WO2011070853A1 - Spatial light modulator, illumination optical system, exposure apparatus, and method for manufacturing device - Google Patents

Spatial light modulator, illumination optical system, exposure apparatus, and method for manufacturing device Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2011070853A1
WO2011070853A1 PCT/JP2010/068246 JP2010068246W WO2011070853A1 WO 2011070853 A1 WO2011070853 A1 WO 2011070853A1 JP 2010068246 W JP2010068246 W JP 2010068246W WO 2011070853 A1 WO2011070853 A1 WO 2011070853A1
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Prior art keywords
spatial light
light modulator
mirror
optical system
surface
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PCT/JP2010/068246
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French (fr)
Japanese (ja)
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範夫 三宅
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株式会社ニコン
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B26/00Optical devices or arrangements using movable or deformable optical elements for controlling the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light, e.g. switching, gating, modulating
    • G02B26/08Optical devices or arrangements using movable or deformable optical elements for controlling the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light, e.g. switching, gating, modulating for controlling the direction of light
    • G02B26/0816Optical devices or arrangements using movable or deformable optical elements for controlling the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light, e.g. switching, gating, modulating for controlling the direction of light by means of one or more reflecting elements
    • G02B26/0833Optical devices or arrangements using movable or deformable optical elements for controlling the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light, e.g. switching, gating, modulating for controlling the direction of light by means of one or more reflecting elements the reflecting element being a micromechanical device, e.g. a MEMS mirror, DMD
    • G02B26/0858Optical devices or arrangements using movable or deformable optical elements for controlling the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light, e.g. switching, gating, modulating for controlling the direction of light by means of one or more reflecting elements the reflecting element being a micromechanical device, e.g. a MEMS mirror, DMD the reflecting means being moved or deformed by piezoelectric means
    • GPHYSICS
    • G03PHOTOGRAPHY; CINEMATOGRAPHY; ELECTROGRAPHY; HOLOGRAPHY
    • G03FPHOTOMECHANICAL PRODUCTION OF TEXTURED OR PATTERNED SURFACES, e.g. FOR PRINTING, FOR PROCESSING OF SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; MATERIALS THEREFOR; ORIGINALS THEREFOR; APPARATUS SPECIALLY ADAPTED THEREFOR
    • G03F7/00Photomechanical, e.g. photolithographic, production of textured or patterned surfaces, e.g. printing surfaces; Materials therefor, e.g. comprising photoresists; Apparatus specially adapted therefor
    • G03F7/70Exposure apparatus for microlithography
    • G03F7/70058Mask illumination systems
    • G03F7/70091Illumination settings, i.e. intensity distribution in the pupil plane, angular distribution in the field plane; On-axis or off-axis settings, e.g. annular, dipole, quadrupole; Partial coherence control, i.e. sigma or numerical aperture [NA]
    • G03F7/70116Off-axis setting using a programmable means, e.g. LCD or DMD

Abstract

Provided is a spatial light modulator capable of accurately and stably driving each mirror element. Specifically provided is a spatial light modulator which spatially modulates incident light and emits the spatially modulated incident light, said spatial light modulator being provided with a mirror element which reflects the incident light, a base part, and an actuator which is provided between the base part and the mirror element and changes the relative positional relationship between the base part and the mirror element. The actuator comprises a drive source member having electric field responsiveness, and a pair of electrodes disposed so as to sandwich the drive source member therebetween. The drive source member contains a polymeric material.

Description

Spatial light modulator, the illumination optical system, exposure apparatus, and device manufacturing method

The present invention is a spatial light modulator, the illumination optical system, exposure apparatus, and a device manufacturing method. More particularly, the present invention relates to a suitable spatial light modulator in the illumination optical system of semiconductor devices, imaging devices, liquid crystal display devices, an exposure apparatus for manufacturing devices such as thin-film magnetic heads by lithography .

In a typical exposure apparatus of this type, a light beam emitted from the light source travels through a fly's eye lens as an optical integrator, the secondary light source (generally illumination pupil as a substantial surface illuminant consisting of a large number of light sources forming a predetermined light intensity distribution) in the. The light intensity distribution on the illumination pupil will be referred to hereinafter as "pupil intensity distribution". Further, the illumination pupil, by the action of the optical system between the illumination pupil and the surface to be illuminated (the mask or wafer in the case of an exposure apparatus), a position such that the irradiated surface is the Fourier transform plane of the illumination pupil It is defined.

Beams from the secondary light source are condensed by a condenser lens to superposedly illuminate a mask on which a predetermined pattern is formed. Light transmitted through the mask is imaged on a wafer through a projection optical system, it is on a wafer a mask pattern is projected and exposed (transferred). Pattern formed on the mask is a highly integrated, in order to accurately transfer this microscopic pattern onto the wafer, it is essential to obtain a uniform illuminance distribution on the wafer.

Conventionally, (see Patent Document 1) the illumination optical system has been proposed which can be continuously changed pupil intensity distribution (and hence the illumination condition) without using a zoom optical system. The illumination optical system disclosed in Patent Document 1, arranged in an array and tilt angle and tilt direction spatial light modulator on the configured movable multi-mirror (typically the number of minute mirror elements which are individually driven and controlled ) using, by deflecting and splitting the incident beam into minute units of the reflecting surface each, the cross section of the light beam into a desired shape or a desired size, is realized thus desired pupil intensity distribution .

JP 2002-353105 JP

The illumination optical system described in Patent Document 1, since the posture is using a spatial light modulator having a number of minute mirror elements which are individually controlled, the degree of freedom about changes in the shape and size of the pupil intensity distribution It is high. However, in the spatial light modulator described in Patent Document 1, because it uses a charging driving method of driving by electric repulsion force charges the charge to each mirror element, the temporal performance degradation due to charging it is difficult due to accurately and stably driving each mirror element, it is difficult to achieve desired pupil intensity distribution (and hence the desired illumination conditions) in a stable manner.

The present invention has been made in view of the problems described above, and an object thereof is to provide a spatial light modulator capable of accurately and stably driving each mirror element. The present invention also aims to provide accurate and with a stable driving spatial light modulator, the illumination optical system capable of stably realizing the desired illumination conditions of each mirror element to. Further, by using the illumination optical system to realize stably a desired illumination condition, an exposure apparatus capable of performing good exposure under an appropriate illumination condition, which is realized according to the characteristics of the pattern to be transferred an object of the present invention is to provide.

In order to solve the above problems, in the first embodiment of the present invention, the spatial light modulator for injection by applying a spatial modulation to the incident light,
A mirror element for reflecting the incident light,
And the base portion,
Provided between the mirror element and the base portion, and an actuator for changing the relative positional relationship between the mirror element and the base part,
Wherein the actuator includes a drive source member having electroactive, and a pair of electrodes disposed so as to sandwich the drive source member,
Said drive source member provides a spatial light modulator which comprises a polymeric material.

In the second embodiment of the present invention, comprising a spatial light modulator of the first aspect, provides an illumination optical system characterized by illuminating the surface to be illuminated on the basis of light from a light source.

In a third embodiment of the present invention, comprising a spatial light modulator of the first aspect, to provide an exposure apparatus characterized by exposing a predetermined pattern on a photosensitive substrate.

In a fourth aspect of the present invention, an exposure step of using the exposure apparatus of the third embodiment, exposure of the predetermined pattern on the photosensitive substrate,
A developing step of the predetermined pattern is developing the photosensitive substrate that has been transferred, to form a mask layer in a shape corresponding to the predetermined pattern on the surface of the photosensitive substrate,
To provide a device manufacturing method characterized by comprising a processing step of processing the surface of the photosensitive substrate through the mask layer.

The spatial light modulator according to one embodiment of the present invention, employs a method of individually driving each mirror element with a plurality of elastic actuator with a drive source member is formed of a conductive material having electroactive are doing. Therefore, without causing a temporal performance deterioration due to charging as charging driving method in the prior art, each mirror element can be accurately and stably driven and thus a desired pupil intensity distribution (and hence the desired illumination condition) can be stably realized.

As a result, in the illumination optical system of the present invention can be accurate and stable driving of each mirror element with a spatial light modulator possible to stably achieve the desired lighting conditions. Further, in the exposure apparatus of the present invention, by using the illumination optical system to stably achieve the desired lighting conditions, a good exposure under an appropriate illumination condition, which is realized according to the characteristics of the pattern to be transferred can be carried out, it can be produced and thus good device.

The structure of an exposure apparatus according to an embodiment of the present invention is a diagram schematically showing. The configuration and action of the spatial light modulation unit is a diagram schematically showing. It is a partial perspective view of a spatial light modulator in the spatial light modulation unit. The main structure of the spatial light modulator according to this embodiment is a diagram schematically showing. Is a diagram illustrating the operation principle of the actuator for driving the mirror element. The main structure of the spatial light modulator according to a first modification schematically shows. The main structure of the spatial light modulator according to the second modification is a diagram schematically showing. Is a flowchart showing manufacturing steps of a semiconductor device. It is a flowchart showing a manufacturing process of a liquid crystal device such as a liquid crystal display device.

The embodiments of the present invention will be described with reference to the accompanying drawings. Figure 1 is a diagram schematically showing a configuration of an exposure apparatus according to an embodiment of the present invention. 1, the Z-axis along the normal direction of the transfer surface of the wafer W being a photosensitive substrate (exposure surface), the X-axis along a direction parallel to the plane of FIG. 1 in the transfer surface of the wafer W It is set in the Y-axis, respectively along a direction perpendicular to the plane of FIG. 1 in the transfer surface of the wafer W.

Referring to FIG. 1, the exposure apparatus of the present embodiment, the light source 1 exposure light (illumination light) is supplied. As the light source 1, for example, ArF or excimer laser light source for supplying light of wavelength 193 nm, light having a wavelength of 248nm can be used as the KrF excimer laser light source for supplying. Exposure apparatus of this embodiment, along the optical axis AX of the apparatus, an illumination optical system IL includes a spatial light modulation unit 3, a mask stage MS for supporting the mask M, the projection optical system PL, the wafer W supported and a wafer stage WS to.

Light from the light source 1 illuminates the mask M via the means of the illumination optical system IL. The light transmitted through the mask M travels through the projection optical system PL, to form an image of the pattern of the mask M on the wafer W. The pattern surface of the mask M on the basis of light from the light source 1 illuminating optical system IL that illuminates the (illuminated surface) by the action of the spatial light modulation unit 3, a plurality pole illumination (dipole illumination, such as quadrupole illumination), It performs modified illumination, or normal circular illumination, such as annular illumination. The illumination optical system IL includes, in order from the light source 1 side along the optical axis AX, a beam light transmitting unit 2, a spatial light modulation unit 3, a relay optical system 4, a fly's eye lens (or micro fly's eye lens) 5 and , a condenser optical system 6, and a illumination field stop (mask blind) 7, and an imaging optical system 8.

Spatial light modulation unit 3, based on light from the light source 1 via the beam sending unit 2, to form a desired light intensity distribution (pupil intensity distribution) in the far field region (Fraunhofer diffraction region). It will be described later configuration and action of the spatial light modulation unit 3. Beam light transmitting unit 2, and guides to the spatial light modulation unit 3 while converting the light beam incident light beam having a cross-section of the appropriate size and shape from the light source 1, the position change of the light beam incident on the spatial light modulation unit 3 and it has a function of correcting the angular variations active. Relay optical system 4 condenses the light from the spatial light modulation unit 3, leading to the fly-eye lens 5.

Fly's eye lens 5 is a wavefront division type optical integrator comprising a plurality of lens elements for example are densely arranged. Fly's eye lens 5, incident to the light beam to wavefront splitting, rear focal position or the secondary light source consisting of a large number of small light sources on the illumination pupil of the neighborhood (substantial surface illuminant; pupil intensity distribution) are formed. The incident surface of the fly's eye lens 5 is disposed at the back focal position or the vicinity thereof of the relay optical system 4. As the fly-eye lens 5, for example, it can be used cylindrical micro fly's eye lens. Configuration and action of the cylindrical micro fly's eye lens, for example, disclosed in U.S. Patent No. 6,913,373.

In this embodiment, the secondary light source formed by the fly-eye lens 5 as the light source, a mask M disposed on the irradiated surface of the illumination optical system IL to Koehler illumination. Therefore, the position where the secondary light source is formed is a position optically conjugate of the aperture stop AS of the projection optical system PL, and can be called a forming surface of the secondary light source and the illumination pupil plane of the illumination optical system IL . Typically, the optical surface (the surface on which the wafer W is arranged in the case where the illumination optical system is considered, including the face mask M is placed or the projection optical system PL,) with respect to the illumination pupil plane surface to be illuminated becomes a Fourier transform plane.

Here, the pupil intensity distribution is a light intensity distribution on the illumination pupil plane or the illumination pupil plane optically conjugate with the plane of the illumination optical system IL (luminance distribution). If by the fly-eye lens 5 is relatively large wavefront division number, and global light intensity distribution formed on the entrance surface of the fly's eye lens 5, the secondary light source entire global light intensity distribution (the pupil intensity distribution) It shows a high correlation. Therefore, it can be referred to as also the pupil intensity distribution for the light intensity distribution on the incident surface and the entrance surface optically conjugate with the plane of the fly's eye lens 5.

Condenser optical system 6 condenses the light emitted from the fly-eye lens 5 to superposedly illuminate the illumination field stop 7. The light passing through the illumination field stop 7, through an imaging optical system 8, to form an illumination area which is an image of the opening of at least a portion illumination field stop 7 of the pattern formation region of the mask M. In FIG. 1, although not placed in the optical path bending mirror for bending the optical axis (and thus the optical path), it is possible to place appropriately in the optical path deflection illumination optical path mirrors as required .

The mask stage MS mask M is placed along the XY plane (e.g. horizontal plane), the wafer W is placed along the XY plane on the wafer stage WS. The projection optical system PL, based on the light from the illumination region formed on the pattern surface of the mask M by illumination optical system IL, for example, to form an image of the pattern of the mask M onto the transfer surface of the wafer W (exposure surface) . Thus, the projection while two-dimensionally driving and controlling the wafer stage WS in the optical system PL of the optical axis AX perpendicular to the plane (XY plane), the one-shot exposure or scan exposure while two-dimensionally driving and controlling the turn wafer W by performing, in each exposure region of the wafer W pattern of the mask M is successively exposed.

Next, with reference to FIGS. 2 and 3, the structure and operation of the spatial light modulation unit 3. Spatial light modulation unit 3, as shown in FIG. 2, for example a prism 21 formed of an optical material such as fluorite, spatial light modulator disposed proximate to the parallel sides 21a to the YZ plane of the prism 21 and a vessel 30. Optical material forming the prism 21 is not limited to fluorite, the light source 1 is depending on the wavelength of the light supplied, it may be other optical materials may be quartz.

Prism 21 has a form obtained by replacing one of rectangular side (on the side 21a facing the sides spatial light modulator 30 are arranged close) and the side surface 21b and 21c is recessed into a V-shape , also referred to as K prism in honor of the cross-sectional shape along the XZ plane. Sides 21b and 21c is recessed in a V-shaped prism 21 is defined by two planes P1 and P2 intersecting to form an obtuse angle. Two planes P1 and P2 are orthogonal to both the XZ plane, and has a V-shape along the XZ plane.

The inner surface of the two sides 21b and 21c in contact with the two tangents of the plane P1 and P2 (straight extending in the Y-direction) P3 serves as the reflective surface R1 and R2. That is, the reflecting surface R1 is located on the plane P1, the reflecting surface R2 is located on the plane P2, the angle between the reflecting surfaces R1 and R2 is an obtuse angle. As an example, the reflecting surface an angle between R1 and R2 is 120 degrees, the angle between the incident plane IP and the reflecting surface R1 of the perpendicular prism 21 to the optical axis AX by 60 degrees, perpendicular prism optical axis AX 21 an angle between the reflecting surface R2 and exit surface OP of the may be 60 degrees.

In the prism 21, is parallel to the side surface 21a and the optical axis AX of the spatial light modulator 30 are disposed close, and the reflecting surface R1 is the light source 1 side: the (upstream side of the exposure apparatus in FIG. 2 left), reflecting surface R2 fly's eye lens 5 side: located (downstream side of the exposure apparatus in FIG. 2 right). More particularly, the reflecting surface R1 is obliquely set with respect to the optical axis AX, the reflecting surface R2 is oblique with respect to symmetrically optical axis AX from the reflecting surface R1 with respect a plane parallel to the street and the XY plane tangent P3 It has been set. Side 21a of the prism 21, as described later, an optical surface facing the surface (array surface) of the mirror elements SE of the spatial light modulator 30 are arranged.

The reflecting surface R1 of the prism 21 reflects the light incident through the incident plane IP toward the spatial light modulator 30. The spatial light modulator 30 is disposed in the optical path between the reflective surface R1 and the reflecting surface R2, it reflects the light incident via the reflective surface R1. Reflecting surface R2 of the prism 21 reflects the light incident through the spatial light modulator 30, guided to the relay optical system 4 via the exit surface OP. Although FIG. 2 shows an example of integrally forming the prism 21 in a single optical block, it may constitute the prism 21 using a plurality of optical block as described below.

The spatial light modulator 30, to the light incident via the reflective surface R1, and emits impart spatial modulation in accordance with the incident position. The spatial light modulator 30, as shown in FIG. 3, a two-dimensionally arrayed a plurality of minute mirror elements (optical elements) SE. For ease of description and illustration, it shows a configuration example in which the spatial light modulator 30 in FIG. 2 and FIG. 3 comprises a 4 × 4 = 16 mirror elements SE, in fact much more than 16 It has a large number of mirror elements SE in.

Referring to FIG. 2, among the group of light beams incident on the spatial light modulation unit 3 along a direction parallel to the optical axis AX, light L1 to mirror element SEa of the plurality of mirror elements SE, light L2 is mirror element respectively incident on the mirror element SEb different and SEa. Similarly, light rays L3 are mirror elements SEa, mirror element SEc different and SEb, light L4 is respectively incident on mirror element SEd different from the mirror elements SEa ~ SEc. Mirror elements SEa ~ SEd provide spatial modulations set according to the position on the light L1 ~ L4.

In the spatial light modulating unit 3, in the reference state in which the reflective surface is set parallel to the YZ plane of all the mirror elements SE of the spatial light modulator 30, is incident to the reflecting surface R1 along the optical axis AX direction parallel rays, after passing through the spatial light modulator 30 is configured to be reflected toward the direction parallel to the optical axis AX by the reflecting surface R2. Further, the spatial light modulation unit 3, corresponds a length in air to the exit plane OP, the incident plane IP when the prism 21 is not disposed in the light path from the incident surface IP of the prism 21 via the mirror elements SEa ~ SEd from a position with the air equivalent length position to that corresponding to the exit plane OP is configured to be equal. Here, the length in air is obtained by converting the optical path length in the optical system in the optical path length in air refractive index 1, an air-equivalent length in a medium of refractive index n is 1 to the optical path length / it is multiplied by the n.

Array surface of the mirror elements SEa ~ SEd of the spatial light modulator 30 is disposed at a front focal position or near the relay optical system 4. Light given a predetermined angle distribution is reflected by the mirror elements SEa ~ SEd of the spatial light modulator 30 forms a predetermined light intensity distribution SP1 ~ SP4 side focal plane 4a of the relay optical system 4 . In other words, the relay optical system 4, the angle at which the mirror elements SEa ~ SEd of the spatial light modulator 30 is given to the emitted light, on a surface 4a in a far field region of the spatial light modulator 30 (Fraunhofer diffraction region) It is converted to the position.

Referring again to FIG. 1, the entrance surface of the fly's eye lens 5 is positioned at the position of the back focal plane 4a of the relay optical system 4. Therefore, the pupil intensity distribution formed on the illumination pupil immediately after the fly's eye lens 5, corresponding to the light intensity distribution SP1 ~ SP4 spatial light modulator 30 and the relay optical system 4 is formed on the entrance surface of the fly's eye lens 5 a distribution. The spatial light modulator 30, as shown in FIG. 3, for example, a large number of minute mirror elements SE that are regularly and two-dimensionally arranged along a plane in a state where the reflective surface is the upper surface of the planar shape which is a movable multi-mirror, including.

Each mirror element SE is movable and an inclination of the reflecting surface, i.e. the inclination angle and inclination direction of the reflecting surface is individually controlled according to the instruction from the main control system CR (not shown in FIG. 3). Each mirror element SE can be the a parallel two-way to the reflective surface two orthogonal directions to each other (Y and Z directions) as a rotation axis, rotated by continuously or discretely desired rotation angle . That is, it is possible to control the inclination of the reflective surface of each mirror element SE in two dimensions.

Case of discretely rotating the reflective surface of each mirror element SE, the rotation angle plurality of states (eg, ..., -2.5 °, -2.0 °, ... 0 degrees, + 0.5 degrees ... +2.5 degrees, ...) is good to switching control at. In Figure 3 but the outer shape indicates a square mirror elements SE, the outer shape of the mirror element SE is not limited to a square. However, from the viewpoint of light utilization efficiency, alignable shape (closest packing possible shapes) so that a gap is less mirror elements SE are preferred. From the viewpoint of light utilization efficiency, it is preferable to keep to a minimum the distance between two mirror elements SE adjacent.

In the spatial light modulator 30, in response to a control signal from the main control system CR, the posture of the mirror elements SE each change, each mirror element SE is set to the predetermined orientation. Each light reflected at a predetermined angle by the mirror elements SE of the spatial light modulator 30, via a relay optical system 4, the illumination pupil of the back focal point or near the of the fly's eye lens 5, multipolar Jo (dipolar and quadrupolar), to form the annular light intensity distribution, such as a circular shape (pupil intensity distribution).

In other words, the relay optical system 4 and the fly-eye lens 5, on the basis of the light through the spatial light modulator 30 in the spatial light modulation unit 3, to form a predetermined light intensity distribution on an illumination pupil of the illumination optical system IL distribution constitute a forming optical system. Furthermore, the back focus position or the illumination pupil optically conjugate with another illumination pupil position in the vicinity of the fly's eye lens 5, i.e. aperture pupil position (aperture of the pupil position and the projection optical system PL of the imaging optical system 8 AS the position) is also pupil intensity distribution corresponding to the light intensity distribution immediately after the fly's eye lens 5 is formed.

In the exposure apparatus, in order to and faithfully transferred with high accuracy the pattern of the mask M to the wafer W, for example, under an appropriate illumination condition according to pattern characteristics of the mask M is important to perform the exposure. Since the present embodiment uses a spatial light modulation unit 3 with a spatial light modulator 30 in which the posture of the mirror elements SE are changed individually, pupil intensity formed by the action of the spatial light modulator 30 distribution freely and quickly changing the can be achieved and thus a variety of lighting conditions.

However, in the conventional spatial light modulator described in Patent Document 1, by applying a potential to the plurality of electrodes provided corresponding to each mirror element, an electrostatic force between the respective electrodes and the mirror element It is generated, and by changing the distance between the electrodes and the mirror element. That is, the electric repulsion force charges the charge to each mirror element employs a charge driving method of driving each mirror element. Therefore, it is difficult due to the temporal performance degradation due to charging to accurately and stably driving each mirror element, to realize stably a desired pupil intensity distribution (and hence the desired illumination conditions) it is difficult.

The spatial light modulator 30 of the present embodiment, as shown in FIG. 4, the mirror element 31 that reflects incident light: and (31a, 31b, 31c corresponding to the SE in FIGS. 2 and 3), a base portion 32, and a base portion 32 and three actuators 33 provided between each mirror element 31. In the top view of FIG. 4, for clarity of the drawing, which shows one mirror element 31 three actuators 33 and provided in correspondence thereto. Further, in the side view of FIG. 4 shows a part of the mirror element adjacent to the mirror element 31 shown in top view.

Mirror element 31, for example a mirror portion 31a having a square-shaped reflecting surface 31aa in flat, and the movable portion 31b to which one end of the actuator 33 is disposed on the opposite side is connected to the reflecting surface 31aa of the mirror portion 31a, and a connecting member 31c for connecting the movable portion 31b and the mirror unit 31a. Mirror portion 31a has the form of, for example, a plane-parallel plate. The movable portion 31b has the form of, for example, has an outer circular shape and parallel planar plate. When viewed along the normal direction (X direction) of the array surface of the mirror element 31 (YZ plane), towards the mirror portion 31a is larger than the movable section 31c.

Connecting member 31c is a rod-like member for fixedly connecting for example a central portion of the central portion and the movable portion 31b of the mirror portion 31a. Three actuators 33 is disposed, for example at a regular angular intervals along the circumferential direction of the center around the circle of the movable portion 31b, the other end is connected to the base portion 32. The base portion 32, the partition member 34 is provided along the boundary of two mirror elements 31 adjacent. However, the partition member 34 in the configuration of FIG. 4 is not an essential component, it may be omitted from the installation.

The actuator 33 is, as shown in FIG. 5, a drive source member 33a having electroactive, a pair of electrodes 33b which are disposed so as to sandwich the drive source member 33a, the drive source member is connected to a pair of electrodes 33b and a power supply 33c for applying a voltage variably in 33a. Drive source member 33a is only made of, for example, a conductive polymer material. In the actuator 33, in response to the voltage application to the drive source member 33a, the drive source member 33a contracts in the same direction as the electric field (in FIG. 5 the vertical direction), the expansion to an electric field perpendicular direction (in FIG. 5 horizontal) to.

That is, in the actuator 33, an electric field perpendicular to the direction of the drive source member 33a in accordance with the magnitude of the voltage applied (hereinafter, referred to as "stretch direction") can be continuously changed scaling factor of a constant stretch if only maintain the rate (and hence constant shape) current hardly necessary. As a pair of electrodes 33b can follow the expansion and contraction of the telescopic direction of the driving source element 33a, a stretch corresponding to the deformation characteristics of the applied voltage of the drive source member 33a may be applied to the pair of electrodes 33b.

In the above description, the driving source element 33a is made of only a conductive polymer material, without having to be limited to this, it is possible to form the drive source member by a suitable conductive material including a polymeric material . As an example, it is possible to form the drive source member polymeric material, a conductive material made of gel composition of ionic liquid and carbon nanotubes. Techniques using this type of gel composition as the conductive material for the actuator are disclosed, for example, in EP No. 4,038,685.

In the configuration of FIG. 4, three elastic actuator 33 is arranged so as to stretch along the normal direction (X direction) of the array surface of the mirror element 31 (YZ plane). That is, in the actuator 33, the drive source member 33a columnar (not shown in FIG. 4) extending along the X direction (e.g., cylindrical, prismatic, etc.) has the form of, in the pair of electrodes 33b (FIG. 4 They are arranged around the drive source member 33a so as to face in a direction (any direction along the YZ plane) orthogonal not shown), for example the X direction.

Accordingly, in the unit structure consisting of a single mirror element 31, and three actuators 33 provided in correspondence with this, the voltage applied to the three actuators 33 in accordance with a command from the main control system CR varied individually , it can be by changing the X-direction scaling factor of three actuators 33 individually controls the posture of the movable portion 31b, controls the posture of the mirror portion 31a having a thus reflecting surface 31aa. In other words, the three actuators 33, changing the relative positional relationship between the base portion 32 and one mirror element 31.

As described above, the spatial light modulator 30 of the present embodiment, each mirror element 31 using a plurality of elastic actuator 33 with a drive source member 33a which is formed of a conductive material and having a field responsive driving It has adopted the method to be. Therefore, without causing a temporal performance deterioration due to charging as charging driving method in the prior art, it is possible to accurately and stably driving each mirror element 31, and thus a desired pupil intensity distribution (and hence the desired the illumination condition) can be stably realized in.

As a result, in the illumination optical system IL in this embodiment, by using the accurate and stable driving spatial light modulator 30 capable of each mirror element 31, it is possible to stably achieve the desired lighting conditions. Further, the exposure apparatus of the present embodiment (IL, MS, PL, WS), using an illumination optical system IL to realize stably a desired illumination condition, which is realized according to the characteristics of the pattern to be transferred properly it is possible to perform good exposure under the do not lighting conditions.

In the spatial light modulator 30 of the present embodiment, when each elastic actuator 33 is viewed from the light incident side (X axis direction) it is hidden by the movable portions 31b to and the plurality of mirror elements 31 when viewed along the array surface normal direction (X direction) of the (YZ plane), since towards the mirror portion 31a is larger than the movable section 31b, it is less likely to respective elastic actuators 33 are exposed to light irradiation . Thus, each stretchable actuators 33 are hardly degraded by the light irradiation.

In the above embodiment, when forming a pupil intensity distribution using the spatial light modulator 30, while measuring the pupil intensity distribution in the pupil intensity distribution measuring device, the spatial light modulation unit 3 according to the measurement result it may control the spatial light modulator 30. Such techniques are disclosed in U.S. Patent Publication No. 2003/0038225 publication corresponding to, for example, JP 2006-54328 and JP 2003-22967 JP and this.

In the above embodiment, as a prism member having an optical surface facing the surface on which a plurality of mirror elements of the spatial light modulator 30 is arranged, with a K prism 21 which is integrally formed in one optical block ing. However, without being limited thereto, by a pair of prisms, it is possible to constitute a prism member having the same function as the K prism 21. Further, it is possible by one parallel flat plate and a pair of triangular prisms, constituting the prism member having the same function as the K prism 21. Further, it is possible by one parallel flat plate and a pair of plane mirrors, constituting the assembled optical members having the same function as the K prism 21.

Further, in the embodiment described above, the invention has been described based on the spatial light modulator having a particular configuration shown in FIG. However, specific configurations of the spatial light modulator, i.e. configuration of the mirror element, the number, and arrangement are possible various forms for such as the number and arrangement of actuators provided corresponding to each mirror element. For example, as shown in FIG. 6, configuration examples in which the movable part is formed by the first movable portion 31ba and the circular second movable portion 31bb annular are possible. In the top view of FIG. 6, for clarity of the drawing, it is not shown other mirror elements mutually partition member 34 and the next.

The spatial light modulator according to a first modification of FIG. 6, the first movable portion 31ba of annular, is supported by a partition member 34 via a pair of support members 35 spaced in the Z direction, a pair support and it is formed so as to be swingable around an axis connecting the member 35. Circular second movable portion 31bb is supported by the first movable portion 31ba annular via a pair of support members 36 spaced in the Y direction, it can swing around an axis connecting the pair of support members 36 It is configured.

One end of a pair of actuators 33A spaced in the Z direction is connected to the circular second movable portion 31bb, the first movable portion one end of an annular pair of actuators 33B spaced in Y direction 31ba It is connected to. The other end and the other end of the pair of actuators 33B of the pair of actuators 33A is connected to the base 32. Four elastic actuators 33A, 33B are arranged so as to stretch along the array surface of the mirror element 31 normal to the direction (X direction) of the (YZ plane).

Accordingly, by appropriately changing the voltage applied to the pair of actuators 33A, by appropriately changing the X-direction scaling factor of the pair of actuators 33A, about an axis connecting the pair of support members 36 (Y axis) second it is possible to control the attitude of the movable portion 31bb. Further, by appropriately changing the voltage applied to the pair of actuators 33B, by appropriately changing the X-direction scaling factor of the pair of actuators 33B, about an axis connecting the pair of support members 35 of the (Z axis) first the posture of the movable portion 31ba, it is possible to control the attitude of the second movable portion 31bb of the axis around which in turn connects the pair of support members 35. That is, four elastic actuators 33A, by the action of 33B, the posture of the second movable portion 31bb is controlled biaxially around (Z axis around and Y-axis around), the posture of the mirror portion 31a having a thus reflecting surface 31aa It is controlled to a twin-screw around.

In the spatial light modulator according to the first modification, the first and second movable portions 31ba when each elastic actuator 33A is viewed from the light incident side (X axis direction), is hidden by 31bb and when viewed along the normal direction (X direction) of the array surface of the mirror element 31 (YZ plane), the mirror portion towards the 31a first and second movable portions 31ba, larger than 31bb, It is less likely to respective elastic actuators 33A is exposed to light irradiation. Thus, each stretchable actuators 33A are hardly degraded by the light irradiation.

Further, as shown in FIG. 7, construction of arranging the in-plane direction (Y-direction, Z direction, etc.) of the array surface of the mirror element 31 (YZ plane) a plurality of actuators 33C to stretch along the 33D examples are also possible. The top view of FIG. 7, for clarity of the drawing, are not shown other mirror elements mutually partition member 34 and the next. The spatial light modulator according to a second modification of FIG. 7, is used a circular movable portion 31b in the form of a relatively thick plane-parallel plate.

The end face of the end face and the -Z direction side of the + Z direction side movable portion 31b, one end of the pair of actuators 33C which are arranged at intervals in the X direction expands and contracts along the Z direction are respectively connected. On the other hand, the end face of the end face and the -Y direction side of the + Y direction side movable portion 31b, a side view of a pair of actuators 33D (FIG. 7 are arranged at intervals in the X direction expands and contracts along the Y direction not one end of the illustrated) are connected respectively. Each actuator 33C, the other end of the 33D is connected to a corresponding partition member 34.

Therefore, the voltage applied to the four actuators 33C by varying appropriately, the Z-direction scaling factor of four actuators 33C by varying appropriately, it is possible to control the attitude of the Y-axis around the movable portion 31b. Further, the voltage applied to the four actuator 33D by changing appropriately the expansion ratio of the Y-direction of the four actuators 33D by changing appropriately, it is possible to control the orientation of Z-axis around the movable portion 31b. That is, the eight stretchable actuator 33C, by the action of 33D, the posture of the movable portion 31b is controlled in two axes around (Z axis around and Y axis), posture biaxial mirror portion 31a having a thus reflecting surface 31aa It is controlled to be around.

In the above embodiment, instead of the mask can be a variable pattern forming device which forms a predetermined pattern on the basis of predetermined electronic data. Use of such a variable pattern forming device can minimize influence on synchronization accuracy even when the pattern surface is placed vertically. The variable pattern forming device can be used, a DMD (Digital Micromirror Device) including a plurality of reflective elements driven based on a predetermined electronic data. Exposure apparatus using DMD, for example Japanese Patent Application Laid-open No. 2004-304135, disclosed in U.S. Patent Publication No. 2007/0296936 corresponding to International Patent Publication No. WO2006 pamphlet and this. Besides the reflective spatial light modulator of a non-emission type like the DMD, it may be a transmission type spatial light modulator may be used a self-emission type image display device. It is incorporated herein by reference to the teachings of U.S. Patent Publication No. 2007/0296936 discloses.

The exposure apparatus of the above embodiment, the various subsystems, including each constituent element recited in the claims of the present application so that the predetermined mechanical accuracy, the optical accuracy, manufactured by assembling It is. To ensure these respective precisions, performed before and after the assembling include the adjustment for achieving the optical accuracy for various optical systems, an adjustment to achieve mechanical accuracy for various mechanical systems, the various electrical systems adjustment for achieving the electrical accuracy is performed. The steps of assembling the various subsystems into the exposure apparatus includes various subsystems, the mechanical interconnection, electrical circuit wiring connections, and the piping connection of the air pressure circuit. Before the process of assembling the exposure apparatus from the various subsystems, there are also the processes of assembling each individual subsystem. After completion of the assembling the various subsystems into the exposure apparatus, overall adjustment is performed and various kinds of accuracy as the entire exposure apparatus are secured. The manufacture of the exposure apparatus may be performed in a clean room in which the temperature and the cleanness are managed.

The following will describe a device manufacturing method using the exposure apparatus according to the above-described embodiment. Figure 8 is a flowchart showing manufacturing steps of a semiconductor device. As shown in FIG. 8, in the manufacturing process of a semiconductor device, a metal film is deposited on the wafer W as a substrate of a semiconductor device (step S40), and coated with a photoresist which is a photosensitive material on the vapor-deposited metal film (step S42). Subsequently, using the projection exposure apparatus of the above embodiment, a pattern formed on a mask (reticle) M, is transferred to each shot area on the wafer W (step S44: exposure step), the wafer W after completion of the transfer development, that is, the development of the photoresist on which the pattern is transferred performed in (step S46: development step).

Thereafter, a resist pattern made on the surface of the wafer W as a mask in step S46, processing such as etching is carried out to the surface of the wafer W (step S48: processing step). Here, the resist pattern, a photoresist layer is uneven in a shape corresponding to the pattern transferred is generated by the projection exposure apparatus of the above embodiment, what the recess penetrates the photoresist layer it is. In step S48, the surface of the wafer W through the resist pattern. The processing carried out in step S48, the example includes at least one film-forming, such as etching or metal film on the surface of the wafer W. In step S44, the projection exposure apparatus of the above embodiment, the wafer W coated with the photoresist, performing a transfer of the pattern as a photosensitive substrate or plate P.

Figure 9 is a flowchart showing a manufacturing process of a liquid crystal device such as a liquid crystal display device. As shown in FIG. 9, the manufacturing steps of the liquid crystal device, a pattern forming step (step S50), the color filter formation step (step S52), a cell assembly step (step S54), and a module assembly step (step S56). In the pattern forming process of the step S50, on a glass substrate coated with a photoresist as a plate P, and form a predetermined pattern such as a circuit pattern and an electrode pattern using a projection exposure apparatus of the above embodiment. The pattern forming step, an exposure step of transferring a pattern to a photoresist layer by using the projection exposure apparatus of the above embodiment, development of the plate P on which the pattern is transferred, i.e. development of the photoresist layer on the glass substrate was carried out, it contains a developing step to produce a photoresist layer in a shape corresponding to the pattern, a processing step of processing the surface of the glass substrate through the developed photoresist layer.

In the color filter forming step of step S52, R (Red), G (Green), B of sets of three dots corresponding to (Blue) are arrayed in a matrix, or R, G, 3 pieces of the B a stripe set of filters forming the color filters arrayed in the horizontal scanning direction. The cell assembly step of step S54, to assemble a liquid crystal panel (liquid crystal cell), using the glass substrate on which the predetermined pattern has been formed in step S50, and the color filter formed in step S52. Specifically, to form a liquid crystal panel by injecting liquid crystal between the glass substrate and the color filter. The module assembly step of step S56, to the liquid crystal panel assembled in step S54, to attach various components such as electric circuits and backlights for display operation of the liquid crystal panel.

Further, the present invention Without being limited to the application to an exposure apparatus for manufacture of semiconductor devices, Ya prismatic crystal display element formed on a glass plate, or an exposure apparatus of a plasma display or the like for the display device , the imaging device (CCD etc.), micromachines, thin film magnetic heads, and can be widely applied to an exposure apparatus for manufacture of various devices such as a DNA chip. Furthermore, the present invention is a mask in which the mask pattern of the various devices are formed (photomask, reticle, etc.) in the manufacture using a photolithography process, it can also be applied to the exposure step (exposure apparatus).

In the embodiment described above, ArF excimer laser light (wavelength: 193 nm) or KrF excimer laser light (wavelength: 248 nm) but, without being limited thereto, other suitable laser light source , for example, it is also possible to apply the present invention to such an F 2 laser light source for supplying laser light of wavelength 157 nm.

Further, applied in the above embodiments, techniques filled with medium (typically a liquid) having a refractive index greater than 1.1 optical path between the projection optical system and the photosensitive substrate, a so-called immersion method it may be. In this case, as a method that meets the liquid in the optical path between the photosensitive substrate and the projection optical system, and method it is locally filled with the liquid as disclosed in International Publication No. WO99 / ​​99/49504 Patent Pump cmdlet, JP given a stage holding a substrate to be exposed, as disclosed in Unexamined 6-124873 discloses the technique of moving in a liquid tank, on the stage, as disclosed in Japanese Patent Laid-Open No. 10-303114 forming a deep liquid bath, it can be employed as method of holding the substrate therein. Here, incorporated WO WO99 / ​​99/49504 pamphlet, the teachings of JP-A-6-124873 and JP-A No. 10-303114 discloses as a reference.

The aforementioned embodiment was the application of the present invention to the illumination optical system for illuminating the mask in the exposure apparatus, without being limited thereto, common for illuminating an illumination target surface other than the mask it is also possible to apply the present invention to the illumination optical system.

1 light source 2 beam light transmission unit 3 spatial light modulation unit 21 K prism 30 spatial light modulator 31 mirror elements 31a mirror 31b movable portion 32 base portion 33 actuator 4 relay optical system 5 fly-eye lens 6 condenser optical system 7 illumination field stop (mask blind)
8 imaging optical system IL illumination optical system CR main control system M mask PL projection optical system W wafer

Claims (14)

  1. In the spatial light modulator for injection by applying a spatial modulation to the incident light,
    A mirror element for reflecting the incident light,
    And the base portion,
    Provided between the mirror element and the base portion, and an actuator for changing the relative positional relationship between the mirror element and the base part,
    Wherein the actuator includes a drive source member having electroactive, and a pair of electrodes disposed so as to sandwich the drive source member,
    Spatial light modulator, characterized in that it comprises a polymeric material said drive source member.
  2. Said pair of electrodes, the spatial light modulator according to claim 1, characterized in that a stretchable in accordance with the deformation characteristics of the applied voltage of the drive source member.
  3. The spatial light modulator according to claim 1 or 2, wherein a plurality of the actuators are provided for one of said mirror elements.
  4. The mirror element is connected to the mirror portion having a reflecting surface, a movable portion having one end connected to the actuator is disposed on the side opposite to the reflecting surface of the mirror portion, and said the movable part mirror the spatial light modulator according to any one of claims 1 to 3, characterized in that it has a coupling member for.
  5. Comprising a plurality of said mirror elements which are regularly arranged, when viewed along the normal direction of the array surface of the mirror element of the plurality, toward said mirror unit is equal to or larger than the movable portion the spatial light modulator of claim 4.
  6. Comprising a plurality of said mirror elements which are regularly arranged, wherein the actuator 1 through claim, characterized in that it is arranged so as to stretch along the normal direction of the array surface of the plurality of mirror elements the spatial light modulator according to any one of 5.
  7. Comprising a plurality of said mirror elements which are regularly arranged, wherein the actuator 1 through claim, characterized in that it is arranged so as to stretch along the plane direction of the array surface of the plurality of mirror elements the spatial light modulator according to any one of 5.
  8. It said drive source member, the spatial light modulator according to any one of claims 1 to 7, characterized in that it consists of only a conductive polymer material.
  9. It said drive source member, the spatial light modulator according to any one of claims 1 to 7, characterized in that it consists of the polymer material, the gel composition of ionic liquid and carbon nanotubes.
  10. Includes a spatial light modulator according to any one of claims 1 to 9, the illumination optical system, which comprises illuminating an illumination target surface on the basis of light from the light source.
  11. Based on the light having passed through the spatial light modulator, the illumination optical system according to claim 10, characterized in that it comprises a distribution forming optical system which forms a predetermined light intensity distribution on the illumination pupil of the illumination optical system .
  12. Includes a spatial light modulator according to any one of claims 1 to 9, the exposure apparatus characterized by exposing a predetermined pattern on a photosensitive substrate.
  13. An apparatus according to claim 12, characterized in that it comprises a projection optical system for forming an image of the predetermined pattern on the photosensitive substrate.
  14. Using an exposure apparatus according to claim 12 or 13, an exposure step of exposing the predetermined pattern onto the photosensitive substrate,
    A developing step of the predetermined pattern is developing the photosensitive substrate that has been transferred, to form a mask layer in a shape corresponding to the predetermined pattern on the surface of the photosensitive substrate,
    Device manufacturing method characterized by comprising a processing step of processing the surface of the photosensitive substrate through the mask layer.
PCT/JP2010/068246 2009-12-10 2010-10-18 Spatial light modulator, illumination optical system, exposure apparatus, and method for manufacturing device WO2011070853A1 (en)

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Citations (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JP2001350106A (en) * 2000-06-05 2001-12-21 Seiko Epson Corp Thin-film mirror element and thin-film mirror array
JP2002328315A (en) * 2001-04-27 2002-11-15 Nec Corp Mirror driving mechanism
JP2005176428A (en) * 2003-12-08 2005-06-30 Japan Science & Technology Agency Actuator element
JP2006043778A (en) * 2003-07-22 2006-02-16 Ngk Insulators Ltd Actuator device
JP2006075943A (en) * 2004-09-09 2006-03-23 Seiko Epson Corp Actuator
JP2009009093A (en) * 2007-05-28 2009-01-15 Konica Minolta Opto Inc Image display apparatus
WO2009078223A1 (en) * 2007-12-17 2009-06-25 Nikon Corporation Spatial light modulating unit, illumination optical system, aligner, and device manufacturing method
JP4287504B1 (en) * 2008-08-15 2009-07-01 パナソニック株式会社 Conductive polymer actuator and a manufacturing method thereof

Patent Citations (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JP2001350106A (en) * 2000-06-05 2001-12-21 Seiko Epson Corp Thin-film mirror element and thin-film mirror array
JP2002328315A (en) * 2001-04-27 2002-11-15 Nec Corp Mirror driving mechanism
JP2006043778A (en) * 2003-07-22 2006-02-16 Ngk Insulators Ltd Actuator device
JP2005176428A (en) * 2003-12-08 2005-06-30 Japan Science & Technology Agency Actuator element
JP2006075943A (en) * 2004-09-09 2006-03-23 Seiko Epson Corp Actuator
JP2009009093A (en) * 2007-05-28 2009-01-15 Konica Minolta Opto Inc Image display apparatus
WO2009078223A1 (en) * 2007-12-17 2009-06-25 Nikon Corporation Spatial light modulating unit, illumination optical system, aligner, and device manufacturing method
JP4287504B1 (en) * 2008-08-15 2009-07-01 パナソニック株式会社 Conductive polymer actuator and a manufacturing method thereof

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