WO2011121763A1 - Image processing apparatus and image capturing apparatus using same - Google Patents

Image processing apparatus and image capturing apparatus using same Download PDF

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WO2011121763A1
WO2011121763A1 PCT/JP2010/055865 JP2010055865W WO2011121763A1 WO 2011121763 A1 WO2011121763 A1 WO 2011121763A1 JP 2010055865 W JP2010055865 W JP 2010055865W WO 2011121763 A1 WO2011121763 A1 WO 2011121763A1
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image
transfer function
imaging
restoration filter
image restoration
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PCT/JP2010/055865
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French (fr)
Japanese (ja)
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弘至 畠山
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キヤノン株式会社
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Priority claimed from PCT/JP2011/055610 external-priority patent/WO2011122284A1/en
Publication of WO2011121763A1 publication Critical patent/WO2011121763A1/en

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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04NPICTORIAL COMMUNICATION, e.g. TELEVISION
    • H04N9/00Details of colour television systems
    • H04N9/04Picture signal generators
    • H04N9/045Picture signal generators using solid-state devices
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06TIMAGE DATA PROCESSING OR GENERATION, IN GENERAL
    • G06T5/00Image enhancement or restoration
    • G06T5/001Image restoration
    • G06T5/003Deblurring; Sharpening
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04NPICTORIAL COMMUNICATION, e.g. TELEVISION
    • H04N5/00Details of television systems
    • H04N5/30Transforming light or analogous information into electric information
    • H04N5/335Transforming light or analogous information into electric information using solid-state image sensors [SSIS]
    • H04N5/357Noise processing, e.g. detecting, correcting, reducing or removing noise
    • H04N5/3572Noise processing, e.g. detecting, correcting, reducing or removing noise the noise originating only from the lens unit, e.g. flare, shading, vignetting or "cos4"

Abstract

This invention is directed to provision of an image processing apparatus capable of obtaining high definition of images, while correcting the asymmetry of aberration. An image processing apparatus comprises: an image acquiring means for acquiring an input image; and an image recovering means for recovering the input image by use of an image recovery filter, which is generated or selected based on the transfer function of an image capturing system used for forming, as the input image, a subject image, thereby generating a recovered image. The image recovery filter causes the difference in absolute value of transfer function between two azimuthal directions used when obtaining the recovered image from the subject to be smaller than the difference in absolute value of transfer function between the two azimuthal directions of the image capturing system.

Description

Image processing apparatus, and an imaging apparatus using the same

The present invention is an invention relates to an image processing apparatus that performs image processing, and more particularly an image processing apparatus for performing image restoration (the recovery).

Image obtained by the image pickup apparatus such as a digital camera, an image is degraded by blurring. Blurred images are spherical aberration, coma aberration of the imaging optical system, the curvature of field, is the cause, such as astigmatism. These aberrations may be represented by the point spread function (PSF, Point Spread Function). Point spread function (hereinafter, PSF) of the optical transfer function obtained by Fourier transform (OTF, Optic Transfer Function) is information in the frequency space of the aberration is represented by a complex number. Optical transfer function (hereinafter, OTF) the absolute value of, i.e. the amplitude component is referred to as MTF (Modulation Transfer Function), the phase component PTF (Phase Transfer Function). OTF of the imaging optical system gives effect on the amplitude and phase components of the image (degradation). Therefore, the image (hereinafter, degraded image) deteriorated by the influence of the OTF, each point of the object is blurred image asymmetrically as coma.

This will be described with reference to FIG. 13. Figure 13 (A), (B), (C) is, at the principal ray plane perpendicularly intersecting with (light ray passing through the center of the pupil of the optical system) are schematic views showing a spread of point spread function (PSF) is there. In indicated the plane in FIG. 13, the street mutually perpendicular linear optical axis axis x1, an axis x2, azimuthal angular θ formed by the arbitrary straight line and the axis x1 passing through the optical axis in the indicated plane in FIG. 13 to. Further, when the origin of the coordinate axes in Fig. 13 and the imaging position of the principal ray, the direction indicated by the azimuth angle θ and azimuth direction. The azimuth direction includes the sagittal direction and the meridional direction, is a general term for all directions including also other angles θ direction.

As already mentioned, the deterioration of the aberration of the phase component (PTF) generates an asymmetry in the PSF. Further, the deterioration of the amplitude component (MTF) affects the magnitude of the PSF of the spread of each azimuth direction. Figure 13 (A) is a diagram schematically illustrating a Occurring PSF coma. No eccentricity of the optical axis, PSF of angle other than on the optical axis in the case of an optical system consisting of lens rotation symmetrical shape, since it is symmetrical about the line passing through the optical axis and the principal ray on the image plane, the line It has a symmetrical shape. 13 In (A), PSF is a line symmetry with respect to the axis x2.

FIG. 13 (B) shows the PSF of the absence of the phase shift. Although the symmetrical shape in the azimuth direction, because of the difference in amplitude (MTF), in the axial direction x1 and axis x2 direction and has a asymmetric PSF having different spread PSF. Incidentally, PSF on the optical axis, there is no phase shift and ignoring manufacturing errors, made because azimuth dependency of the amplitude deterioration not in rotationally symmetric shape as shown in FIG. 13 (C). That FIG. 13 (A), the as shown in (B), PSF becomes a deviation in the azimuth direction per phase (PTF), the difference in amplitude (MTF) between azimuth directions and asymmetrical shape, as image blur It has become a factor inhibiting high-resolution image generation.

As a technique for correcting a blur of such an image, Patent Document 1 is provided with a parameter α in designing an image restoration filter as shown in Equation 1. By adjusting the adjustment parameter alpha, varies inversely filter (alpha = 1) from the filter that does not act anything image restoration filter (α = 0). Thus, it is possible to adjust the degree of recovery image parameters one at a range from the original photographic image to the image restored to the maximum.

Figure JPOXMLDOC01-appb-M000001

Here, F (u, v), G (u, v) is the Fourier transform of each restored image and the degraded image.

Alternatively, to correct the image blur, Wiener filter is known as a filter to improve the sharpness. Shows the Wiener filter frequency characteristics M (u, v) in Equation 2.

Figure JPOXMLDOC01-appb-M000002

Here, H (u, v) is the optical transfer function (OTF). | H (u, v) | is the absolute value of the OTF (MTF). SNR is the intensity ratio of the noise signal.

Hereinafter, as described in Wiener filter and Patent Document 1 is referred to as image restoration processing process for recovery of the image using an image restoration filter based on optical transfer function (OTF).

JP 2007-183842 JP

However, the above-described Wiener filter and the image restoration filter in Patent Document 1, although it is possible to correct the deterioration of the amplitude and phase components of the imaging optical system, it is impossible to correct the differences in the amplitude component of between azimuth directions. Wiener filters, MTF before recovery when there is a difference between azimuth direction, azimuth direction of the difference in MTF after recovery would expand. This will be described with reference to FIG. 14.

Figure 14 is a diagram showing the MTF after the image restoration processing using the MTF and Wiener filter before performing the image restoration processing. Dashed line (a), the solid line (b) the first azimuth direction before recovery, respectively, which is the MTF second azimuth direction. Dashed line (c), the solid line (d) is a first azimuth direction, MTF of the second azimuth direction after recovery respectively. The first and second azimuth direction, for example, a sagittal direction and the meridional direction. Wiener filter is a low recovery gain (recovery degree) A high MTF, an image restoration filter to increase the recovery gain (recovery degree) A low MTF. Accordingly, the broken line is a low azimuth direction of MTF (a), the recovery gain is lower than the MTF high azimuth direction (b). Therefore, the first azimuth direction of MTF before recovering (a), than the difference in MTF (b) of the second azimuth direction, the first azimuth direction of the MTF after recovery (c), a second azimuth direction of the MTF (d the difference of) from being enlarged. In other words, in spite of the image was recovery processing, asymmetric aberration may appear in the image. This also applies with respect to the image restoration filter disclosed in Patent Document 1.

The present invention has been made in view of the above problems, reduce the asymmetric aberrations that may occur by the image restoration processing, and to provide an image processing apparatus capable of obtaining a higher definition image.

The present invention for solving the above-
An image obtaining unit for obtaining an input image,
Yes and image restoration means for restoring said input image to generate a restored image using an image restoration filter generated or selected based on the transfer function of the imaging system used to form an object image as the input image and,
The image restoration filter, the difference between the absolute value of the transfer function between the two azimuth direction in obtaining the restored image from the object is smaller than the difference between the absolute value of the transfer function between the two azimuth directions of the imaging system characterized in that it.

Effect of the present invention in terms that can be able to generate a high-definition restored image that asymmetrical aberrations is reduced.

Illustration of an image processing method according to an embodiment of the present invention Illustration of an image restoration filter used in the image processing method of the embodiment The first illustration related to the correction amount of the MTF among the azimuth direction The second explanatory view relating to the correction amount of the MTF among the azimuth direction Block diagram showing the basic configuration of an imaging apparatus Selection of the image restoration filter in the first embodiment, illustration relating to correction Flow chart illustrating an image processing procedure of Example 1 It shows the MTF change before and after image processing in Example 1 Illustration of an edge enhancement filter Edge sectional view of the application of the edge enhancement filter Illustration of an image processing system according to the second embodiment of the present invention Illustration of the correction information of the second embodiment of the present invention Azimuth direction of the illustration Shows the MTF change before and after the conventional image restoration processing Illustration of point spread function (PSF) Amplitude component of the image (MTF) and a phase component illustration of (PTF)

First, the flow of image processing of the present invention will be described with reference to FIG. It shows the processing steps from the input to the output of the image in Figure 1. First, in the image acquisition step of step S11, and acquires an image generated by the imaging system. Hereinafter, the image acquired in the image acquisition process referred to as an input image.

Next, in step S12, and it generates an image restoration filter corresponding to the imaging conditions of the acquired input image in step S11. Note that step S12 may be a step of selecting an appropriate filter from the plurality of image restoration filter prepared in advance, after selecting a filter, it may be a step of appropriately correcting the filter . The image restoration processing step of step S13, in step S12, the image restoration processing using the image restoration filter generated or selected based on the transfer function of the imaging system (optical transfer function of the imaging optical system) (correction process) Execute. In more detail, corrects the zero for the phase component of the input image (PTF) to a target value, the amplitude component (MTF) is corrected to the difference between the two azimuth directions is reduced. In step S14, it outputs the corrected image corrected in step S13 as an output image.

Incidentally, it is also possible to insert the process for other image processing before and after, or during the steps shown in FIG. The other image processing, for example, distortion aberration correction, electronic aberration correction and demosaicing in a peripheral light amount correction, gamma conversion, a processing such as image compression. It will be described in more detail each of the steps shown in FIG.

Although MTF is the amplitude component of the transfer function of the imaging system (optical transfer function of the imaging optical system) (absolute value), when the subject (object within the object scene) is white point light source, the spectrum of the image MTF it can be regarded as.

(Image acquisition process)
Image (hereinafter, input image) that is acquired by the image acquisition step is a digital image obtained by imaging by the imaging device through the imaging optical system. The obtained digital image by the imaging optical system (lens) and the optical transfer function based on the aberration of the imaging optical system including a variety of optical filter group (OTF), as compared with object in the object field It has deteriorated. The optical transfer function (OTF), it is desirable that the transfer function based on the characteristics of the aberration and other imaging device of the imaging optical system optical elements such as described above. The imaging optical system 32 can be used mirror (reflecting surface) having another curvature also of a lens.

The input image is represented by a color space. The way of showing color space, for example, there are RGB, brightness expressed by LCH besides RGB, hue, saturation and brightness represented by YCbCr, and the like chrominance signals. Other color space, a XYZ, Lab, Yuv, is JCh and color temperature. The value represented by the color space used in these general, it is possible to apply the present invention as a color component.

Further, the input image may be a mosaic image having a signal value of one color component in each pixel, having a signal value of a plurality of color components in each pixel with color interpolation processing (demosaicing processing) the mosaic image demosaicing may be an image. Mosaic image as the image before performing image processing such as color interpolation processing (demosaicing processing), gamma conversion and image compression such as JPEG, also referred to as RAW image. For example, when the imaging device of a single plate obtaining information of a plurality of color components, by placing the different color filters spectral transmittance in each pixel, obtains a mosaic image having a signal value of one color component in each pixel to. Image having a signal value of a plurality of color components in each pixel by performing color interpolation processing on the mosaic image can be acquired. Moreover, multi-plate, for example, 3 in the case of using an imaging element of the plate by placing different color filters spectral transmittance for each image pickup element, the demosaic image having an image signal values ​​of different color components for each image pickup element It will be acquired. In this case, among the imaging elements, because it has a signal value of each color component for the corresponding pixel, having a signal value of a plurality of color components in each pixel without particularly performing the color interpolation processing image can be acquired.

The input image can be attached to various correction information for correcting an input image. The correction information, the focal length of the lens (zoom position), the aperture value, Range (focus distance), exposure time, includes information about the imaging conditions such as ISO sensitivity (imaging state information). When the series of processing from the image pickup to the output of the image by one image pickup apparatus can also be obtained in the apparatus without incidental the imaging state information and correction information to the input image. However, acquires RAW image from the image pickup apparatus, when performing image restoration processing, developing processing and the like by the image processing apparatus separate from the imaging device, incidental imaging state information and correction information to the image as described above it is preferable. However the present invention is not limited thereto, is stored in advance correction information to the image processing apparatus, if configure the system can select the correct information from the imaging condition information attached to the input image, not necessarily incidental correction information to the image .

Incidentally, the input image has been described as a digital image obtained by imaging by the imaging device through the imaging optical system, the input image may be a digital image obtained by an imaging system that does not include the imaging optical system. For example, it may be an image obtained by the imaging device scanner (reading device) or an X-ray imaging apparatus that does not have an imaging optical system such as a lens for imaging by close contact with the imaging device in the object plane. These, although no imaging optical system, an image generated by the image sampling by the image sensor deteriorates no small. What this deterioration characteristic of the case, but not due to the optical transfer function of the imaging optical system (narrow sense of the optical transfer function), is due to system transfer function of the imaging system, the system transfer function corresponding to an optical transfer function it can be said that. Therefore, refer to the embodiment of the present invention "optical transfer function" is a broad optical transfer function including a system transfer function of the imaging system that does not include such an imaging optical system.

(Image recovery filter generation step)
Next, the generation of the image restoration filter FIG. 2 (A), described with reference to (B). 2 (A) is a schematic diagram of an image restoration filter convolution process is performed on the pixels of the input image in real space. Number of taps (cells) of the image restoration filter, it can be determined in accordance with the aberration characteristics and the required recovery accuracy of the imaging system, when the image is two-dimensional, the number of taps corresponding to each pixel of the general image a two-dimensional image restoration filter having. The FIG. 2 (A), the illustrated two-dimensional image restoration filter 11 × 11 taps as an example. Regarding the number of taps of the image restoration filter, since generally improves often enough recovery accuracy, the number of taps required quality, image processing capability, is set according to the characteristics such as aberration.

Figure 2 (A) In although not the values ​​in each tap, showing a cross-section of the image restoration filter in FIG. 2 (B). The image restoration having values ​​of each tap of the filter (coefficient value) distribution, during the convolution process, and ideally plays a role of returning to the original point signal value spatially extended by aberrations.

To generate this image restoration filter first calculates or measures the imaging optical system optical transfer function (OTF). When the original image (degraded image) is an image obtained by the system without the imaging optical system, because the deterioration characteristics can be represented by the imaging system transfer function, OTF transfer function of the imaging system ( OTF) an image restoration filter may be generated as a. The expression optical transfer function (OTF) used below also includes the transfer function of the imaging system does not have this imaging optical system.

Image restoration filter used in the present invention, unlike the conventional image restoration filter has a function of correcting the differences between azimuth directions of MTF. Before describing an image restoration filter forming process of the present invention, the conventional Wiener filter will be described with reference to FIG.

The meridional direction of the cross-section of the point spread function of a certain color component at a certain position on the image (PSF) in FIG. 15 (A), shows the frequency characteristics in FIG. 16. The MTF Figure 16 (M) is an amplitude component, FIG. 16 (P) indicates the PTF is a phase component. Further, FIG. 15 (A), the a (B), the frequency characteristic corresponding to the PSF of (C) is, the dashed line in FIG. 16 (a), the two-dot chain line (b), one-dot chain line (c).

PSF before correction shown in FIG. 15 (A) has an asymmetrical shape by coma aberration and the like, has a low MTF characteristics higher frequency amplitude response as shown by a broken line (A) of FIG. 16 (M), Fig. phase shift as indicated by the broken line (a) of 16 (P) is generated. Is corrected by using the image restoration filter reciprocal (1 / OTF (u, v)) was prepared by inverse Fourier transform of the optical transfer function (OTF), PSF as shown in Figure 15 is ideally (B) There is corrected to the delta function that does not have a spread.

Incidentally, the reciprocal of the OTF is called inverse filter, defined as the maximum recovery degree herein recovery degree by inverse filter (image restoration filter).

MTF corresponding to FIG. 15 (B) becomes 1 over the entire frequency as the two-dot chain line (b) of FIG. 16 (M), PTF is as two-dot chain line (b) of FIG. 16 (P) It is 0 over the entire frequency.

However, as described above, when the creation of the image restoration filter, it is necessary to control the effects of noise amplification. Figure 15 PSF of (A), the PSF was recovered by Wiener filter shown in Formula 1 as shown in FIG. 15 (C), becomes symmetrical by phase is corrected, PSF by amplitude is increased is spread becomes less sharp shape. Figure 15 MTF corresponding to (C) will to that inhibited recovery gain as a chain line (c) of FIG. 16 (M), PTF is as dashed line (c) point in FIG. 16 (P) It is 0 over the entire frequency. Despite inhibited recovery gain it will be described with reference to Equation 3 why PTF is corrected to 0.

Assuming a white point light source as the subject, the frequency characteristics of the subject has no phase shift, the amplitude characteristic is 1 over the entire frequency. Frequency characteristics of the image obtained this through the imaging optical system becomes the optical transfer function (OTF) itself, the pixel value distribution of the PSF shape as an image. That is, the OTF frequency characteristic of the input image, it is possible to know the frequency characteristics of the restored image if ask it to multiplying the frequency characteristic of the image restoration filter. When this is expressed by the formula, as in Equation 3, an OTF H (u, v) is canceled out, the frequency characteristics of the restored image is as right side.

Figure JPOXMLDOC01-appb-M000003
The right-hand side | H (u, v) | Since the absolute value of the OTF (MTF), the phase component regardless of the value of the parameter SNR to determine the recovery degree will be extinguished. Therefore, by phase damage component is corrected, PSF is corrected to symmetrical.

However, PSF by the azimuth direction per phase damage component is corrected Although each azimuth direction is corrected symmetrically, the amplitude component is not corrected rotationally symmetrically different for each azimuth direction. For example, it is corrected to PSF as astigmatism shown in FIG. 13 (B) by coma is a line object shown in FIG. 13 (A) is corrected to point symmetry. That is, for each azimuth direction, PSF whose phases are different amplitude are corrected is not corrected only to a point-symmetrical state. In the conventional image restoration method is not corrected MTF difference between azimuth direction, it is as described above with reference to FIG. 14 which will be enlarged rather. Therefore, in the conventional image restoration method, it is impossible to sufficiently correct the asymmetrical aberrations.

Next, a description is given of an image restoration filter of the present invention having a function to correct asymmetric aberrations of the present invention. As can be seen from Equations 1 and 3, the frequency characteristic after restoration of an image portion of rOTF of formula 4 is obtained by photographing a white point light source.

Figure JPOXMLDOC01-appb-M000004
Here, ROTF is an arbitrary function. Since the phase degradation component of the restored image is desirably zero, ROTF may be to have no phase component, ROTF equals rMTF is substantially order to have only the real part. rOTF While it is preferred to have only the real part, it is needless to say even to have a value in the imaginary part in the acceptable range is within the scope of variations of the present invention. That With image restoration filter shown in equation 4, in any subject regardless of the point light source as if the optical transfer function (OTF) is photographed image by the imaging optical system having the characteristics of rOTF it is that it can be.

Therefore, to ensure that the formula 5 with a common OTF (rH (u, v)) between azimuth direction can be as if obtaining an image taken with no imaging optical system having MTF difference between azimuth direction . That is, the image restoration filter used in this embodiment is a filter that reduces the difference in MTF between the two azimuth directions of the imaging system.

Figure JPOXMLDOC01-appb-M000005

This will be described with reference to FIG. Figure 3 is a view object showing an image when treated with restoration filter, the change in the MTF at two azimuth direction after recovery and before recovery of the present invention in the case of the point light source. Dashed line (a), the solid line (b) the first, respectively, the MTF before recovery in a second azimuth direction, a broken line (c), the solid line (d) are first respectively MTF after recovery in the second azimuth direction a represents. MTF before recovery FIG. 3 (a), are different for each azimuth direction, as (b), the MTF after recovery are aligned between azimuth direction as shown in (c), (d). In Figure 3 (a), (b), for example meridional direction corresponding to the sagittal MTF. Thus, it is possible to recover while correcting the difference MTF between azimuth direction by the image restoration filter.

Also, common OTF (rH (u, v)) between the azimuth in Equation 5 direction is used, rH (u, v) the difference between the OTF for each azimuth direction is lower than the difference in OTF before recovery it is possible to control the rotational symmetry by correcting such. An example is shown in FIG. FIG. 4 (c), the even not match the MTF after recovery between two azimuth directions as (d), FIG. 14 (c), the reduction is MTF difference between azimuth direction with respect to (d), so that the asymmetry of the PSF is reduced. To obtain the asymmetry correction effect, it is desirable to filter to recover so as to be smaller than the difference MTF between at least restoring the previous azimuth direction.

Image restoration filter of this embodiment, the difference in MTF (absolute value of the transfer function) between the two azimuth direction in obtaining the restored image from the object, than the difference MTF between the two azimuth directions of the imaging system It becomes smaller to the construction described above.

In other words, the image restoration filter of this embodiment, when the subject is a white point light source, the difference between the spectra of the two azimuth directions in the recovery image is reduced than the difference between the spectra of the two azimuth directions of the input image to recover so.

In other words, the image restoration filter of this embodiment, a transfer function with a different frequency characteristic in two azimuth directions, the correction transfer function difference between the absolute value is corrected so as to reduce the transfer function between the two azimuth directions It is generated based on.

Or as described, by performing the image restoration processing using the image restoration filter of the present invention, it is possible to correct the difference in amplitude component between the phase component and azimuth direction of each azimuth direction of the aberration, the aberration asymmetry it is possible to obtain a high-definition image than reduce sexual.

The image restoration filter, since the portion of H (u, v) of the formula 5 is different for each azimuth direction, rH (u, v) is as would be common between the azimuth direction, but no matter differently, asymmetry having a coefficient array. That is, cross-sectional view of FIG. 2 is different for each azimuth direction.

Note that optical transfer function (OTF) not imaging optical system alone can include factors that deteriorate the optical transfer function (OTF) in the course of imaging. For example, an optical low-pass filter having birefringence is to suppress the high-frequency component with respect to the frequency characteristic of the optical transfer function (OTF). Further, the shape and aperture ratio of the pixel aperture of the imaging element also affects the frequency characteristics. Other spectral characteristics and spectral characteristics of various wavelength filter of the light source and the like also. Based on these broad optical transfer function, including (OTF), it is desirable to create an image restoration filter.

(Image restoration processing step (correcting step))
Next, using the generated image restoration filter, it describes a method for obtaining a corrected image.

Although already described, the image restoration filter in degraded image in the correction process by convolution, it is possible to obtain a corrected image (restored image). Here, convolution for each pixel included in the tap of the image restoration filter (convolution integral, sum-of-products) is performed. Convolution, in order to improve the signal value of a certain pixel to match the pixels and the center of the image restoration filter. Then, taking the product of the signal value of the image and the image restoration coefficient value of the filter for each corresponding pixel of the image and the image restoration filter, a process of replacing the sum as the signal value of the central pixel.

An advantage of and go or to the action of the image restoration filter, the convolution processing on the input image can be restored image without performing Fourier transform and inverse Fourier transform of the image in the image restoration processing. Generally loading of the convolution processing is smaller than the load of performing a Fourier transform. Therefore, when performing image restoration processing, it is possible to reduce the processing load.

Although we stated number of taps of the vertical and horizontal image restoration filter is not required number of taps of the vertical and horizontal are always the same, can be arbitrarily changed if to consider when performing the processing of convolution .

Other, image restoration process of the present invention is capable of processing the inverse process for towards degradation processes of the image is linearly restored to the original image before deterioration with high accuracy, the input image various adaptive nonlinear processing it is preferred that has not been performed. In other words, it is more preferable to carry out with respect to the mosaic image (RAW image). However, the input image is even demosaic image even mosaic image can be applied an image restoration process of the present invention. Because, if the degradation process linear due to the color interpolation process, the generation of the image restoration filter, because it is possible to perform the image restoration processing by considering the degradation function. Also, when only image required accuracy is low or if various image processing is performed for recovery not available, to obtain the effect of reducing the asymmetry of the blurred even if the image restoration processing on the demosaic image can.

(Image output step)
The obtained corrected image (restored image) by the above processing, and outputs the desired device. If the imaging device is output to the display unit or recording medium. The image subjected to the image restoration process, if carried out, etc. Other image processing may output an image on a device running a later step.

While there has been described in order by dividing the image processing steps of the present invention, among the processes, if some of the steps can be processed simultaneously it can be processed together. It is also possible to add the appropriate necessary processing steps before and after each step. Furthermore, expression and equal sign used in the description is not intended to limit the specific algorithm of image processing of the present invention thereto, but may be modified as needed within a range that can achieve the object.

Hereinafter, it will be described with reference to the drawings Examples of applying the above-described image processing.

Figure 5 is a block schematic diagram of an image pickup apparatus in Embodiment 1. Formed on the imaging device 102 to the object image (not shown) by the imaging optical system 101. The imaging device 102, the light imaged into an electric signal (photoelectric conversion), the electrical signal A / D converter 103 into a digital signal. The image processing unit 104 performs image processing in conjunction with the predetermined processing on the digital signal (input image). Wherein the predetermined processing is, for example, the magnification chromatic aberration correction, distortion correction, electronic aberration correction and demosaicing in a peripheral light amount correction, gamma conversion, a processing such as image compression.

First, obtain imaging state information of the imaging apparatus from the state detection unit 107. Directly from the state detection unit 107 the system controller 110, may obtain information of imaging conditions, for example, the imaging condition information related to the imaging optical system 101 can also be obtained from the imaging system control unit 106. Then select an image restoration filter corresponding to the imaging condition from the storage unit 108, performs image restoration processing on the input image to the image processing unit 104. It image restoration filter may be used as a selection from the storage unit 108 according to the imaging condition, and correcting the image restoration filter previously prepared, using those corrected image restoration filter suitable for more imaging condition it is also possible.

Then, save in a predetermined format an output image processed by the image processing unit 104 to the image recording medium 109. The output image is an image asymmetric aberration has been improved sharpness is corrected. Further, the display unit 105 may display an image subjected to predetermined processing for displaying an image after the image restoration processing is not performed correction for high-speed display, or simple correction processing the image may be displayed went.

A series of control described above is performed in the system controller 110, the mechanical drive of the imaging system carried by the imaging system control unit 106 in accordance with an instruction from the system controller 110. Diaphragm 101a is the aperture diameter is controlled as a photographing state setting F-number. Focusing lens 101b, the position of the lens is controlled by a not shown automatic focusing (AF) mechanism or manual manual focus mechanism in order to perform focus adjustment according to the photographing distance.

This imaging system may be placed in an optical element such as a low-pass filter or an infrared cut filter. Considering the effect of this device at the time of creating the image restoration filter in the case of using the element to influence the properties of the optical transfer function (OTF) such as a low-pass filter, it can perform a recovery process to more accurately it is. Also in the infrared cut filter, the PSF of the RGB channels is the integral value of the point spread function of the spectral wavelength (PSF), particularly because it affects the PSF of the R channel, and more preferably in consideration at the time of creating the image restoration filter .

Although the imaging optical system 101 is configured as part of an imaging device, or may be replaceable as in single-lens reflex camera. Features such as the opening diameter control and manual focus stop may not be used depending on the purpose of the imaging device.

Further, since changes in accordance with optical transfer function (OTF) image height of the imaging system also in one shot state (position of an image), it is possible to perform image restoration processing of the present invention vary depending on the image height desirable.

The image processing unit 104 includes at least arithmetic unit and a temporary storage unit (buffer). Performing image writing (storing) and reading from the temporary storage section as required for each step of the image processing described above. Also, the storage unit for temporarily storing not limited to the temporary storage unit (buffer), may even storing unit 108, a suitable in accordance with the data capacity and the communication speed of the storage unit having a storage function It may be appropriately selected. Other, image restoration filter in the memory unit 108, data such as correction information is stored.

With reference to FIG. 6, the selection of the image restoration filter and the correction will be described. Figure 6 illustrates a plurality of image restoration filter stored in the storage unit 108 based on the imaging condition information and the imaging condition information (closed circles) schematically. Image restoration filter stored in the storage unit 108, the focal position (A), an aperture value (state B) and the subject distance (focus distance) three imaging state space in which the image pickup condition has been the axis of (state C) It is discretely disposed. The coordinates of each point in the image pickup state space (black circle) indicates an image restoration filter stored in the storage unit 108. In FIG. 6, the image restoration filters are arranged in a lattice point of a line orthogonal to each respective image pickup states, may be the image restoration filter is disposed removed from the grid point. The type of imaging conditions, the focal length is not limited to the aperture value and the subject distance may not the number of even three, constitute four or more 4 or more dimensions of the image pickup state space by the imaging condition of, the image restoration filter may be discretely arranged therein.

6, the imaging state shown in large white circle, and the actual imaging state detected by the state detection unit 107. The actual position corresponding to the imaging state position, or if there is a pre-stored image restoration filter in the vicinity thereof can be used in image restoration processing by selecting the image restoration filter. One method for selecting the image restoration filter in the vicinity of a position corresponding to the actual imaging state, distance imaging state space between the actual plural imaging conditions by the imaging condition and image restoration filters stored in the ( calculating a difference amount) in the imaging state. Then, a method of selecting an image restoration filter the shortest distance position. In this way, the image restoration filter position indicated by a small white circle in FIG. 6 is selected.

Further, as another method, there is a method of weighting by direction in the imaging state space image restoration filter selection. That is, as the evaluation function the product of a direction, weighted with the distance in the imaging state space, the value of the evaluation function is a method of selecting the highest image restoration filter.

Then, by correcting the image restoration filter selected, a method for generating a new image restoration filter. Upon correcting the image restoration filter, and calculates the distance in the imaging state space between the first and the actual imaging state imaging state and the image restoration filter is stored (state difference amount), the shortest distance (state difference amount There selects an image restoration filter smallest) position. By state difference amount selects the smallest image restoration filter, the correction amount of the image restoration filter can also be reduced, it is possible to generate an image restoration filter close to the original image restoration filter in the imaging state.

In Figure 6, the image restoration filter position indicated by a small white circle is selected. Calculates an imaging condition corresponding to the selected image restoration filter, the state amount of difference between the actual imaging state .DELTA.A, .DELTA.B, the [Delta] C. Calculating a state correction coefficient based on the state difference amount, to correct the selected image restoration filter by using the state correction factor. Thus, it is possible to generate an image restoration filter corresponding to the actual imaging state.

Further, as another method, to select a plurality of image restoration filter positioned near the actual imaging state, by interpolation processing according to a state amount of difference between the actual imaging state with the image restoration filter the plurality of, it is possible to generate an image restoration filter suitable for imaging state. Here interpolation processing in the linear interpolation coefficient values ​​of the corresponding tap between the two-dimensional image restoration filter may be interpolated using polynomial interpolation and spline interpolation or the like.

The optical transfer function used for generating the image restoration filter (OTF) can be obtained by calculation using the optical design tools and optical analysis tool. Further, the optical transfer function (OTF) in the actual state of the imaging optical system alone and the imaging device, can be determined by measuring.

It shows a specific flowchart of the image restoration process of the present embodiment executed by the image processing unit 104 in FIG. ● marks in the figure represents the step of at least temporarily storing the pixel data of the image or the like.

The image processing unit 104 acquires an input image by the image acquisition process. Then obtain imaging state information from the state detection unit 107 (step S72). Then, select the image restoration filter corresponding to the imaging condition from the storage unit 108 (step S73), the image restoration processing step by using the image restoration filter (correction step) performs restoration processing on the input image (step S74 ).

Then it outputs the other processing performed restored image required for image formation (step S76). Other processing here, the corrected image is if the state of the mosaic image, color interpolation processing (demosaicing processing), shading correction (peripheral light amount correction), and the like distortion correction. Further, various image processing, including the other processes described herein, can be inserted as required before or after or the intermediate of the flow.

Here, preferred examples of the flow of the image restoration processing will be described with reference to FIG. Figure 8 represents the change in the MTF before and after performing the recovery process. Dashed line (a), the solid line (b) the first azimuth direction before each performing image restoration processing, an MTF of the second azimuth direction, a broken line (c), the solid line (d) shows after the recovery process first 1 azimuth direction, which is the MTF second azimuth direction. As shown in FIG. 8, two azimuth directions of MTF before recovering (a), with respect to (b), it performs the image restoration processing with a low recovery degree. Thus, as the (c), (d), MTF at low state, azimuth direction of the difference is the corrected state. This state is the asymmetry of the phase component and the aberration of the aberration is corrected, the sharpness is low. In other words, when the degree of recovery recovery image when the image restoration filter is inverse filter with maximum recovery degree, a low degree of recovery restored image than the maximum recovery degree. Preferably, in the Nyquist frequency, a frequency mean of the two azimuth directions of MTF after recovery, it is preferably not more than 1.5 times the maximum MTF before recovery. Still more preferably it is 1.2 times or less. More preferably, one of the two azimuth directions, a higher first azimuth direction MTF recovers only the phase, the MTF does not substantially change. The lower second azimuth direction of MTF recovers phase, MTF of azimuth direction of the second is preferably aligned with the MTF of the first azimuth direction. Performing edge enhancement processing with respect to such recovery processing to recover image subjected.

Thus, it is possible to improve the sharpness of only the edge portion, than performing recovery processing for the entire image, it is possible to suppress noise amplification.

The edge emphasis processing will be described with reference to FIG. An example of an edge enhancement filter shown in FIG. Filters for performing edge enhancement, can be generated as shown in FIG. 9, the filter and the difference between the differential filter that outputs the input image. Differential filter such as a Laplacian filter for performing a Sobel filter or a second-order differential to perform the first-order differential are well known. Differential filter of FIG. 9 is a Laplacian filter. Edge enhancement filter for processing by the relationship of the pixel values ​​of the adjacent pixels, and the number of taps is often used 3 × 3 about the filter as shown in FIG.

It shows the enhancement effect of the edge portion of the case of using an edge enhancement filter shown in FIG. 9 in FIG. 10. Figure 10 (A), (B), is a view when viewed in (C) the cross section is the luminance of the edge portion in the image. The horizontal axis coordinates and the vertical axis represents the amplitude. (A) in FIG. 10 is a luminance section of the edge portion in the image, to which extracts an edge portion in the differential filter is a obtained by sign inversion is (B). As in the original image (A) by adding the (B) (C), it is possible to sharply emphasizing the slope of the edge. Edge enhancement processing particularly affects only the sharp portion of the edge, high-speed processing is possible because of the relatively small number of taps of the advantages and the filter that is less affected by noise amplification for the entire image since the sharpening there is an advantage in that. Therefore, after the image restoration processing of low recovery degree, and more preferably to the edge enhancement processing. If this is combined with an edge enhancement process, as may if you include edge enhancement processing to the other necessary processing in FIG. Edge portion of the image enhancement processing as other processes possible, sharpening, and the like.

Having described preferred context and to consider the process of each process step, if there is a restriction in another aspect with respect to the order of the process steps is not limited to this, Ya constraints on process it may be changed in response to the request image quality. Further, although the embodiment relates to an imaging apparatus, and can be variously modified and changed within the scope of the invention.

The FIG. 11 (A), the showing the configuration of an image processing system according to a second embodiment of the present invention. The image processing apparatus 111 is constituted by an information processing apparatus, and an image processing method described in Example 1 equipped with the image processing software (image processing program) 112 to be executed on the information processing apparatus.

Imaging device 113 includes a camera, a microscope, an endoscope, scanner, or the like. Storage medium 114 stores a semiconductor memory, a hard disk, on a network server or the like, an image generated by the imaging (captured image data).

The image processing apparatus 111 includes an imaging device 113 or from a storage medium 114 to acquire the image data, the output image subjected to predetermined image processing (correction image) outputting data device 116, at least one of the image pickup device 113 and a storage medium 114 and outputs it to the One. Also, the storage unit that is built in the output destination to the image processing apparatus 111, it is also possible to store the output image data in the storage unit. The output device 116, a printer and the like. The image processing apparatus 111 is connected display device 115 is a monitor, the user can performs image processing operations through the display device 115, to evaluate the recovery adjusted image (output image). The image processing software 112, in addition to the image restoration processing function and recovery degree adjustment function has a developing function and other image processing functions, if necessary.

Further, in FIG. 11 (B) shows a configuration of another image processing system. As in Example 1, the case of performing the image processing in Example 1 in the imaging apparatus 118 itself can be output directly, the recovery adjust image output device 119 from the imaging device 118.

Further, the output device 119, by mounting the image processing apparatus that executes an image processing method of Example 1, and set the adjustment coefficient in accordance with the feature quantity of the image output device 119, to adjust the recovery degree it is also possible. Further, by adjusting the recovery degree depending on the degradation characteristics of the output image of the output device 119 can provide a higher-quality image.

Here, the contents of the correction information for performing image processing including an image restoration processing and the adjustment of the recovery degree, for the delivery will be described. Figure 12 shows an example of the correction information, it referred to the plurality of correction information and the correction information set. For each correction information will be described below.

"Correction control information"
Correction control information, the imaging device 113, and setting information indicating whether to perform a recovery process and recovery degree adjustment process at at any of the image processing device 111 and output device 116, data to be transmitted to another device in accordance with the setting information a selection information for selecting. For example, performs only the recovery processing by the imaging apparatus 113, when adjusting the recovery degree in the image processing apparatus 111, but is not necessary to transmit the image restoration filter on the image processing apparatus 111, at least the captured image restoration image or restoration component information it is necessary to transmit the (difference information).

"Imaging device information"
Imaging device information is identification information of the imaging device 113 corresponding to the product name. If the lens and the camera body is interchangeable identification information including a combination thereof.

"Imaging state information"
Imaging state information is information about the state of the imaging apparatus 113 during shooting. For example, the focal length (zoom position), the aperture value, subject distance (focus distance), ISO sensitivity, a white balance setting, etc. and the like.

"Imaging apparatus individual information"
Imaging device individual information, with respect to the image pickup apparatus information is identification information of the individual imaging apparatus. Optical transfer function of the imaging device due to variations in manufacturing errors (OTF) because there are individual variations, the imaging device individual information is useful information in order to set the optimum recovery degree adjustment parameters individually. The recovery degree adjustment parameter, a recovery intensity adjustment factor μ and color combination ratio adjustment factor omega.

"Image recovery filter group"
Image restoration filter group is a set of image restoration filter used in image restoration processing. If the device that performs the image restoration processing has no image restoration filter, it is necessary to transmit the image restoration filter from another device (apparatus).

"User setting information."
The user setting information is a correction function of the adjustment parameters or adjustment parameter for adjusting the recovery degree according to the user's preference. The user is susceptible setting the adjustment parameter variable, using the user setting information, it is possible to obtain an output image of the favorite always as an initial value. The user setting information from the history that the user determines an adjustment parameter, it is preferable to update the learning function sharpness prefer most.

Moreover, the preset value provider of the imaging device (manufacturer) is depending on a number of sharpness pattern can also be provided through a network.

Additional correction information set, it is preferable to attached to each image data. Be to attached the required correction information in the image data, it is possible to perform image restoration processing when a device provided with the image processing apparatus of the second embodiment. The contents of the correction information set optionally, can be sift through in automatic and manual.

The present invention is not intended to be limited to the above embodiments, without departing from the spirit and scope of the present invention, it is susceptible to various changes and modifications. Thus, the following claims are to apprise the public of the scope of the present invention.

101 imaging optical system 102 imaging element 104 image processing unit 106 image capturing system control unit 108 storage unit 110 system controller

Claims (6)

  1. An image obtaining unit for obtaining an input image,
    Yes and image restoration means for restoring said input image to generate a restored image using an image restoration filter generated or selected based on the transfer function of the imaging system used to form an object image as the input image and,
    The image restoration filter, the difference between the absolute value of the transfer function between the two azimuth direction in obtaining the restored image from the object is smaller than the difference between the absolute value of the transfer function between the two azimuth directions of the imaging system the image processing apparatus characterized by.
  2. The image restoration unit, an image processing apparatus according to claim 1, characterized in that performing the image restoration by convolving the image restoration filter to the pixels of the acquired image.
  3. The image restoration filter has a transfer function with a different frequency characteristic in two azimuth directions are generated based on the corrected correction transfer function such that the difference absolute value of the transfer function between the two azimuth directions is reduced the image processing apparatus according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that.
  4. An imaging device for generating a photographic image of a subject image formed by the imaging system by photoelectric conversion,
    Imaging apparatus characterized by comprising an image processing apparatus according to any one of claims 1 to 3 any one processes the captured image as the input image.
  5. A step of acquiring an image generated by the imaging system as an input image,
    The input image is recovered using the image restoration filter generated or selected based on the transfer function of the imaging system, and a step of generating a restored image,
    The image restoration filter is that the difference between the absolute value of the transfer function between the two azimuth direction in obtaining the restored image from the object to be smaller than the difference between the transfer function between the two azimuth directions of the imaging system image processing method according to claim.
  6. An image acquisition step of acquiring an image generated by the imaging system as an input image,
    An image processing program for executing an image restoration step of the input image to recover, to generate a restored image using an image restoration filter generated or selected based on the transfer function of the imaging system in an information processing apparatus,
    The image restoration filter, the difference between the absolute value of the transfer function between the two azimuth direction in obtaining the restored image from the object is smaller than the difference between the absolute value of the transfer function between the two azimuth directions of the imaging system image processing program characterized by.
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PCT/JP2011/055610 WO2011122284A1 (en) 2010-03-31 2011-03-10 Image processing device and image capturing apparatus using same
JP2012508186A JP5188651B2 (en) 2010-03-31 2011-03-10 Image processing apparatus, and an imaging apparatus using the same
CN201180017173.9A CN102822863B (en) 2010-03-31 2011-03-10 The image processing apparatus and an image processing apparatus using the image pickup device
US13/204,453 US8514304B2 (en) 2010-03-31 2011-08-05 Image processing device and image pickup device using the same
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