WO2012000517A2 - Operating a wind power plant including energy storage during grid faults - Google Patents

Operating a wind power plant including energy storage during grid faults Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2012000517A2
WO2012000517A2 PCT/DK2011/050253 DK2011050253W WO2012000517A2 WO 2012000517 A2 WO2012000517 A2 WO 2012000517A2 DK 2011050253 W DK2011050253 W DK 2011050253W WO 2012000517 A2 WO2012000517 A2 WO 2012000517A2
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WO
WIPO (PCT)
Prior art keywords
energy storage
grid
power
converter
mode
Prior art date
Application number
PCT/DK2011/050253
Other languages
French (fr)
Other versions
WO2012000517A3 (en
Inventor
Mohamed Haj-Maharsi
Original Assignee
Vestas Wind Systems A/S
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to US36015110P priority Critical
Priority to US61/360,151 priority
Priority to DKPA201070343 priority
Priority to DKPA201070343 priority
Application filed by Vestas Wind Systems A/S filed Critical Vestas Wind Systems A/S
Publication of WO2012000517A2 publication Critical patent/WO2012000517A2/en
Publication of WO2012000517A3 publication Critical patent/WO2012000517A3/en

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Classifications

    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F03MACHINES OR ENGINES FOR LIQUIDS; WIND, SPRING, OR WEIGHT MOTORS; PRODUCING MECHANICAL POWER OR A REACTIVE PROPULSIVE THRUST, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • F03DWIND MOTORS
    • F03D7/00Controlling wind motors
    • F03D7/02Controlling wind motors the wind motors having rotation axis substantially parallel to the air flow entering the rotor
    • F03D7/028Controlling motor output power
    • F03D7/0284Controlling motor output power in relation to the state of the electric grid
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F03MACHINES OR ENGINES FOR LIQUIDS; WIND, SPRING, OR WEIGHT MOTORS; PRODUCING MECHANICAL POWER OR A REACTIVE PROPULSIVE THRUST, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • F03DWIND MOTORS
    • F03D7/00Controlling wind motors
    • F03D7/02Controlling wind motors the wind motors having rotation axis substantially parallel to the air flow entering the rotor
    • F03D7/04Automatic control; Regulation
    • F03D7/042Automatic control; Regulation by means of an electrical or electronic controller
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F03MACHINES OR ENGINES FOR LIQUIDS; WIND, SPRING, OR WEIGHT MOTORS; PRODUCING MECHANICAL POWER OR A REACTIVE PROPULSIVE THRUST, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • F03DWIND MOTORS
    • F03D9/00Adaptations of wind motors for special use; Combinations of wind motors with apparatus driven thereby; Wind motors specially adapted for installation in particular locations
    • F03D9/10Combinations of wind motors with apparatus storing energy
    • F03D9/11Combinations of wind motors with apparatus storing energy storing electrical energy
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F03MACHINES OR ENGINES FOR LIQUIDS; WIND, SPRING, OR WEIGHT MOTORS; PRODUCING MECHANICAL POWER OR A REACTIVE PROPULSIVE THRUST, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • F03DWIND MOTORS
    • F03D9/00Adaptations of wind motors for special use; Combinations of wind motors with apparatus driven thereby; Wind motors specially adapted for installation in particular locations
    • F03D9/20Wind motors characterised by the driven apparatus
    • F03D9/25Wind motors characterised by the driven apparatus the apparatus being an electrical generator
    • F03D9/255Wind motors characterised by the driven apparatus the apparatus being an electrical generator connected to an electrical general supply grid; Arrangements therefor
    • F03D9/257Wind motors characterised by the driven apparatus the apparatus being an electrical generator connected to an electrical general supply grid; Arrangements therefor the wind motor being part of a wind farm
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J3/00Circuit arrangements for ac mains or ac distribution networks
    • H02J3/001Methods to deal with contingencies, e.g. abnormalities, faults or failures
    • H02J3/00125Transmission line or load transient problems, e.g. overvoltage, resonance or self-excitation of inductive loads
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J3/00Circuit arrangements for ac mains or ac distribution networks
    • H02J3/18Arrangements for adjusting, eliminating or compensating reactive power in networks
    • H02J3/1821Arrangements for adjusting, eliminating or compensating reactive power in networks using shunt compensators
    • H02J3/1835Arrangements for adjusting, eliminating or compensating reactive power in networks using shunt compensators with stepless control
    • H02J3/1842Arrangements for adjusting, eliminating or compensating reactive power in networks using shunt compensators with stepless control wherein at least one reactive element is actively controlled by a bridge converter, e.g. active filters
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J3/00Circuit arrangements for ac mains or ac distribution networks
    • H02J3/28Arrangements for balancing of the load in a network by storage of energy
    • H02J3/32Arrangements for balancing of the load in a network by storage of energy using batteries with converting means
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F05INDEXING SCHEMES RELATING TO ENGINES OR PUMPS IN VARIOUS SUBCLASSES OF CLASSES F01-F04
    • F05BINDEXING SCHEME RELATING TO WIND, SPRING, WEIGHT, INERTIA OR LIKE MOTORS, TO MACHINES OR ENGINES FOR LIQUIDS COVERED BY SUBCLASSES F03B, F03D AND F03G
    • F05B2260/00Function
    • F05B2260/80Diagnostics
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F05INDEXING SCHEMES RELATING TO ENGINES OR PUMPS IN VARIOUS SUBCLASSES OF CLASSES F01-F04
    • F05BINDEXING SCHEME RELATING TO WIND, SPRING, WEIGHT, INERTIA OR LIKE MOTORS, TO MACHINES OR ENGINES FOR LIQUIDS COVERED BY SUBCLASSES F03B, F03D AND F03G
    • F05B2270/00Control
    • F05B2270/10Purpose of the control system
    • F05B2270/103Purpose of the control system to affect the output of the engine
    • F05B2270/1033Power (if explicitly mentioned)
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F05INDEXING SCHEMES RELATING TO ENGINES OR PUMPS IN VARIOUS SUBCLASSES OF CLASSES F01-F04
    • F05BINDEXING SCHEME RELATING TO WIND, SPRING, WEIGHT, INERTIA OR LIKE MOTORS, TO MACHINES OR ENGINES FOR LIQUIDS COVERED BY SUBCLASSES F03B, F03D AND F03G
    • F05B2270/00Control
    • F05B2270/10Purpose of the control system
    • F05B2270/107Purpose of the control system to cope with emergencies
    • F05B2270/1071Purpose of the control system to cope with emergencies in particular sudden load loss
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F05INDEXING SCHEMES RELATING TO ENGINES OR PUMPS IN VARIOUS SUBCLASSES OF CLASSES F01-F04
    • F05BINDEXING SCHEME RELATING TO WIND, SPRING, WEIGHT, INERTIA OR LIKE MOTORS, TO MACHINES OR ENGINES FOR LIQUIDS COVERED BY SUBCLASSES F03B, F03D AND F03G
    • F05B2270/00Control
    • F05B2270/10Purpose of the control system
    • F05B2270/107Purpose of the control system to cope with emergencies
    • F05B2270/1071Purpose of the control system to cope with emergencies in particular sudden load loss
    • F05B2270/10711Purpose of the control system to cope with emergencies in particular sudden load loss applying a low voltage ride through method
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F05INDEXING SCHEMES RELATING TO ENGINES OR PUMPS IN VARIOUS SUBCLASSES OF CLASSES F01-F04
    • F05BINDEXING SCHEME RELATING TO WIND, SPRING, WEIGHT, INERTIA OR LIKE MOTORS, TO MACHINES OR ENGINES FOR LIQUIDS COVERED BY SUBCLASSES F03B, F03D AND F03G
    • F05B2270/00Control
    • F05B2270/30Control parameters, e.g. input parameters
    • F05B2270/337Electrical grid status parameters, e.g. voltage, frequency or power demand
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J2300/00Systems for supplying or distributing electric power characterised by decentralized, dispersed, or local generation
    • H02J2300/20The dispersed energy generation being of renewable origin
    • H02J2300/28The renewable source being wind energy
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J3/00Circuit arrangements for ac mains or ac distribution networks
    • H02J3/001Methods to deal with contingencies, e.g. abnormalities, faults or failures
    • H02J3/0012Contingency detection
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J3/00Circuit arrangements for ac mains or ac distribution networks
    • H02J3/38Arrangements for parallely feeding a single network by two or more generators, converters or transformers
    • H02J3/381Dispersed generators
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E10/00Energy generation through renewable energy sources
    • Y02E10/70Wind energy
    • Y02E10/72Wind turbines with rotation axis in wind direction
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E10/00Energy generation through renewable energy sources
    • Y02E10/70Wind energy
    • Y02E10/76Power conversion electric or electronic aspects
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E40/00Technologies for an efficient electrical power generation, transmission or distribution
    • Y02E40/20Active power filtering [APF]
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E70/00Other energy conversion or management systems reducing GHG emissions
    • Y02E70/30Systems combining energy storage with energy generation of non-fossil origin

Abstract

Methods, systems, and articles for operating a wind power plant during a grid fault. An energy storage system may be configured to transfer reactive power from the energy storage system to a power grid in response to detecting the grid fault. While providing reactive power to support the grid, the energy storage system may be charged with active power generated by at least one wind turbine generator during the grid fault. Furthermore, the energy storage system supports grid recovery by providing active power after a grid fault is removed.

Description

OPERATING A WIND POWER PLANT INCLUDING ENERGY STORAGE DURING GRID FAULTS
FIELD OF THE INVENTION
[0001] Embodiments of the invention are generally related to wind turbine generators and energy storage devices, and more specifically to strategies for using energy storage devices when a wind turbine generator experiences a grid fault.
BACKGROUND
[0002] In recent years, there has been an increased focus on reducing emissions of greenhouse gases generated by burning fossil fuels. One solution for reducing greenhouse gas emissions is developing renewable sources of energy. Energy derived from the wind has proven to be an environmentally safe and reliable source of energy, which can reduce dependence on energy generated by burning fossil fuels.
[0003] Energy in wind can be captured by a wind turbine, which is a rotating machine that converts the kinetic energy of the wind into mechanical energy, and the mechanical energy subsequently into electrical power. Common horizontal-axis wind turbines include a tower, a nacelle located at the apex of the tower, and a rotor that is supported in the nacelle by means of a shaft. The shaft couples the rotor either directly or indirectly with a rotor assembly of a generator housed inside the nacelle.
[0004] A wind park is a collection of wind turbines that are connected to the power grid and collectively supply electrical power to the power grid. The power grid has defined parameters, in particular, a defined voltage and a defined frequency. Power grid parameters are defined in a technical specification called the grid code. The grid code also defines the required behavior of generating units such as wind turbines during grid faults, e.g., during severe dips in the grid voltage. SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
[0005] Embodiments of the invention are generally related to wind turbine generators and energy storage devices, and more specifically to strategies for using energy storage devices when a wind turbine generator experiences a grid fault.
[0006] One embodiment of the invention provides a method for operating a wind power plant comprising at least one wind turbine generator. The method generally comprises detecting that a grid fault has occurred, and in response to detecting the grid fault, generating one or more signals configured to operate an energy storage system in at least a first mode configured to transfer reactive power from the energy storage system to a power grid. The method further comprises charging the energy storage system with active power generated by the at least one wind turbine generator during the grid fault.
[0007] Another embodiment of the invention provides a wind power plant comprising at least one wind turbine generator, a power plant controller and at least one energy storage system. The power plant controller is generally configured to detect that a grid fault has occurred, and generate one or more signals configured to operate the energy storage system in at least a first mode configured to transfer reactive power from the energy storage system to a power grid. The energy storage system is generally configured to be charged with active power generated by the at least one wind turbine generator during the grid fault.
[0008] Yet another embodiment of the invention provides a converter device coupled with a power grid and an energy storage system. The converter device is generally configured to receive one or more signals configured to set the converter device in at least a first mode configured to transfer reactive power from the energy storage system to the power grid, and charge the energy storage system with active power generated by the at least one wind turbine generator during the grid fault. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
[0009] So that the manner in which the above recited features, advantages and objects of the present invention are attained and can be understood in detail, a more particular description of the invention, briefly summarized above, may be had by reference to the embodiments thereof which are illustrated in the appended drawings.
[0010] It is to be noted, however, that the appended drawings illustrate only typical embodiments of this invention and are therefore not to be considered limiting of its scope, for the invention may admit to other equally effective embodiments.
[0011] Figure 1 illustrates an exemplary wind turbine.
[0012] Figure 2 illustrates an exemplary drive train of the wind turbine.
[0013] Figure 3 illustrates an exemplary wind power plant according to an embodiment of the invention.
[0014] Figure 4 illustrates an exemplary energy storage system according to an embodiment of the invention.
[0015] Figure 5 is a flow diagram of exemplary operations performed to operate a wind power plant during a grid fault, according to an embodiment of the invention.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION
[0016] Embodiments of the invention provide methods, systems, and articles for operating a wind power plant during a grid fault. An energy storage system may be configured to transfer reactive power from to a power grid in response to detecting the grid fault. This may be controlled using a converter device. While providing reactive power to support the grid, the energy storage system may be charged with active power generated by at least one wind turbine generator during the grid fault. Furthermore, the energy storage system supports grid recovery by providing active power after a grid fault is removed. [0017] In the following, reference is made to embodiments of the invention. However, it should be understood that the invention is not limited to specific described embodiments. Instead, any combination of the following features and elements, whether related to different embodiments or not, is contemplated to implement and practice the invention. Furthermore, in various embodiments the invention provides numerous advantages over the prior art. However, although embodiments of the invention may achieve advantages over other possible solutions and/or over the prior art, whether or not a particular advantage is achieved by a given embodiment is not limiting of the invention. Thus, the following aspects, features, embodiments and advantages are merely illustrative and are not considered elements or limitations of the appended claims except where explicitly recited in a claim(s). Likewise, reference to "the invention" shall not be construed as a generalization of any inventive subject matter disclosed herein and shall not be considered to be an element or limitation of the appended claims except where explicitly recited in a claim(s).
[0018] The following is a detailed description of embodiments of the invention depicted in the accompanying drawings. The embodiments are examples and are in such detail as to clearly communicate the invention. However, the amount of detail offered is not intended to limit the anticipated variations of embodiments; but on the contrary, the intention is to cover all modifications, equivalents, and alternatives falling within the spirit and scope of the present invention as defined by the appended claims.
[0019] Figure 1 illustrates an exemplary wind turbine 100 according to an embodiment of the invention. As illustrated in Figure 1 , the wind turbine 100 may include a tower 1 10, a nacelle 120, and a rotor 130. In one embodiment of the invention the wind turbine 100 may be an on shore wind turbine. However, embodiments of the invention are not limited only to on shore wind turbines. In alternative embodiments, the wind turbine 100 may be an off shore wind turbine located over a water body such as, for example, a lake, an ocean, or the like. [0020] The tower 1 10 of wind turbine 100 may be configured to raise the nacelle 120 and the rotor 130 to a height where strong, less turbulent, and generally unobstructed flow of air may be received by the rotor 130. The height of the tower 1 10 may be any reasonable height. The tower 1 10 may be made from any reasonable material, for example, steel, concrete, or the like. In some embodiments the tower 1 10 may be made from a monolithic material. However, in alternative embodiments, the tower 1 10 may include a plurality of sections, for example, two or more tubular steel sections 1 1 1 and 1 12, as illustrated in Figure 1 . In some embodiments of the invention, the tower 1 10 may be a lattice tower. Accordingly, the tower 1 10 may include welded steel profiles.
[0021] The rotor 130 may include a rotor hub (hereinafter referred to simply as the "hub") 131 and at least one blade 132 (three such blades 132 are shown in Figure 1 ). The rotor hub 131 may be configured to couple the at least one blade 132 to a shaft (not shown). In one embodiment, the blades 132 may have an aerodynamic profile such that, at predefined wind speeds, the blades 132 experience lift, thereby causing the blades to radially rotate around the hub. The movement of the blades may also cause the shaft of the wind turbine 100 to rotate. The nacelle 120 may include one or more components configured to convert aero-mechanical energy of the blades to rotational energy of the shaft, and the rotational energy of the shaft into electrical energy.
[0022] Figure 2 illustrates a more detailed view of a nacelle 120 comprising a drive train of the wind turbine according to an embodiment of the invention. As illustrated in Figure 2, the nacelle 120 may include at least a low speed shaft 210, a high speed shaft 21 1 , a gearbox 220, and a generator 230, according to one embodiment. In one embodiment, the low speed shaft 210 may couple the gearbox 230 to the hub 131 , as illustrated in Figure 2. The gearbox 220 may rely on gear ratios in a drive train to provide speed and torque conversions from the rotation of the low speed shaft 210 to the rotor assembly of the generator 230 via the high speed shaft 21 1 . [0023] In an alternative embodiment, the low speed shaft 210 may directly connect the hub 131 with a rotor assembly of the generator 230 so that rotation of the hub 131 directly drives the rotor assembly to spin relative to a stator assembly of the generator 230. In embodiments where the low speed shaft 210 is directly coupled to the hub 131 , the gear box 220 may not be included, thereby allowing the nacelle 120 to be smaller and/or lighter.
[0024] The generator 230 may be configured to generate a three phase alternating current based on one or more grid requirements. In one embodiment, the generator 230 may be a synchronous generator. Synchronous generators may be configured to operate at a constant speed, and may be directly connected to the grid. In some embodiments, the generator 230 may be a permanent magnet generator. In alternative embodiments, the generator 230 may be an asynchronous generator, also sometimes known as an induction generator. Induction generators may or may not be directly connected to the grid. For example, in some embodiments, the generator 230 may be coupled to the grid via one or more electrical devices configured to, for example, adjust current, voltage, and other electrical parameters to conform with one or more grid requirements. Exemplary electrical devices include, for example, inverters, converters, resistors, switches, and the like.
[0025] Embodiments of the invention are not limited to any particular type of generator or arrangement of the generator and one or more electrical devices associated with the generator in relation to the electrical grid. Any suitable type of generator including (but not limited to) induction generators, permanent magnet generators, synchronous generators, or the like, configured to generate electricity according to grid requirements falls within the purview of the invention.
[0026] Figure 3 illustrates an exemplary power plant system 300 according to an embodiment of the invention. As illustrated in Figure 3, the power plant system 300 may include at least one wind turbine generator 310 (three such wind turbine generators 310 are shown) coupled with a grid 320 via transmission lines 330. In one embodiment, each of the transmission lines 330 may include a set of three lines for transferring a three phase alternating current according to one or more requirements of the grid 320. For example, the wind turbine generators 310 may be configured to provide power at a controlled frequency and voltage to the grid. As illustrated in Figure 3, the transmission lines 330 from the wind turbine generators 310 may be coupled with the grid at a point of common coupling (PCC) 341 . While not shown in Figure 3, in some embodiments, PCC 341 may include one or more electrical devices, for example, transformers, switches, and the like.
[0027] The power supplied by the wind turbine generators 310 to the grid 320 may include both active power and reactive power. In general, active power, or real power, refers to the power that is transferred from the wind turbine generators to the grid. Reactive power refers to the power that cycles back and forth between the wind turbine generators 310 and the grid 320. Maintaining control over reactive power in the system may be necessary for several reasons. For example, reactive power control may be necessary for controlling the voltage at predefined locations, e.g., the PCC 341 . Reactive power control may also be necessary for maintaining proper magnetization of components within the wind turbine generators 310.
[0028] In general, grid codes define minimum requirements for active power, reactive power, voltages and current frequencies, and the like for operating wind turbines. Furthermore, the grid codes may define required performance for the wind turbine generators 310 during grid faults. Grid faults generally involve an undesirable change in magnitude of the grid voltage or grid frequency. For example, a short circuit in the grid may cause the grid voltage to drop significantly. Such drastic changes in grid voltage may damage components of the wind turbine resulting in expensive repairs and/or replacements.
[0029] Traditionally, wind turbine generators have been configured to disconnect from the grid when a grid fault is detected. For example, a switch at the PCC 341 may be turned off to disconnect the wind turbine generators 310 from a faulty grid, thereby protecting the components of the generators. However, as wind turbine generators continue to generate a greater share of energy on the grid, modern grid codes have started to require wind turbine generators to stay connected to the grid during a grid fault. Furthermore, wind turbine generators may be required to support the grid with reactive power during a fault so that active power transfer can be quickly started soon after the grid fault is removed.
[0030] In one embodiment of the invention, an energy storage system 351 may provide one or more of active and reactive power as needed to the power plant system 300, as illustrated in Figure 3. In one embodiment of the invention, the energy storage system 351 may include one or more batteries. Any reasonable type and number of batteries may be included in the energy storage system 351 . Exemplary battery types include, for example, nickel, nickel-ion, zinc, alkaline, or the like may be used in the energy storage system 351 . Furthermore, the batteries in the energy storage system 351 may be arranged in any reasonable manner. For example, the batteries may be connected in parallel and/or in series with one another to achieve a desired storage capacity and voltage at the terminals of the energy storage system 351 .
[0031] As illustrated in Figure 3 the energy storage system 351 may be coupled to the PCC 341 via a voltage source converter 352 and a transformer 353. The voltage source converter 352 may be configured to change or convert the voltage at the terminals of the energy storage system 351 . For example, the voltage at the terminals of the energy storage system 351 may be a direct current (DC) voltage. The voltage source converter 352 may be configured to transform the DC voltage into an alternating current (AC) voltage having a predefined frequency and amplitude. While a voltage source converter 352 is described herein, embodiments of the invention are not limited only to the use of voltage source converters. In alternative embodiments, a current source converter may be used in place of the voltage source converter 352.
[0032] The transformer 353 may be configured to convert the output of the voltage source converter 352 having a first frequency and a first amplitude to an output having a second frequency and a second amplitude. In one embodiment, the output of the transformer 353 may conform with one or more requirements of the grid 320. In an alternative embodiment of the invention, the transformer 353 may be omitted and the output of the voltage source 352 may be directly connected to the PCC 341 .
[0033] One advantage of using the energy storage system 351 and the voltage source converter 352 is that the energy storage system 351 can be controlled to produce both active power as well as reactive power. The control of energy storage system to produce both active and reactive power may be performed in conjunction with the voltage source converter 352. In one embodiment, the voltage source converter 352 may include forced-commutated power electronic devices such as Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBTs) to synthesize a voltage that is controlled in amplitude and phase from the energy storage system 351 .
[0034] Figure 4 is a more detailed view of the connection between the energy storage system 351 , voltage source converter 352, and the transformer 353. As illustrated in Figure 4, the energy storage system 351 may have a voltage V0 at terminals 401 and 402. The voltage V0 may be a DC voltage. The voltage source converter 352 may convert DC voltage V0 to an AC voltage V2 at terminals 41 1 and 412 of the voltage source converter 352. The transformer 353 may convert the voltage V2 to a voltage V1 at the PCC 341 .
[0035] Figure 4 also illustrates a reference for the direction for power transfer, according to an embodiment. Specifically, a reference for the active power (P) and the reactive power (Q) are shown. In one embodiment of the invention, the active power and the reactive power may be determined by the following equations.
P = V1 .V2. sin (δ)
X
Q = VKV1 -V2. cos (δ))
X
[0036] In the equations above δ represents an angle between the reference voltages V1 and V2, and X represents a reactance between the reference voltages V1 and V2. [0037] In one embodiment, the voltage source converter 352 may be configured to operate in a plurality of different operating modes, for example, an active power modulation mode and a reactive power modulation mode. The particular operating mode of the voltage source converter 352 may be controlled by a power plant controller, e.g., the power plant controller 450 illustrated in Figure 4. The power plant controller 450 may generally be configured to monitor one or more grid parameters, among other functions. Exemplary grid parameters monitored by the power plant controller may include, for example, grid voltage, grid frequency, active power generation, reactive power generation, and the like. Based on the measured parameters, the power plant controller 352 may be configured to send one or more signals to the voltage source converter 352 to select a desired mode of operation. Exemplary interaction between the power plant controller 450 and the voltage source converter 352 is described in greater detail below.
[0038] In some embodiments, the power plant controller 450 may also be coupled with the energy storage system 351 , as illustrated in Figure 4. Accordingly, the power plant controller may be configured to detect a capacity and/or amount of energy stored in the energy storage system 351 . In some embodiments, the power plant controller 450 may be configured to control charging and discharging of the energy storage system 351 . For example, the power plant controller 450 may be configured to alter a state of the voltage source converter 352 such that the energy storage system 351 is either charged or discharged.
[0039] Referring back to the modes of the voltage source converter 352, in one embodiment, the voltage source converter 352 may be operated to modulate active power while in the active power modulation mode. For example, in the active power modulation mode, the voltage source converter may be configured to select a value for the angle δ such that V1 and V2 are out of phase and mostly active power (P) is transferred. On the other hand, in the reactive power modulation mode, the voltage source converter 352 may be configured to adjust the angle δ such that V1 and V2 are in phase with one another. For example, δ may have a value at or near 0 so that mostly reactive power is transferred. [0040] In one embodiment of the invention, the direction of transfer of power may depend on the relative values of V1 and V2. For example, if V2 is lower than V1 , then reactive power may flow from the grid 341 to the voltage source converter 352. In other words, the voltage source converter 352 may be absorbing reactive power. On the other hand, if V2 is greater than V1 , then reactive power may flow from the voltage source converter 352 to the grid 341 . The energy storage system 351 on the DC side of the voltage source converter 352 may act as a source for the transfer of reactive power to the grid 341 .
[0041] One advantage of including the energy storage system, as described hereinabove, is that active power and reactive power can be selectively transferred to and from the grid. In one embodiment of the invention, during steady state operation, excess power generated by wind turbine generators, e.g., the wind turbine generators 310 of Figure 3, can be used to recharge the energy storage system 351 , as described above. For example, the power plant controller 450 may select an active power modulation mode in the voltage source converter 352, which may transfer active power generated by the wind turbine generators 310 to the energy storage system 351 .
[0042] In one embodiment, when a grid fault is discovered, the power plant controller 450 may select a reactive power modulation mode in the voltage source converter 352. Because the voltage V1 may be lower than the voltage V2 during a grid fault, reactive power may flow from the energy storage system 351 to the grid 341 via the voltage source converter 352, thereby allowing the wind power plant to remain connected to the grid and provide reactive power to support the grid.
[0043] In some embodiments of the invention, the voltage source converter 352 may be configured to control active and reactive power transfer simultaneously and separately. For example, the voltage source converter may be configured to support charging of the energy storage system 351 with active power generated from one or more wind turbine generators 310 while supporting a grid with reactive power during a grid fault. [0044] One advantage of recharging the energy storage system 351 during a grid fault is that a contribution of the power plant system 300 to the fault current in the grid may be reduced. Fault currents may be large currents that may flow through, for example, short circuits in a grid that are associated with a grid fault. Large fault currents are generally undesirable as they may damage electrical components on the grid. Because power produced by the wind turbine generators 310 may be diverted to recharge the energy storage system 351 , the contribution of the power plant system to the fault current on the grid may be significantly reduced.
[0045] Furthermore, traditional power plant systems generally reduce a rotational speed of wind turbine blades in response to detecting a grid fault. Such actions may be taken to reduce the power produced by the wind turbines that would simply be dissipated through the high fault currents. One problem with this approach is that, when the grid fault is removed, the wind turbines may not immediately be able to revert to a desired faster rotational speed. By providing an energy storage system 351 that can absorb the active power produced by the wind turbines during a grid fault, embodiments of the invention may obviate the need to slow down the rotational speed of wind turbines during a grid fault.
[0046] In one embodiment, after a grid fault has been removed, the power plant controller 450 may be configured to inject active power to support the active power generated by the wind turbine generators 310, thereby allowing quicker grid recovery.
[0047] Figure 5 is a flow diagram of exemplary operations performed while operating a wind power plant, according to an embodiment of the invention. As illustrated in Figure 5, the operations may begin in step 510 by detecting that a grid fault has occurred. As discussed above, a grid fault may occur due to a variety of reasons including, for example, short circuits in one or more transmission lines of the grid which may significantly alter the grid voltage or grid frequency. In step 520, upon detecting a grid fault, one or more signals may be generated to operate an energy storage system in at least a first mode configured to transfer reactive power from the energy storage system to a power grid. The one or more signals may be generated by a power plant controller and the operation of the energy storage system may be controlled by a converter deivce, as described hereinabove. In step 530, the energy storage system may be recharged with active power generated by at least one wind turbine generator during the grid fault.
[0048] Furthermore, as discussed hereinabove, upon detecting that the grid fault has been removed, the power plant controller may generate one or more signals to operate (e.g. via the converter device) the energy storage system in at least a second mode configured to transfer active power from the energy storage system to the power grid. By providing a system that includes an energy storage system that can be charged with active power generated by wind turbine generators and that provides reactive power to the grid during a grid fault, embodiments of the invention allow wind power plants to remain connected to the grid during grid faults. Furthermore, the energy storage system supports grid recovery after a grid fault has been removed by injecting active power into the grid.
[0049] While the invention has been illustrated by a description of various embodiments and while these embodiments have been described in considerable detail, it is not the intention of the applicant to restrict or in any way limit the scope of the appended claims to such detail. Additional advantages and modifications will readily appear to those skilled in the art. The invention in its broader aspects is therefore not limited to the specific details, representative methods, and illustrative examples shown and described. Accordingly, departures may be made from such details without departing from the spirit or scope of applicant's general inventive concept

Claims

WHAT IS CLAIMED IS:
1. A method for operating a wind power plant comprising at least one wind turbine generator, the method comprising:
detecting that a grid fault has occurred;
in response to detecting the grid fault, generating one or more signals to operate an energy storage system in at least a first mode configured to transfer reactive power from the energy storage system to a power grid; and
charging the energy storage system with active power generated by the at least one wind turbine generator during the grid fault.
2. The method of claim 1 , further comprising:
detecting that the grid fault has been removed; and
in response to detecting that the grid fault has been removed, generating one or more signals to operate the energy storage system in at least a second mode configured to transfer active power from the energy storage system to the power grid.
3. The method of claim 2, wherein the one or more signals to operate the energy storage system in the first mode and the one or more signals to operate the energy storage system in the second mode are generated by a power plant controller.
4. The method of any of claims 1 to 3, wherein charging the energy storage system with the active power generated by the at least one wind turbine comprises generating one or more signals to operate the energy storage system in a third mode, wherein the energy storage system is configured to simultaneously operate in the first mode and the third mode.
5. The method of claim 4, wherein operating the energy storage system in at least one of the first mode, the second mode and the third mode comprises operating the energy storage system using a converter device.
6. The method of claim 5, wherein the converter device is a voltage source converter.
7. A wind power plant, comprising:
at least one wind turbine generator;
a power plant controller; and
at least one energy storage system,
wherein the power plant controller is configured to:
detect that a grid fault has occurred; and
generate one or more signals configured to operate the at least one energy storage system in at least a first mode configured to transfer reactive power from an energy storage system to a power grid, and wherein the energy storage system is configured to be charged with active power generated by the at least one wind turbine generator during the grid fault.
8. The wind power plant of claim 7, wherein the power plant controller is further configured to:
detect that the grid fault has been removed; and
in response to detecting that the grid fault has been removed, generate one or more signals to operate the energy storage system in at least a second mode configured to transfer active power from the energy storage system to the power grid.
9. The wind power plant of claims 7 or 8, wherein the energy storage system is configured to be charged by the active power generated by the at least one wind turbine in response to one or more signals received from the power plant controller in a third mode, wherein the energy storage device is configured to simultaneously operate in the first mode and the third mode.
10. The wind power plant of claim 9, further comprising a converter device configured to operate the energy storage system in at least one of the first mode, the second mode and the third mode.
1 1 . The wind power plant of claim 10, wherein the converter device is a voltage source converter.
12. The wind power plant of any of claims 7 to 1 1 , wherein the energy storage system comprises at least one battery.
13. The wind power plant of any of claims 7 to 12, further comprising a transformer coupled between the energy storage system and the power grid.
14. A converter device coupled with a power grid and an energy storage system, wherein the converter device is configured to:
receive one or more signals configured to set the converter device during a grid fault in at least a first mode configured to transfer reactive power from the energy storage system to the power grid; and
charge the energy storage system with active power generated by the at least one wind turbine generator.
15. The converter device of claim 14, wherein the converter device is further configured to receive one or more signals to set the converter device into at least a second mode configured to transfer active power from the energy storage system to the power grid.
16. The converter device of claims 14 or 15, wherein the converter device is a voltage source converter.
17. The converter device of any of claims 14 to 16, wherein the converter device is configured to charge the energy storage system with the active power generated by the at least one wind turbine in response to one or more signals received from the power plant controller to set the converter device in a third mode, wherein the converter device is configured to simultaneously operate in the first mode and the third mode.
18. The converter device of any of claims 14 to 17, wherein the energy storage system comprises at least one battery.
19. The converter device of any of claims 14 to 18, wherein the one or more signals configured to set the converter device in the first mode are received from a power plant controller.
20. The converter device of any of claims 14 to 19, wherein the converter device comprises Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBTs) to synthesize a voltage that is controlled in amplitude and phase from the energy storage system .
PCT/DK2011/050253 2010-06-30 2011-06-30 Operating a wind power plant including energy storage during grid faults WO2012000517A2 (en)

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US61/360,151 2010-06-30
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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN102820675A (en) * 2012-05-30 2012-12-12 邵俊松 Automatic running recovery method considering real measured air speed for wind turbine generator
WO2014183421A1 (en) * 2013-05-14 2014-11-20 许继集团有限公司 Control method for outputting active power through grid-connected electricity generation of wind power plant
CN103997046A (en) * 2014-06-09 2014-08-20 安徽赛瑞储能设备有限公司 Switching control method of energy storage unit of box-type energy storage substation
CN103997046B (en) * 2014-06-09 2016-08-31 安徽赛瑞储能设备有限公司 Box energy storage transformer station energy-storage units switching control method
US10236686B2 (en) 2014-10-07 2019-03-19 Vestas Wind Systems A/S Reactive power support from wind turbine facilities
CN107482668A (en) * 2017-09-19 2017-12-15 南方电网科学研究院有限责任公司 HVDC determines reactive power AC fault restoration methods and device
WO2021058071A1 (en) * 2019-09-23 2021-04-01 Vestas Wind Systems A/S Method of controlling a wind power plant

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