WO2012008063A1 - Process for production of sparkling fermented beverage - Google Patents

Process for production of sparkling fermented beverage Download PDF

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WO2012008063A1
WO2012008063A1 PCT/JP2010/071160 JP2010071160W WO2012008063A1 WO 2012008063 A1 WO2012008063 A1 WO 2012008063A1 JP 2010071160 W JP2010071160 W JP 2010071160W WO 2012008063 A1 WO2012008063 A1 WO 2012008063A1
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fermentation
fermented beverage
soybean protein
sparkling
raw
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French (fr)
Japanese (ja)
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克哉 佐々木
浩一郎 高橋
洋生 山口
秀俊 富田
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アサヒビール株式会社
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Priority to JP2010161199 priority
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C12BIOCHEMISTRY; BEER; SPIRITS; WINE; VINEGAR; MICROBIOLOGY; ENZYMOLOGY; MUTATION OR GENETIC ENGINEERING
    • C12CBEER; PREPARATION OF BEER BY FERMENTATION; PREPARATION OF MALT FOR MAKING BEER; PREPARATION OF HOPS FOR MAKING BEER
    • C12C5/00Other raw materials for the preparation of beer
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C12BIOCHEMISTRY; BEER; SPIRITS; WINE; VINEGAR; MICROBIOLOGY; ENZYMOLOGY; MUTATION OR GENETIC ENGINEERING
    • C12GWINE; PREPARATION THEREOF; ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES; PREPARATION OF ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES NOT PROVIDED FOR IN SUBCLASSES C12C OR C12H
    • C12G3/00Preparation of other alcoholic beverages
    • C12G3/02Preparation of other alcoholic beverages by fermentation

Abstract

Disclosed is a process for producing a sparkling fermented beverage which can have improved foam retention properties without affecting the flavor thereof. The process for producing a sparkling fermented beverage is characterized in that a soybean protein decomposition product which is produced by decomposing a soybean protein, defatted soybean or an enriched soybean protein with a neutral protease is used as a raw material for a fermentation raw solution prior to the fermentation with yeast. Preferably, the soybean protein decomposition product has a phenylalanine content of 5% or less relative to the total nitrogen content thereof.

Description

Method for producing sparkling fermented beverage

The present invention relates to a method for producing a sparkling fermented beverage using a specific protein degradation product as a raw material.

In recent years, as a new alcoholic beverage following beer, sparkling liquor using many ingredients other than malt, such as rice and corn starch, and beer-like sparkling alcoholic beverages that do not use any malt (a sparkling alcohol with a beer-like flavor Beverage) was developed. However, sparkling liquor and beer-like sparkling alcoholic beverages have a problem that flavor and foam quality are inferior to beer. In particular, foam is an important appearance quality for beers, and the poor foam retention reduces the attractiveness of happoshu and the like for consumers, and improvement of foam quality is strongly desired. .

Various methods have been disclosed to solve problems such as flavor and foam quality of Happoshu. For example, since beer foam is derived from malt-derived foam protein, there is a method of improving foam retention by adding soy protein in order to compensate for the lack of foaming protein.

However, when soy protein is added as it is, the liquid viscosity increases and production problems such as delayed filtration are caused. In addition, soy protein has a problem of low solubility and poor utilization efficiency. Thus, by using a soybean protein degradation product, foam retention can be improved without causing problems in production.

As a method of using a soybean protein degradation product as a raw material for beer, for example, (1) in a method for producing a fermented alcoholic beverage such as beer or miscellaneous sake, beer such as wheat gluten or soy protein is used as a part of the raw material. By using a yeast high-availability amino acid-rich protein raw material degradation product or its preparation, it promotes fermentation by brewer's yeast, enhances taste and flavor, and has a refreshing taste with no off-flavors or immature odors. There is also disclosed a method for producing a fermented alcoholic beverage having a body feeling (for example, see Patent Document 1). In addition, (2) it is possible to produce a beer with an unprecedented flavor by adding a peptide having an average molecular weight of 200 to 4,000 to the fermentation raw material liquid at the time before the initial stage of main fermentation and performing fermentation. And a method for producing a new beer is disclosed (for example, see Patent Document 2).

Usually, an enzyme degradation product of protein such as soybean protein is prepared using an alkaline protease (for example, see Patent Document 2). This is because protein degradation efficiency is better when the protein is denatured under alkaline conditions. Generally commercially available soybean peptides are also degraded by alkaline protease.

JP 2006-158268 A Japanese Patent No. 3547532

As the amount of soy protein and its decomposition products increases, the effect of improving the foam retention of sparkling liquor and beer-like sparkling alcoholic beverages increases. However, as the amount of soy protein decomposed product increases, there is a problem that aroma unfavorable to beer (mainly ginjo incense, sake-like odor) becomes stronger. For this reason, the use of soybean protein degradation products is limited, and the foam retention cannot be sufficiently improved.

The present invention aims to provide a method for producing an effervescent fermented beverage with improved foam retention while suppressing the influence on aroma.

As a result of diligent research to solve the above-mentioned problems, the present inventors have obtained an unfavorable aroma by using a soy protein hydrolyzate degraded by a neutral protease instead of a soy protein hydrolyzate degraded by an alkaline protease. The inventors found that an effervescent fermented beverage with improved foam retention can be produced while suppressing the present invention and completed the present invention.

That is, the present invention
(1) Effervescent fermentation in which soybean protein, defatted soybean, or soybean protein degradation product obtained by degrading concentrated soybean protein with neutral protease is added to and mixed with the raw material of the fermentation raw material liquid before fermentation with yeast. A method for producing a beverage,
(2) The method for producing a sparkling fermented beverage according to (1), wherein the phenylalanine content of the soy protein breakdown product is 5% or less based on the total nitrogen content,
(3) The method for producing a sparkling fermented beverage according to (1) or (2), wherein the soy protein hydrolyzate has a weight average molecular weight of 6000 or more,
(4) The step of adding and mixing the soybean protein degradation product to the raw material of the fermentation raw material liquid before fermentation with yeast is performed during the step of boiling the fermentation raw material liquid or before the boiling step. (3) The method for producing a sparkling fermented beverage according to any one of
(5) The method for producing an effervescent fermented beverage according to any one of (1) to (4), wherein the neutral protease is a neutral protease derived from Bacillus genus,
Is to provide.

The method for producing an effervescent fermented beverage according to the present invention can produce an effervescent fermented beverage having excellent flavor and good foam. Foaming is an important factor for consumers to select a sparkling beverage, and it is expected that the sparkling fermented beverage manufactured by the manufacturing method according to the present invention will provide superior appearance quality. The

In Example 1, it is the figure which showed the chart obtained about each soybean protein degradation product.

In the present invention and the present specification, the effervescent fermented beverage means a beverage that has effervescence by carbon dioxide gas and is manufactured through a fermentation process. The sparkling fermented beverage may be an alcoholic beverage or a so-called non-alcoholic beverage or low alcoholic beverage having an alcohol content of less than 1% by volume. It may be a non-alcoholic beverage. Moreover, the drink which uses malt as a raw material may be sufficient, and the drink which does not use malt as a raw material may be sufficient. Specific examples of the sparkling fermented beverage include beer, sparkling liquor made from malt, sparkling alcoholic beverages that do not use malt, low alcoholic beverages, non-alcoholic beer, and the like. In addition, liqueurs obtained by mixing malt as a raw material and a beverage produced through a fermentation process with an alcohol-containing distillate may be used.

In addition, the alcohol-containing distillate is a solution containing alcohol obtained by a distillation operation, and one that is generally classified as distilled liquor can be used. For example, spirits, whiskey, brandy, vodka, lamb, tequila, gin, shochu and the like can be used. In the present invention, the alcohol-containing distillate is more preferably a spirit because it has little influence on taste.

The method for producing an effervescent fermented beverage according to the present invention is characterized in that a soy protein degradation product obtained by degrading soy protein or defatted soybean with a neutral protease is used as a raw material for a fermentation raw material liquid before fermentation by yeast. To do. By using a soybean protein hydrolyzate decomposed by a neutral protease in place of a soybean protein decomposed product obtained by a conventional alkaline protease, an effervescent fermented beverage with less ester flavor and significantly improved foam retention is obtained. can get. The reason why such an effect is obtained is not clear, but is presumed as follows. When a soybean protein degradation product obtained by a conventional alkaline protease is added before the fermentation step, phenethyl alcohol and its ester (such as β-phenethyl acetate) are likely to be produced by yeast metabolism. On the other hand, the soybean proteolysate obtained by neutral protease has a very low phenylalanine content compared to that obtained by alkaline protease, and even when used as a raw material for fermentation raw material liquid. As a result of suppressing the production of phenethyl alcohol and the like in the fermentation process, an effervescent fermented beverage with a sufficiently reduced aroma that is particularly unfavorable for beer, such as ginjo aroma and sake-like odor, is obtained. Moreover, the soybean protein degradation product obtained by neutral protease has many fractions with large molecular weight compared with what was obtained by alkaline protease, Therefore It is guessed that foam retention is improved notably.

First, the manufacturing process of a general sparkling fermented beverage will be shown. The case where malt is used as a raw material and the case where malt is not used as a raw material are shown separately.

Effervescent fermented beverages that use malt such as beer and happoshu as raw materials are manufactured in the following steps. First, warm water is added to the crushed material of malt, which is the main ingredient, and starch, such as rice and corn starch, which is the auxiliary ingredient, mixed and heated, and the starch is saccharified mainly using malt enzymes. . Hops are added to the filtrate obtained by filtering this saccharified solution and boiled. Alternatively, hops can be mixed at any stage from the start of boiling to the end of boiling. After boiling, precipitates such as hop cake are removed in a tank called a whirlpool and cooled to an appropriate fermentation temperature with a plate cooler. The cooled filtrate is inoculated with yeast and fermented. Next, after aging the obtained fermentation broth, yeast and proteins are removed by filtration to obtain the desired sparkling fermented beverage.

When producing an effervescent fermented beverage that does not use malt, liquid sugar containing a carbon source, nitrogen source as an amino acid-containing material other than wheat or malt, hops, pigments, etc. are mixed with warm water, and a liquid sugar solution To prepare. The liquid sugar solution is boiled in the same manner as in the production process of an effervescent fermented beverage using malt as a raw material, and precipitates such as hop koji are removed, cooled, inoculated with yeast, fermented, and filtered. Thus, the desired sparkling fermented beverage is obtained. Hops may be mixed with the liquid sugar solution during boiling, not before the start of boiling.

Also, by suppressing the alcohol fermentation in the process and reducing the alcohol content produced by the fermentation, a so-called low alcoholic beverage having an alcohol content of less than 1% by volume can be produced.

Raw materials such as crushed malt used in the present invention, starch such as rice and corn starch, hops, liquid sugar containing carbon source, nitrogen source as amino acid-containing material other than wheat or malt, pigments and the like are particularly limited. What is normally used when manufacturing an effervescent fermented drink can be used in the quantity normally used.

The soybean protein degradation product used in the present invention is obtained by degrading soybean protein, defatted soybean, or concentrated soybean protein with a neutral protease. Soybeans have excellent nutritional properties and good digestion and absorption, so that they can meet the increasing consumer health orientation in recent years. The state of the soy protein degradation product is not particularly limited, and may be a degradation product solution or a dry powder. Concentrated soybean protein refers to a product obtained by removing whey components from defatted soybean. For example, what is obtained by elution and removal of whey components from defatted soybeans with water-containing ethanol and drying.

The enzyme is not particularly limited as long as it is a neutral protease. For example, any commercially available neutral protease may be used, or these may be used in combination. Enzymes with high exo-protease activity produce a large amount of short-chain peptides and free amino acids. Therefore, enzymes with high endo-type protease activity are better than enzymes with high exo-protease activity to partially degrade proteins. preferable. In the present invention and the present specification, a neutral protease means an enzyme having an optimum pH value for protease activity in a neutral region (for example, pH 5.0 to 8.0). Specific examples of such neutral protease include neutral protease derived from Bacillus genus.

The soybean protein degradation product used in the present invention preferably has a phenylalanine content of 5% or less, more preferably 4% or less, and more preferably 1.4% or less, based on the total nitrogen content. It is preferably 1% or less. In addition, the phenylalanine content of a soybean protein degradation product can be made into a preferable range by adjusting suitably the kind and addition amount of neutral protease used for enzyme reaction, reaction time, etc. For example, the amount of neutral protease added to the reaction solution for the decomposition reaction may be 0.5 to 5% based on the weight of soybean protein, defatted soybean, or concentrated soybean protein.

The weight average molecular weight of the soybean protein degradation product used in the present invention is preferably 6000 or more, more preferably 6000 to 35000, and further preferably 8000 to 35000. When the weight average molecular weight is 6000 or more, foam retention of the obtained sparkling fermented beverage is improved.

The soy protein degradation product is used as a raw material for a fermentation raw material liquid before fermentation with yeast. That is, the soybean protein degradation product is added to or mixed with the fermentation raw material liquid at an arbitrary time before the fermentation process. In the case of an effervescent fermented beverage using malt as a raw material, the fermentation raw material liquid is a filtrate obtained by filtering the saccharified solution, and in the case of an effervescent fermented beverage not using malt, the liquid sugar It is a liquid sugar solution in which etc. are mixed.

For example, soy protein degradation product may be mixed with a saccharified solution or a liquid sugar solution before filtration, or may be mixed with a filtrate obtained by filtering the saccharified solution or the like. May be mixed after boiling, before removal of the precipitate, or after cooling and before fermentation. In addition, a soybean protein degradation product may contain an insoluble matter. In this invention, it is preferable to mix with a fermentation raw material liquid by the time of completion of the boiling process of a fermentation raw material liquid.

The amount of soybean protein degradation product used as a part of the fermentation raw material liquid is not particularly limited, but is preferably 0.01% (weight / volume) to 3% (weight / volume) in the fermentation raw material liquid.

Next, the present invention will be described in more detail with reference to examples and reference examples, but the present invention is not limited to the following examples. In the following examples and the like, physicochemical analysis of soy proteolysis solution and sparkling fermented beverage is adopted in both organizations of ASBC (American Society Brewing Chemistry) and EBC (European Brewery Convention). The analysis was conducted in accordance with the international standard of analysis (Beer Sake Brewery Association, “BCOJ Beer Analysis” 1996).

[Example 1]
An effervescent fermented beverage made from malt was produced by the method for producing an effervescent fermented beverage of the present invention.
First, 25 L of water and 1.5% by weight of neutral protease derived from Bacillus were added to 0.7 kg of purified soybean protein. While stirring, the enzyme reaction was carried out at 50 ° C. for 2 hours to obtain a soybean protein hydrolyzate solution.
In addition, as a control, the same procedure was used except that an alkaline protease was used instead of a neutral protease and that the pH of the purified soy protein aqueous solution was adjusted to 9.0 with potassium hydroxide before the addition of the alkaline protease. A protein degradation product solution was obtained.
The total nitrogen content and phenylalanine content of these soybean protein degradation product solutions were measured, and the ratio of the phenylalanine content to the total nitrogen content was calculated. The results are shown in Table 1. The soy proteolysate solution obtained by neutral protease (test) is slightly less in total nitrogen than the soy proteolysate solution obtained by alkaline protease (control), but has a phenylalanine content. Remarkably little, the ratio of phenylalanine content to total nitrogen content was also very low.

Figure JPOXMLDOC01-appb-T000001

Subsequently, the effervescent fermented drink was manufactured using the soy protein hydrolyzate solution (test) or the soy protein hydrolyzate solution (control). Specifically, to the wort prepared using 5 kg of pulverized malt and 80 L of warm water, 40 kg of liquid sugar, 0.5 kg of yeast extract, 0.02 kg of hops, and any of the soy proteolysate solutions prepared above were added. The whole amount was mixed and about 85 L of warm water was added to prepare about 200 L of fermentation raw material liquid. After the said fermentation raw material liquid was boiled at 100 degreeC for 90 minute (s), the hop koji was removed with the whirlpool. 20 L of warm water was added to about 180 L of the fermentation raw material liquid after the removal to adjust the sugar content to 12.0%, and then cooled to 5 ° C. with a plate cooler. About 170 L of the cooled fermentation raw material liquid obtained was transferred to a fermentation tank, inoculated with 25 × 10 6 muddy yeasts per mL of the juice, and fermented at 10 ° C. for 168 hours. The obtained fermentation broth was aged (post-fermented) for 7 days at -1 ° C. The obtained fermented liquor was subjected to diatomaceous earth filtration using a candle filter to remove yeast, protein, and the like, and an intended sparkling fermented beverage was obtained.

The amount of β-phenethyl alcohol and NIBEM values of the two types of sparkling fermented beverages obtained were measured. The NIBEM value is a value obtained by measuring the collapse rate of the poured foam by electric conductivity, and is generally used for evaluation of foam retention of beer and the like. Furthermore, the sensory test of these sparkling fermented drinks was also performed. The sensory test was conducted in accordance with the sensory evaluation method adopted by both the ASBC and EBC organizations, which are also international standards for beer sensory evaluation (by the Beer Brewery Association, “BCOJ Sensory Evaluation Method” 2002). Specifically, the panel was composed of 10 beer brewing engineers and evaluated the taste, beer-like flavor (beer taste), and foam texture in five stages. The results are shown in Table 2.

Figure JPOXMLDOC01-appb-T000002

As a result, the amount of β-phenethyl alcohol in the sparkling fermented beverage (test) added with the soy protein hydrolyzate solution (test) was higher than that in the sparkling fermented beverage (control) added with the soy protein decomposed solution (control). There were few flavors like ester and sake, and it had a beer-like flavor. Furthermore, the NIBEM value was 136 for the sparkling fermented beverage (control), whereas it was 203 for the sparkling fermented beverage (test). By using a soy protein hydrolyzate degraded by neutral protease, It was confirmed that the foam retention of the sparkling fermented beverage was remarkably improved.

[Reference example]
The weight average molecular weight of the soybean protein degradation product in the soybean protein degradation product solution (test) and the soybean protein degradation product solution (control) used in Example 1 was measured.
First, a soy protein hydrolyzate solution diluted with 50 mM phosphate buffer (1% (weight / volume) SDS, 1.17% (weight / volume) NaCl, pH 7.0) was sonicated for 10 minutes. And then filtered using a 0.2 μm filter. The obtained filtrate was passed through a Shodex (registered trademark) PROTEIN KW-802.5 column (80 × 300 mm, Showa Denko KK) at a flow rate of 0.4 mL / min, and the soybean protein degradation product was eluted using the above phosphate buffer. did. The soy protein degradation product was detected by measuring the absorbance at 220 nm. Thereby, the weight average molecular weight of the proteolysate separated and purified in each fraction was calculated from a chart obtained using GPC software (manufactured by Hitachi). Molecular weight markers are 75,000 (Conalbmin, manufactured by GE Healthcare), 43,000 (Ovalbumin, manufactured by GE Healthcare), 29,000 (Carbonic anhydrase, manufactured by GE Healthcare), 13,700 (Ribonuclease A). GE Healthcare), 5,733 (Insulin, manufactured by SIGMA), 1,672 (Neurotensin, manufactured by SIGMA), and 475 (Leupeptin hemisulfate salt, manufactured by SIGMA) were used.

FIG. 1 is a chart obtained for each soybean protein degradation product. As a result, unlike the soy protein hydrolyzate degraded by alkaline protease (control), the soy protein hydrolyzate degraded by neutral protease (test) had a peak at an elution time of about 20 minutes. Moreover, when each weight average molecular weight was investigated, the soybean protein degradation product (control) was 5700, and the soybean protein degradation product (test) was 9100.

[Example 2]
An effervescent fermented beverage that does not use malt as a raw material was produced using soyb