WO2011126330A2 - Method for transmitting information, and transmitter - Google Patents

Method for transmitting information, and transmitter Download PDF

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WO2011126330A2
WO2011126330A2 PCT/KR2011/002463 KR2011002463W WO2011126330A2 WO 2011126330 A2 WO2011126330 A2 WO 2011126330A2 KR 2011002463 W KR2011002463 W KR 2011002463W WO 2011126330 A2 WO2011126330 A2 WO 2011126330A2
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generation matrix
codeword
generated
matrix
bit
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PCT/KR2011/002463
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French (fr)
Korean (ko)
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WO2011126330A3 (en
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장지웅
한승희
이문일
고현수
정재훈
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엘지전자 주식회사
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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04BTRANSMISSION
    • H04B7/00Radio transmission systems, i.e. using radiation field
    • H04B7/02Diversity systems; Multi-antenna system, i.e. transmission or reception using multiple antennas
    • H04B7/04Diversity systems; Multi-antenna system, i.e. transmission or reception using multiple antennas using two or more spaced independent antennas
    • H04B7/06Diversity systems; Multi-antenna system, i.e. transmission or reception using multiple antennas using two or more spaced independent antennas at the transmitting station
    • H04B7/0613Diversity systems; Multi-antenna system, i.e. transmission or reception using multiple antennas using two or more spaced independent antennas at the transmitting station using simultaneous transmission
    • H04B7/0615Diversity systems; Multi-antenna system, i.e. transmission or reception using multiple antennas using two or more spaced independent antennas at the transmitting station using simultaneous transmission of weighted versions of same signal
    • H04B7/0617Diversity systems; Multi-antenna system, i.e. transmission or reception using multiple antennas using two or more spaced independent antennas at the transmitting station using simultaneous transmission of weighted versions of same signal for beam forming
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H03BASIC ELECTRONIC CIRCUITRY
    • H03MCODING; DECODING; CODE CONVERSION IN GENERAL
    • H03M13/00Coding, decoding or code conversion, for error detection or error correction; Coding theory basic assumptions; Coding bounds; Error probability evaluation methods; Channel models; Simulation or testing of codes
    • H03M13/61Aspects and characteristics of methods and arrangements for error correction or error detection, not provided for otherwise
    • H03M13/615Use of computational or mathematical techniques
    • H03M13/616Matrix operations, especially for generator matrices or check matrices, e.g. column or row permutations
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H03BASIC ELECTRONIC CIRCUITRY
    • H03MCODING; DECODING; CODE CONVERSION IN GENERAL
    • H03M13/00Coding, decoding or code conversion, for error detection or error correction; Coding theory basic assumptions; Coding bounds; Error probability evaluation methods; Channel models; Simulation or testing of codes
    • H03M13/63Joint error correction and other techniques
    • H03M13/635Error control coding in combination with rate matching
    • H03M13/6356Error control coding in combination with rate matching by repetition or insertion of dummy data, i.e. rate reduction
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H03BASIC ELECTRONIC CIRCUITRY
    • H03MCODING; DECODING; CODE CONVERSION IN GENERAL
    • H03M13/00Coding, decoding or code conversion, for error detection or error correction; Coding theory basic assumptions; Coding bounds; Error probability evaluation methods; Channel models; Simulation or testing of codes
    • H03M13/63Joint error correction and other techniques
    • H03M13/635Error control coding in combination with rate matching
    • H03M13/6362Error control coding in combination with rate matching by puncturing
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H03BASIC ELECTRONIC CIRCUITRY
    • H03MCODING; DECODING; CODE CONVERSION IN GENERAL
    • H03M13/00Coding, decoding or code conversion, for error detection or error correction; Coding theory basic assumptions; Coding bounds; Error probability evaluation methods; Channel models; Simulation or testing of codes
    • H03M13/65Purpose and implementation aspects
    • H03M13/6522Intended application, e.g. transmission or communication standard
    • H03M13/65253GPP LTE including E-UTRA
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H03BASIC ELECTRONIC CIRCUITRY
    • H03MCODING; DECODING; CODE CONVERSION IN GENERAL
    • H03M13/00Coding, decoding or code conversion, for error detection or error correction; Coding theory basic assumptions; Coding bounds; Error probability evaluation methods; Channel models; Simulation or testing of codes
    • H03M13/03Error detection or forward error correction by redundancy in data representation, i.e. code words containing more digits than the source words
    • H03M13/05Error detection or forward error correction by redundancy in data representation, i.e. code words containing more digits than the source words using block codes, i.e. a predetermined number of check bits joined to a predetermined number of information bits
    • H03M13/13Linear codes
    • H03M13/136Reed-Muller [RM] codes
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H03BASIC ELECTRONIC CIRCUITRY
    • H03MCODING; DECODING; CODE CONVERSION IN GENERAL
    • H03M13/00Coding, decoding or code conversion, for error detection or error correction; Coding theory basic assumptions; Coding bounds; Error probability evaluation methods; Channel models; Simulation or testing of codes
    • H03M13/03Error detection or forward error correction by redundancy in data representation, i.e. code words containing more digits than the source words
    • H03M13/05Error detection or forward error correction by redundancy in data representation, i.e. code words containing more digits than the source words using block codes, i.e. a predetermined number of check bits joined to a predetermined number of information bits
    • H03M13/13Linear codes
    • H03M13/15Cyclic codes, i.e. cyclic shifts of codewords produce other codewords, e.g. codes defined by a generator polynomial, Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghem [BCH] codes
    • H03M13/151Cyclic codes, i.e. cyclic shifts of codewords produce other codewords, e.g. codes defined by a generator polynomial, Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghem [BCH] codes using error location or error correction polynomials
    • H03M13/152Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghem [BCH] codes
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H03BASIC ELECTRONIC CIRCUITRY
    • H03MCODING; DECODING; CODE CONVERSION IN GENERAL
    • H03M13/00Coding, decoding or code conversion, for error detection or error correction; Coding theory basic assumptions; Coding bounds; Error probability evaluation methods; Channel models; Simulation or testing of codes
    • H03M13/03Error detection or forward error correction by redundancy in data representation, i.e. code words containing more digits than the source words
    • H03M13/23Error detection or forward error correction by redundancy in data representation, i.e. code words containing more digits than the source words using convolutional codes, e.g. unit memory codes

Abstract

According to one embodiment of the present invention, a method for transmitting information is disclosed. The method for transmitting information comprises: a step of taking, as an input, an information bit; a step of encoding the information bit to generate a codeword having a length of 48 bits, using a first generating matrix in which the size of a column is the same as the length of the information bit, the number of the rows is 24, and the value of the symbol which is an element of the matrix is 0 or 1; and a step of modulating the thus-generated codeword and transmitting the modulated codeword. The first generating matrix is generated by making perforations in 8 rows from among the original generating matrix which has 32 rows. The step of generating a codeword having a length of 48 bits involves generating the codeword by using a 24-bit codeword generated by the first generating matrix two times.

Description

Information transmission method and transmitter

The present invention relates to encoding of information bits in a wireless communication system, and more particularly, to a method of generating codewords based on block encoding.

Recently, standardization of international mobile telecommunication (IMT) -Advanced, a next-generation mobile communication system, is in progress. IMT-Advanced aims to support IP (Internet Protocol) -based multimedia services at data rates of 1 Gbps in stationary and slow motions and 500 Mbps in high speeds.

3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) is a system standard that meets the requirements of IMT-Advanced. Long Term Evolution is based on Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) / Single Carrier-Frequency Division Multiple Access (SC-FDMA) transmission. LTE-Advanced (LTE-A) is being prepared. LTE-Advanced is one of the potential candidates for IMT-Advanced.

The next generation wireless communication system requires a high speed communication system capable of processing and transmitting various information such as video and wireless data. One of the most fundamental problems in achieving high speed communication is how efficiently and reliably data can be transmitted through a channel. Is it? Unlike the wired channel environment, the wireless channel environment inherent in the wireless communication system is inevitable due to various factors such as multipath interference, shadowing, propagation attenuation, time-varying noise, interference, and fading. Errors occur and loss of information.

Channel coding is a process of generating codewords by encoding information bits to prevent loss of such information. Here, a codeword refers to a bit string made by performing specific processing on information bits in order to improve detection performance when transmitting information bits.

Channel coding includes block coding (block coding) and trellis (channel coding). Block coding includes channel coding using BCH (Bose-Chadhuri-Hocquenghem) code or Reed-Muller (RM) code. Codewords in block coding may be generated using a matrix block called a generating matrix. Unlike channel coding in trellis type, block coding has no relationship between the front and rear blocks because there is no memory between successive blocks. For trellis channel coding, using convolution code or turbo code

There is null coding. Codewords in trellis-type channel coding can be made using polynomials such as generating polynomials.

In LTE-A, a TFCI (Transmit Format Combination Indicator) code is used as a channel code for encoding channel information of an uplink control channel. The TFCI code is designed by puncturing the lead-muller code. Since the TFCI code can be regarded as a modified lead-muller code, the TFCI code is similar to the lead-muller code. can do. In addition, the TFCI code supports various information bit and codeword bit sizes, which is suitable for the requirements of channel information encoding. In addition, since a decoder of 3GPP standard can be used, it can be used in hardware of a dual mode system of wide band code division multiple access (WCDMA) and LTE.

Conventionally, a generation matrix of (20,10) codes and a generation matrix of (18,10) codes generated by puncturing a (32,10) TFCI code generation matrix are used. Here, the first digit in parentheses is an index indicating the length of the codeword, and the second digit is an information bit size. Recently, however, a channel code having an information bit of 24 has been required, and a generation matrix supporting this is required.

In addition, in the process of puncturing such a generation matrix, the process of obtaining the minimum distance performance between codewords after puncturing is very complicated. For example, to create a generation matrix of (a, A) codes, select arbitrary A columns to create a generation matrix of (2 n , A) codes, puncture x rows in the generation matrix, and then When measuring the minimum distance performance, the number of randomly selecting x rows out of 2 n rows (ex> n2 n = 64, 64 C 16 = 488,526,937,079,580 if x = 16) is an astronomical number. In each case, it is very difficult to calculate the complexity and complexity of generating a set of codewords of (a, A) codes according to the generation matrix and measuring the distance between all codewords in the set to find the minimum distance. We need a method to efficiently generate with a lower computation amount and generate a generation matrix.

An object of the present invention is to generate codewords when extended information bits are input. In addition, when generating a generation matrix for generating a codeword, it is necessary to generate a generation matrix by performing puncturing with a smaller amount of computation.

According to an embodiment of the present invention, an information transmission method is disclosed. The information transmission method includes receiving an information bit; The size of a row is the same as the length of the information bits, the size of a column is 24 columns, and the information bits are encoded by using a first generation matrix in which a symbol value, which is an element of a matrix, is filled with 0 or 1. Generating a codeword of 48 bits in length; And modulating and transmitting the generated codeword. The first generation matrix is generated by puncturing eight columns in the first generation matrix having a column size of 32 columns. In the step of generating the 48-bit codeword, the first generation matrix is generated by using the first generation matrix. It can be generated by using the codeword twice.

The 48-bit codeword may be generated by repeating a 24-bit codeword generated twice using the first generation matrix.

Generating the 48-bit codeword may further include: changing the order of the bits in the 24-bit codeword generated using the first generation matrix.

The 48-bit codeword may be generated by combining a 24-bit codeword generated by using the first generation matrix, and a 24-bit codeword having the same bit value as that of the 24-bit codeword but having a changed order of the bit values. have.

The 48-bit codeword is generated by repeating a codeword in which the order of bits is changed twice from a 24-bit codeword generated by using the first generation matrix, or by changing two 24-bit codes respectively. Can be generated by combining the codewords of the bits.

Generating the 48-bit codeword may further include: changing the order of the bits such that zero symbols are not contiguous.

The first generation matrix comprises: dividing the columns of the original generation matrix into a plurality of sections; It can be generated by drilling any heat in each section.

On the other hand, in order to achieve the above object, an embodiment of the present invention provides an information transmission method. The information transmission method includes receiving an information bit; The size of a row is the same as the length of the information bits, the size of a column is 48 columns, and the information bits are encoded by using a first generation matrix in which a symbol value, which is an element of a matrix, is filled with 0 or 1. Generating a 48-bit codeword; And modulating and transmitting the generated codeword. The first generation matrix may be generated based on a second generation matrix having a row size equal to the length of the information bit and having a column size of 24 columns.

The second generation matrix may be generated by puncturing eight columns in the first generation matrix having a column size of 32 columns.

The first generation matrix may be generated by repeating the second generation matrix.

The first generation matrix may be generated by combining the second generation matrix and a modified generation matrix based on the second generation matrix.

The modified generation matrix may be generated by exchanging an order of any columns in the second generation matrix.

The first generation matrix may be generated by combining two modified generation matrices based on the second generation matrix.

On the other hand, in order to achieve the above object, an embodiment of the present invention provides a transmitter. The transmitter inputs information by using a first generation matrix having a row size equal to the length of the information bit, a column size 24 columns, and a value of a symbol, which is an element of a matrix, filled with 0 or 1 An encoder for encoding a bit to generate a codeword having a length of 48 bits; It may include a modulator for modulating the generated codeword. The first generation matrix is generated by puncturing eight columns in the first generation matrix having a column size of 32 columns. In the step of generating the 48-bit codeword, the first generation matrix is generated by using the first generation matrix. It may be generated by using the codeword twice.

On the other hand, in order to achieve the above object, an embodiment of the present invention also provides a transmitter. The transmitter receives information using a first generation matrix in which a row size is equal to the length of the information bit, a column size is 48 columns, and a value of a symbol, which is an element of a matrix, is filled with 0 or 1 An encoder for encoding a bit to generate a 48-bit codeword; It may include a modulator for modulating the generated codeword.

The first generation matrix may be generated based on a second generation matrix having a row size equal to the length of the information bit and having a column size of 24 columns.

According to the present invention, even when the length of an information bit is extended to 24 bits, a codeword having a good minimum distance performance can be generated, thereby symbolizing all subcarriers of a slot in Long Term Evolution-Advanced (LTE-A). Can be assigned.

In addition, it is possible to generate a generation matrix for generating codewords with a smaller amount of computation. Further, according to the present invention, the length of codeword

Figure PCTKR2011002463-appb-I000001
ego
Figure PCTKR2011002463-appb-I000002
For an information bit size of 1 to y + 1 of the in-read muller code, a generation matrix can be created without complex operations to generate a set of read-muller codewords having an optimal Hamming weight distribution.

In addition, since a code having a 48-bit codeword length can be generated from a read-muller code having a 24-bit codeword, the codeword is easily generated.

In addition, according to an embodiment of the present invention, performance may be improved by maximizing diversity through column substitution of a generator matrix for eliminating zero (symbol) symbols.

1 shows a wireless communication system.

2 shows a structure for transmitting information using channel coding in a 3GPP (LTE / LTE-A) uplink control channel system.

3 is a flowchart illustrating a method of generating a codeword according to the present invention.

4 illustrates a general puncturing pattern search method.

5 is a flowchart illustrating a codeword generation method according to the present invention.

6 illustrates generating an optimal generation matrix according to an example.

7 illustrates generating an optimal generation matrix according to another example.

8 is an exemplary diagram illustrating a method of generating a codeword having a length of 48 according to an example of the present invention.

FIG. 9 is a diagram illustrating an example of generating a codeword having a length of 48 bits in accordance with the illustrated method.

10 is a diagram illustrating another example of generating a codeword having a length of 48 bits according to the illustrated method.

11 is an exemplary diagram illustrating a process of generating a generation matrix having 48 columns by using a generation matrix having 24 columns in length according to an example of the present invention.

12 is a block diagram illustrating a transmitter and a receiver according to an embodiment of the present invention.

The following techniques can be used in various wireless communication systems. The wireless communication system can provide various communication services such as voice, packet data, and the like.

1 shows a wireless communication system. The wireless communication system 10 includes at least one base station (BS) 11. The base station 11 generally refers to a fixed station communicating with the terminal 12, and may be referred to as other terms such as an evolved-NodeB (eNB), a base transceiver system (BTS), an access point, and the like. have.

Each base station 11 provides a communication service for a particular geographic area (generally called a cell) 15a, 15b, 15c. The cell can in turn be divided into a number of regions (called sectors). The UE 12 may be fixed or mobile, and may include a mobile station (MS), a mobile terminal (MT), a user terminal (UT), a subscriber station (SS), a wireless device, and a PDA. (Personal Digital Assistant), a wireless modem (wireless modem), a handheld device (handheld device) may be called other terms.

Downlink means communication from a base station (BS) to a user equipment (UE), and uplink means communication from a terminal to a base station. In downlink, the transmitter may be part of the base station, and the receiver may be part of the terminal. In uplink, a transmitter is part of a terminal and a receiver may be part of a base station.

Hereinafter, a process of generating a codeword based on the read-muller code will be described. Among wireless communication systems, a communication system based on a lead-muller code is widely used. It demonstrates using. However, the present invention is not limited to the lead-muller code.

First, assuming that the size of the generator matrix G is 6 × 36, the generation matrix G is the basis sequence (or vector) v1, v2, v3, v4 as shown in Equation 1 below. It can be expressed as, v5,1. Alternatively, Equation 1 may be represented by 1, v5, v4, v3, v2, and v1 in reverse order. Here, the generator matrix refers to a matrix on which the codeword is generated.

[Revision according to Rule 26 09.05.2011]
Equation 1

Figure WO-DOC-MATHS-1

The information bit m can be expressed as in Equation 2 below. Assuming that the size of G is 6x36, the length of the input information bit is six.

[Revision according to Rule 26 09.05.2011]
Equation 2

Figure WO-DOC-MATHS-2

Accordingly, the codeword b, which is a modulo operation result of the product of the information bit and the generation matrix G, may be expressed as in Equation 3 below.

[Revision according to Rule 26 09.05.2011]
Equation 3

Figure WO-DOC-MATHS-3

The receiver may determine what information bits are transmitted by receiving and decoding a specific transmission sequence called a codeword generated in this way. In an unreserved channel whose error probabilities from one symbol to the next are independent of each other, the receiver compares the received sequence with all possible codewords, taking into account the reliability of the received symbol and taking into account the nearest sign of the received sequence. Choose a language.

In this case, the number of different information bits between the received sequence and the codeword or the number of different information bits between the codewords is called a hamming distance, and the smallest distance among all codewords in the codeword set is coded. An important factor in determining the performance of a circuit is called the minimum distance. For example, suppose you have the code words 000, 010, and 110. The distance between 000 and 110 is 2, the distance between 000 and 010 is 1, and the distance between 010 and 110 is 1, so the minimum distance is 1. When the minimum distance of a block code is d min , the codewords of the block code have different values at least d min at each other. This means that if d min -1 or less error occurs, the receiver knows that an error has occurred in the received signal and the receiver is different even if (dmin-1) / 2 or less error occurs. This means that the code can be decoded to the original code without being mistaken.

Since the minimum distance can be increased as the number of bits (parity bits) added in the encoding process increases, excellent detection performance can be obtained. On the other hand, since too many bits are used for encoding, transmission efficiency can be lowered. On the other hand, as the number of bits added in the encoding process decreases, the transmission efficiency increases but the minimum distance decreases. Therefore, the probability of misrecognition of the received signal as another code word increases, which decreases the detection performance and is sensitive to the error difference due to channel compensation. Because performance is determined, performance degradation can occur in rapidly changing channels. Thus, in block coding, the detection performance and the transmission efficiency are in a trade-off relationship with each other.

Now, of TFCI code (32, O),

Figure PCTKR2011002463-appb-I000003
A method of generating another generation matrix by puncturing the generation matrix will be described. The (32, O) Reed-Muller (RM) generation matrix may use the matrix provided by the 3GPP specification (see 5.2.2.6.4 of 3GPP TS36.212 V8.6.0). In particular, a (20, O) RM generation matrix that punctures the (32, O) RM generation matrix to generate Channel Quality Indication (CQI) information of a Physical Uplink Control Channel (PUCCH). Alternatively, the (18, O) RM generation matrix may be used. In the following description, for convenience, the (32, O) RM generation matrix and the (32,10) RM generation matrix are used interchangeably. In the (32, O) RM generation matrix
Figure PCTKR2011002463-appb-I000004
ego
Figure PCTKR2011002463-appb-I000005
In the case of (32, 10), since the RM generation matrix can be used while removing the last row, even if the two terms are used in the same meaning, there is no problem in the contents of the present invention.

The (20,10) RM generation matrix and the (18,10) RM generation matrix may be generated by puncturing the (32,10) RM generation matrix. In this case, puncturing the (18,10) RM generation matrix may be generated by puncturing two additional rows in the (20,10) RM generation matrix, wherein the (20,10) RM generation matrix is completely separate from the (20,10) RM generation matrix. It does not have a structure.

Using this property, the (18,10) RM generation matrix may be generated from the (32,10) RM generation matrix. Performing a full-scale search through computer simulations, perforation results can be obtained as shown in Table 1 below.

Table 1 I M i, 0 M i, 1 M i, 2 M i, 3 M i, 4 M i, 5 M i, 6 M i, 7 M i, 8 M i, 9 Puncturing pattern (10, 20) (18,10) 0 One 0 0 0 0 One 0 0 0 0 One 0 One 0 0 0 One One 0 0 0 Punctured Punctured 2 One One 0 0 0 One 0 0 0 One 3 0 0 One 0 0 One One 0 One One 4 One 0 One 0 0 One 0 0 0 One Punctured Punctured 5 0 One One 0 0 One 0 0 One 0 6 One One One 0 0 One 0 One 0 0 7 0 0 0 One 0 One 0 One One 0 Punctured Punctured 8 One 0 0 One 0 One One One One 0 9 0 One 0 One 0 One One 0 One One 10 One One 0 One 0 One 0 0 One One Punctured Punctured 11 0 0 One One 0 One 0 One One 0 12 One 0 One One 0 One 0 One 0 One 13 0 One One One 0 One One 0 0 One 14 One One One One 0 One One One One One Punctured Punctured 15 One 0 0 0 One One One One 0 0 Punctured Punctured 16 0 One 0 0 One One One One 0 One 17 One One 0 0 One One One 0 One 0 18 0 0 One 0 One One 0 One One One 19 One 0 One 0 One One 0 One 0 One 20 0 One One 0 One One 0 0 One One Punctured Punctured 21 One One One 0 One One 0 One One One Punctured Punctured 22 0 0 0 One One One 0 One 0 0 23 One 0 0 One One One One One 0 One 24 0 One 0 One One One One 0 One 0 Punctured Punctured 25 One One 0 One One One One 0 0 One 26 0 0 One One One One 0 0 One 0 27 One 0 One One One One One One 0 0 Punctured 28 0 One One One One One One One One 0 Punctured Punctured 29 One One One One One One One One One One Punctured Punctured 30 0 0 0 0 0 One 0 0 0 0 Punctured Punctured 31 0 0 0 0 One One One 0 0 0 Punctured

Referring to Table 1, M i and n represent symbols constituting the generation matrix of the TFCI code in the nth column. i represents an information bit. As shown in Equation 3, the codeword can be obtained by using the remainder (modulo operation) divided by 2 after the information bits are internalized in each row of the generation matrix.

12 rows are punctured from the (32,10) RM generation matrix to obtain the (20,10) RM generation matrix, and 2 additional rows are punctured from the (20,10) RM generation matrix to generate the (18,10) RM Get the generation matrix. In Table 1, the 27th row and the 31st row were further drilled.

Table 2 below shows the minimum distance performance of the generated matrix.

TABLE 2 nk 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 8 8 8 6 6 6 6 18 8 6 6 5 5 4 4

Here, n represents the number of bits after performing channel coding, and k represents the number of information bits.

2 shows a structure for transmitting information using channel coding in a 3GPP (LTE / LTE-A) uplink control channel system.

Referring to FIG. 2, when an information bit is input, an encoded bit is generated through channel coding. A punctured lead-muller code, a tail biting convolutional code (TBCC) or a turbo code may be used. The coded bit may be rate-match with the available subcarriers.

The coded bits are modulated such as binary phase-shift keying (BPSK), quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK), 8 phase-shift keying (8PSK), 16 quadrature amplitude modulation (16QAM), or 64 quadrature amplitude modulatino (64QAM). When a modulation is performed with a modulator, a modulation symbol is generated and spread through Walsh or DFT through a discrete fourier transform (DFT) precoder.

Each slot uses 12 subcarriers to transmit information. Two slots may be used at the same time in one subframe, and 24 subcarriers are used when two slots are used at the same time. Therefore, when using BPSK modulation, a coded bit requires 24 bits, and when using QPSK modulation, a coded bit requires 48 bits. That is, a sign of at least 24 bits long is required.

On the other hand, consecutive zeros in the generation matrix may cause a problem that channel information is not contained in a symbol transmitted during QPSK transmission.

Table 3 below shows an example of a (20,10) RM generation matrix.

TABLE 3 I M i, 0 M i, 1 M i, 2 M i, 3 M i, 4 M i, 5 M i, 6 M i, 7 M i, 8 M i, 9 0 One One 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 One One One One 0 0 0 0 0 0 One 2 One 0 0 One 0 0 One 0 One One 3 One 0 One One 0 0 0 0 One 0 4 One One One One 0 0 0 One 0 0 5 One One 0 0 One 0 One One One 0 6 One 0 One 0 One 0 One 0 One One 7 One 0 0 One One 0 0 One One 0 8 One One 0 One One 0 0 One 0 One 9 One 0 One One One 0 One 0 0 One 10 One 0 One 0 0 One One One 0 One 11 One One One 0 0 One One 0 One 0 12 One 0 0 One 0 One 0 One One One 13 One One 0 One 0 One 0 One 0 One 14 One 0 0 0 One One 0 One 0 0 15 One One 0 0 One One One One 0 One 16 One One One 0 One One One 0 0 One 17 One 0 0 One One One 0 0 One 0 18 One One 0 One One One One One 0 0 19 One 0 0 0 0 One One 0 0 0

Here, it can be seen that consecutive zeros frequently appear. In particular, in the case of Mi, 5, which is the sixth column, since half of the rows from the first to the tenth rows of the generation matrix do not all contain 1 as 0, depending on the channel situation despite the transmission using two slots. Is the same as information is transmitted in only one slot. Performance cannot be guaranteed unless the sequence is divided by sequence bits in this slot. In particular, the reception diversity is not obtained for the sixth input data bit, resulting in performance degradation. Therefore, the substitution of a line needs a codeword generation method that performs the substitution appropriately and prevents it.

Hereinafter, a method of generating codewords according to the present invention will be described.

3 is a flowchart illustrating a method of generating a codeword according to the present invention.

Specifically, a generation matrix is generated based on the length of the information bits to be input (S310). The size of the columns of the generation matrix is equal to the length of the information bits and the size of the rows is 24 rows. The generated generation matrix is row-substituted so that consecutive zeros are positioned in the generation matrix to prevent zero symbols from being generated and change the transmission information to have diversity (S320). Generating the generation matrix and changing the generation matrix by row substitution will be described later.

In operation S330, a codeword is generated from the remaining information obtained by dividing the input information bit and each generated column of the generated matrix by dividing by two (S330).

If this is expressed as an equation,

[Revision according to Rule 26 09.05.2011]
Equation 4

Figure WO-DOC-MATHS-4

Where b i is a codeword, O is the length of the information bit, o n is the input information bit, M i , n represent the nth column of the generation matrix, and i represents 24 rows of the generation matrix.

All. B is 24, the size of the row.

The generation matrix used to generate the codeword is a (24, A) RM generation matrix in which four rows are added to the existing (20,10) RM generation matrix and columns are selected by the length A of the information bits. Herein, the length A of the information bits may be one to six. Four new rows are added to the (20,10) RM generation matrix from the (24, A) of 12 rows perforated to form the (20,10) RM generation matrix from the existing (32,10) RM generation matrix. Four rows are selected that provide the best minimum distance performance of the RM generation matrix.

The size of the information bit is changed from 10 to A. Since A is a number less than or equal to 6, a maximum of 6 columns are selected from the existing 10 columns. At this time, it is known that the performance of the primary read-muller code is better than that of the secondary read-muller code due to the characteristics of the read-muller code. Since the TFCI code is generated from the read-muller code, You can select six columns to create a generation matrix. This corresponds to supporting the information bit length of 1 to 6 of the (32,10) TFCI code currently used, so that the (24, A) generation matrix using 1 to 6 columns of the (32,10) generation matrix Creating an TFCI decoder has the effect of using the existing TFCI decoder. In particular, the extended generation matrix according to the present invention is formed by using columns 1 to 6 of the generation matrix currently used in the LTE-Advanced (LTE-A) standard (Chapter 5.2.2.6.4 of 3GPP TS36.212 V8.6.0). Can be generated.

In this manner, rows 0 through 19 of the (20,10) RM generation matrix may be used as is, and four new rows may be added to generate a new generation matrix.

The additional row is selected from the set of additional rows that makes the minimum distance performance and distance distribution of the codeword generated for an information bit length of 1 to 6 optimal, which can be obtained through computer simulation.

Tables 4 to 9 show examples of a row set having a minimum distance performance and an optimal distance distribution by computer simulation.

Table 4 compares an example of the newly generated (24,6) RM generation matrix with the (20,10) RM generation matrix and the (18,10) RM generation matrix.

Table 4 i M i, 0 M i, 1 M i, 2 M i, 3 M i, 4 M i, 5 Puncturing pattern (24,6) (20, 10) (18,10) 0 One One 0 0 0 0 One One 0 One 0 0 0 Punctured Punctured Punctured 2 One One One 0 0 0 3 One 0 0 One 0 0 4 One One 0 One 0 0 Punctured Punctured Punctured 5 One 0 One One 0 0 6 One One One One 0 0 7 One 0 0 0 One 0 Punctured Punctured Punctured 8 One One 0 0 One 0 9 One 0 One 0 One 0 10 One One One 0 One 0 Punctured Punctured Punctured 11 One 0 0 One One 0 12 One One 0 One One 0 13 One 0 One One One 0 14 One One One One One 0 PuncturedPunctured 15 One One 0 0 0 One Punctured Punctured Punctured 16 One 0 One 0 0 One 17 One One One 0 0 One 18 One 0 0 One 0 One 19 One One 0 One 0 One 20 One 0 One One 0 One PuncturedPunctured 21 One One One One 0 One PuncturedPunctured 22 One 0 0 0 One One 23 One One 0 0 One One 24 One 0 One 0 One One PuncturedPunctured 25 One One One 0 One One 26 One 0 0 One One One 27 One One 0 One One One Punctured 28 One 0 One One One One Punctured Punctured Punctured 29 One One One One One One Punctured Punctured Punctured 30 One 0 0 0 0 0 Punctured Punctured Punctured 31 One 0 0 0 0 One Punctured

Here, the (24,6) RM generation matrix further includes the 14th, 20th, 21st and 24th rows of the (32,10) RM generation matrix compared to the (20,10) RM generation matrix.

Table 5 shows the generated (24,6) RM generation matrices.

Table 5 i M i, 0 M i, 1 M i, 2 M i, 3 M i, 4 M i, 5 0 One One 0 0 0 0 One One One One 0 0 0 2 One 0 0 One 0 0 3 One 0 One One 0 0 4 One One One One 0 0 5 One One 0 0 One 0 6 One 0 One 0 One 0 7 One 0 0 One One 0 8 One One 0 One One 0 9 One 0 One One One 0 10 One One One One One 0 11 One 0 One 0 0 One 12 One One One 0 0 One 13 One 0 0 One 0 One 14 One One 0 One 0 One 15 One 0 One One 0 One 16 One One One One 0 One 17 One 0 0 0 One One 18 One One 0 0 One One 19 One 0 One 0 One One 20 One One One 0 One One 21 One 0 0 One One One 22 One One 0 One One One 23 One 0 0 0 0 One

Table 6 shows another example of comparing the newly generated (24,6) RM generation matrix with the (20,10) RM generation matrix and the (18,10) RM generation matrix.

Table 6 i M i, 0 M i, 1 M i, 2 M i, 3 M i, 4 M i, 5 Puncturing pattern (24,6) (20, 10) (18,10) 0 One One 0 0 0 0 One One 0 One 0 0 0 Punctured Punctured Punctured 2 One One One 0 0 0 3 One 0 0 One 0 0 4 One One 0 One 0 0 Punctured Punctured Punctured 5 One 0 One One 0 0 6 One One One One 0 0 7 One 0 0 0 One 0 Punctured Punctured Punctured 8 One One 0 0 One 0 9 One 0 One 0 One 0 10 One One One 0 One 0 Punctured Punctured Punctured 11 One 0 0 One One 0 12 One One 0 One One 0 13 One 0 One One One 0 14 One One One One One 0 PuncturedPunctured 15 One One 0 0 0 One Punctured Punctured Punctured 16 One 0 One 0 0 One 17 One One One 0 0 One 18 One 0 0 One 0 One 19 One One 0 One 0 One 20 One 0 One One 0 One PuncturedPunctured 21 One One One One 0 One Punctured Punctured Punctured 22 One 0 0 0 One One 23 One One 0 0 One One 24 One 0 One 0 One One PuncturedPunctured 25 One One One 0 One One 26 One 0 0 One One One 27 One One 0 One One One Punctured 28 One 0 One One One One Punctured Punctured Punctured 29 One One One One One One PuncturedPunctured 30 One 0 0 0 0 0 Punctured Punctured Punctured 31 One 0 0 0 0 One Punctured

Here, the newly generated (24,6) RM generation matrix further includes 14th, 20th, 24th, and 29th rows of the (32,10) RM generation matrix compared to the (20,10) RM generation matrix.

Table 7 shows the generated (24,6) RM generation matrices.

TABLE 7 i M i, 0 M i, 1 M i, 2 M i, 3 M i, 4 M i, 5 0 One One 0 0 0 0 One One One One 0 0 0 2 One 0 0 One 0 0 3 One 0 One One 0 0 4 One One One One 0 0 5 One One 0 0 One 0 6 One 0 One 0 One 0 7 One 0 0 One One 0 8 One One 0 One One 0 9 One 0 One One One 0 10 One One One One One 0 11 One 0 One 0 0 One 12 One One One 0 0 One 13 One 0 0 One 0 One 14 One One 0 One 0 One 15 One 0 One One 0 One 16 One 0 0 0 One One 17 One One 0 0 One One 18 One 0 One 0 One One 19 One One One 0 One One 20 One 0 0 One One One 21 One One 0 One One One 22 One One One One One One 23 One 0 0 0 0 One

Table 8 compares another example of the newly generated (24,6) RM generation matrix with the (20,10) RM generation matrix and the (18,10) RM generation matrix.

Table 8 i M i, 0 M i, 1 M i, 2 M i, 3 M i, 4 M i, 5 Puncturing pattern (24,6) (20, 10) (18,10) 0 One One 0 0 0 0 One One 0 One 0 0 0 Punctured Punctured Punctured 2 One One One 0 0 0 3 One 0 0 One 0 0 4 One One 0 One 0 0 Punctured Punctured Punctured 5 One 0 One One 0 0 6 One One One One 0 0 7 One 0 0 0 One 0 Punctured Punctured Punctured 8 One One 0 0 One 0 9 One 0 One 0 One 0 10 One One One 0 One 0 Punctured Punctured Punctured 11 One 0 0 One One 0 12 One One 0 One One 0 13 One 0 One One One 0 14 One One One One One 0 PuncturedPunctured 15 One One 0 0 0 One Punctured Punctured Punctured 16 One 0 One 0 0 One 17 One One One 0 0 One 18 One 0 0 One 0 One 19 One One 0 One 0 One 20 One 0 One One 0 One Punctured Punctured Punctured 21 One One One One 0 One Punctured Punctured Punctured 22 One 0 0 0 One One 23 One One 0 0 One One 24 One 0 One 0 One One PuncturedPunctured 25 One One One 0 One One 26 One 0 0 One One One 27 One One 0 One One One Punctured 28 One 0 One One One One PuncturedPunctured 29 One One One One One One PuncturedPunctured 30 One 0 0 0 0 0 Punctured Punctured Punctured 31 One 0 0 0 0 One Punctured

Here, the newly generated (24,6) RM generation matrix further includes the 14th, 24th, 28th and 29th rows of the (32,10) RM generation matrix compared to the (20,10) RM generation matrix.

Table 9 shows the generated (24,6) RM generation matrices.

Table 9 i M i, 0 M i, 1 M i, 2 M i, 3 M i, 4 M i, 5 0 One One 0 0 0 0 One One One One 0 0 0 2 One 0 0 One 0 0 3 One 0 One One 0 0 4 One One One One 0 0 5 One One 0 0 One 0 6 One 0 One 0 One 0 7 One 0 0 One One 0 8 One One 0 One One 0 9 One 0 One One One 0 10 One One One One One 0 11 One 0 One 0 0 One 12 One One One 0 0 One 13 One 0 0 One 0 One 14 One One 0 One 0 One 15 One 0 0 0 One One 16 One One 0 0 One One 17 One 0 One 0 One One 18 One One One 0 One One 19 One 0 0 One One One 20 One One 0 One One One 21 One 0 One One One One 22 One One One One One One 23 One 0 0 0 0 One

According to the present invention, the (24, A) RM code was generated by puncturing eight rows in the (32,10) RM code generation matrix. It can be generated by adding four rows from the existing (20, A) RM code generation matrix, and four rows punctured in the (20, A) RM code but not perforated in the (24, A) RM code. You can create a new generation matrix by adding

Similarly, a new generation matrix of (24, A) RM codes can be generated by adding six rows in the generation matrix of (18, A) RM codes.

The minimum distance performance of the (24, A) RM code described above is shown in Table 10 below.

Table 10 A 3 4 5 6 Distance 12 11 10 10

When A is in the range of 1 to 5, five more generating matrices having the same performance are generated. At this time, the set of rows added to the generation matrix of the (20, A) RM code is {1, 14, 20,29}, {1,14,21,28}, {1,14,28,29}, { 1,21,28,29} and {20,21,24,29}.

As described above, newly added rows may be inserted in an interleaved form into an existing table. It can also be added to the end of the generation matrix for implementations that are legacy compatible.

In addition, by altering the rows of the generation matrix so that consecutive zeros are not positioned in the generation matrix, zero symbols can be prevented from being transmitted and information can be diversified.

Changing the generation matrix by performing such a row replacement, first, divides all rows of the generation matrix of the (24,10) RM code into upper and lower n groups (where n may be 12). Let n be the same number of 1s in each n rows.

If you can't equalize, divide the rows of the creation matrix into two groups so that the difference is minimal. Second, adjust the position or order of the rows so that zero does not occur twice in every column in each of the previously divided groups. Third, if it is not possible to prevent consecutive zeros, then adjust the position or order of the rows so that consecutive zeros belong to different symbols during transmission. That is, if 00 occurs, the position of 00 is adjusted so that the first 0 and the second 0 belong to different modulated symbols. Fourth, if all three of these conditions cannot be met, the rows are rearranged to minimize the number of consecutive zeros.

On the other hand, since the symbols transmitted in each slot are ideally repeated, if QPSK modulation is transmitted on 12 subcarriers, all 24 encoded bits are transmitted, thereby obtaining maximum diversity. However, if the number of symbols transmitted in each slot is reduced to 6 each, it is preferable to adjust the mapping order of 12 symbols. For example, in order to prevent the symbols having the encoded bit 0 from continuously present in the same slot, each slot may be mapped in an interleaved format. That is, odd-numbered symbols are mapped to the first slot and even-numbered symbols are mapped to the second slot, or conversely, even-numbered symbols are mapped to the first slot and odd-numbered symbols are mapped to the second slot.

According to the present invention, the codeword is generated using the generation matrix of the code (24, A).

First, symbols for all subcarriers of all slots may be allocated in the LTE-Advanced ACK / NACK feedback. As it inherits the structure of the existing (32,10) TFCI code, it is possible to perform fast decoding through fast Hadamard transform and keep the decoding operation amount small. Since the structure of the existing (32,10) TFCI code is inherited, the decoder can be reused in the system when supporting WCDMA and LTE dual mode, thereby reducing the hardware. In addition, performance through diversity may be improved through row reordering of generation matrices for eliminating zero symbols.

Now, a description will be given of a method of generating a generation matrix by more efficiently searching for the puncturing in the generated generation matrix using the puncturing, and generating the codeword using the generating matrix. This puncturing search method can also be applied to the codeword generation method described above.

4 illustrates a general puncturing pattern search method. This method reduces the number of times to find the Hamming distance distribution of a set of codewords. Here, the Hamming distance is a number in which the values of corresponding bits do not coincide between binary codes having the same number of bits.

Referring to FIG. 4, a punctured generation matrix is created using the original generation matrix (S410). If the hamming weight of each row is between the upper and lower boundary values (S420), a code set is generated using the punctured generation matrix (S430). If not, go back to the first step and create the perforated generation matrix again.

If the minimum distance of the generated code set is a desired reference value (S440), the Hamming distance distribution is calculated (S450). Otherwise, the first step is to create a perforated generation matrix.

It is determined whether the Hamming distance distribution is optimal (S460), and if so, it is determined that this generation matrix is an optimized perforated generation matrix (S470). If not, the first step is to create the perforated generation matrix again.

However, this method is effective when the length of the original read-muller codeword to be punctured is short or the number of rows of the generator matrix to be punctured is small, but the length of the original codeword is long and punctured. If the number of rows in the generation matrix is large, the number of puncturing cases is too large and there is no search effect. For example, if the length of the original codeword is 64 and the number of rows to be punctured is 16, the number of possible puncture cases is 64 C 16 = 488,526,937,079,580, which is very large.

In order to puncture a larger codeword or more rows of a generation matrix, the number of puncturing cases should be more efficient.

The length of the codeword is 2 n and the original generation matrix of the read-muller code RM (1, n) of order 1 is punctured so that the length of the codeword is a (a = 2 n -x, x = 2 y b). Generate a generation matrix of code (a, A) whose length A of information bits is one of 1 to n + 1. Because the performance of the code sequence generated using the first vector is better than the code sequence generated using the higher-order vector higher than the second order, only the code sequence generated using the first vector alone can be used. It is preferable to use. The scope of the present invention is not limited thereto.

Accordingly, x rows are punctured in a generation matrix of a primary read-muller code having a parameter of (2 n , A), where x rows are punctured between codewords of (a, A) code. Minimal distance performance is best. In addition, when the size A of the information bit becomes smaller than n + 1, A of n + 1 columns is selected. If A is 1, the matrix A × 1 with all elements 1 is the generation matrix, and for A, the other column is selected to give the best performance between minimum codewords.

Since the read-muller code is a block linear code, a result of performing an eXclusive OR (XOR) operation by selecting any two codewords in the code set is also a codeword. Therefore, the following equation (5) holds.

[Revision according to Rule 26 09.05.2011]
Equation 5

Figure WO-DOC-MATHS-5

here, "

Figure PCTKR2011002463-appb-I000006
”Means XOR operation.

That is, a differential vector between codewords becomes another codeword. In addition, the codeword set must include an all-zero vector of all values that are codewords for the case where all information bits are zero. Therefore, the minimum distance between the codewords in the code set and the minimum value of the Hamming weight of the codewords in the codeset are the same. Hamming weight is the number of non-symbols in a string. Also, because there is an all one column in the generation matrix, there is always an all zero vector and an all one vector. Are all codewords, and the following equation (6) holds for any two codewords in the code set.

[Revision according to Rule 26 09.05.2011]
Equation 6

Figure WO-DOC-MATHS-6

Due to the two characteristics of the read-muller code as described above, the maximum value of the minimum distance between codewords of the read-muller code having the coded bit size of 2e is e.

The length of the codeword is 2n and the order of RM (1, n) lead-muller code of order 1 is punctured so that the length of the codeword is a (a = 2 n -x, x = 2 y b, y = 1 (2, ..., n) and the (a, y + 1) code whose length of the information bit is y + 1, the (2 n , y + 1) RM generation matrix is punctured to generate the 2 n , y + 1) The matrix G is made up of one all-one vector and one primary vector y as rows. The primary vector is a vector having the same number of 1 symbols and 0 symbols.

As a simple example, when n = 4 and y = 3, the generation matrix G is expressed by Equation 7 below.

[Revision according to Rule 26 09.05.2011]
Equation 7

Figure WO-DOC-MATHS-7

Here, the matrix G has one all-one vector and three primary vectors.

If the matrix (2 n , y) generated by removing the first row from the matrix G generated in the same manner as in Equation 7 is G ', G' denotes all binary y-tuple vectors. Each row has 2 ny times. The y-tuple vector refers to a vector having y symbols.

For example, when n = 4 and y = 3, G 'is a form having a 3-tuple vector 2 4 times, and G' is represented by Equation 8 below.

[Revision according to Rule 26 09.05.2011]
Equation 8

Figure WO-DOC-MATHS-8

Here, the row of the matrix G ', there 24-3 each have 23 kinds of the binary 3-tuple vectors.

2 n-1 tuple codeword c 'generated through the (2 n , y) matrix G' for all y-tuple input m 'except all zero vector, c' (ie c '= m'G' ) Becomes a codeword having 0 and 1 each 2 n-1 times, with a Hamming weight of 2n-1.

The columns added from G 'to G are all one row. Therefore, the 2 n generated via the (2 n, y + 1) matrix G for every y + 1- tuple input m excluding the all-zero vector, depending on the nature of the G '- tuple codeword c (i.e., c = mG) also The Hamming weight is 2 n-1 codewords having 0 and 1 2 n-1 times, respectively.

The characteristic of the lead-muller code as shown in the above-described generation matrix of the lead-muller code is that (2 n , y + 1) all y-tuple vectors are repeated the same number of times in the column of G 'which is a sub-matrix of the generation matrix G. In this case, a codeword set with a Hamming weight of 2 n-1 comes out. That is, it is possible to know whether or not a set having the maximum minimum distance performance between codewords of the read-muller code can be obtained from the generation matrix.

Now, a method of generating codewords according to the present invention will be described. In particular, a puncturing search method for generating a generation matrix for generating codewords will be described.

5 is a flowchart illustrating a codeword generation method according to the present invention.

First, an information bit is input (S510). A codeword is generated using an optimal generation matrix having a column size equal to the length of the information bit (S520). Details of the optimal generation matrix will be described later.

The optimal generation matrix having the same size as the length of the information bits may be generated by puncturing the generation matrix of the read-muller code. In particular, as described above, the optimal generation matrix is generated by puncturing the (2 n , y + 1) generation matrix, which is the original generation matrix G. The length of the codeword is a (a = 2 n -x, x = 2 y b, y = 1, 2, ..., n) and the length of the input information bit is y + 1. x is the number of rows to be drilled and b is obtained from x and y.

The optimal algorithm is searched for puncturing and the corresponding puncturing is performed to generate the optimal generation matrix. At this time, the (2 n , y + 1) matrix G is formed by arranging one all-one vector and one primary vector y as rows.

In order to search for the perforation of the generation matrix, first, the column of the original generation matrix G is divided into 2y. In this case, 2 y is called a partition coefficient. Then, drill b rows in each equal section.

6 illustrates generating an optimal generation matrix according to an example.

First, the column of the original generation matrix is divided into equal parts (S610). For example, if the length 2 n of the codeword of the original generation matrix G is 32 (that is, n is 5) and a is 20, “x = 2 x is 12, y is 2, and b is 3 in n -a = 12 = 2 2 * 3 ". The generation matrix G may be divided into 2 2 , that is, quadranted by Equation 9 below.

[Revision according to Rule 26 09.05.2011]
Equation 9

Figure WO-DOC-MATHS-9

Then, one or more rows are punctured in each of the divided sections (S620).

Specifically, in the second through y + 1 (3 above) rows except for the first row, which is the all-one row of the generation matrix G, the rows of each section are all the same symbol (all one symbol or all). All zero symbols). Thus, the 2nd to y + 1 (3 above) rows of each section each have the same y-tuple vector (2-tuple vector above) 2 ny times (2 5-2 = 8 above) ) Have. Thus, we puncture columns by b (three in this case) in each of the divided matrices. In this case, even though two columns (3 in the above) are punctured in the divided set, 2 to y + 1 (3 in the above) are the same, so 2 to y + 1 (3 in the above) is the same. Rows up to have all y-tuple vectors (two-tuple vectors in the above) with 2 ny -b times (2 5-2 -3 = 5 in the above) and 1 to y + 1 (3 in the above) For a read-muller code having a large number of information bits, it is a generation matrix for generating an optimal codeword.

In addition, all codewords generated for codewords having 1 to y + 1 information bits have only three cases of 0, a / 2, and a (0, 10, 20 in the above case). The hamming distance distribution between the stems is also optimal. In addition, there is no case where there is an optimal hamming distance and hamming distance distribution between codewords. Therefore, in order to search for the optimal lead-muller code supporting information bits of 1 to A, it is not necessary to search every case of puncturing x columns of 2 n columns of the generation matrix G, but to each of the divided 2y sets. You only need to search for the case of drilling b columns for.

Meanwhile, as described above, when 24 subcarriers are used and QPSK modulation is used, 48 bits may be required for encoded bits. As described above, in order to generate 48 bits of codewords, 16 columns of 64 columns of the generation matrix G may be punctured and generated.

In this way, the total number of cases that punctures the 16 rows of 64 columns of the generator matrix G is typically 64 C, but 16 = 488,526,937,079,580, application of the search process according to the invention search for only 2 32 = 4,294,967,296 cases of This reduces the total calculation to about 1 / 100,000.

7 illustrates generating an optimal generation matrix according to another example.

First, the columns of the original generation matrix are divided into equal parts (S710). Then, one or more rows are punctured in each of the divided sections (S720).

For example, if the length of the codeword is 48 and the generation matrix G48 = [(G 0 48), (G 1 48)] of the punctured read-muller code that applies one information bit of 1 to 5 is generated, Matrices such as the following Equations 10 and 11 are generated.

[Revision according to Rule 26 09.05.2011]
Equation 10

Figure WO-DOC-MATHS-10

[Revision according to Rule 26 09.05.2011]
Equation 11

Figure WO-DOC-MATHS-11

In operation S730, the generation matrix is changed by applying column substitution to the perforated matrix.

As described above, when thermal substitution is applied to the generation matrix, linear operation may be applied to eliminate zero symbols as much as possible, thereby preventing performance degradation and efficiently obtaining diversity performance.

The method of performing the thermal substitution is similar to the method of performing the row substitution described above. That is, when the concept of row substitution is transformed into column substitution and applied to the generation matrix, first, the rows of the second generation and the fourth set are exchanged by dividing the rows of the entire generation matrix by four. This makes the number of 1s distributed in the left and right halves of the generation matrix the same.

Subsequently, thermal substitution is performed so that zeros do not appear consecutively in each sub-matrix having three sets of left and right halves.

Nevertheless, if consecutive zeros remain, thermal substitution is performed to belong to another symbol (so that the beginning of zero is in the odd-numbered column).

As a result, a generation matrix [G 48 ] P = [(G 0 48) P, (G 1 48 ) P ] as shown in Equations 12 and 13 may be generated.

[Revision according to Rule 26 09.05.2011]
Equation 12

Figure WO-DOC-MATHS-12

[Revision according to Rule 26 09.05.2011]
Equation 13

Figure WO-DOC-MATHS-13

As described above, generating a codeword using a perforated generation matrix according to embodiments of the present invention has the following advantages.

For the information bit sizes 1 to y + 1 of the read-muller code whose length of the codeword is a (= 2 n -x) and x (2yb), we generate a set of read-muller codewords with an optimal Hamming weight distribution. You can create a generation matrix to do this without any special operation. Also, a read-muller code with an optimal Hamming weight distribution for information bit sizes greater than y + 1 of a read-mull code whose length is a (= 2 n -x) and x (= 2 y b) We can greatly reduce the amount of computation that searches for the generation matrix that generates the asset.

In addition, performance improvement through diversity can be obtained through column permutation of the generation matrix to eliminate zero symbols.

Meanwhile, as described above, in order to generate 48 bits of codewords, 8 columns of the 32 columns of the generation matrix G are punctured to generate a generation matrix having 24 columns. You can also make codewords with This will be described with reference to FIGS. 8 to 10.

8 is an exemplary diagram illustrating a method of generating a codeword having a length of 48 according to an example of the present invention. FIG. 9 is a diagram illustrating an example of generating a codeword having a length of 48 bits in accordance with the illustrated method. 10 is a diagram illustrating another example of generating a codeword having a length of 48 bits according to the illustrated method.

As can be seen with reference to FIG. 8, in order to generate 48 bits of codewords, 8 columns of 32 columns of the generation matrix G are punctured to generate a generation matrix having 24 columns. Specifically, in the original generation matrix having 32 columns, the number of columns is equally divided and divided (S810), and a predetermined number of columns are punctured in each divided session to generate a generation matrix having 24 columns ( S820). A codeword having a length of 24 bits is generated using the generation matrix having 24 columns (S830).

The codeword is simply repeated or bit permutation is performed on the repeated bits, thereby generating a 48-bit codeword (S840).

For example, as illustrated in FIG. 9, the input information bits are encoded into 24 bits by using an encoder using a generation matrix having 24 columns generated by the aforementioned S830 process. The coded 24-bit data is repeated to generate a 48-bit codeword.

Alternatively, as shown in FIG. 10, the input information bits are encoded into 24 bits by using an encoder using a generation matrix having 24 columns generated by S830. In addition, bit permutation is performed on the encoded 24-bit codeword.

Then, the coded 24-bit codeword and the bit-substituted codeword are combined to generate a 48-bit codeword. To this end, the encoded 24-bit codeword may be stored in a register.

In this case, the bit-substituted 24-bit codeword may be located before or after 48-bit codeword.

Alternatively, a 48-bit codeword may be generated by combining two bit-permutated 24-bit codewords.

As described above, when bit substitution is performed on both the first 24 bits and the next 24 bits in a 48-bit codeword, the bit substitution performed on the first 24 bits is the same as the bit substitution performed on the subsequent 24 bits. It can be different.

Up to now, it has been described that the 24-bit codeword is simply repeated or bit permutation is performed on the repeated bits to generate 48-bit codeword. However, a generation matrix having 24 columns is different. A 48-bit codeword may be generated using a generation matrix having 48 columns generated by iteratively.

11 is an exemplary diagram illustrating a process of generating a generation matrix having 48 columns by using a generation matrix having 24 columns in length according to an example of the present invention.

First, each column is divided into equal parts in the original generation matrix having 32 columns (S1110), and a predetermined number of columns are punctured in each divided session to generate a generation matrix having 24 columns (S1120). Subsequently, a generation matrix having 48 columns is generated using the generation matrix having 24 columns (S1130).

For example, a process of generating the generation matrix having the 48 columns will be described below.

For example, a generation matrix that generates a 24-bit codeword

Figure PCTKR2011002463-appb-I000007
A generation matrix that produces a 48-bit codeword.
Figure PCTKR2011002463-appb-I000008
In this case, the relationship expressed in Equation 14 below may be established.

Equation 14

Figure PCTKR2011002463-appb-M000014

I.e. information bits

Figure PCTKR2011002463-appb-I000009
Generates a Read-Muller codeword with a 24-bit length
Figure PCTKR2011002463-appb-I000010
Read-Muller codeword with 48-bit codeword length
Figure PCTKR2011002463-appb-I000011
In this regard, the following relationship holds.

Equation 15

Figure PCTKR2011002463-appb-M000015

Therefore, in order to generate a codeword having a length of 48 bits, the generation matrix of Table 1 may be repeated to generate a generation matrix having 48 columns.

Equation 16

Figure PCTKR2011002463-appb-M000016

In this case, G24 may be a matrix as shown in Equation 17 below.

Equation 17

Figure PCTKR2011002463-appb-M000017

Meanwhile, alternatively, the generation matrix G 24 having 24 columns may be combined with the generation matrix G 24 having 24 columns replaced with each other to generate the generation matrix G 48 having 48 columns.

This may be expressed as in Equation 18 below.

Equation 18

Figure PCTKR2011002463-appb-M000018

In this case, G24 may be a matrix as shown in Equation 19 below.

Equation 19

Figure PCTKR2011002463-appb-M000019

In addition, the G '24 can be represented as shown in Equation 20 below.

Equation 20

Figure PCTKR2011002463-appb-M000020

P1 is a substitution matrix for replacing the matrix G 24 .

On the other hand, the column having the replacement of 24 heat generation matrix G '24, and then the column having the replacement of 24 heat generation matrix G "to 24 in combination with one another, also generate a generation matrix G 48 with 48 column have.

This may be expressed as Equation 21 below.

Equation 21

Figure PCTKR2011002463-appb-M000021

G ′ 24 may be expressed as follows.

Equation 22

Figure PCTKR2011002463-appb-M000022

P 1 is a substitution matrix for replacing the matrix G 24 .

The G ″ 24 may be as follows.

Equation 23

Figure PCTKR2011002463-appb-M000023

P 1 and P 2 are substitution matrices for replacing the matrix G 24 .

G 24 may be a matrix represented by Equation 23 below.

Equation 24

Figure PCTKR2011002463-appb-M000024

On the other hand, for a generation matrix having 48 columns generated as described above, in order to prevent performance degradation due to zero (zero) symbols and to efficiently obtain diversity performance, the following linear operation is performed through the following linear operations. Zero symbols can be removed as much as possible.

Specifically, the rows of the entire generator matrix are divided into quarters to exchange positions of the set of second rows and the set of fourth rows with each other. Through this process, the number of 1s distributed in the upper half and the lower half of the generation matrix is equal. Then, adjust the position or order of the rows so that zero does not appear twice in succession within each sub-matrix with up and down half rows. Then, if consecutive zeros cannot be prevented, the row position or order is adjusted so that consecutive zeros belong to different symbols in transmission. That is, if 00 occurs, the position of 00 is adjusted so that the first 0 and the second 0 belong to different modulated symbols. That is, row substitution is performed so that the start of zero is in the odd-numbered row.

12 is a block diagram illustrating a transmitter and a receiver according to an embodiment of the present invention.

Referring to FIG. 12, the transmitter 100 may include a codeword generator 110, a mapper 120, and an OFDM modulator 130.

The codeword generator 110 generates a codeword by the codeword generation method according to the present invention described with reference to FIGS. 2 to 11.

The mapper 120 modulates the codeword according to a predetermined modulation scheme and maps the codewords to symbols representing positions according to amplitude and phase constellation. The OFDM modulator 130 converts the input symbols into OFDM symbols. The OFDM modulator 130 may perform Inverse Fast Fourier Transform (IFFT) on the input symbols and convert them into time domain samples. A cyclic prefix (CP) may be added to the transformed time domain samples. The OFDM symbol output from the OFDM modulator 130 is transmitted through the transmit antenna 190.

The receiver 200 includes an OFDM demodulator 210, a demapper 220, and a codeword detector 230.

The signal received from the receive antenna 290 is converted by the OFDM demodulator 210 into symbols in the frequency domain. The OFDM demodulator 210 may remove a CP from an input signal and perform a fast fourier transform (FFT). Demapper 220 demaps input symbols. The codeword detector 230 detects the estimated information bits through auto-correlation and cross-correlation of the codeword.

Although the transmitter 100 and the receiver 200 show a single-input single-output (SISO) scheme having one transmit antenna and one receive antenna, the technical idea of the present invention is to provide a plurality of transmissions. The same applies to a multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) system having an antenna and a plurality of receive antennas.

Although the transmitter 100 and the receiver 200 show an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) / orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) based system, the technical concept of the present invention is TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access) and CDMA (Code). Division Multiple Access) can be applied to other wireless access-based systems.

Although the present invention has been described above with reference to the embodiments, it will be understood by those skilled in the art that the present invention may be modified and changed in various ways without departing from the spirit and scope of the present invention. I can understand. Therefore, the present invention is not limited to the above-described embodiment, and the present invention will include all embodiments within the scope of the following claims.

Claims (15)

  1. Receiving an information bit;
    The size of a row is the same as the length of the information bits, the size of a column is 24 columns, and the information bits are encoded by using a first generation matrix in which a symbol value, which is an element of a matrix, is filled with 0 or 1. Generating a codeword of 48 bits in length;
    Modulating and transmitting the generated codeword,
    The first generation matrix is generated by puncturing eight columns from the first generation matrix having a column size of 32 columns. In the step of generating the 48-bit codeword, the first generation matrix is generated by using the first generation matrix. Information transmission method characterized in that it is generated by using the codeword twice.
  2. The method of claim 1, wherein the 48-bit codeword is
    And generating a 24-bit codeword by using the first generation matrix twice.
  3. The method of claim 1, wherein generating the 48-bit codeword
    And changing the order of bits in a 24-bit codeword generated using the first generation matrix.
  4. The method of claim 1, wherein the 48-bit codeword is
    And a 24-bit codeword generated by using the first generation matrix and a 24-bit codeword having the same bit value as the 24-bit codeword but having a changed order of the bit values. .
  5. The method of claim 1, wherein the 48-bit codeword is
    The codeword generated by using the first generation matrix is repeated by repeating two times a codeword having a changed order of bits, or combining two 24-bit codewords each having a different order of bits. Information transmission method characterized in that it is generated by.
  6. The method of claim 1, wherein generating the 48-bit codeword
    And changing the order of the bits so that the 0 symbols are not contiguous.
  7. The method of claim 1, wherein the first generation matrix is
    Dividing the columns of the original generation matrix into a plurality of sections; A method of transmitting information, characterized in that it is produced by the step of drilling any column in each section.
  8. Receiving an information bit;
    The size of a row is the same as the length of the information bits, the size of a column is 48 columns, and the information bits are encoded by using a first generation matrix in which a symbol value, which is an element of a matrix, is filled with 0 or 1. Generating a 48-bit codeword;
    Modulating and transmitting the generated codeword,
    And wherein the first generation matrix is generated based on a second generation matrix having a row size equal to a length of the information bits and a column size of 24 columns.
  9. The method of claim 8, wherein the second generation matrix is
    An information transmission method characterized in that it is generated by puncturing eight columns in the first generation matrix having a column size of 32 columns.
  10. The method of claim 8, wherein the first generation matrix is
    And the second generation matrix is generated repeatedly.
  11. The method of claim 8, wherein the first generation matrix is
    And generating the second generation matrix by combining the second generation matrix with the changed generation matrix based on the second generation matrix.
  12. 12. The method of claim 11 wherein the modified generation matrix is
    And generated by exchanging an order of arbitrary columns in the second generation matrix.
  13. The method of claim 8, wherein the first generation matrix is
    And generated by combining two modified generation matrices based on the second generation matrices.
  14. The size of a row is equal to the length of the information bits, the size of a column is 24 columns, and the input information bits are encoded by using a first generation matrix in which a symbol value, which is an element of a matrix, is filled with 0 or 1. An encoder for generating a codeword having a length of 48 bits;
    A modulator for modulating the generated codeword,
    The first generation matrix is generated by puncturing eight columns in the first generation matrix having a column size of 32 columns.
    In the generating of the 48-bit codeword, the transmitter is generated using two 24-bit codewords generated by using the first generation matrix.
  15. The size of a row is equal to the length of the information bits, the size of a column is 48 columns, and the input information bits are encoded by using a first generation matrix in which a symbol value, which is an element of a matrix, is filled with 0 or 1. An encoder for generating a 48-bit codeword;
    A modulator for modulating the generated codeword,
    And wherein the first generation matrix is generated based on a second generation matrix having a row size equal to a length of the information bits and a column size of 24 columns.
PCT/KR2011/002463 2010-04-07 2011-04-07 Method for transmitting information, and transmitter WO2011126330A2 (en)

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Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
EP1195911A2 (en) * 2000-10-06 2002-04-10 Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. Apparatus and method for generating (n,3) code and (n,4) code using simplex codes
KR20030068749A (en) * 2002-02-16 2003-08-25 엘지전자 주식회사 CQI coding method using various basis sequences
KR20090069127A (en) * 2007-12-24 2009-06-29 엘지전자 주식회사 Channel coding method of variable length information using block code
KR20090069126A (en) * 2007-12-24 2009-06-29 엘지전자 주식회사 Channel coding method of variable length information using block code

Patent Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
EP1195911A2 (en) * 2000-10-06 2002-04-10 Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. Apparatus and method for generating (n,3) code and (n,4) code using simplex codes
KR20030068749A (en) * 2002-02-16 2003-08-25 엘지전자 주식회사 CQI coding method using various basis sequences
KR20090069127A (en) * 2007-12-24 2009-06-29 엘지전자 주식회사 Channel coding method of variable length information using block code
KR20090069126A (en) * 2007-12-24 2009-06-29 엘지전자 주식회사 Channel coding method of variable length information using block code

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