WO2011000784A1 - X-ray tube, mammography apparatus and method for generating x-ray images - Google Patents

X-ray tube, mammography apparatus and method for generating x-ray images Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2011000784A1
WO2011000784A1 PCT/EP2010/059052 EP2010059052W WO2011000784A1 WO 2011000784 A1 WO2011000784 A1 WO 2011000784A1 EP 2010059052 W EP2010059052 W EP 2010059052W WO 2011000784 A1 WO2011000784 A1 WO 2011000784A1
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WO
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Patent type
Prior art keywords
anode
ray tube
ray
focal spot
electron beam
Prior art date
Application number
PCT/EP2010/059052
Other languages
German (de)
French (fr)
Inventor
Sven Fritzler
Peter RÖHRER
Peter Schardt
Original Assignee
Siemens Aktiengesellschaft
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date

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Classifications

    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01JELECTRIC DISCHARGE TUBES OR DISCHARGE LAMPS
    • H01J35/00X-ray tubes
    • H01J35/24Tubes wherein the point of impact of the cathode ray on the anode or anticathode is movable relative to the surface thereof
    • H01J35/30Tubes wherein the point of impact of the cathode ray on the anode or anticathode is movable relative to the surface thereof by deflection of the cathode ray
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B6/00Apparatus for radiation diagnosis, e.g. combined with radiation therapy equipment
    • A61B6/40Apparatus for radiation diagnosis, e.g. combined with radiation therapy equipment with arrangements for generating radiation specially adapted for radiation diagnosis
    • A61B6/4021Apparatus for radiation diagnosis, e.g. combined with radiation therapy equipment with arrangements for generating radiation specially adapted for radiation diagnosis involving movement of the focal spot
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B6/00Apparatus for radiation diagnosis, e.g. combined with radiation therapy equipment
    • A61B6/50Clinical applications
    • A61B6/502Clinical applications involving diagnosis of breast, i.e. mammography
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B82NANOTECHNOLOGY
    • B82YSPECIFIC USES OR APPLICATIONS OF NANOSTRUCTURES; MEASUREMENT OR ANALYSIS OF NANOSTRUCTURES; MANUFACTURE OR TREATMENT OF NANOSTRUCTURES
    • B82Y10/00Nanotechnology for information processing, storage or transmission, e.g. quantum computing or single electron logic
    • GPHYSICS
    • G21NUCLEAR PHYSICS; NUCLEAR ENGINEERING
    • G21KTECHNIQUES FOR HANDLING PARTICLES OR IONISING RADIATION NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; IRRADIATION DEVICES; GAMMA RAY OR X-RAY MICROSCOPES
    • G21K1/00Arrangements for handling particles or ionising radiation, e.g. focusing or moderating
    • G21K1/06Arrangements for handling particles or ionising radiation, e.g. focusing or moderating using diffraction, refraction or reflection, e.g. monochromators
    • GPHYSICS
    • G21NUCLEAR PHYSICS; NUCLEAR ENGINEERING
    • G21KTECHNIQUES FOR HANDLING PARTICLES OR IONISING RADIATION NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; IRRADIATION DEVICES; GAMMA RAY OR X-RAY MICROSCOPES
    • G21K1/00Arrangements for handling particles or ionising radiation, e.g. focusing or moderating
    • G21K1/06Arrangements for handling particles or ionising radiation, e.g. focusing or moderating using diffraction, refraction or reflection, e.g. monochromators
    • G21K1/062Devices having a multilayer structure
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01JELECTRIC DISCHARGE TUBES OR DISCHARGE LAMPS
    • H01J35/00X-ray tubes
    • H01J35/02Details
    • H01J35/14Arrangements for concentrating, focusing, or directing the cathode ray
    • GPHYSICS
    • G21NUCLEAR PHYSICS; NUCLEAR ENGINEERING
    • G21KTECHNIQUES FOR HANDLING PARTICLES OR IONISING RADIATION NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; IRRADIATION DEVICES; GAMMA RAY OR X-RAY MICROSCOPES
    • G21K2201/00Arrangements for handling radiation or particles
    • G21K2201/06Arrangements for handling radiation or particles using diffractive, refractive or reflecting elements
    • G21K2201/067Construction details
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01JELECTRIC DISCHARGE TUBES OR DISCHARGE LAMPS
    • H01J2235/00X-ray tubes
    • H01J2235/08Targets (anodes) and X-ray converters

Abstract

The invention relates to a X-ray tube (1) with an anode (2) and a cathode (4) for generating an electron beam (8, 8a, 8b) between the cathode (4) and the anode (2), wherein a deflection unit (6) for deflecting the electron beam (8, 8a, 8b) is disposed between the cathode (4) and the anode (2). The deflection unit (6) allows the electron bean (8, 8a, 8b) to be selectively aimed at least at a first focal spot position (10), and a different second focal spot position (10a, 10b, 10c, 10d), on the anode (2). Furthermore, the invention relates to a mammography apparatus with an X-ray tube (1) and an X-ray detector (14), wherein the X-ray tube (1) is movably mounted for capturing X-ray images of the female breast (18) from various angles, and to a method for generating X-ray images of the female breast (18) with such a mammography apparatus.

Description

description

X-ray tube, mammography device and method for generating X-ray images

The invention relates to an X-ray tube and a mammography device and a method for producing X-ray images of the breast with a mammography apparatus. Mammography is a method in which the breast of a

X-ray examination is subjected. It is used for early detection of breast cancer. In order to recognize such altered breast tissue with high certainty is this an isotropic three-dimensional representation of the breast tissue with very high spatial resolution required.

An inserted as part of the mammography procedure is tomosynthesis. Several X-ray images of the breast are made of different angular positions from which then by a plurality of layer images, a 3D

Volume data set is reconstructed. However, even with this method, only a limited depth resolution is achieved in the presentation of the breast tissue. To carry out the mammography X-ray devices are used with an X-ray tube are generated in a heatable cathode electron beams that are accelerated to an anode serving as the target, where they produce when impinging X-rays. The surface of the anode to which the electron beam is called the focal spot. By the impingement of the electron beam on the anode generates heat, whereby the anode is heated in the region of the focal spot. This heating is the greater, the greater the power of the electron beam and the smaller the focal spot. To avoid damage to the anode it must therefore be cooled. To meet the demand for a high resolution in the representation of the breast tissue, there are already approaches in which an X-ray tube is used which allows a standing anode tube, an almost complete view of the breast up to the chest. However, either very large focal spots or very long recording times are required for technical reasons that have to be taken as a disadvantage in buying. To ensure the required for an X-ray short recording times, must work with the highest possible performance of the electron beam. Since the heat dissipation is limited by the anode cooling at the anode, standard anode tube may allow only a limited power density in the focal spot. Thus, the X-ray tube with high power only with short recording times at large

Focal spots are operated, but this leads to poor resolution or it can be realized with a good resolution small focal spots, and this can only work with low power, however, which leads to long recording times.

The use of a rotating anode tube can be operated mezeiten with small focal spot for high resolution and high power for short Aufnah-, has the disadvantage that due to technical reasons the breast can not be completely absorbed up to the chest, since due to the rotary plate with drive larger space requirements of the rotating anode X-ray tube of a suitable arrangement within the housing of an X-ray apparatus relating to the creation of an X-ray image of the breast is prevented.

It is an object of the invention to provide an X-ray tube in which the disadvantages mentioned are avoided. Furthermore, it is an object of the invention to provide a mammography apparatus and a method for producing X-ray images of the breast to propose a mammography unit. The first object is achieved by an X-ray tube with the features of claim 1. According to the invention environmentally summarizes these an anode is preferably designed as a standing anode and a cathode for generating an electrical nenstrahls between cathode and anode. Between cathode and anode a deflection unit for deflecting the electron beam is arranged, with which the electron beam at least a first and a second deviating from this focal spot position on the anode can be set optionally on. In other words, the focal spot position is varied by the deflection of the electron. In this case, several different second focal spot positions can be adjustable.

By using the deflector, the electron beam can be deflected on a plurality of focal spot positions selectively, which are different from each other. The individual focal spot positions can smear each other so that this results in a total enlarged focal spot while in the continuous operation of the X-ray tube. it is also possible borrowed that the costs associated with the electron beam

overlap focal spots on the anode, but ideally they are spatially separated from each other, so that overheating of the anode is avoided by the film formed on the anode upon impingement of the electron beam heat to a plurality of focal spots and therefore distributed over a larger area. The X-ray tube can be operated with an electron beam having a significantly higher performance compared to a X-ray tube with a floor anode with a stationary focal spot, therefore without that the focal spot is increased.

The inventive tube, it is possible, a small focal spot of realizing in practice a diameter of less than may have lOOμm, while maintaining high performance for a required high resolution. Through the use of a standing anode further comprises a suitable arrangement of the X-ray tube can be made close to the end of the housing, whereby an image of the breast is made possible up to the chest. In a preferred embodiment of the invention the A node is configured as a transmission anode. In this case, the X-ray radiation is transmitted through the anode and not as usual, emitted from the surface of the anode.

In a further preferred embodiment of the invention, the deflection unit comprises a coil, by which an e lektromagnetisches field is generated which causes a deflection of the electron beam.

The deflection of the electron beam is performance virtually free when it is electrostatically deflected. In this case, comprises the deflector electrodes, with the aid of an electric field is generated which deflects the electron beam.

With respect to the mammography apparatus, the object is achieved with a mammography apparatus according to claim 5. Accordingly, a mammography apparatus includes an x-ray tube and an X-ray detector, the X-ray tube for receiving x-ray images of the breast is movably mounted in different angle positions. It is also possible that in addition to the rotational movement about a rotational axis and a translational movement along this axis is performed with the X-ray tube, so that this is moved in a spiral path. Preferably, the X-ray tube is mounted pivotably in one on the receiving surface of the X-ray detector perpendicular to the pivot plane.

A particularly simple embodiment of the deflection unit ER gives itself when the focal spot positions lie along a line in the pivot plane of the X-ray tube and thus the E can be lektronenstrahl deflected in one direction only. Regarding the method the object is achieved by a method for producing X-ray images of the breast according to claim 8. Accordingly, with a mammography graphiegerät from a first position of the X-ray tube, a first X-ray image is generated, wherein the electron beam is set to a first focal spot position of the anode and then from a second, a second X-ray image is formed different from the first position of the X-ray tube, the electron beam to a set different from the first focal spot position second.

There are thus generates a plurality of focal spots in a time sequence one after another. Thereby, the imaging geometry and the corresponding projection angle, under which the up would take the X-ray image is performed changed. This must be considered at a later image processing. It must therefore be known in a reconstruction process, a clear assignment of the respective focal spot position and the associated X-ray image.

To further explain the invention reference is made to the embodiments of the drawings. There each show a schematic principle drawing: Fig 1 shows a longitudinal section through an inventive X-ray tube.

Fig. 2 is a front view of an X-ray tube according to the invention, contrary to the beam direction,

Fig. 3, a mammography apparatus with an X-ray tube.

Referring to FIG. 1.2 a X-ray tube 1 comprises an anode 2 and a cathode 4. The anode 2 is designed as a standing anode and tungsten can be used as anode, poured are executed in copper. Alternatively, a construction is conceivable, which provides a very thin tungsten layer on a highly heat-conductive graphite support. In addition, the anode 2 may include a cooling not shown. Between anode 2 and cathode 4 a deflection unit 6 is arranged, which is formed in this example by a coil.

In operation, the X-ray tube 1, the cathode 4 beispiels-, to negative high-voltage potential, while the anode is brought to ground potential. 2 The cathode 4 is traversed by a heating current, so that an electron beam 8 between the cathode 4 and the anode 2 is formed. The electron beam 8 impinges on a first focal spot position 10 of the anode 2, so that in this case X-rays are generated, which are shown simplified by the central beam 12 and exit beam in the direction of 13 from the x-ray tube. 1 The impingement of the electron beam on the anode 2 leads to the heating in the field of Brennfleckposi- tion 10. This heating is the greater, the greater the power of the electron beam.

By means of the deflection unit 6 can now be produced within the X-ray tube 1 between the anode 2 and cathode 4, a variable e lektromagnetisches field with the aid of the electron beam can be deflected. 8

While the trajectory of electron beam 8 results without the distraction of a signal generated by the deflection unit 6 field, the broken lines in FIG. 2 is recorded tracks of the electron beams 8a, 8b caused by variation of the electromagnetic field are. By such deflection of the electron beams 8a, 8b in each case a second focal spot position 10a, 10b, on which the electron beams 8a, 8b on the anode 2, which differ from the first focal spot position 10 and are spatially separated by this result. In this case, the focal spot positions 10, 10a, 10b along the line. 11 By the deflection of the electron beam 8 to the different focal spot positions 10, 10a, 10b upon impingement of the electron beam of the anode is heated to the anode 2 respectively different areas. The resultant is thus distributed over a larger area, which leads overall to the anode 2 in a focal spot position 10, 10a, 10b is not overheated. The X-ray tube 1 can therefore be operated with a E- lektronenstrahl 8 with significantly higher performance compared to a X-ray tube 1 with a floor anode with a stationary focal spot and at the same time a high resolution, ie a very small focal spot size, without this leading to overheating of the x-ray tube 1 and thus leads to damage.

can to a further increase in output of the X-ray tube 1 to reach the electron beam 8, however, not only along line 11 but are also deflected at right angles thereto, as further illustrated by the dashed lines

Focal spot positions 10c, 10d is clarified. Thus, a distribution of the resulting at the anode upon impingement of the electron beam heat is achieved in a wide area of ​​the anode. 2 In Fig. 3, a mammography apparatus with an X-ray tube 1 and spaced apart therefrom in the beam direction 13 X-ray detector 14 with its facing to the X-ray tube 1 receiving surface 16 is now shown. Between the receiving surface 16 of the X-ray detector 14 and the X-ray tube 1 is a breast 18, which serves as the object to be produced by the X-ray images.

The X-ray tube 1 is pivoted in direction of arrow 22 in a on the receiving surface 16 of the X-ray detector 14 perpendicular to the pivot plane twentieth This makes it possible to make X-ray images of the breast 2 of different angular positions, by means of which an isotropic three-dimensional representation of the breast tissue to be made possible with very high spatial resolution.

According to the inventive method, a first X-ray image wherein the electron beam 8 is set to a first focal spot position 10 on the anode 2 by means of the X-ray tube 1 generates from a first position.

After this first recording, the X-ray tube 1 in direction of the arrow is pivoted in the pivoting plane 20, 22 so that the latter is in a position deviating from the first second position, as shown in phantom in FIG. 3.

a second X-ray image is then generated from this second position out, wherein an e- lektromagnetisches field is generated by the deflection unit 6, so that the deflected electron beam 8a is thereby set to a second, different from the first focal spot position 10a. The focal spot positions 10, 10a lie on a line 11, which in this case lies in the pivot plane twentieth It is heated during the preparation of an X-ray image from an angular position in each case a different region of the anode 2 by the impingement of the electron beam 8,8a, while the remaining area of ​​the anode to cool. This results in that the anode is not overheated in a focal spot position 10,10a 2, so that the X-ray tube 1 can be operated with significantly higher performance with an electron beam. 8

To further increase the performance of the electron 8 can be deflected not only along this line 11 but also perpendicularly thereto ray, as, 10d is illustrated by the dashed lines in Fig. 2 further focal spot positions 10c. Thus, a distribution of the emerging on the anode 2 upon impact of the electron beam heat is achieved in a wide area of ​​the anode. 2

Thus, several X-ray images with high resolution, so a small focal spot and high power can be produced in a short time. Overheating of the anode 2 is thereby avoided. a plurality of focal spots are generated in a time sequence one after the other by this process so. This aspect must be taken into account when processing the images later. It must therefore be known in a reconstruction process, a clear assignment of the respective focal spot position and the associated X-ray image.

Claims

claims
1. X-ray tube (1) having an anode (2) and a cathode (4) for generating an electron beam (8, 8a, 8b) between the cathode (4) and anode (2), between the cathode (4) and anode (2) a deflection unit (6) for deflecting the electron beam (8, 8a, 8b) is arranged, with which the electron beam (8, 8a, 8b) optionally (on at least a first focal spot position (10) and a second of these different focal spot position 10a, 10b, 10c, 1Od) (on the anode 2) is adjustable.
2. X-ray tube (1) according to claim 1, wherein the anode (2) designed as a transmission anode.
3. X-ray tube according to claim 1 or 2, wherein the deflection unit (6) comprises a coil.
4. X-ray tube according to claim 1 or 2, wherein the deflection unit (6) comprising electrodes.
5. A mammography device with an x-ray tube (1) according to any one of the preceding claims and an x-ray detector (14), wherein the X-ray tube (1) is movably mounted for recording X-ray images of the breast (18) from different angle positions.
6. A mammography device according to claim 5, wherein the X-ray tube (1) in a on the receiving surface (16) of the gate Röntgendetek- perpendicular (14) pivoting plane (20) is pivotally mounted.
7. A mammography device according to claim 6, wherein the focal spot position (10, 10a, 10b) lie along a line in the pivoting plane (20) of the X-ray tube (1).
8. A method for generating X-ray images of the breast (18) with a mammography apparatus according to one of Ansprü- che 5 to where from a first position of the X-ray tube (1) a first x-ray image is generated 7, wherein the E- lektronenstrahl (8 ) to a first focal spot position (10) on the anode (2) is set and then a second X-ray image is generated from a second (different from the first position of the X-ray tube 1), wherein the electron beam (8a) of a second, of first deviating focal spot position (10a) is adjusted.
PCT/EP2010/059052 2009-07-03 2010-06-25 X-ray tube, mammography apparatus and method for generating x-ray images WO2011000784A1 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
DE200910033074 DE102009033074A1 (en) 2009-07-03 2009-07-03 X-ray tube, mammography device and method for generating X-ray images
DE102009033074.7 2009-07-03

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Citations (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4144457A (en) * 1976-04-05 1979-03-13 Albert Richard D Tomographic X-ray scanning system
US20050084060A1 (en) * 2003-10-15 2005-04-21 Seppi Edward J. Systems and methods for functional imaging using contrast-enhanced multiple-energy computed tomography

Family Cites Families (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE4410760A1 (en) * 1993-07-12 1995-01-19 Siemens Ag X-ray tube with an anode and means for displacing the focal point
DE19953613A1 (en) * 1999-11-08 2001-05-17 Siemens Ag Computer tomography apparatus
US6373917B1 (en) * 2000-08-30 2002-04-16 Agilent Technologies, Inc. Z-axis elimination in an X-ray laminography system using image magnification for Z plane adjustment
DE102006046741A1 (en) * 2006-09-29 2008-04-10 Siemens Ag X-ray system and method for tomosynthetic

Patent Citations (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4144457A (en) * 1976-04-05 1979-03-13 Albert Richard D Tomographic X-ray scanning system
US20050084060A1 (en) * 2003-10-15 2005-04-21 Seppi Edward J. Systems and methods for functional imaging using contrast-enhanced multiple-energy computed tomography

Non-Patent Citations (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Title
None

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Publication number Publication date Type
DE102009033074A1 (en) 2011-01-05 application

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