WO2011087733A1 - Liquid cleaning and/or cleansing composition - Google Patents

Liquid cleaning and/or cleansing composition Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2011087733A1
WO2011087733A1 PCT/US2010/061186 US2010061186W WO2011087733A1 WO 2011087733 A1 WO2011087733 A1 WO 2011087733A1 US 2010061186 W US2010061186 W US 2010061186W WO 2011087733 A1 WO2011087733 A1 WO 2011087733A1
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Prior art keywords
preferably
cleaning
particles
abrasive
surface
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PCT/US2010/061186
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French (fr)
Inventor
Denis Alfred Gonzales
Aicha Dkidak
Chris Jaak Decuyper
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The Procter & Gamble Company
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Priority to US28888709P priority Critical
Priority to US61/288,887 priority
Priority to US61/326,290 priority
Priority to US32628610P priority
Priority to US32629010P priority
Priority to US61/326,286 priority
Application filed by The Procter & Gamble Company filed Critical The Procter & Gamble Company
Publication of WO2011087733A1 publication Critical patent/WO2011087733A1/en

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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C11ANIMAL OR VEGETABLE OILS, FATS, FATTY SUBSTANCES OR WAXES; FATTY ACIDS THEREFROM; DETERGENTS; CANDLES
    • C11DDETERGENT COMPOSITIONS; USE OF SINGLE SUBSTANCES AS DETERGENTS; SOAP OR SOAP-MAKING; RESIN SOAPS; RECOVERY OF GLYCEROL
    • C11D3/00Other compounding ingredients of detergent compositions covered in group C11D1/00
    • C11D3/02Inorganic compounds ; Elemental compounds
    • C11D3/12Water-insoluble compounds
    • C11D3/14Fillers; Abrasives; Abrasive compositions; Suspending or absorbing agents not provided for in one single group of C11D3/12; Specific features concerning abrasives, e.g. granulometry, mixtures
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61KPREPARATIONS FOR MEDICAL, DENTAL, OR TOILET PURPOSES
    • A61K8/00Cosmetics or similar toilet preparations
    • A61K8/02Cosmetics or similar toilet preparations characterised by special physical form
    • A61K8/0241Containing particulates characterized by their shape and/or structure
    • A61K8/025Explicitly spheroidal or spherical shape
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61KPREPARATIONS FOR MEDICAL, DENTAL, OR TOILET PURPOSES
    • A61K8/00Cosmetics or similar toilet preparations
    • A61K8/18Cosmetics or similar toilet preparations characterised by the composition
    • A61K8/72Cosmetics or similar toilet preparations characterised by the composition containing organic macromolecular compounds
    • A61K8/84Cosmetics or similar toilet preparations characterised by the composition containing organic macromolecular compounds obtained by reactions otherwise than those involving only carbon-carbon unsaturated bonds
    • A61K8/87Polyurethanes
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61QSPECIFIC USE OF COSMETICS OR SIMILAR TOILET PREPARATIONS
    • A61Q11/00Preparations for care of the teeth, of the oral cavity or of dentures; Dentifrices, e.g. toothpastes; Mouth rinses
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61QSPECIFIC USE OF COSMETICS OR SIMILAR TOILET PREPARATIONS
    • A61Q19/00Preparations for care of the skin
    • A61Q19/10Washing or bathing preparations
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61QSPECIFIC USE OF COSMETICS OR SIMILAR TOILET PREPARATIONS
    • A61Q5/00Preparations for care of the hair
    • A61Q5/02Preparations for cleaning the hair
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C11ANIMAL OR VEGETABLE OILS, FATS, FATTY SUBSTANCES OR WAXES; FATTY ACIDS THEREFROM; DETERGENTS; CANDLES
    • C11DDETERGENT COMPOSITIONS; USE OF SINGLE SUBSTANCES AS DETERGENTS; SOAP OR SOAP-MAKING; RESIN SOAPS; RECOVERY OF GLYCEROL
    • C11D17/00Detergent materials characterised by their shape or physical properties
    • C11D17/0008Detergent materials characterised by their shape or physical properties aqueous liquid non soap compositions
    • C11D17/0013Liquid compositions with insoluble particles in suspension
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C11ANIMAL OR VEGETABLE OILS, FATS, FATTY SUBSTANCES OR WAXES; FATTY ACIDS THEREFROM; DETERGENTS; CANDLES
    • C11DDETERGENT COMPOSITIONS; USE OF SINGLE SUBSTANCES AS DETERGENTS; SOAP OR SOAP-MAKING; RESIN SOAPS; RECOVERY OF GLYCEROL
    • C11D3/00Other compounding ingredients of detergent compositions covered in group C11D1/00
    • C11D3/16Organic compounds
    • C11D3/37Polymers
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61KPREPARATIONS FOR MEDICAL, DENTAL, OR TOILET PURPOSES
    • A61K2800/00Properties of cosmetic compositions or active ingredients thereof or formulation aids used therein and process related aspects
    • A61K2800/40Chemical, physico-chemical or functional or structural properties of particular ingredients
    • A61K2800/60Particulates further characterized by their structure or composition
    • A61K2800/65Characterized by the composition of the particulate/core
    • A61K2800/654The particulate/core comprising macromolecular material

Abstract

The present invention relates to a liquid, cleaning and/or cleansing composition comprising abrasive cleaning particles.

Description

LIQUID CLEANING AND/OR CLEANSING COMPOSITION

TECHNICAL FIELD The present invention relates to liquid compositions for cleaning and/or cleansing a variety of inanimate and animate surfaces, including hard surfaces in and around the house, dish surfaces, hard and soft tissue surface of the oral cavity, such as teeth, gums, tongue and buccal surfaces, human and animal skin, car and vehicles surfaces, etc. More specifically, the present invention relates to liquid scouring compositions comprising suitable particles for cleaning and/or cleansing.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

Scouring compositions such as particulate compositions or liquid (incl. gel, paste-type) compositions containing abrasive components are well known in the art. Such compositions are used for cleaning and/or cleansing a variety of surfaces; especially those surfaces that tend to become soiled with difficult to remove stains and soils.

Amongst the currently known scouring compositions, the most popular ones are based on abrasive particles with shapes varying from spherical to irregular. The most common abrasive particles are either inorganic like carbonate salt, clay, silica, silicate, shale ash, perlite and quartz sand or organic polymeric beads like polypropylene, PVC, melamine, urea, polyacrylate and derivatives, and come in the form of liquid composition having a creamy consistency with the abrasive particles suspended therein.

The surface safety profile of such currently known scouring compositions is inadequate alternatively, poor cleaning performances is shown for compositions with an adequate surface safety profile. Indeed, due to the presence of very hard abrasive particles, these compositions can damage, i.e., scratch, the surfaces onto which they have been applied while with less hard material the level of cleaning performance is insufficient. Indeed, the formulator needs to choose between good cleaning/cleansing performance but featuring strong surface damage or compromising on the cleaning/cleansing performance while featuring an acceptable surface safety profile. In addition, such currently known scouring compositions at least in certain fields of application (e.g., hard surface cleaning) are perceived by consumers as outdated.

It is thus an objective of the present invention to provide a liquid cleaning and/or cleansing composition suitable to clean/cleanse a variety of surfaces, including inanimate and animate surfaces, such hard surfaces in and around the house, dish surfaces, hard and soft tissue surface of the oral cavity, such as teeth, gums, tongue and buccal surfaces, human and animal skin, etc., wherein the composition provides good cleaning/cleansing performance, whilst providing a good surface safety profile.

It has been found that the above objective can be met by the composition according to the present invention.

It is an advantage of the compositions according to the present invention that they may be used to clean/cleanse inanimate and animate surfaces made of a variety of materials like glazed and non- glazed ceramic tiles, enamel, stainless steel, Inox®, Formica®, vinyl, no-wax vinyl, linoleum, melamine, glass, plastics, painted surfaces, human and animal skin, hair, hard and soft tissue surface of the oral cavity, such as teeth, gums, tongue and buccal surfaces, and the like. A further advantage of the present invention is that in the compositions herein, the particles can be formulated at very low levels, whilst still providing the above benefits. Indeed, in general for other technologies, high levels of abrasive particles are needed to reach good cleaning/cleansing performance, thus leading to high formulation and process cost, incompatibility with many package e.g.: squeeze or spray bottle, low incident usage ergonomy, difficult rinse and end cleaning profiles, as well as limitation for aesthetics and a pleasant hand feel of the cleaning/cleansing composition.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION The present invention is directed to a liquid cleaning and/or cleansing composition comprising abrasive cleaning particles, wherein said abrasive cleaning particles have a mean roughness from 0.10 to 0.3 and wherein said abrasive cleaning particles have a HV Vickers hardness from 3 to 50 kg/mm2. The present invention further encompasses a process of cleaning and/or cleansing a surface with a liquid, cleaning and/or cleansing composition comprising abrasive cleaning particles, wherein said surface is contacted with said composition, preferably wherein said composition is applied onto said surface.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE FIGURES

Fig. 1 is an illustration of tip radius.

Fig. 2 is an illustration how to calculate roughness from the particle.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

The liquid cleaning/cleansing composition

The compositions according to the present invention are designed as cleaners/cleansers for a variety of inanimate and animate surfaces. Preferably, the compositions herein are suitable for cleaning/cleansing surfaces selected from the group consisting of inanimate surfaces and animate surfaces. In a preferred embodiment, the compositions herein are suitable for cleaning/cleansing inanimate surfaces selected from the group consisting of household hard surfaces; dish surfaces; surfaces like leather or synthetic leather; and automotive vehicles surfaces.

In a highly preferred embodiment, the compositions herein are suitable to clean household hard surfaces.

By "household hard surface", it is meant herein any kind of surface typically found in and around houses like kitchens, bathrooms, e.g., floors, walls, tiles, windows, cupboards, sinks, showers, shower plastified curtains, wash basins, WCs, fixtures and fittings and the like made of different materials like ceramic, vinyl, no-wax vinyl, linoleum, melamine, glass, Inox®, Formica®, any plastics, plastified wood, metal or any painted or varnished or sealed surface and the like. Household hard surfaces also include household appliances including, but not limited to refrigerators, freezers, washing machines, automatic dryers, ovens, microwave ovens, dishwashers and so on. Such hard surfaces may be found both in private households as well as in commercial, institutional and industrial environments.

By "dish surfaces" it is meant herein any kind of surfaces found in dish cleaning, such as dishes, cutlery, cutting boards, pans, and the like. Such dish surfaces may be found both in private households as well as in commercial, institutional and industrial environments.

In an another preferred embodiment, the compositions herein are suitable for cleaning/cleansing animate surfaces selected from the group consisting of human skin; animal skin; human hair; animal hair; and hard and soft tissue surface of the oral cavity, such as teeth, gums, tongue and buccal surfaces.

The compositions according to the present invention are liquid compositions as opposed to a solid or a gas. Liquid compositions include compositions having a water-like viscosity as well as thickened compositions, such as gels and pastes.

In a preferred embodiment herein, the liquid compositions herein are aqueous compositions. Therefore, they may comprise from 65% to 99.5% by weight of the total composition of water, preferably from 75% to 98% and more preferably from 80% to 95%.

In another preferred embodiment herein, the liquid compositions herein are mostly non-aqueous compositions although they may comprise from 0% to 10% by weight of the total composition of water, preferably from 0% to 5%, more preferably from 0% to 1% and most preferably 0% by weight of the total composition of water.

In a preferred embodiment herein, the compositions herein are neutral compositions, and thus have a pH, as is measured at 25°C, of 6 - 8, more preferably 6.5 - 7.5, even more preferably 7.

In other preferred embodiment compositions have pH preferably above pH 4 and alternatively have pH preferably below pH 9.

Accordingly, the compositions herein may comprise suitable bases and acids to adjust the pH. A suitable base to be used herein is an organic and/or inorganic base. Suitable bases for use herein are the caustic alkalis, such as sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide and/or lithium hydroxide, and/or the alkali metal oxides such, as sodium and/or potassium oxide or mixtures thereof. A preferred base is a caustic alkali, more preferably sodium hydroxide and/or potassium hydroxide.

Other suitable bases include ammonia, ammonium carbonate, all available carbonate salts such as K2CO3, Na2CC>3, Ca2CC>3, Mg2CC>3, etc., alkanolamines (as e.g. monoethanolamine), urea and urea derivatives, polyamine, etc.

Typical levels of such bases, when present, are of from 0.01% to 5.0%, preferably from 0.05% to 3.0% and more preferably from 0.1% to 0.6 % by weight of the total composition.

The compositions herein may comprise an acid to trim its pH to the required level, despite the presence of an acid, if any, the compositions herein will maintain their preferred neutral pH as described herein above. A suitable acid for use herein is an organic and/or an inorganic acid. A preferred organic acid for use herein has a pKa of less than 6. A suitable organic acid is selected from the group consisting of citric acid, lactic acid, glycolic acid, succinic acid, glutaric acid and adipic acid and a mixture thereof. A mixture of said acids may be commercially available from BASF under the trade name Sokalan® DCS. A suitable inorganic acid is selected from the group consisting hydrochloric acid, sulphuric acid, phosphoric acid and a mixture thereof.

A typical level of such an acid, when present, is of from 0.01% to 5.0%, preferably from 0.04% to 3.0% and more preferably from 0.05% to 1.5 % by weight of the total composition.

In a preferred embodiment according to the present invention the compositions herein are thickened compositions. Preferably, the liquid compositions herein have a viscosity of up to 7500 cps at 20 s"1, more preferably from 5000 cps to 50 cps, yet more preferably from 2000 cps to 50 cps and most preferably from 1500 cps to 300 cps at 20 s"1 and 20°C when measured with a Rheometer, model AR 1000 (Supplied by TA Instruments) with a 4 cm conic spindle in stainless steel, 2° angle (linear increment from 0.1 to 100 sec"1 in max. 8 minutes). In another preferred embodiment according to the present invention the compositions herein have a water-like viscosity. By "water-like viscosity" it is meant herein a viscosity that is close to that of water. Preferably the liquid compositions herein have a viscosity of up to 50 cps at 60 rpm, more preferably from 0 cps to 30 cps, yet more preferably from 0 cps to 20 cps and most preferably from 0 cps to 10 cps at 60 rpm and 20°C when measured with a Brookfield digital viscometer model DV II, with spindle 2.

Abrasive cleaning particles

The liquid cleaning and/or cleansing composition herein comprise abrasive cleaning particles that are selected or synthesized to feature effective shapes, e.g.: defined by roughness and adequate hardness. In a preferred embodiment the abrasive cleaning particles are preferably non-rolling. Additionally, in a preferred embodiment the abrasive cleaning particles are preferably sharp.

The applicant has found that non-rolling and sharp abrasive cleaning particles provide good soil removal and low surface damage. Indeed the applicant has found that very specific particle shapes e.g.: defined by circularity to promote effective sliding of the abrasive particles vs. typical abrasive particles, where rolling movement is rather promoted and is less effective as displacing soil from the surface. The circularity to meet the criteria, to promote effective sliding of the particles is at range from 0.1 to 0.45. The shape of the abrasive cleaning particle can be defined in various ways. The present invention defines the cleaning particle shape in a form of particle, which reflects the geometrical proportions of a particle and more pragmatically of the particle population. Very recent analytical techniques allow an accurate simultaneous measurement of particle shapes from a large number of particles, typically greater than 10000 particles (preferably above 100 000). This enables accurate tuning and/or selection of average particle population shape with discriminative performance. These measurement analyses of particle shape are conducted using on Occhio Nano 500 Particle Characterisation Instrument with its accompanying software Callistro version 25 (Occhio s.a. Liege, Belgium). This instrument is used to prepare, disperse, image and analyse the particle samples, as per manufacturer's instructions, and the following instrument setting selections: White Requested = 180, vacuum time = 5000ms, sedimentation time = 5000ms, automatic threshold, number of particles counted/analyses = 8000 to 500000, minimum number of replicates/sample = 3, lens setting lx/1.5x.

The abrasive cleaning particles of the present invention are defined by quantitative description of a shape. In quantitative description, shape descriptor is understood as numbers that can be calculated from particle images or physical particle properties via mathematical or numerical operations. While particle shape can be defined in 3-dimension with dedicated analytical technique, the applicant has found, that the characterization of the particles shape in 2-dimension is most relevant and correlates with the abrasive performance of the cleaning particles. During the particle shape analysis protocol, the particles are orientated toward the surface - via gravity deposition - similarly to the expected particle orientation during the cleaning process. Hence, the object of the present invention regards the characterization of 2-D shape of a particle/particle population as defined by the projection of its shape on the surface on which the particle/particle population is deposited.

In a preferred embodiment, the abrasive cleaning particles have a mean ECD from 10 μιη to 1000 μιη, preferably from 50 μιη to 500 μιη, more preferably from 100 μιη to 350 μιη and most preferably from 150 to 250 μιη. Indeed, the Applicant has found that the abrasive particle size can be critical to achieve efficient cleaning performance whereas excessively abrasive population with small particle sizes e.g.: typically below 10 microns feature polishing action vs. cleaning despite featuring a high number of particles per particle load in cleaner inherent to the small particle size. On the other hand, abrasive population with excessively high particle size, e.g.: above 1000 micrometers, do not deliver optimal cleaning efficiency, because the number of particles per particle load in cleaner, decreases significantly inherently to the large particle size. Additionally, excessively small particle size are not desirable in cleaner / for cleaning task since in practice, small and numerous particles are often hard to remove from the various surface topologies which requires excessive effort to remove from the user unless leaving the surface with visible particles residue. On the other hand, excessively large particle are too easily detected visually or provide bad tactile experience while handling or using the cleaner. Therefore, the applicant defines herein an optimal particle size range that delivers both optimal cleaning performance and usage experience. The abrasive particles have a size defined by their area-equivalent diameter (ISO 9276-6:2008(E) section 7) also called Equivalent Circle Diameter ECD (ASTM F1877-05 Section 11.3.2). Mean ECD of particle population is calculated as the average of respective ECD of each particles of a particle population of at least 10 000 particles, preferably above 50 000 particles, more preferably above 100 000 particles after excluding from the measurement and calculation the data of particles having area-equivalent diameter (ECD) of below 10 micrometers. Mean data are extracted from volume-based vs. number-based measurements.

In one preferred example, the size of the abrasive cleaning particles used in the present invention is altered during usage especially undergoing significant size reduction. Hence the particle remain visible or tactile detectable in liquid composition and in the beginning of the usage process to provide effective cleaning. As the cleaning process progresses, the abrasive particles disperse or break into smaller particles and become invisible to an eye or tactile undetectable. In the present invention shape descriptors are calculations of geometrical descriptors/shape factors. Geometrical shape factors are ratios between two different geometrical properties, such properties are usually a measure of proportions of the image of the whole particle or a measure of the proportions of an ideal geometrical body enveloping the particle or forms an envelope around the particle. These results are macroshape descriptors similar to aspect ratio, however the Applicant has discovered that mesoshape descriptors - a specific sub-class of macroshape descriptor- are particularly critical to the cleaning effectiveness and surface safety performances of the abrasive cleaning particles, while more typical shape parameters such as aspect ratio has proved insufficient. These mesoshape descriptors describe how different a particle is compared to an ideal geometrical shape, especially how different compared to a sphere, and incidentally help define its ability for non-rolling, e.g.: sliding, effective cleaning movement pattern. The abrasive cleaning particles of the present invention are different from typical spherical or spherical- resembling e.g.: granular, abrasives forms.

The abrasive cleaning particles of the present invention are non-spherical.

The non-spherical particles herein preferably have sharp edges and each particle has at least one edge or surface having concave curvature. More preferably, the non-spherical particles herein have a multitude of sharp edges and each particle has at least one edge or surface having concave curvature. The sharp edges of the non-spherical particles are defined by edge having a tip radius below 20 μιη, preferably below 8 μιη, most preferably below 5 μιη. The tip radius is defined by the diameter of an imaginary circle fitting the curvature of the edge extremity. Figure 1 is an illustration of a tip radius.

Roughness

Roughness is a quantative, 2-dimensional image analysis shape description, and is being measured according to ISO 9276-6:2008(E) section 8.2 as implemented via the Occhio Nano 500 Particle Characterisation Instrument with its accompanying software Callistro version 25 (Occhio s.a. Liege, Belgium). Roughness defines 2D measurements, the equivalent useful surface area outside of the core surface area of the particle, and can range in value from 0 to 1, where a roughness value of 0 describes a particle with no useful mass available at the periphery of the particles core. Roughness is also sometimes called satellity, and is a quantitative description, and is available mesoshape descriptor e.g.: in the Occhio Nano 500 instrument.

Roughness is useful in abrasive particles since the non-spherical particle herein has preferably a significant mass of material, available at the periphery of its core, as useful abrasives. This peripheral mass is useful for cleaning performance and also for preventing the particle from rolling.

Roughness is defining in 2D measurements the equivalent useful surface area outside of the core surface area of the particles ranging 0-1 whereas a roughness of 0 describes a particle with no useful mass available at the periphery of the core particle mass. Roughness is calculated as follows:

Rgy - (A-A.(Qy) / A

Where A is the area of the particle and AiOy^is the surface area of what is considered the "core of the particle". Α-Α(Ογ) represent the "useful area at the periphery of the particle and the roughness represents the fraction of that useful area vs. the total particle area. Ογ is called the tunable tolerance factor and is typically set at 0.8, therefore the roughness definition is Rgy = (A- A(0.8)/A. In order to calculate the A(0.8), the maximum amount of discs are inscribed within the particle contour at each point of the particle's edge. The size, e.g.: area of the discs inscribed is defined by the Discs' diameters whereas the diameter value ranges between 0.8xDmax and Dmax (where Dmax is the diameter value of the biggest disc inscribed in the particle). The core area of the particle A(0.8) is defined by the area corresponding to the projection of all the inscribed discs.

Figure 2 is drawing showing how to calculate roughness from the particle.

The applicant has found out that the abrasive cleaning particles having a mean roughness from 0.1 to 0.3, preferably from 0.15 to 0.28 and more preferably from 0.18 to 0.25 are providing improved cleaning performance and surface safety. Mean data are extracted from volume -based vs. number-based measurements.

Thus, in a preferred embodiment of the present invention the abrasive particles herein have a mean roughness from 0.1 to 0.3, preferably from 0.15 to 0.28, and more preferably from 0.18 to

0.25.

Circularity

Circularity is a quantitative, 2-dimension image analysis shape description and is being measured according to ISO 9276-6:2008(E) section 8.2 as implemented via the Occhio Nano 500 Particle Characterisation Instrument with its accompanying software Callistro version 25 (Occhio s.a. Liege, Belgium). Circularity is a preferred mesoshape descriptor and is widely available in shape analysis instrument such as in Occhio Nano 500 or in Malvern Morphologi G3. Circularity is sometimes described in literature as being the difference between a particle's shape and a perfect sphere. Circularity values range from 0 to 1, where a circularity of 1 describes a perfectly spherical particles or disc particle as measured in a two dimensional image.

Figure imgf000011_0001

Where A is projection area, which is 2D descriptor and P is the length of the perimeter of the particle.

The applicant has found out that the abrasive cleaning particles having mean circularity from 0.1 to 0.4, preferably from 0.15 to 0.35 and more preferably from 0.2 to 0.35 are providing improved cleaning performance and surface safety. Mean data are extracted from volume-based vs. number-based measurements.

Thus, in a preferred embodiment of the present invention the abrasive particles herein have a mean circularity from 0.1 to 0.4, preferably from 0.15 to 0.35, and more preferably from 0.2 to 0.35.

Solidity

Solidity is a quantitative, 2-dimensional image analysis shape description, and is being measured according to ISO 9276-6:2008(E) section 8.2 as implemented via the Occhio Nano 500 Particle Characterisation Instrument with its accompanying software Callistro version 25 (Occhio s.a. Liege, Belgium). The non-spherical particle herein has preferably at least one edge or surface having a concave curvature. Solidity is a mesoshape parameter, which describes the overall concavity of a particle/particle population. Solidity values range from 0 to 1, where a solidity number of 1 describes a non-concave particle, as measured in literature as being:

Solidity = A/Ac

Where A is the area of the particle and Ac is the area of the convex hull (envelope) of bounding the particle.

The applicant has found out that the abrasive cleaning particles having a mean solidity from 0.4 to 0.75, preferably solidity from 0.5 to 0.7 and more preferably from 0.55 to 0.65 are providing improved cleaning performance and surface safety. Mean data are extracted from volume -based vs. number-based measurements.

Thus, in a preferred embodiment of the present invention the abrasive particles herein have a mean solidity from 0.4 to 0.75, preferably solidity from 0.5 to 0.7, and more preferably from 0.55 to 0.65.

In highly preferred embodiment the abrasive cleaning particles have a mean roughness from 0.1 to 0.3 (preferably from 0.15 to 0.28 and more preferably from 0.18 to 0.25) and a mean circularity from 0.1 to 0.4 (preferably from 0.15 to 0.35 and more preferably from 0.2 to 0.35) and/or a mean solidity from 0.4 to 0.75 (preferably solidity from 0.5 to 0.7, and more preferably from 0.55 to 0.65). Solidity is sometime also named convexity in literature or in some apparatus software using the solidity formula in place of its definition described in ISO 9276-6 (convexity =Pc/P where P is the length of the perimeter of the particle and Pc is length of the perimeter of the convex hull - envelope- bounding the particle). Despite solidity and convexity being similar mesoshape descriptor in concept, the applicant refers herein to the solidity measure expressed above by the Occhio Nano 500, as indicated above.

By the term "mean circularity", "mean solidity" or "mean roughness", the applicant considers the average of the circularity or solidity or roughness values of each particle taken from a population of at least 10 000 particles, preferably above 50 000 particles, more preferably above 100 000 particles, after excluding from the measurement and calculation, the circularity or solidity or roughness data of particles having area-equivalent diameter (ECD) of below 10 microns. Mean data are extracted from volume-based vs. number-based measurements.

The abrasive particles are made of following material or mixture of abrasive material typically known in the art such without being exhaustive e.g.: organic or inorganic salt abrasives such as carbonate-derived salts, phosphate-derived salts, pyrophosphate-derived salts, silica or alumina derived salts, hydroxyapatite, diatomaceous, fuller earth, talk, etc., polymeric abrasives containing polyethylene, polypropylene, PVC, polycarbonate, melamine, urea, polyurethane, polyacrylate, polystyrene, phenolic, polyesters, polyamide, or natural abrasives derived from cellulose, lingo-cellulose or shell such as nut shell, apple seeds, olive stones, apricot seed, kernel, wood, bamboo and plants. Preferably the abrasive particles are made from the polymeric material selected from the group consisting of polyethylene, polypropylene, PVC, polycarbonate, melamine, urea, polyurethane, polyacrylate, polystyrene, phenolic, polyesters, polyamide and mixtures thereof and natural abrasives derived from cellulose, lingo-cellulose or shell such as nut shell, apple seeds, olive stones, apricot seed, kernel, wood, bamboo and plants and mixtures thereof. More preferably the abrasive particles are made polymeric material selected from the group consisting of polyethylene, polypropylene, PVC, polycarbonate, melamine, urea, polyurethane, polyacrylate, polystyrene, phenolic, polyesters, polyamide and mixtures thereof. Even more preferably the abrasive particles are made from the polymeric material selected from the group consisting of polyurethane, polyester, polyacrylate, polystyrene and mixtures thereof. Most preferably the abrasive particles are made from the rigid polyurethane foam made from the diisocyanate (e.g. Lupranate M200R or Lupranate M20S) and diol (Lupranol 3423). Typical shearing or graining methods to reduce the above material in abrasive powder featuring useful shape defined by the targeted roughness range so other preparation e.g.: grain shaping methods described in the art may be employed such as agglomerating, printing, carving, etc. Previous shaping processes are sometimes facilitated by mixing previous abrasive materials as fillers within a thermoplastic or solidifying matrix. Such processes e.g.: including selection of matrix and respective load of filler are well known in art. A specifically preferred process to achieve particles matching effective roughness range consists at foaming the abrasive raw material per se or abrasive material dispersed within a matrix and reducing the achieved foam into abrasive particles with improved efficiency. Foaming processes and foam structure are typically achieved via gas expansion process, e.g.: either by injecting gas or solvent within the abrasive precursor and allowing expansion by pressure drop and/or increasing of temperature e.g.: extrusion foaming process or more conveniently with in-situ generated gas followed by hardening of the abrasive precursor e.g.: polyurethane foaming process. Alternatively, foam structures can also be achieved via emulsion process, followed by hardening and drying step. In a highly preferred embodiment herein, in order to achieve the geometrical shape descriptors of the abrasive cleaning particles (i.e. roughness, circularity and/or solidity) the abrasive cleaning particles are obtained from foamed polymeric material, which is reduced into the abrasive particles preferably by grinding or milling as described herein later on. The applicant has found that good cleaning efficiency will be achieved with the abrasive particles, which have been made from the foam having density above 100 kg/m3, and even up to 500 kg/m3. However the applicant has surprisingly found that significantly better cleaning effect can be achieved with the foam density is below 100 kg/m3, more preferably from 5 kg/m3 to 100kg/m3 and most preferably from 25 kg/m3 to 50 kg/m3.

Similarly, the applicant has found that good cleaning efficiency can be achieved the abrasive particles which have been made from the foams featuring close-cell structures, however, the applicant has surprisingly found that significantly better cleaning effect can be achieved with foam with open-cell structure.

Similarly, the applicant has found that good cleaning effect can be achieved the abrasive particles which have been made from the foams featuring cell size ranging from 20 micrometers till 2000 micrometers. However the applicant has surprisingly found that significantly better cleaning effect can be achieved with the foam featuring cell size between 100-1000 micrometers, more preferably from 200 to 500 micrometers and most preferably from 300 to 450 micrometers. Foam cell size can be measured for instance using protocol described in ASTM D3576.

In a preferred embodiment, in order to favor the reduction of the foam into a particle, the foam has preferably sufficient brittleness, e.g.: upon stress, the foam has little tendency to deform but rather break into particles. Efficient particles are then produced by accurately grinding the foam structure to target size and shape. Hence, for instance, when large particle size are desired, foam with large cell size are desireable and vice-et-versa. Additionally, in order to preserve an optimal particle shape while reducing the foam structure into a particle, it is recommended to not target particle size excessively below the dimension of the cell size of the foam. Typically, target particle size is not below about half of the foam cell size.

In order to favor the reduction of the foam into particles, the foam has preferably sufficient brittleness, e.g.: upon stress, the foam has little tendency to deform and is liable to fracture. The foam used for the present invention has preferably a no-detectable phase transition (e.g.; glass transition or melting temperature) or a phase transition temperature significantly higher that the usage temperature. Preferably the phase transition temperature is at least 20 °C preferably 40 degree °C above usage temperature.

One suitable way of reducing the foam to the abrasive cleaning particles herein is to grind or mill the foam. Other suitable means include the use of eroding tools such as a high speed eroding wheel with dust collector wherein the surface of the wheel is engraved with a pattern or is coated with abrasive sandpaper or the like to promote the foam to form the abrasive cleaning particles herein. Alternatively and in a highly preferred embodiment herein, the foam may be reduced to particles in several stages. First the bulk foam can be broken into pieces of a few cm dimensions by manually chopping or cutting, or using a mechanical tool such as a lumpbreaker, for example the Model 2036 from S Howes, Inc. of Silver Creek, NY.

Preferably the abrasive cleaning particles obtained via grinding or milling operation are single particles, which do not have cell structure. Incidentally, it has surprisingly been found that the abrasive cleaning particles of the present invention show a good cleaning performance even at relatively low levels, such as preferably from 0.1% to 20%, preferably from 0.3% to 10%, more preferably from 0.5% to 5%, even more preferably from 1.0% to 3%, by weight of the total composition of said abrasive cleaning particles.

In a preferred embodiment the abrasive particles are obtained from a foam by reducing (preferably by grinding or milling) the foam into abrasive particles. More preferably the abrasive particles are obtained from foamed polymeric material, wherein polymeric material is selected from the group consisting of polyethylene, polypropylene, PVC, polycarbonate, melamine, urea, polyurethane, polyacrylate, polystyrene, phenolic, polyesters, polyamide and mixtures thereof. Even more preferably the abrasive particles are obtained from foamed polymeric material selected from the group consisting of polyurethane, polyester, polyacrylate, polystyrene and mixtures thereof. Most prefereably the abrasive particles are obtained from rigid polyurethane foam made from the diisocyanate (e.g. Lupranate M200R or Lupranate M20S) and diol (Lupranol 3423).

The particles used in the present invention can be white, transparent or colored by use of suitable dyes and/or pigments. Additionally suitable color stabilizing agents can be used to stabilize desired color.

Hardness of the abrasive particles:

Preferred abrasive cleaning particles suitable for used herein are hard enough to provide good cleaning/cleansing performance, whilst providing a good surface safety profile. The hardness of the abrasive particles reduced from the foam can be modified by changing the raw material used to prepare the foam. For example modification of the hardness of the polyurethane foam is possible via several ways. For example, without being exhaustive, the selection of the diisocyanate and especially the selection of the isocyanate with high functionality e.g.: >2, preferably > 2.5, most preferably above 2.7, increases the polyurethane hardness. Similarly, the use of low molecular weight polyols e.g.: <4000Mw, preferably <2000Mw and most preferably below lOOOMw also increase the polyurethane hardness. More importantly is the balance diisocyanate / polyols in the reaction mixture, whereas excess of diisocyanate also increase the foam hardness. Another possibility to increase hardness is to introduce a small molecular weight crosslinker. Alternatively selection of catalyst, will promote the formation of urea bond, is additional way to increase the foam hardness.

Preferred abrasive cleaning particles in the present invention have hardness from 3 to 50 kg/mm2, preferably from 4 to 25 kg/mm2 and most preferably from 5 to 15 kg/mm2 on the HV Vickers hardness.

Vickers Hardness test method:

Vickers hardness HV is measured at 23 °C according to standard methods ISO 14577-1, ISO 14577-2, ISO 14577-3. The Vickers hardness is measured from a solid block of the raw material at least 2 mm in thickness. The Vickers hardness micro indentation measurement is carried out by using the Micro-Hardness Tester (MHT), manufactured by CSM Instruments SA, Peseux, Switzerland. As per the ISO 14577 instructions, the test surface should be flat and smooth, having a roughness (Ra) value less than 5% of the maximum indenter penetration depth. For a 200 μιη maximum depth this equates to a Ra value less than 10 μιη. As per ISO 14577, such a surface may be prepared by any suitable means, which may include cutting the block of test material with a new sharp microtome or scalpel blade, grinding, polishing or by casting melted material onto a flat, smooth casting form and allowing it to thoroughly solidify prior testing.

Suitable general settings for the Micro-Hardness Tester (MHT) are as follows:

Control mode: Displacement, Continuous

Maximum displacement: 200 μιη Approach speed: 20 nm/s

Zero point determination: at contact

Hold period to measure thermal drift at contact: 60s

Force application time: 30s

Frequency of data logging: at least every second

Hold time at maximum force: 30s

Force removal time: 30s

Shape / Material of intender tip: Vickers Pyramid Shape / Diamond Tip

Alternatively, the abrasive cleaning particles in the present invention hardness may also expressed accordingly to the MOHS hardness scale. Preferably, the MOHS hardness is comprised between 0.5 and 3.5 and most preferably between 1 and 3. The MOHS hardness scale is an internationally recognized scale for measuring the hardness of a compound versus a compound of known hardness, see Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, Kirk-Othmer, 4 th Edition Vol 1, page 18 or Lide, D.R (ed) CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 73 rd edition, Boca Raton, Fla.: The Rubber Company, 1992-1993. Many MOHS Test kits are commercially available containing material with known MOHS hardness. For measurement and selection of abrasive material with selected MOHS hardness, it is recommended to execute the MOHS hardness measurement with un- shaped particles e.g.: with spherical or granular forms of the abrasive material since MOHS measurement of shape particles will provide erroneous results.

The applicant has found that by choosing the abrasive cleaning particles according to 2 dimensional shape parameters as described herein, abrasive cleaning particles having a mean roughness from 0.1 to 0.3 and Vickers hardness from 3 kg/mm2 to 50 kg/mm2 and preferably a mean solidity from 0.4 to 0.75 and/or a mean circularity from 0.1 to 0.4 will provide good cleaning effectiveness and surface safety.

Optional ingredients

The compositions according to the present invention may comprise a variety of optional ingredients depending on the technical benefit aimed for and the surface treated. Suitable optional ingredients for use herein include chelating agents, surfactants, radical scavengers, perfumes, surface-modifying polymers, solvents, builders, buffers, bactericides, hydrotropes, colorants, stabilizers, bleaches, bleach activators, suds controlling agents like fatty acids, enzymes, soil suspenders, brighteners, anti dusting agents, dispersants, pigments, and dyes.

Suspending aid

The abrasive cleaning particles present in the composition herein are solid particles in a liquid composition. Said abrasive cleaning particles may be suspended in the liquid composition. However, it is well within the scope of the present invention that such abrasive cleaning particles are not-stably suspended within the composition and either settle or float on top of the composition. In this case, a user may have to temporally suspend the abrasive cleaning particles by agitating (e.g., shaking or stirring) the composition prior to use.

However, it is preferred herein that the abrasive cleaning particles are stably suspended in the liquid compositions herein. Thus the compositions herein comprise a suspending aid.

The suspending aid herein may either be a compound specifically chosen to provide a suspension of the abrasive cleaning particles in the liquid compositions of the present invention, such as a structurant, or a compound that also provides another function, such as a thickener or a surfactant (as described herein elsewhere).

Any suitable organic and inorganic suspending aids typically used as gelling, thickening or suspending agents in cleaning/cleansing compositions and other detergent or cosmetic compositions may be used herein. Indeed, suitable organic suspending aids include polysaccharide polymers. In addition or as an alternative, polycarboxylate polymer thickeners may be used herein. Also, in addition or as an alternative of the above, layered silicate platelets e.g.: Hectorite, bentonite or montmorillonites can also be used. Suitable commercially available layered silicates are Laponite RD® or Optigel CL® available from Rockwood Additives. Suitable polycarboxylate polymer thickeners include (preferably lightly) crosslinked polyacrylate. A particularly suitable polycarboxylate polymer thickeners is Carbopol commercially available from Lubrizol under the trade name Carbopol 674®. Suitable polysaccharide polymers for use herein include substituted cellulose materials like carboxymethylcellulose, ethyl cellulose, hydroxyethyl cellulose, hydroxypropyl cellulose, hydroxymethyl cellulose, succinoglycan and naturally occurring polysaccharide polymers like Xanthan gum, gellan gum, guar gum, locust bean gum, tragacanth gum, succinoglucan gum, or derivatives thereof, or mixtures thereof. Xanthan gum is commercially available from Kelco under the tradename Kelzan T.

Preferably the suspending aid herein is Xanthan gum. In an alternative embodiment, the suspending aid herein is a polycarboxylate polymer thickeners preferably a (preferably lightly) crosslinked polyacrylate. In a highly preferred embodiment herein, the liquid compositions comprise a combination of a polysaccharide polymer or a mixture thereof, preferably Xanthan gum, with a polycarboxylate polymer or a mixture thereof, preferably a crosslinked polyacrylate.

As a preferred example, Xanthan gum is preferably present at levels between 0.1% to 5% by weight of the total composition, more preferably 0.5% to 2%, even more preferably 0.8% to 1.2%.

Organic Solvent

As an optional but highly preferred ingredient the composition herein comprises an organic solvents or mixtures thereof.

The compositions herein comprise from 0% to 30% by weight of the total composition of an organic solvent or a mixture thereof, more preferably about 1.0% to about 20% and most preferably, about 2% to about 15%.

Suitable solvents can be selected from the group consisting of: aliphatic alcohols, ethers and diethers having from 4 to 14 carbon atoms, preferably from 6 to 12 carbon atoms, and more preferably from 8 to 10 carbon atoms; glycols or alkoxylated glycols; glycol ethers; alkoxylated aromatic alcohols; aromatic alcohols; terpenes; and mixtures thereof. Aliphatic alcohols and glycol ether solvents are most preferred.

Aliphatic alcohols, of the formula R-OH wherein R is a linear or branched, saturated or unsaturated alkyl group of from 1 to 20 carbon atoms, preferably from 2 to 15 and more preferably from 5 to 12, are suitable solvents. Suitable aliphatic alcohols are methanol, ethanol, propanol, isopropanol or mixtures thereof. Among aliphatic alcohols, ethanol and isopropanol are most preferred because of their high vapour pressure and tendency to leave no residue. Suitable glycols to be used herein are according to the formula HO-CR1R2-OH wherein Rl and R2 are independently H or a C2-C10 saturated or unsaturated aliphatic hydrocarbon chain and/or cyclic. Suitable glycols to be used herein are dodecaneglycol and/or propanediol.

In one preferred embodiment, at least one glycol ether solvent is incorporated in the compositions of the present invention. Particularly preferred glycol ethers have a terminal C3-C6 hydrocarbon attached to from one to three ethylene glycol or propylene glycol moieties to provide the appropriate degree of hydrophobicity and, preferably, surface activity. Examples of commercially available solvents based on ethylene glycol chemistry include mono-ethylene glycol n-hexyl ether (Hexyl Cellosolve®) available from Dow Chemical. Examples of commercially available solvents based on propylene glycol chemistry include the di-, and tri-propylene glycol derivatives of propyl and butyl alcohol, which are available from Arco under the trade names Arcosolv® and Dowanol®.

In the context of the present invention, preferred solvents are selected from the group consisting of mono-propylene glycol mono-propyl ether, di-propylene glycol mono-propyl ether, mono- propylene glycol mono-butyl ether, di-propylene glycol mono-propyl ether, di-propylene glycol mono-butyl ether; tri-propylene glycol mono-butyl ether; ethylene glycol mono-butyl ether; di- ethylene glycol mono-butyl ether, ethylene glycol mono-hexyl ether and di-ethylene glycol mono-hexyl ether, and mixtures thereof. "Butyl" includes normal butyl, isobutyl and tertiary butyl groups. Mono-propylene glycol and mono-propylene glycol mono-butyl ether are the most preferred cleaning solvent and are available under the tradenames Dowanol DPnP® and Dowanol DPnB®. Di-propylene glycol mono-t-butyl ether is commercially available from Arco Chemical under the tradename Arcosolv PTB®. In a particularly preferred embodiment, the cleaning solvent is purified so as to minimize impurities. Such impurities include aldehydes, dimers, trimers, oligomers and other by-products. These have been found to deleteriously affect product odour, perfume solubility and end result. The inventors have also found that common commercial solvents, which contain low levels of aldehydes, can cause irreversible and irreparable yellowing of certain surfaces. By purifying the cleaning solvents so as to minimize or eliminate such impurities, surface damage is attenuated or eliminated. Though not preferred, terpenes can be used in the present invention. Suitable terpenes to be used herein monocyclic terpenes, dicyclic terpenes and/or acyclic terpenes. Suitable terpenes are: D- limonene; pinene; pine oil; terpinene; terpene derivatives as menthol, terpineol, geraniol, thymol; and the citronella or citronellol types of ingredients. Suitable alkoxylated aromatic alcohols to be used herein are according to the formula R-(A)n-OH wherein R is an alkyl substituted or non-alkyl substituted aryl group of from about 1 to about 20 carbon atoms, preferably from about 2 to about 15 and more preferably from about 2 to about 10, wherein A is an alkoxy group preferably butoxy, propoxy and/or ethoxy, and n is an integer of from about 1 to about 5, preferably about 1 to about 2. Suitable alkoxylated aromatic alcohols are benzoxyethanol and/or benzoxypropanol.

Suitable aromatic alcohols to be used herein are according to the formula R-OH wherein R is an alkyl substituted or non-alkyl substituted aryl group of from 1 to 20 carbon atoms, preferably from 1 to 15 and more preferably from 1 to 10. For example a suitable aromatic alcohol to be used herein is benzyl alcohol.

Surfactants

The compositions herein may comprise a nonionic, anionic, zwitterionic, cationic and amphoteric surfactant or mixtures thereof. Suitable surfactants are those selected from the group consisting of nonionic, anionic, zwitterionic, cationic and amphoteric surfactants, having hydrophobic chains containing from 8 to 18 carbon atoms. Examples of suitable surfactants are described in McCutcheon's Vol. 1: Emulsifiers and Detergents, North American Ed., McCutcheon Division, MC Publishing Co., 2002. Preferably, the composition herein comprises from 0.01% to 20% by weight of the total composition of a surfactant or a mixture thereof, more preferably from 0.5% to 10%, and most preferably from 1% to 5%. Non-ionic surfactants are highly preferred for use in the compositions of the present invention. Non-limiting examples of suitable non-ionic surfactants include alcohol alkoxylates, alkyl polysaccharides, amine oxides, block copolymers of ethylene oxide and propylene oxide, fluoro surfactants and silicon based surfactants. Preferably, the aqueous compositions comprise from 0.01% to 20% by weight of the total composition of a non-ionic surfactant or a mixture thereof, more preferably from 0.5% to 10%, and most preferably from 1% to 5%.

A preferred class of non-ionic surfactants suitable for the present invention is alkyl ethoxylates. The alkyl ethoxylates of the present invention are either linear or branched, and contain from 8 carbon atoms to 16 carbon atoms in the hydrophobic tail, and from 3 ethylene oxide units to 25 ethylene oxide units in the hydrophilic head group. Examples of alkyl ethoxylates include Neodol 91-6®, Neodol 91-8® supplied by the Shell Corporation (P.O. Box 2463, 1 Shell Plaza, Houston,

Texas), and Alfonic 810-60® supplied by Condea Corporation, (900 Threadneedle P.O. Box 19029, Houston, TX). More preferred alkyl ethoxylates comprise from 9 to 12 carbon atoms in the hydrophobic tail, and from 4 to 9 oxide units in the hydrophilic head group. A most preferred alkyl ethoxylate is C9-11 EO5, available from the Shell Chemical Company under the tradename

Neodol 91-5®. Non -ionic ethoxylates can also be derived from branched alcohols. For example, alcohols can be made from branched olefin feedstocks such as propylene or butylene. In a preferred embodiment, the branched alcohol is either a 2-propyl-l-heptyl alcohol or 2 -butyl- 1- octyl alcohol. A desirable branched alcohol ethoxylate is 2-propyl-l-heptyl E07/A07, manufactured and sold by BASF Corporation under the tradename Lutensol XP 79 /XL 79®.

Another class of non-ionic surfactant suitable for the present invention is alkyl polysaccharides. Such surfactants are disclosed in U.S. Patent Nos. 4,565,647, 5,776,872, 5,883,062, and 5,906,973. Among alkyl polysaccharides, alkyl poly glycosides comprising five and/or six carbon sugar rings are preferred, those comprising six carbon sugar rings are more preferred, and those wherein the six carbon sugar ring is derived from glucose, i.e., alkyl polyglucosides ("APG"), are most preferred. The alkyl substituent in the APG chain length is preferably a saturated or unsaturated alkyl moiety containing from 8 to 16 carbon atoms, with an average chain length of 10 carbon atoms. C8-C16 alkyl polyglucosides are commercially available from several suppliers

(e.g., Simusol® surfactants from Seppic Corporation, 75 Quai d'Orsay, 75321 Paris, Cedex 7, France, and Glucopon 220®, Glucopon 225®. Glucopon 425®, Plantaren 2000 N®, and Plantaren 2000 N UP®, from Cognis Corporation, Postfach 13 01 64, D 40551, Dusseldorf, Germany).

Another class of non-ionic surfactant suitable for the present invention is amine oxide. Amine oxides, particularly those comprising from 10 carbon atoms to 16 carbon atoms in the hydrophobic tail, are beneficial because of their strong cleaning profile and effectiveness even at levels below 0.10%. Additionally C10-16 amine oxides, especially Ci2-Ci4 amine oxides are excellent solubilizers of perfume. Alternative non-ionic detergent surfactants for use herein are alkoxylated alcohols generally comprising from 8 to 16 carbon atoms in the hydrophobic alkyl chain of the alcohol. Typical alkoxylation groups are propoxy groups or ethoxy groups in combination with propoxy groups, yielding alkyl ethoxy propoxylates. Such compounds are commercially available under the tradename Antarox® available from Rhodia (40 Rue de la

Haie-Coq F-93306, Aubervilliers Cedex, France) and under the tradename Nonidet® available from Shell Chemical.

The condensation products of ethylene oxide with a hydrophobic base formed by the condensation of propylene oxide with propylene glycol are also suitable for use herein. The hydrophobic portion of these compounds will preferably have a molecular weight of from 1500 to 1800 and will exhibit water insolubility. The addition of polyoxyethylene moieties to this hydrophobic portion tends to increase the water solubility of the molecule as a whole, and the liquid character of the product is retained up to the point where the polyoxyethylene content is about 50% of the total weight of the condensation product, which corresponds to condensation with up to 40 moles of ethylene oxide. Examples of compounds of this type include certain of the commercially available Pluronic® surfactants, marketed by BASF. Chemically, such surfactants have the structure (EO)x(PO)y(EO)z or (PO)x(EO)y(PO)z wherein x, y, and z are from 1 to 100, preferably 3 to 50. Pluronic® surfactants known to be good wetting surfactants are more preferred. A description of the Pluronic® surfactants, and properties thereof, including wetting properties, can be found in the brochure entitled "BASF Performance Chemicals Plutonic® & Tetronic® Surfactants", available from BASF.

Other suitable though not preferred non-ionic surfactants include the polyethylene oxide condensates of alkyl phenols, e.g., the condensation products of alkyl phenols having an alkyl group containing from 6 to 12 carbon atoms in either a straight chain or branched chain configuration, with ethylene oxide, the said ethylene oxide being present in amounts equal to 5 to 25 moles of ethylene oxide per mole of alkyl phenol. The alkyl substituent in such compounds can be derived from oligomerized propylene, diisobutylene, or from other sources of wo-octane «-octane, wo-nonane or «-nonane. Other non-ionic surfactants that can be used include those derived from natural sources such as sugars and include C8-Ci6 N-alkyl glucose amide surfactants.

Suitable anionic surfactants for use herein are all those commonly known by those skilled in the art. Preferably, the anionic surfactants for use herein include alkyl sulphonates, alkyl aryl sulphonates, alkyl sulphates, alkyl alkoxylated sulphates, C6-C20 alkyl alkoxylated linear or branched diphenyl oxide disulphonates, or mixtures thereof.

Suitable alkyl sulphonates for use herein include water-soluble salts or acids of the formula RSO3M wherein R is a C6-C20 linear or branched, saturated or unsaturated alkyl group, preferably a C8-C18 alkyl group and more preferably a C10-C16 alkyl group, and M is H or a cation, e.g., an alkali metal cation (e.g., sodium, potassium, lithium), or ammonium or substituted ammonium (e.g., methyl-, dimethyl-, and trimethyl ammonium cations and quaternary ammonium cations, such as tetramethyl-ammonium and dimethyl piperdinium cations and quaternary ammonium cations derived from alkylamines such as ethylamine, diethylamine, triethylamine, and mixtures thereof, and the like).

Suitable alkyl aryl sulphonates for use herein include water-soluble salts or acids of the formula RSO3M wherein R is an aryl, preferably a benzyl, substituted by a C6-C20 linear or branched saturated or unsaturated alkyl group, preferably a Cg-Cig alkyl group and more preferably a C10- Ci6 alkyl group, and M is H or a cation, e.g., an alkali metal cation (e.g., sodium, potassium, lithium, calcium, magnesium and the like) or ammonium or substituted ammonium (e.g., methyl-, dimethyl-, and trimethyl ammonium cations and quaternary ammonium cations, such as tetramethyl-ammonium and dimethyl piperdinium cations and quaternary ammonium cations derived from alkylamines such as ethylamine, diethylamine, triethylamine, and mixtures thereof, and the like).

An example of a C14-C16 alkyl sulphonate is Hostapur® SAS available from Hoechst. An example of commercially available alkyl aryl sulphonate is Lauryl aryl sulphonate from Su.Ma.. Particularly preferred alkyl aryl sulphonates are alkyl benzene sulphonates commercially available under trade name Nansa® available from Albright& Wilson.

Suitable alkyl sulphate surfactants for use herein are according to the formula R1SO4M wherein Ri represents a hydrocarbon group selected from the group consisting of straight or branched alkyl radicals containing from 6 to 20 carbon atoms and alkyl phenyl radicals containing from 6 to 18 carbon atoms in the alkyl group. M is H or a cation, e.g., an alkali metal cation (e.g., sodium, potassium, lithium, calcium, magnesium and the like) or ammonium or substituted ammonium (e.g., methyl-, dimethyl-, and trimethyl ammonium cations and quaternary ammonium cations, such as tetramethyl-ammonium and dimethyl piperdinium cations and quaternary ammonium cations derived from alkylamines such as ethylamine, diethylamine, triethylamine, and mixtures thereof, and the like).

Particularly preferred branched alkyl sulphates to be used herein are those containing from 10 to 14 total carbon atoms like Isalchem 123 AS®. Isalchem 123 AS® commercially available from Enichem is a C12-13 surfactant which is 94% branched. This material can be described as CH3- (CH2)m-CH(CH20S03Na)-(CH2)n-CH3 where n+m=8-9. Also preferred alkyl sulphates are the alkyl sulphates where the alkyl chain comprises a total of 12 carbon atoms, i.e., sodium 2-butyl octyl sulphate. Such alkyl sulphate is commercially available from Condea under the trade name Isofol® 12S. Particularly suitable liner alkyl sulphonates include Ci2-Ci6 paraffin sulphonate like Hostapur® SAS commercially available from Hoechst.

Suitable alkyl alkoxylated sulphate surfactants for use herein are according to the formula RO(A)mS03M wherein R is an unsubstituted C6-C20 alkyl or hydroxyalkyl group having a C6-C20 alkyl component, preferably a C12-C20 alkyl or hydroxyalkyl, more preferably Ci2-Ci8 alkyl or hydroxyalkyl, A is an ethoxy or propoxy unit, m is greater than zero, typically between 0.5 and 6, more preferably between 0.5 and 3, and M is H or a cation which can be, for example, a metal cation (e.g., sodium, potassium, lithium, calcium, magnesium, etc.), ammonium or substituted- ammonium cation. Alkyl ethoxylated sulfates as well as alkyl propoxylated sulfates are contemplated herein. Specific examples of substituted ammonium cations include methyl-, dimethyl-, trimethyl- ammonium and quaternary ammonium cations, such as tetramethyl- ammonium, dimethyl piperdinium and cations derived from alkanolamines such as ethylamine, diethylamine, triethylamine, mixtures thereof, and the like. Exemplary surfactants are Ci2-Ci8 alkyl polyethoxylate (1.0) sulfate (Ci2-Ci8E(1.0)SM), Ci2-Ci8 alkyl polyethoxylate (2.25) sulfate (Ci2-Ci8E(2.25)SM), C12-C18 alkyl polyethoxylate (3.0) sulfate (C12-C18E(3.0)SM), C12-C18 alkyl polyethoxylate (4.0) sulfate (Ci2-Ci8E (4.0)SM), wherein M is conveniently selected from sodium and potassium. Suitable C6-C20 alkyl alkoxylated linear or branched diphenyl oxide disulphonate surfactants for use herein are according to the following formula:

Figure imgf000027_0001
wherein R is a C6-C20 linear or branched, saturated or unsaturated alkyl group, preferably a Ci2- Ci8 alkyl group and more preferably a C14-C16 alkyl group, and X+ is H or a cation, e.g., an alkali metal cation (e.g., sodium, potassium, lithium, calcium, magnesium and the like). Particularly suitable C6-C20 alkyl alkoxylated linear or branched diphenyl oxide disulphonate surfactants to be used herein are the Ci2 branched di phenyl oxide disulphonic acid and Ci6 linear di phenyl oxide disulphonate sodium salt respectively commercially available by DOW under the trade name Dowfax 2A1® and Dowfax 8390®.

Other anionic surfactants useful herein include salts (including, for example, sodium, potassium, ammonium, and substituted ammonium salts such as mono-, di- and triethanolamine salts) of soap, C8-C24 olefinsulfonates, sulphonated polycarboxylic acids prepared by sulphonation of the pyrolyzed product of alkaline earth metal citrates, e.g., as described in British patent specification No. 1,082,179, C8-C24 alkylpolyglycolethersulfates (containing up to 10 moles of ethylene oxide); alkyl ester sulfonates such as C14-C16 methyl ester sulfonates; acyl glycerol sulfonates, fatty oleyl glycerol sulfates, alkyl phenol ethylene oxide ether sulfates, alkyl phosphates, isethionates such as the acyl isethionates, N-acyl taurates, alkyl succinamates and sulfosuccinates, monoesters of sulfosuccinate (especially saturated and unsaturated Ci2-Ci8 monoesters) diesters of sulfosuccinate (especially saturated and unsaturated C6-Ci4 diesters), acyl sarcosinates, sulfates of alkylpolysaccharides such as the sulfates of alkylpolyglucoside (the nonionic nonsulfated compounds being described below), alkyl polyethoxy carboxylates such as those of the formula RO(CH2CH20)kCH2COO"M+ wherein R is a C8-C22 alkyl, k is an integer from 0 to 10, and M is a soluble salt-forming cation. Resin acids and hydrogenated resin acids are also suitable, such as rosin, hydrogenated rosin, and resin acids and hydrogenated resin acids present in or derived from tall oil. Further examples are given in "Surface Active Agents and Detergents" (Vol. I and II by Schwartz, Perry and Berch). A variety of such surfactants are also generally disclosed in U.S. Patent 3,929,678, issued December 30, 1975 to Laughlin, et al. at Column 23, line 58 through Column 29, line 23.

Zwitterionic surfactants represent another class of preferred surfactants within the context of the present invention. Zwitterionic surfactants contain both cationic and anionic groups on the same molecule over a wide pH range. The typical cationic group is a quaternary ammonium group, although other positively charged groups like sulfonium and phosphonium groups can also be used. The typical anionic groups are carboxylates and sulfonates, preferably sulfonates, although other groups like sulfates, phosphates and the like, can be used. Some common examples of these detergents are described in the patent literature: U.S. Patent Nos. 2,082,275, 2,702,279 and 2,255,082.

A specific example of a zwitterionic surfactant is 3-(N-dodecyl-N,N-dimethyl)-2- hydroxypropane-1 -sulfonate (Lauryl hydroxyl sultaine) available from the Mclntyre Company (24601 Governors Highway, University Park, Illinois 60466, USA) under the tradename Mackam LHS®. Another specific zwitterionic surfactant is Ci2-i4 acylamidopropylene (hydroxypropylene) sulfobetaine that is available from Mclntyre under the tradename Mackam 50-SB®. Other very useful zwitterionic surfactants include hydrocarbyl, e.g., fatty alkylene betaines. A highly preferred zwitterionic surfactant is Empigen BB®, a coco dimethyl betaine produced by Albright & Wilson. Another equally preferred zwitterionic surfactant is Mackam 35HP®, a coco amido propyl betaine produced by Mclntyre.

Another class of preferred surfactants comprises the group consisting of amphoteric surfactants. One suitable amphoteric surfactant is a C8-Ci6 amido alkylene glycinate surfactant ('ampho glycinate'). Another suitable amphoteric surfactant is a C8-C16 amido alkylene propionate surfactant ('ampho propionate'). Other suitable, amphoteric surfactants are represented by surfactants such as dodecylbeta-alanine, N-alkyltaurines such as the one prepared by reacting dodecylamine with sodium isethionate according to the teaching of U.S. Patent No. 2,658,072, N- higher alkylaspartic acids such as those produced according to the teaching of U.S. Patent No. 2,438,091, and the products sold under the trade name "Miranol®", and described in U.S. Patent No. 2,528,378.

Chelating agents

One class of optional compounds for use herein includes chelating agents or mixtures thereof. Chelating agents can be incorporated in the compositions herein in amounts ranging from 0.0% to 10.0% by weight of the total composition, preferably 0.01% to 5.0%.

Suitable phosphonate chelating agents for use herein may include alkali metal ethane 1 -hydroxy diphosphonates (HEDP), alkylene poly (alkylene phosphonate), as well as amino phosphonate compounds, including amino aminotri(methylene phosphonic acid) (ATMP), nitrilo trimethylene phosphonates (NTP), ethylene diamine tetra methylene phosphonates, and diethylene triamine penta methylene phosphonates (DTPMP). The phosphonate compounds may be present either in their acid form or as salts of different cations on some or all of their acid functionalities. Preferred phosphonate chelating agents to be used herein are diethylene triamine penta methylene phosphonate (DTPMP) and ethane 1 -hydroxy diphosphonate (HEDP). Such phosphonate chelating agents are commercially available from Monsanto under the trade name DEQUEST®-

Polyfunctionally-substituted aromatic chelating agents may also be useful in the compositions herein. See U.S. patent 3,812,044, issued May 21, 1974, to Connor et al. Preferred compounds of this type in acid form are dihydroxydisulfobenzenes such as 1,2-dihydroxy -3,5-disulfobenzene.

A preferred biodegradable chelating agent for use herein is ethylene diamine Ν,Ν'- disuccinic acid, or alkali metal, or alkaline earth, ammonium or substitutes ammonium salts thereof or mixtures thereof. Ethylenediamine Ν,Ν'- disuccinic acids, especially the (S,S) isomer have been extensively described in US patent 4, 704, 233, November 3, 1987, to Hartman and Perkins. Ethylenediamine Ν,Ν'- disuccinic acids is, for instance, commercially available under the tradename ssEDDS® from Palmer Research Laboratories. Suitable amino carboxylates for use herein include ethylene diamine tetra acetates, diethylene triamine pentaacetates, diethylene triamine pentaacetate (DTPA),N- hydroxyethylethylenediamine triacetates, nitrilotri-acetates, ethylenediamine tetrapropionates, triethylenetetraaminehexa-acetates, ethanol-diglycines, propylene diamine tetracetic acid (PDTA) and methyl glycine di- acetic acid (MGDA), both in their acid form, or in their alkali metal, ammonium, and substituted ammonium salt forms. Particularly suitable amino carboxylates to be used herein are diethylene triamine penta acetic acid, propylene diamine tetracetic acid (PDTA) which is, for instance, commercially available from BASF under the trade name Trilon FS® and methyl glycine di-acetic acid (MGDA).

Further carboxylate chelating agents for use herein include salicylic acid, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, glycine, malonic acid or mixtures thereof. Radical scavenger

The compositions of the present invention may further comprise a radical scavenger or a mixture thereof.

Suitable radical scavengers for use herein include the well-known substituted mono and dihydroxy benzenes and their analogs, alkyl and aryl carboxylates and mixtures thereof. Preferred such radical scavengers for use herein include di-tert-butyl hydroxy toluene (BHT), hydroquinone, di-tert-butyl hydroquinone, mono-tert-butyl hydroquinone, tert-butyl-hydroxy anysole, benzoic acid, toluic acid, catechol, t-butyl catechol, benzylamine, l,l,3-tris(2-methyl-4- hydroxy-5-t-butylphenyl) butane, n-propyl-gallate or mixtures thereof and highly preferred is di- tert-butyl hydroxy toluene. Such radical scavengers like N-propyl-gallate may be commercially available from Nipa Laboratories under the trade name Nipanox SI®.

Radical scavengers, when used, may be typically present herein in amounts up to 10% by weight of the total composition and preferably from 0.001% to 0.5% by weight. The presence of radical scavengers may contribute to the chemical stability of the compositions of the present invention.

Perfume

Suitable perfume compounds and compositions for use herein are for example those described in EP-A-0 957 156 under the paragraph entitled "Perfume", on page 13. The compositions herein may comprise a perfume ingredient, or mixtures thereof, in amounts up to 5.0% by weight of the total composition, preferably in amounts of 0.1% to 1.5%. Dye

The liquid compositions according to the present invention may be coloured. Accordingly, they may comprise a dye or a mixture thereof. Delivery form of the compositions

The compositions herein may be packaged in a variety of suitable packaging known to those skilled in the art, such as plastic bottles for pouring liquid compositions, squeeze bottles or bottles equipped with a trigger sprayer for spraying liquid compositions. Alternatively, the paste-like compositions according to the present invention may by packed in a tube.

In an alternative embodiment herein, the liquid composition herein is impregnated onto a substrate, preferably the substrate is in the form of a flexible, thin sheet or a block of material, such as a sponge. Suitable substrates are woven or non-woven sheets, cellulosic material based sheets, sponge or foam with open cell structures e.g.: polyurethane foams, cellulosic foam, melamine foam, etc.

The process of cleaning a surface

The present invention encompasses a process of cleaning and/or cleansing a surface with a liquid composition according to the present invention. Suitable surfaces herein are described herein above under the heading "The liquid cleaning/cleansing composition".

In a preferred embodiment said surface is contacted with the composition according to the present invention, preferably wherein said composition is applied onto said surface.

In another preferred embodiment, the process herein comprises the steps of dispensing (e.g., by spraying, pouring, squeezing) the liquid composition according to the present invention from a container containing said liquid composition and thereafter cleaning and/or cleansing said surface.

The composition herein may be in its neat form or in its diluted form. By "in its neat form", it is to be understood that said liquid composition is applied directly onto the surface to be treated without undergoing any dilution, i.e., the liquid composition herein is applied onto the surface as described herein. By "diluted form", it is meant herein that said liquid composition is diluted by the user typically with water. The liquid composition is diluted prior to use to a typical dilution level of up to 10 times its weight of water. A usually recommended dilution level is a 10% dilution of the composition in water. The composition herein may be applied using an appropriate implement, such as a mop, paper towel, brush (e.g., a toothbrush) or a cloth, soaked in the diluted or neat composition herein. Furthermore, once applied onto said surface said composition may be agitated over said surface using an appropriate implement. Indeed, said surface may be wiped using a mop, paper towel, brush or a cloth.

The process herein may additionally contain a rinsing step, preferably after the application of said composition. By "rinsing", it is meant herein contacting the surface cleaned/cleansed with the process according to the present invention with substantial quantities of appropriate solvent, typically water, directly after the step of applying the liquid composition herein onto said surface. By "substantial quantities", it is meant herein between 0.01 1. and 1 1. of water per m2 of surface, more preferably between 0.1 1 and 1 1. of water per m2 of surface.

Preferred embodiment herein, process of cleaning/cleansing is a process of cleaning household hard surfaces with a liquid composition according to present invention.

Cleaning effectiveness

Cleaning Effectiveness test method:

The tiles (typically glossy, white, ceramic 24cm x 4cm) are covered with 0.3g of typical greasy soap scum soils mainly based on calcium stearate and artificial body soils commercially available (applied to the tile via a sprayer). The soiled tiles are then dried in an oven at a temperature of 140°C for 10-45 minutes, preferably 40 minutes and then aged between 2 and 12 hours at room temperature (around 20°C) in a controlled environment humidity (60-85% RH, preferably 75% RH). Then the soiled tiles are cleaned using 5ml of the composition of the present invention poured directly on a Spontex® cellulose sponge pre-wetted. The sponge is then mounted on a Wet Abrasion Scrub Tester Instrument (such as made by Sheen Instruments Ltd. Kingston, England) with the particle composition coated side facing the tile. The abrasion tester can be configured to supply pressure (e.g. 600g), and move the sponge over the test surface with a set stroke length (e.g.: 30cm), at set speed (e.g. : 37 strokes per minute). The ability of the composition to remove greasy soap scum is measured through the number of strokes needed to perfectly clean the surface, as determined by visual assessment. The lower the number of strokes, the higher the greasy soap scum cleaning ability of the composition.

Cleaning data below are achieved with 1% of Abrasive particles in cleaner (3.5% nonionic surfactant C12E05). Abrasive cleaning particles used to generate the example cleaning data were made from polyurethane foam having a Vickers hardness value of 7 kg/mm2. The abrasive cleaning particles are obtained from rigid polyurethane foam by grinding the foam into abrasive cleaning particles.

Figure imgf000033_0001

Examples 9-10 are comparative examples as the abrasive cleaning particles are outside the scope of the present invention.

Surface safety

Surface Damage Method:

To measure the surface damage produced by the test particles, mix 0.2g of the abrasive particles to be tested, with 4g of an aqueous lotion of NEODOL C9-11 E08 surfactant (Shell Chemicals) (3% surfactant by weight). Wet a new cellulose kitchen sponge (such as Spontex®) of dimensions 4cm x 8.5cm (and 4.5cm thick) with 24 ml of distilled or deionised water, then load by uniformly distributing the surfactant and particle mixture over one 4cm x 8.5cm side of the sponge. The sponge is then mounted on a Wet Abrasion Scrub Tester Instrument (such as made by Sheen Instruments Ltd, Kingston, England) with the particle and surfactant coated side facing the test surface. The test surface to be used should be a new sheet of uncolored, transparent, virgin Poly(methyl methacrylate) (also known as PMMA , Plexiglass, Perspex, Lucite), having a Vickers HV Hardness Value of 25 kg / square mm (+/- 2) (as measured using standard test method ISO 14577). The abrasion tester should be configured to supply 600g of pressure and move the sponge over the test surface with a stroke length of 30cm, at a speed of 37 strokes per minute. The wet abrasion scrub tester is should be allowed to execute 1,000 strokes (i.e., 1,000 single-direction displacements), then the sponge is re-loaded with an additional 0.2g of abrasive and 4g of surfactant lotion. No additional water should be applied when re-loading the sponge. The sponge is to be reloaded in this manner every 1,000 strokes, for ten consecutive loadings (i.e., 10,000 strokes in total per test surface). Assessment of damage to the test surface is conducted after 10,000 strokes have been completed. The sponge should not be replaced during the test unless it becomes damaged such as torn or ripped. In which case a new sponge should be wetted, loaded and installed as per instructions for the original sponge, in order to complete the test.

To assess surface damage on the Poly(methyl methacrylate) test surface, visual grading is conducted according to the following 5-level surface damage grading scale: 0 = 1 see no scratches; 1 = 1 think I see scratches; 2 = 1 definitely see small scratches; 3 = 1 see lots of scratches; 4 = 1 see a lot of damage. The Visual Damage Grade is the average of the grades given by 5 independent graders. Additionally, the surface damage on the Poly(methyl methacrylate) test surface is also assessed by measuring Roughness of the sponge-abraded surface, using a Roughness Tester such as the TR 200 (PortableTesters.com LLC). Several profile roughness parameters are measured, including: average maximum height (Rz); total peak-to-valley height (Rt); Maximum peak height (Rp); maximum valley depth (Rv); mean spacing of irregularities (RSm); and skewness (Rsk). urface Damage Example Data

Figure imgf000035_0001

*Note Abrasive particle made from polyurethane foam with same hardness - Vickers hardness value of 7.

** Roughness parameter is parameter indicating surface damage and is not linked to the

Roughness parameter used to define particle shape.

Examples

These following compositions were made comprising the listed ingredients in the listed proportions (weight %). Examples 1-43 herein are met to exemplify the present invention but are not necessarily used to limit or otherwise define the scope of the present invention.

Abrasive particle used in the examples below were ground from rigid polyurethane foam (controlled foam structure e.g.: foam density, cell size, strut aspect ratio and % cell size content). Polyurethane foam is synthesized from reaction of a diisocyanate (e.g.: base on polymeric methylene diphenyl diisocyanate) and polyols (e.g.: polyether or polyester-based polyol). Wherein the diisocyanate is for example Lupranate M200R from BASF and the polyol is for example Lupranol 3423 from BASF. Foam were ground into small particles and sieved using a rotary mill and particle selection was done with used of air jet sieving instrument from Retsch.

Hard surface cleaner Bathroom composition:

Figure imgf000036_0001

Hard surface cleaner Bathroom composition (cont):

% Weight 4 5 6

Chloridric acid 2

Linear CIO alkyl sulphate 1.3 2 3 n-Butoxy Propoxy Propanol 2 1.75

Citric Acid 3 3

Polyvinylpyrrolidone (Luviskol K60®) 0.1 0.1 0.1

NaOH 0.2 0.2

Perfume 0.4 0.4 0.4 Polysaccharide (Xanthan Gum Kelzan T®, Kelco) 0.3 0.35 0.35

Abrasive particles made from polyurethane foam having 2 2 2 Mean Area-equivalent Diameter (ECD) : 162 μιη; Mean

Circularity : 0.22; Mean Solidity : 0.56; Mean

Roughness : 0.21

Water Balance Balance Balance

Hand-dishwashing detergent compositions:

% Weight 7 8 9

N-2-ethylhexyl sulfocuccinamate 3 3 3

C11E05 7 14

C11-E07 7

C10-EO7 7 7

Trisodium Citrate 1 1 1

Potassium Carbonate 0.2 0.2 0.2

Perfume 1 1 1

Polysaccharide (Xanthan Gum Kelzan TO, Kelco) 0.35 0.35 0.35

Abrasive particles made from polyurethane foam having 2 2 2 Mean Area-equivalent Diameter (ECD) : 216 μιη; Mean

Circularity : 0.23; Mean Solidity : 0.66; Mean Roughness

: 0.19

Water (+ minor e.g.; pH adjusted to 10.5) Balance Balance Balance

General degreaser composition:

% Weight 10 11

C9-C11 E08 (Neodol 91-8®) 3 3

N-Butoxy Propoxy Propanol 15 15

Ethanol 10 5

Isopropanol 10

Polysaccharide (Xanthan Gum-glyoxal modified 0.35 0.35

Optixan-T)

Abrasive particles made from polyurethane foam having 1 1

Mean Area-equivalent Diameter (ECD) : 280 μιη; Mean

Circularity : 0.33; Mean Solidity : 0.77; Mean Roughness

: 0.15

Water (+ minor e.g.; pH adjusted to alkaline pH) Balance Balance Scouring composition:

Figure imgf000038_0001

Liquid glass cleaner:

% Weight 15 16

Butoxypropanol 2 4

Ethanol 3 6

C12-14 sodium sulphate 0.24

NaOH/Citric acid To pH 10

Citric Acid

Abrasive particles made from polyurethane foam having 0.5 0.5 Mean Area-equivalent Diameter (ECD) : 107 μιη; Mean

Circularity : 0.34; Mean Solidity : 0.69; Mean Roughness

: 0.12

Water (+ minor) Balance Balance Cleaning wipe (Body cleansing wipe):

Figure imgf000039_0001

Cleaning wipe (Body cleansing wipe):

% Weight 20

Benzalkonioum Chloride (Alkaquat DMB-451® ) 0.1

Cocamine Oxide (C10/C16 alkyl dimethyl amine oxide; AO-1214 0.5 LP supplied by Procter & Gamble Co.)

Pyroglutamic Acid (pidolidone) (2-pyrrolidone-5 carboxylic acid) 4 Ethanol-denatured 200 proof (SD alcohol 40®) 10

DC Antiform H-10 (dimethicone) 0.03

Sodium Benzoate 0.2

Tetrasodium EDTA (Hampene 220®) 0.1

Sodium Chloride 0.4

Perfume 0.01

Abrasive particles made from polyurethane foam having Mean 2

Area-equivalent Diameter (ECD) : 212 μιη; Mean Circularity :

0.25; Mean Solidity : 0.66; Mean Roughness : 0.19 are loaded on

the wipe e.g.: via the wipe lotion in way to achieve 0.2-3 gram

particles / m2 substrate

Water and minors balance

The above wipes lotion composition is loaded onto a water-insoluble substrate, being a patterned hydroentangled non- woven substrate having a basis weight of 56 grams per square meter comprising 70% polyester and 30% rayon approximately 6.5 inches wide by 7.5 inches long with a caliper of about 0.80 mm. Optionally, the substrate can be pre-coated with dimethicone (Dow Corning 200 Fluid 5cst) using conventional substrate coating techniques. Lotion to wipe weight ratio of about 2: 1 using conventional substrate coating techniques. Oral care composition (toothpaste):

% Weight 20 21

Sorbitol (70% sol.) 24.2 24.2

Glycerin 7 7

Carboxymethylcellulose 0.5 0.5

PEG-6 4 4

Sodium Fluoride 0.24 0.24

Sodium Saccharine 0.13 0.13

Mono Sodium phosphate 0.41 0.41

Tri Sodium phosphate 0.39 0.39

Sodium Tartrate 1 1

Ti02 0.5 0.5

Silica 35

Sodium lauroyl sarcosinate (95% active) 1 1 Flavor 0.8 0.8

Abrasive particles made from polyurethane foam having 2 5 Mean Area-equivalent Diameter (ECD) : 107 μιη; Mean

Circularity : 0.34; Mean Solidity : 0.69; Mean Roughness

: 0.12

Water Balance Balance

Bodv Cleansing composition:

% Weight 22 23

Cocoamidopropyl betaine 5.15 5.15

Sodium Laureth sulfate 5.8 5.8

Sodium Lauroyl sarcosinate 0.5 0.5

Polyquaternium 10 0.1 0.1

C12-14 fatty alcohol 0.45 0.45

Zinc Stearate 1.5 1.5

Glycol DiStearate 0.25 0.25

Sodium lauryl sulfate 0.53 0.53

Cocamidopropyl betaine 0.17 0.17

Lauramide Diethanolamide 0.48 0.48

Sodium sulfate 0.05 0.05

Citric Acid 0.05 0.05

DMDM hydantoin (l,3-Dimethylol-5,5- 0.2 0.2 dimethylhydantoin Glydant)

Tetra Sodium EDTA 0.1 0.1

Fragance 0.5 0.5

Polysaccharide (Xanthan Gum-glyoxal modified 0.2 0.2 Optixan-T)

Abrasive particles made from polyurethane foam having 2 1 Mean Area-equivalent Diameter (ECD) : 216 μιη; Mean

Circularity : 0.23; Mean Solidity : 0.66; Mean Roughness

: 0.19

Water and minors 1

Water Balance Balance Facial Cleansing Compositions

Figure imgf000042_0001

per the supplier use directions, the base is used to activate the acrylates copolymer

** acid can be added to adjust the formula to a lower pH

1. Carbopol Aqua SF-1® from Noveon™, Inc.

2. Carbopol Ultrez 21® from Noveon™, Inc.

3. Miranol ® Ultra L32 from Rhodia

4. Glucamate LT® from Chemron

5. Crothix® from Croda

Examples 24 to 27 are made the following way:

Add Carbopol® to de-ionized free water of the formulation. Add all surfactants except cationics and betaines. If the pH is less than 6 then add a neutralizing agent (typically a base i.e., Triethanolamine, sodium hydroxide) to adjust to a pH greater than 6. If necessary, apply gentle heat to reduce viscosity and help minimize air entrapment. Add betaine and/or cationic surfactants. Add conditioning agents, additional rheology modifiers, pearlizing agents, encapsulated materials, exfoliants, preservatives, dyes, fragrances, abrasive particles and other desirable ingredients. Lastly, if desired reduce the pH with an acid (i.e. citric acid) and increase viscosity by adding sodium chloride.

Oral care composition (toothpaste)

28 29 30 31 32

Sodium Gluconate 1.064 1.064 1.064 1.064 0.600

Stannous fluoride 0.454 0.454 0.454 0.454 0.454

Sodium fluoride

Sodium monofluorophosphate

Zinc Lactate 0.670 0.670 0.670 0.670 2.500

Glycerin - - - - 36.000

Polyethylene glycol 300 7.000

Propylene Glycol 7.000

Sorbitol(LRS) USP 39.612 39.612 39.612 39.612 -

Sodium lauryl sulfate solution

5.000 5.000 5.000 5.000 3.500

(28%)

Abrasive particles made from

polyurethane foam having Mean

Area-equivalent Diameter (ECD) :

10.000 10.000 1.000 5.000 5.000

216 μιη; Mean Circularity : 0.23;

Mean Solidity : 0.66; Mean

Roughness : 0.19

Zeodent 119 - - - - -

Zeodent 109 10.000 10.000 10.000

Hydrogen peroxide (35% soln)

Sodium hexametaphosphate - - - - 13.000

Gantrez 2.000 2.000 2.000 -

Natural CaCO3-600M - - - - -

Sodium phosphate (mono basic) - - - - -

Sodium phosphate (Tri basic) - - - - 1.000

Zeodent 165 - - - - -

Cocoamidopropyl Betaine (30%

- - - - - Soln)

Cetyl Alcohol 3.000 - - - -

Stearyl Alcohol 3.000 - - - - Hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC

- 0.500 0.500 0.500 - Natrasol 250M)

CMC 7M8SF - 1.300 1.300 1.300 -

Xanthan Gum - - - - 0.250

Poloxamer 407 - - - - -

Carrageenan mixture - 0.700 0.700 0.700 0.600

Titanium dioxide - - - - -

Saccharin Sodium 0.500 0.500 0.500 0.500 0.500

Flavor 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000

Water QS QS QS QS QS

Zeodent 119, 109 and 165 are precipitated silica materials sold by the J. M. Huber Corporation. Gantrez is a copolymer of maleic anhydride or acid and methyl vinyl ether.

CMC 7M8SF is a sodium carboxymethylcellulose.

Poloxamer is a difunctional block-polymer terminating in primary hydroxyl groups.

33 34 35 36 37

Sodium Gluconate - - - - -

Stannous fluoride - - - - -

Sodium fluoride - 0.243 0.243 0.243 -

Sodium monofluorophosphate 1.10 -

Zinc Lactate - - - - -

Glycerin - - - - 40.000

Polyethylene glycol 300 - - - - -

Propylene Glycol

Sorbitol(LRS) USP 24.000 42.500 42.500 42.500 30.000

Sodium lauryl sulfate solution (28%) 4.000 4.000 - 4.000 -

Abrasive particles made from

polyurethane foam having Mean

Area-equivalent Diameter (ECD) :

5.000 10.000 10.000 5.000 15.000 216 μιη; Mean Circularity : 0.23;

Mean Solidity : 0.66; Mean

Roughness : 0.19

Zeodent 119 - - - 10.000 -

Zeodent 109

Hydrogen peroxide (35% soln)

Sodium hexametaphosphate - - - - -

Gantrez

Natural CaCO3-600M 35.00 - - - - Sodium phosphate (mono basic) 0.10 0.420 0.420 0.420 0.420

Sodium phosphate (Tri basic) 0.40 1.100 1.100 1.100 1.100

Zeodent 165 2.00 - - - 2.000

Cocoamidopropyl Betaine (30%

- - 5.000 - - Soln)

Cetyl Alcohol 0.000 - - - -

Stearyl Alcohol 0.000 - - - -

Hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC

- 0.500 0.500 0.500 - Natrasol 250M)

CMC 7M8SF 1.300 1.300 1.300 1.300 1.300

Xanthan Gum - - - - -

Poloxamer 407 - - - - -

Carrageenan mixture - 0.700 0.700 0.700 -

Titanium dioxide - - - - -

Saccharin Sodium 0.250 0.500 0.500 0.500 0.500

Flavor 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000

Water QS QS QS QS QS

38 39 40

Sodium Gluconate - - 1.500

Stannous fluoride - - 0.454

Sodium fluoride - - -

Sodium monofluorophosphate - - -

Zinc Lactate - - -

Glycerin 40.000 10.000 25.000

Polyethylene glycol 300 3.000 - -

Propylene Glycol - - -

Sorbitol(LRS) USP - 39.612 -

Sodium lauryl sulfate solution (28%) 5.000 4.000 4.000

Abrasive particles made from

polyurethane foam having Mean Area- equivalent Diameter (ECD) : 216 μιη; 15.000 5.000 5.000

Mean Circularity : 0.23; Mean Solidity :

0.66; Mean Roughness : 0.19

Zeodent 119 - - -

Zeodent 109

Hydrogen peroxide (35% soln) - 8.570 8.570

Sodium hexametaphosphate 14.000 - -

Gantrez - - - Natural CaCO3-600M - - -

Sodium phosphate (mono basic) 0.420 - -

Sodium phosphate (Tri basic) 1.100 - -

Zeodent 165 2.000 - -

Cocoamidopropyl Betaine (30% Soln) - - -

Cetyl Alcohol - 3.000 -

Stearyl Alcohol - 3.000 -

Hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC Natrasol

- - - 250M)

CMC 7M8SF 1.000 - -

Xanthan Gum 0.300 - -

Poloxamer 407 0.500 - 18.000

Carrageenan mixture - - -

Titanium dioxide 0.500 - -

Saccharin Sodium 0.500 0.500 0.500

Flavor 1.000 1.000 1.000

Water QS QS QS

Hair Shampoo

41 42 43

Water q.s. q.s. q.s.

Polyquaterium 76 1 0.25 — -

Guar, Hydroxylpropyl Trimonium

- 0.25 - Chloride 2

Polyquaterium 6 3 - - 0.25

Sodium Laureth Sulfate 12 10.5 10.5

Sodium Lauryl Sulfate 1.5 1.5

Silicone 4 0.75 1.00 0.5

Cocoamidopropyl Betaine 3.33 3.33 3.33

Cocoamide MEA 1.0 1.0 1.0

Ethylene Glycol Distearate 1.50 1.50 1.50

Abrasive particles made from

polyurethane foam having Mean Area- equivalent Diameter (ECD) : 216 μιη; 1 2 Mean Circularity : 0.23; Mean Solidity :

0.66; Mean Roughness : 0.19

Crosslinked PS-DVB (50% DVB 55,

mean diameter D(v,0.9) 75μιη) abrasive 1

cleaning particles

Fragrance 0.70 0.70 0.70

Up to Up to Up to

Preservatives, pH & Vise, adjusters

1% 1% 1% 1 Copolymer of Acrylamide(AM) and TRIQUAT, MW= 1 ,000,000 ; CD= 1.6 meq./gram; Rhodia

2 Jaguar C500, MW - 500,000, CD=0.7, Rhodia

3 Mirapol 100S, 31.5% active, Rhodia

4 Dimethicone Fluid, Viscasil 330M; 30 micron particle size; Momentive

Silicones

The dimensions and values disclosed herein are not to be understood as being strictly limited to the exact numerical values recited. Instead, unless otherwise specified, each such dimension is intended to mean both the recited value and a functionally equivalent range surrounding that value. For example, a dimension disclosed as "40 mm" is intended to mean "about 40 mm".

Claims

CLAIMS What is claimed is:
1. A liquid cleaning and/or cleansing composition comprising abrasive cleaning particles, wherein said abrasive cleaning particles have a mean roughness from 0.10 to 0.3 and wherein said abrasive cleaning particles have a HV Vickers hardness from 3 to 50 kg/mm2.
2. A liquid cleaning and/or cleansing composition according to claim 1, wherein said abrasive cleaning particles have a mean roughness preferably from 0.15 to 0.28, more preferably from 0.18 to 0.25, wherein roughness is measured according to method disclosed herein.
3. A liquid cleaning and/or cleansing composition according to any of the preceding claims, wherein said abrasive cleaning particles have a HV Vickers hardness preferably from 4 to 25 kg/mm2 and more preferably from 5 to 15 kg/mm2, wherein the Vickers hardness is measured according to method described herein.
4. A liquid cleaning and/or cleansing composition according to any of the preceding claims, wherein said abrasive particles have a mean particle size as expressed by the area- equivalent diameter from 10 to 1000 μιη, preferably from 50 to 500 μιη and more preferably from 100 to 350 μιη and most preferably from 150 to 250 μιη according to ISO 9276-6.
5. A liquid cleaning and/or cleansing composition according to any of the preceding claims, wherein said composition comprises from 0.1%, to 20% by weight of the composition, preferably from 0.3% to 10%, more preferably from 0.5% to 5% and most preferably from 1% to 3% by weight of the composition of said abrasive cleaning particles.
6. A liquid cleaning and/or cleansing composition according to any of the preceding claims, wherein said abrasive cleaning particles have mean circularity from 0.1 to 0.4, preferably from 0.15 to 0.35 and more preferably from 0.2 to 0.35, wherein circularity is measured according to ISO 9276-6.
7. A liquid cleaning and/or cleansing composition according to any of the preceding claims, wherein said abrasive cleaning particles have mean solidity from 0.4 to 0.75, preferably from 0.5 to 0.7 and more preferably from 0.55 to 0.65, wherein solidity is measured according to ISO 9276-6.
8. A liquid cleaning and/or cleansing composition according to any of the preceding claims further comprises a suspending aid, wherein said suspending aid is selected from the group consisting of polycarboxylate polymer thickeners; hydroxyl-containing fatty acid, fatty ester or fatty soap wax-like materials; carboxymethylcellulose, ethyl cellulose, hydroxyethyl cellulose, hydroxypropyl cellulose, hydroxymethyl cellulose, succinoglycan and naturally occurring polysaccharide polymers like Xanthan gum, gellan gum, guar gum, locust bean gum, tragacanth gum, succinoglucan gum, or derivatives thereof, or mixtures thereof.
9. A liquid cleaning and/or cleansing composition according to any of the preceding claims, wherein said abrasive cleaning particles are reduced into particles from polymeric material by grinding or milling and wherein polymeric material is selected from the group consisting of polyethylene, polypropylene, PVC, polycarbonate, melamine, urea, polyurethane, polyacrylate, polystyrene, phenolic, polyesters, polyamide and mixtures thereof, preferably polymeric material is selected from the group consisting of polyurethane, polyester, polyacrylate, polystyrene and mixtures thereof and more preferably the abrasive particles are obtained from rigid polyurethane foam made from the diisocyanate and diol.
10. A liquid cleaning and/or cleansing composition according to any of the preceding claims, wherein said abrasive cleaning particles are reduced into particles from foamed polymeric material by grinding or milling and wherein foamed polymeric material is selected from the group consisting of polyethylene, polypropylene, PVC, polycarbonate, melamine, urea, polyurethane, polyacrylate, polystyrene, phenolic, polyesters, polyamide and mixtures thereof, preferably foamed polymeric material is selected from the group consisting of polyurethane, polyester, polyacrylate, polystyrene and mixtures thereof and more preferably the abrasive particles are obtained from polyurethane made from the diisocyanate and diol.
11. A liquid cleaning and/or cleansing composition according to any of the preceding claims whereas the cleaning composition is loaded on a cleaning substrate whereas the substrate is a paper or nonwoven towel or wipe or a sponge.
12. A process of cleaning and/or cleansing a surface with a liquid, cleaning and/or cleansing composition according to any of the preceding claims, wherein said surface is contacted with said composition, preferably wherein said composition is applied onto said surface.
13. A process according to claim 12, wherein said surface is an inanimate surface, preferably selected from the group consisting of household hard surfaces; dish surfaces; surfaces like leather or synthetic leather; and automotive vehicles surfaces.
14. A process according to claim 12, wherein said surface is an animate surface, preferably selected from the group consisting of: human skin; animal skin; human hair; animal hair; and hard and soft tissue surface of the oral cavity, preferably teeth, gums, tongue and buccal surfaces.
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