity. The power applied to the master and the speed transmitted from the master to the slave may be converted into f m and v mc according to Equation 15, respectively. At this time, if the maximum rigidity (k c ) of the virtual spring and the virtual mass (m c ) are as low as possible, the distorted force can be ignored. Therefore, the virtual mass of the bidirectional controller to ensure stable remote control in time delay by using the time domain passiveness technique according to an embodiment of the present invention is 0.00001 to 0.01kg, the rigidity of the virtual spring can be 100 to 10000N / m have.

Equation 15

Figure PCTKR2011005713-appb-M000015

Virtual masses and virtual springs act as bilateral low pass filters for force and velocity. The network system can be actively changed when a one-way filter, that is, a force filter or a speed filter is attached, but the bidirectional filter can maintain the passiveness of the network system. The passivation by the virtual mass and the virtual spring is calculated as in Equation 16. Where e = x m -x mc .

Equation 16

Figure PCTKR2011005713-appb-M000016

Equation 17 shows a function of the low pass force filter and the low pass speed filter. If the cutoff frequency in the low pass force filter is lower than the frequency of the PC noise caused by the sudden force change, the PC noise is filtered and only the low frequency force element can be transmitted to the remote control user.

Equation 17

Figure PCTKR2011005713-appb-M000017

In order to experiment with a bidirectional controller that guarantees stable remote control in time delay using a time domain passiveness technique according to an embodiment of the present invention, one computer is provided to control a master and a slave at a sampling rate of 1 ms. Time-varying time delays were used within the computer.

FIG. 11 is a diagram illustrating a time delay shown during an experiment of a bidirectional controller for ensuring stable remote control in a time delay using a time domain passiveness technique according to an embodiment of the present invention. As shown in FIG. 11, the time delay was on average 100 ms and oscillated between 50 and 150 ms.

First, a control experiment of a bidirectional controller without TDPA was performed in a stiff environment. At this time, the remote control user controlled the master so that the slave touches a solid wall. As a result of the experiment, the graph about the force and the position pulse was vibrated due to the time delay. This is not the intended movement of the remote control user. Due to this delayed force, the remote control user could not keep the slave in contact with the wall. While the slave is in contact with the wall, the contact energy at the master and slave is greater than the input energy at the master and slave, and thus the passive condition is not maintained.

Next, a control experiment was performed in the case where the bidirectional controller using only the passivity technique to ensure stable remote control in a time delay using the time domain passivity technique according to an embodiment of the present invention in a stiff environment. At this time, the remote control user controlled the master so that the slave contacts the solid wall three times. The remote control user attempted the next contact after successful contact, and all three contacts were intended by the remote control user. As a result of the experiment, it was confirmed that the positional response of master and slave is stable. In addition, the PC can modify the control force in the master if necessary, and the output energy of the slave can be kept lower than the input energy of the master by the operation of the PC, and the output energy of the master is A value lower than the input energy could be maintained. Thus the bidirectional controller could be maintained passively.

However, due to the operation of the PC, the power in the master showed a sudden change. This is because either the speed has a zero value or a sudden speed change occurs while the slave is contacting at a low speed. This sudden change in force can degrade the perception of the remote control user. The PC at the slave adjusts the speed at the master to keep the output energy at the slave lower than the input energy at the master, which results in a push of position at the end of the contact.

Next, the control when the bidirectional controller using the passivity technique and the virtual mass and the spring at the same time using the time domain passiveness technique according to an embodiment of the present invention in a stiff environment to ensure stable remote control in time delay The experiment was performed. At this time, the rigidity of the virtual spring was 1000 N / m and the inertia of the virtual mass was 0.0001 kg. When the sampling time is 1 ms, the cutoff frequency due to the virtual mass and the virtual spring is around 320 Hz, which is lower than the PC noise of 500 Hz. As a result, the noise component of the PC was found to be filtered. As a result, the positional response of the slave and the master was stable, and the graph of the control force in the master showed a smoother shape than the previous experiment. While the remote control user touches the slave to a solid wall, it can be seen that the control force at the master is dependent on the force at the slave due to the virtual mass and the virtual spring. In addition, the high frequency noise control forces passing through the PC were filtered and only the low frequency interactive forces were transmitted. However, although the virtual mass and the virtual spring have filtered the high frequency force components, the modified force is dependent on the original force at the slave and only limited if necessary.

Next, in a case where a bidirectional controller using a passivity technique and a virtual mass and a spring are used simultaneously in a long time delay environment to ensure stable remote control using the time domain passivity technique according to an embodiment of the present invention. Control experiments were performed. At this time, the average time delay was set to 2000 ms, the time delay appeared to vibrate as shown in FIG. As the time delay increased, the position or force drift increased for more stable interaction. However, since the initial force of the contact is similar to the original force due to the time delay, the bidirectional controller that ensures stable remote control in the time delay by using the time domain passiveness technique according to an embodiment of the present invention is connected to the slave contact. The user's perception of remote control is high and stable bidirectional remote control is possible regardless of the amount of time delay.

Next, in the blackout environment, the bidirectional controller using the time domain passiveness technique according to an embodiment of the present invention to ensure stable remote control in time delay simultaneously uses the passive technique and virtual mass and spring. The control experiment in the case of doing was performed. In this case, blackout was performed for 3 to 7 seconds in a free operation. During the blackout, the slave stops moving as long as the PC at the slave keeps its output energy below the master's input energy. Experimental results show that the input energy from the master was input before the blackout and remained constant during the blackout.

Lastly, in a blackout and stiff environment, a bidirectional controller using the time domain passivity technique according to an embodiment of the present invention to ensure stable remote control in time delay uses the passivity technique and virtual mass and spring at the same time. Case control experiments were performed. In this case, blackout was performed for 5 seconds to 10 seconds. While the slave is in contact, the slave stops moving as in the previous experiments, and the PC's power at the master is controlled to dissipate energy solely by keeping the output energy below the input energy at the slave before blackout. It became. Experimental results show that the input energy from the slave input before blackout is maintained at a constant value during blackout. As a result, even if there is a blackout, the bidirectional controller that ensures stable remote control in time delay using the time domain passiveness technique according to an embodiment of the present invention constrains the movement of the slave so that there is no push of position or force, It was confirmed that stable and free remote control is possible.

Next, a haptic interface device and method and a remote control robot system according to another embodiment of the present invention will be described.

12 is a diagram illustrating a configuration of a haptic display system according to the present invention. Referring to FIG. 12, a haptic display system includes a human operator (HO) 100, a haptic interface 200, and a virtual environment 300. The operator 100 is a person who interacts with the virtual environment 300 through the haptic interface 200. Virtual environment 300 is a computer generated model of some physically stimulated scene. The haptic interface 200 can be any device between the operator 100 and the virtual environment 300 and includes, for example, a haptic device, a sensor, an actuator, control software, and an AD / DA converter. The haptic interface 200 enables the operator 100 to interact with the virtual environment 300 by exchanging energy with each other, so that the design of the haptic interface is very important for stability and performance analysis. Here, vh represents the velocity at the interacting positions of the operator 100 and the haptic interface 120, and fh represents the force that the operator 100 exerts on the haptic interface 120.

The present invention makes the release path always lower or at least equal to the press path by changing the calculated output force at the time of pressing and releasing to the operator in such a haptic display system. The interaction will then be passive since the output energy at the interaction will be less than or at least equal to the input energy.

To this end, the present invention is implemented based on memory. Specifically, the present invention stores the calculated reference force output from the virtual environment with its corresponding location in a predetermined memory area when the operator presses the virtual environment. The present invention then compares the calculated output force with the stored force at that location when the operator releases the virtual environment. If the calculated output force is equal to or less than the stored force, display it, otherwise lower the calculated output force to the stored force. This allows the press path to be above or at least remain the release path, which avoids the activeness of the interaction, ie the interaction becomes active and unstable.

FIG. 13 is a diagram illustrating an ideal force versus position graph for explaining the theory of the present invention. FIG. As shown in FIG. 13, the same force is preferably applied during the press process and the release process. The present invention stores the reference force calculated from the virtual environment at each position of the press path in the press process, and obtains the output force stored corresponding to each position of the press path in correspondence with each position of the release path in the release process. .

14 is a block diagram of a haptic interface device according to a preferred embodiment of the present invention. Components in dotted rectangle 210 in FIG. 14 are the main components of the haptic interface device, which may be implemented by a field programmable gate array (FPGA). Referring to FIG. 14, the haptic interface device includes a memory 211, a switch 212, a controller 213, a switch controller 214, a motor driver 220, and a motor 230.

Memory 211 is used to store force values from the virtual environment. The memory 211 stores each force output in a corresponding memory area corresponding to the measured position.

The switch control unit 214 selects the force output by switching the switch 212 between the release mode and the press mode. The switch controller 214 is connected to the motor driver 220 to receive the measured position from the motor driver 220. The switch controller 214 causes the haptic interface device to enter one of two modes of operation according to the measured position. Specifically, the two operating modes include a release mode and a press mode. The haptic interface device enters the press mode when the operator presses the virtual environment, and the haptic interface device enters the release mode when the operator releases the virtual environment.

When the operator presses the virtual environment, the position is increased and the switch controller 214 is provided with the increased position from the motor driver 220. The switch control unit 214 then switches the switch 212 to the press mode. In addition, the switching controller 214 controls the memory 211 to be writeable when the increased position is received from the motor driver 220. Accordingly, the memory 211 stores the measured positions provided from the motor driver 220 and the corresponding forces in the virtual environment corresponding thereto. Accordingly, motor driver 220 should detect all changes in position displacement and provide the changed positions.

To do this, the FPGA must have a clock as fast as possible to detect all position changes and access memory as quickly as possible to read / write at each position change event. These functions can be implemented through FPGAs.

By doing so, the memory 2110 stores the output of the reference force calculated from all positions of the press path and the corresponding virtual environment in the press mode. That is, upon entering the press mode, the memory 211 stores the output value of the calculated reference force from the virtual environment at each location along with its corresponding location.

Then, as it exits the operator virtual environment, the position decreases and the switch control unit 214 switches the switch 212 to the release mode. In addition, the switching controller 214 controls the memory 211 to be readable when the reduced position is received from the motor driver 220. Accordingly, the memory 211 provides the controller 213 with the measured positions provided from the motor driver 220 and the corresponding force in the virtual environment corresponding thereto. The controller 213 is provided with a release location in release mode. At this time, the controller 213 reads or receives the force stored in the memory 211 from the memory 211 in response to the detected release position. In addition, the controller 213 is provided with a reference output force calculated from the virtual environment 300 corresponding to the release position.

The controller 213 compares the output force and the stored force calculated for that release position. If the calculated reference output force is equal to or less than the stored force, the controller 213 controls the motor driver 220 according to the calculated reference output force to control the motor 230 acting on the operator. do. If the calculated output reference force is greater than the stored force, the calculated reference output force is lowered to the stored force. This allows the press path to be above or at least remain the release path. Accordingly, the haptic interface device according to the present invention has an effect that can stabilize the interaction when the operator presses and releases the virtual environment.

15 is a flowchart illustrating an operation in a press mode of a haptic interface device according to an embodiment of the present invention. Referring to FIG. 15, in operation 410, the haptic interface device determines whether to enter the press mode. When the operator presses the virtual environment, the position increases, and according to the increased position, the haptic interface device enters the press mode. When the haptic interface device enters the press mode, it determines whether the press position is detected in step 420.

The haptic interface device detects a position at which the operator presses the virtual environment, and stores the press position value and the corresponding force value at step 430. As such, the haptic interface device detects the press position and stores the corresponding force value, which will be described in detail with reference to FIG. 16.

16 is a view for explaining the operation in the press mode in the present invention. According to the present invention, the haptic interface device detects all the changes in the positional displacement in the press mode to detect the changed positions. The haptic interface device has a fast clock for this purpose. Here the position change can occur in the form of a pulse. That is, the haptic interface device detects the changed position when the pulse is detected, and stores the reference force calculated from the virtual environment 300 in response to the changed position. Referring to FIG. 16, when the position changes from the position X_1 to the position X_2 in the press mode, the force from the virtual environment 300 may be updated from F_1 to F_2. The haptic interface device waits until the next pulse is detected when the force from the virtual environment 300 is updated from F_1 to F_2. Specifically, the force F_2 is updated from the virtual environment 300 between the positions X_1 and X_2. In this case, F_2 = F_ve (X1) is calculated. Where F_ve is the updated force value between positions X_1 and X_2. The haptic interface device causes the updated force to be stored corresponding to the changed position X_2 when the next pulse is detected, that is, when the position is detected as X_2.

The haptic interface device then determines whether the press mode ends in step 440, and returns to step 420 if the press mode does not end. In this way, the haptic interface device detects all the positions being pressed and stores the detected positions and the corresponding forces in the corresponding virtual environment.

For this purpose, the haptic interface device is preferably implemented by an FPGA. In this case, the FPGA must have a clock as fast as possible to detect all position changes, and it is implemented to access memory as quickly as possible to read / write at each position change event.

17 is a flowchart illustrating an operation in a release mode of a haptic interface device according to an embodiment of the present invention. Referring to FIG. 17, in operation 510, the haptic interface device determines whether to enter the press mode. Upon exiting the operator virtual environment, the position decreases and the haptic interface device enters the release mode in response to the reduced position.

When entering the release mode, the haptic interface device determines whether to detect the release position in step 520. Subsequently, when the haptic interface device reads the release location, the haptic interface device reads from the memory the stored value for the location detected in step 530. As described above, the memory stores force values corresponding to all press position values in the press mode. That is, the haptic interface device reads the force stored in the memory with respect to the detected position from the memory.

The haptic interface device then determines whether the reference force calculated from the virtual environment is less than or equal to the stored force in step 540. Here, the calculated reference force is provided from the virtual environment. If the calculated reference force is less than or equal to the stored force, the haptic interface device proceeds to step 560.

If the calculated reference force is greater than the stored force, the haptic interface device proceeds to step 550 to lower the calculated reference force to the stored force and proceeds to step 560. This allows the press path to be above the release path or at least remain the same.

The haptic interface device displays the reference force calculated at step 560. That is, the haptic interface device controls the motor to apply a physical force to the operator by controlling the motor driver according to the calculated reference force.

Meanwhile, the above-described embodiment of the present invention corresponds to the case where the haptic interface device is an impedance type, but the present invention is not limited to the impedance type. For example, the concept of the present invention may be applied to an admittance type haptic interface device or a teleoperation robot.

18 illustrates a case in which the present invention is implemented in an admittance type haptic interface device according to an embodiment of the present invention. Referring to FIG. 18, the admittance type haptic interface device calculates and stores a velocity Ve from a virtual environment with respect to a force applied by the operator to the haptic interface. For example, when the force Fn is applied to the virtual environment, the velocity is calculated in inverse proportion to the applied force by the magnitude of Z (s). This is expressed as an equation.

V e = F (n) / Z (s)

Therefore, the concept of the present invention is applied to such an admittance type haptic interface device as follows. The admittance type haptic interface device stores the calculated velocity V_e corresponding to the force Fn applied in the press mode. Then, in the release mode, the admittance type haptic interface device compares the reference speed stored for each force with the speed calculated for each force and lowers it to the stored reference speed if the calculated speed is higher than the stored reference speed.

19 illustrates a case in which the present invention is implemented in a teleoperation robot system according to an embodiment of the present invention. Referring to FIG. 10A, the remote robot is controlled in response to the manipulation of the operator in the remotely controlled robot system. For example, if the operator moves the haptic device by a distance of Xm, the remote robot also moves by Xs. Here, the motor force applied to the haptic device is represented by Fm, and thus the motor force applied to the remote robot is represented by (output) Fs.

According to one embodiment of the invention, the remotely controlled robot system is a reference calculated in the press mode, ie when the remote robot is pressed by the haptic device, the calculated position corresponding to the angular position error of the movement of the haptic device or the movement of the remote robot. Save power.

Then, in release mode, i.e. when the remote robot is released by the haptic device, the remotely controlled robot system stores the stored reference force output and the calculated force output corresponding to each positional error of the movement of the haptic device or the movement of the remote robot. Compare and reduce the calculated reference force to the stored force if the calculated reference force is greater than the stored force. In addition, the remote control robot system controls a motor that applies a physical force to the haptic device or the remote robot according to the calculated reference force.

As described above, the present invention can be applied not only to the haptic interface device of the impedance type but also to the haptic interface device of the admittance type as well as to the remote control robot system.

The present invention described above may be variously modified or applied by those skilled in the art, and the scope of the technical idea according to the present invention should be defined by the following claims.

Claims (15)

  1. A master manipulator (hereinafter, referred to as master) for inputting a desired operation by a remote control user;
    A slave manipulator (hereinafter referred to as a slave) for implementing a motion by receiving an operation signal from the master manipulator;
    A two-port network comprising a first port for receiving a master input energy from the master and transmitting the master input energy to the slave and a second port for receiving a slave input energy from the slave and transmitting the master input energy to the master;
    A passiveness observer (Passivity Observer, hereinafter PO) which monitors energy in real time and checks the passiveness of the two-port network; And
    Based on the PO, the two-port network includes a Passivity Controller (PC), which controls to dissipate the required amount of energy in a time delay using a time domain passiveness technique. Bi-directional controller that ensures stable remote control.
  2. The method of claim 1,
    The PC is a bidirectional controller to ensure a stable remote control in the time delay using a time domain passive technique, characterized in that the PC of the impedance type (Impedance Type) or the PC of the Admittance type (Admittance Type).
  3. The method of claim 2,
    The impedance type PC is attached between the master and the two-port network,
    The admittance type PC is a bidirectional controller that ensures stable remote control in time delay by using a time-domain passivation technique, characterized in that attached between the slave and the two-port network.
  4. The method of claim 2,
    The admittance type PC uses the damping element β defined by Equation a below to lower the output energy at the slave than the delayed input energy at the master,
    The PC of the impedance type uses a time-domain passivation technique, which uses the damping factor α defined by Equation b below to lower the output energy of the master than the delayed input energy of the slave. Bi-directional controller to ensure stable remote control in
    <Formula a>
    Figure PCTKR2011005713-appb-I000003
    <Equation b>
    Figure PCTKR2011005713-appb-I000004
  5. The method of claim 1,
    The PO is composed of a pair, attached to each port of the two-port network to monitor the input energy and the output energy, respectively, to ensure stable remote control in time delay using a time domain passive technique Bidirectional controller.
  6. The method of claim 1,
    Stable remote control in time delay using a time-domain passivation technique characterized by setting a virtual mass with a certain mass and a virtual spring with a certain rigidity between the PC and the master to prevent sudden changes in force. Two-way controller to ensure.
  7. The method of claim 1, wherein the passive observer,
    Bi-directional controller that guarantees stable remote control in time delay using time domain passiveness technique, which distinguishes input energy and output energy of each network port based on power sign.
  8. In the impedance type haptic interface device,
    A switch which switches as the operator presses or releases the virtual environment to switch the operation mode of the haptic interface device between the press mode and the release mode;
    A memory for storing reference force values calculated from the virtual environment corresponding to the pressed positions when the virtual environment is pressed;
    When the virtual environment is released, the stored reference force value is read from the memory corresponding to the position to be released, and after receiving the calculated reference force value from the virtual environment, the calculated reference force value is compared with the stored force value. And a controller for lowering the calculated reference force value to the stored force value and controlling a motor exerting a physical force on the operator according to the calculated reference force value if the calculated reference force value is greater than the stored force value. Haptic interface device comprising a.
  9. The method of claim 8,
    The memory, switch and controller is a haptic interface device, characterized in that implemented by a field programmable gate array (FPGA).
  10. The method of claim 8,
    And a switch control unit configured to receive the increased position when the virtual environment is pressed to switch the switch to the press mode, and to receive the reduced position when the virtual environment is released and to switch the switch to the release mode. Haptic interface device.
  11. In the haptic interface method,
    Storing force values in memory corresponding to the pressed positions when the operator presses the virtual environment,
    Reading the stored force value from the memory corresponding to the released position when the operator releases the virtual environment;
    Calculating a force value for the released position;
    Comparing the calculated reference force value with the stored force value;
    Lowering the calculated reference force value to the stored force value if the calculated reference force value is greater than the stored force value;
    And controlling a motor exerting a physical force on the operator according to the calculated reference force value.
  12. In an admittance type haptic interface device,
    A switch which switches as the operator presses or releases the virtual environment to switch the operation mode of the haptic interface device between the press mode and the release mode;
    A memory for storing each pressed force and a reference velocity calculated correspondingly when the operator presses the virtual environment;
    When the operator releases the virtual environment, the reference speed stored in correspondence with the respective forces is read from the memory, the speed calculated in correspondence with the respective forces is compared with the stored reference speed, and the calculated speed is determined by the operator. And a controller that, when greater than a stored reference speed, lowers the calculated speed to the stored reference speed and controls a motor that exerts a physical force on the operator according to the calculated speed.
  13. In the haptic interface method,
    Storing each pressed force and a reference velocity calculated correspondingly when the operator presses the virtual environment,
    Reading from the memory a reference velocity stored corresponding to the respective forces when the operator releases the virtual environment;
    Comparing the speed calculated for each of the forces with the stored reference speed;
    Lowering the calculated speed to the stored reference speed if the calculated speed is greater than the stored reference speed;
    And applying a physical force to the operator according to the calculated speed.
  14. In the remote control robot system in which the remote robot moves according to the movement of the haptic device,
    A memory for storing a reference force calculated according to each positional error of the movement of the haptic device or the movement of the remote robot when the remote robot is pressed by the haptic device;
    When the remote robot is released by the haptic device, the reference force value stored corresponding to each position error of the movement of the haptic device or the movement of the remote robot is read from the memory, and the movement of the haptic device or the remote robot is read. Compare the calculated reference force value with the stored reference force value for each positional error of the movement of, and if the calculated reference force is greater than the stored force, lower the calculated reference force to the stored force and according to the calculated reference force And a controller for controlling a motor generating a force applied to the haptic device or the remote robot.
  15. In the haptic interface method in a remote control robot system that moves the remote robot according to the movement of the haptic device,
    When the remote robot is pressed by the haptic device, storing a reference force calculated in response to each positional error of the movement of the haptic device or the movement of the remote robot in a memory;
    Reading the stored reference force value from the memory corresponding to each positional error of the movement of the haptic device or the movement of the remote robot when the remote robot is released by the haptic device;
    Comparing the calculated reference force value with the force calculated for each positional error of the movement of the haptic device or the movement of the remote robot;
    Lowering the calculated reference force to the stored force if the calculated reference force is greater than the stored force;
    Generating a force applied to the haptic device or the remote robot according to the calculated reference force.
PCT/KR2011/005713 2010-08-03 2011-08-03 Bidirectional controller for ensuring stable remote control in time delay using time domain passivity approach, haptic interface device and method, and remote control robot system WO2012018229A2 (en)

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