WO2010122472A1 - Spinal implant - Google Patents

Spinal implant Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2010122472A1
WO2010122472A1 PCT/IB2010/051688 IB2010051688W WO2010122472A1 WO 2010122472 A1 WO2010122472 A1 WO 2010122472A1 IB 2010051688 W IB2010051688 W IB 2010051688W WO 2010122472 A1 WO2010122472 A1 WO 2010122472A1
Authority
WO
Grant status
Application
Patent type
Prior art keywords
body
arms
posterior
upper
spinal implant
Prior art date
Application number
PCT/IB2010/051688
Other languages
French (fr)
Inventor
Malan De Villiers
Adriaan Liebenberg
Original Assignee
Malan De Villiers
Adriaan Liebenberg
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date

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Classifications

    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B17/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets
    • A61B17/56Surgical instruments or methods for treatment of bones or joints; Devices specially adapted therefor
    • A61B17/58Surgical instruments or methods for treatment of bones or joints; Devices specially adapted therefor for osteosynthesis, e.g. bone plates, screws, setting implements or the like
    • A61B17/68Internal fixation devices, including fasteners and spinal fixators, even if a part thereof projects from the skin
    • A61B17/70Spinal positioners or stabilisers ; Bone stabilisers comprising fluid filler in an implant
    • A61B17/7062Devices acting on, attached to, or simulating the effect of, vertebral processes, vertebral facets or ribs ; Tools for such devices
    • A61B17/7067Devices bearing against one or more spinous processes and also attached to another part of the spine; Tools therefor
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B17/00Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets
    • A61B17/56Surgical instruments or methods for treatment of bones or joints; Devices specially adapted therefor
    • A61B17/58Surgical instruments or methods for treatment of bones or joints; Devices specially adapted therefor for osteosynthesis, e.g. bone plates, screws, setting implements or the like
    • A61B17/68Internal fixation devices, including fasteners and spinal fixators, even if a part thereof projects from the skin
    • A61B17/70Spinal positioners or stabilisers ; Bone stabilisers comprising fluid filler in an implant
    • A61B17/7062Devices acting on, attached to, or simulating the effect of, vertebral processes, vertebral facets or ribs ; Tools for such devices
    • A61B17/7064Devices acting on, attached to, or simulating the effect of, vertebral facets; Tools therefor

Abstract

The invention concerns a spinal implant (10) which can be used in a minimally surgically invasive procedure to stabilise upper and lower vertebrae (54, 56) relative to one another. The implant has a rigid body (12) with upper and lower receiving formations (22, 24) to receive spinous processes (58, 60) of the adjacent vertebrae. Arms (14, 16) extend laterally from the body. These can pivot about a posterior-anterior axis (46) relative to the body and are formed with openings (36, 44) spaced laterally from the posterior-anterior axis. The arms can be locked relative to the body when pivoted to positions in which the openings are aligned with the facet joints (76) of the vertebrae so that facet screws (59) can be passed through the openings and engaged in the facet joints thereby to anchor the arms relative to the vertebra and fixate the facet joints.

Description

"SPINAL IMPLANT"

BACKGROUND TO THE INVENTION

THIS invention relates to a spinal implant.

There are numerous afflictions of the spine, such as stenosis, sciatica, herniated disc and spondylolisthesis, which can lead inter alia to severe back pain and which may require surgical intervention.

In some such cases, spinal fusion is performed to achieve spinal stabilisation. This may involve removal of an affected disc and implantation of a fixation device to hold the associated vertebrae rigidly in place while fusion of the vertebrae takes place.

In other cases, non-rigid spinal stabilisation is performed. In these cases, a non-rigid system is installed between adjacent vertebrae in the spine, usually the lumbar spine, to provide stabilisation. One example is the Dynesys™ system in which pedicle screws are fixed posteriorly to the spinal pedicles of adjacent vertebrae. The pedical screws are connected to one another by a flexible cord which allows flexion and extension.

Other examples of non-rigid stabilisation systems use implants such as the Coflex™ or Le U™ implants. These implants have a generally U-shaped body which is positioned posteriorly between the spinous processes of adjacent vertebrae.

The known systems are surgically invasive to a significant degree and their use may lead to problems during or after installation in view of the concentration of soft tissues that are typically in close proximity to the implantation site. SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

According to one aspect of the invention there is provided a spinal implant comprising a rigid body with upper and lower receiving formations shaped to receive spinous processes of adjacent, upper and lower vertebrae, arms which extend laterally from the body, which are pivotable about a posterior- anterior axis relative to the body and which are formed with openings therein spaced laterally from the posterior-anterior axis, and means for locking the arms relative to the body when the arms are pivoted about the posterior-anterior axis to positions in which the openings are aligned with the facet joints of the vertebrae so that facet screws can be passed through the openings and engaged in the facet joints thereby to anchor the arms relative to the vertebrae and fixate the facet joints.

In the preferred embodiment, the receiving formations are bifurcated upper and lower ends of the body, which may be formed by laterally spaced apart elements. The elements preferably have laterally extending holes therein to receive fasteners to be engaged laterally in the spinous processes of the vertebrae.

The openings in the arms are preferably elongate slots to allow for alignment with the facet joints.

In the preferred embodiment, the body has an anteriorly facing socket therein to receive rotatably a first hollow spigot extending posteriorly from a first of the arms, and a second of the arms has a second, posteriorly extending, hollow spigot which is receivable rotatably and coaxially in the first hollow spigot, whereby the first arm is rotatable relative to the body and the second arm is rotatable relative to the first arm and hence relative to the body. The body may have a passage extending through it, on the posterior- anterior axis, which opens into the socket, and the implant includes a fastener for extending on the posterior-anterior axis through the passage, through the first spigot and into engagement with the second spigot thereby to draw the assembly of body and arms together. The fastener is typically a screw with a threaded end engagable in a threaded passage in the second spigot. Preferably the socket and spigots have cooperating tapers which cooperate in Morse taper fashion.

According to another preferred feature the upper and lower receiving formations of the body are off-set from one another in a posterior-anterior direction. Typically the receiving formations are off-set from one another in the posterior-anterior direction by a distance which allows upper and lower ends of the bodies of respective upper and lower implants to lie alongside one another in a posterior-anterior direction when the implants are used to stabilise respective pairs of adjacent vertebrae.

According to another aspect of the invention there is provided a method of stabilising an upper vertebra with respect to a lower vertebra at a vertebral site, the method comprising the steps of:

a) locating an implant as summarised above at the vertebral site, through a posterior incision, with spinous processes of respective upper and lower vertebra received in the upper and lower receiving formations of the body of the implant and with the arms of the implant rotated relative to the body about the anterior-posterior axis to positions in which the openings therein are aligned with the respective facet joints;

b) passing facet screws through the openings and engaging them in the facet joints thereby to anchor the arms relative to the vertebrae and fixate the facet joints; and

c) locking the arms to the body either before or after step b).

The method may comprise the further step of fixing the receiving formations of the implant to spinous processes of the vertebrae.

Other features of the invention are set forth in the appended claims. BRlEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

The invention will now be described in more detail, by way of example only, with reference to the accompanying drawings in which:

Figure 1 shows an exploded perspective view of a spinal implant according to this invention;

Figure 2 shows a perspective view of the assembled implant;

Figure 3 shows a posterior view, in the direction of the arrow 3 in Figure 2, of the implant;

Figure 4 shows a cross-section, at the line 4-4 in Figure 3, of the implant;

Figure 5 shows a perspective view of a portion of a lumbar spine with the implant installed;

Figure 6 shows a posterior view in the direction of the arrow 6 in Figure 5;

Figure 7 shows a lateral view of a portion of a lumbar spine with two identical implants installed; and

Figure 8 shows a posterior view in the direction of the arrow 8 in Figure 7.

DESCRIPTION OF THE ILLUSTRATED EMBODIMENT

The illustrated spinal implant 10 includes a body 12, a first arm 14, a second arm 16 and a screw 18. The components 12, 14 and 16 are preferably made of a radiolucent, biocompatible material such as PEEK (polyetheretherketone) while the screw will typically be made of titanium.

The body 12 has a central region 20 and respective upper and lower ends 22 and 24 formed as receptacles which are shaped to receive spinous processes as described below. Each end is bifurcated to form the respective receptacle. The end 22 is bifurcated by virtue of two spaced apart elements 22.1 and 22.2 while the end 24 is bifurcated by virtue of two spaced apart elements 24.1 and 24.2. Holes 22.3, 24.3 extend laterally through the elements 22.1 , 22.2, 24.1 and 24.2 as illustrated. The central region 20 is formed with a countersunk passage 26 opening into a conically tapered socket 28 (Figure 4) on the anterior side thereof.

The first arm 14 has a conically tapered passage 30 formed partially in the bore of an externally conically tapered, hollow spigot 32. The external conical taper of the spigot 32 matches the internal conical taper of the socket 28. The arm 14 also includes a wing section 34 including a curved portion 34.1 and an end portion 34.2 formed with a laterally elongate opening in the form of a slot 36. As will be apparent from Figure 3 the slot is countersunk on the posterior side and includes a taper 37.

The second arm 16 has a cylindrical passage 38 formed partially in the bore of an externally conically tapered, hollow spigot 40. The external conical taper of the spigot 40 matches the internal conical taper of the passage 30. The arm 16 also includes a wing section 42 including a curved portion 42.1 and an end portion 42.2 formed with a laterally elongate opening in the form of a slot 44. As will again be apparent from Figure 3 the slot 44 is countersunk on the posterior side and includes a taper 45.

Figures 2 and 4 show how the components described above are assembled together with the spigot 40 in the passage 30 and the spigot 32 in the socket 28. The matching tapers are selected to achieve Morse-taper type engagement between the components. The screw 18 has a head 48 and a shank 50 at least the end of which is threaded. In use, with the body and arms brought together, the shank of the screw is passed through the passage 26, through the passage 30 and into the passage 38 which is internally tapped for threaded engagement with the shank. The head 48 is formed with a hex-engagement socket 52 to which a suitable tool can be applied to tighten up the screw. It will be understood that tightening the screw draws the arms 14 and 16 into tight, non-rotatable engagement with one another and with the body 12.

It is important that before the components are drawn into tight engagement with one another as described above, they are capable of rotation relative to one another about a common posterior-anterior axis 46.

Figures 5 and 6 show the implant 10 in use, providing stabilisation to upper and lower lumbar vertebrae 54 and 56 of a spine. The implant is installed through a posterior incision in a patient's back. The implant is moved into position through the incision and in an anterior direction such that the spinous process 58 of the upper vertebra 54 nests between the elements 22.1 and 22.2 of the bifurcated upper end 22 of the body 12, and the spinous process 60 of the lower vertebra nests between the elements 24.1 and 24.2 of the bifurcated lower end 24 of the body.

At this stage, the arms 14 and 16 are free to rotate relative to one another and to the body 12. The arms 14 and 16 are rotated relative to the body 12 about the axis 46 to orientations such that the slots 36 and 44 are aligned with the facet joints on opposite sides of the vertebrae. Holes are then formed in the facet joints at the positions of alignment, whereafter facet screws 59 are passed through the slots 36 and 44 and into the drilled holes thereby fixating the facet joints and anchoring the arms 14 and 16 in position. The required holes may be drilled with a drill guide or with the use of a K-wire and cannulated screw.

After the facet joints have been fixated and the arms have been anchored as described above, the screw 46 is tightened up to lock the assembly of body 12 and arms 14 and 16 together. It will however be understood that it would also be possible to lock the assembly of body and arms together, with the arms at appropriate orientations, before fixation and anchoring is carried out.

It will be understood that the illustrated implant 10 achieves effective stabilisation of the vertebrae by fusing them relative to one another. In practice, it will frequently be preferred that the implant, and in particular the body 12, be dimensioned and installed such that there is some distraction of the spinous processes in order to relieve pressure on the spinal disc or other soft tissue in the intervertebral joint.

Further stabilisation of the vertebral joint can be achieved by fixing the elements 22.1 , 22.2, 24.1 and 24.2 to the respective spinous processes by means of laterally oriented fasteners such as screws or rivets, a typical one of which is diagrammatically indicated by the numeral 57 in Figure 5, inserted laterally through the holes 22.3, 24.3 and engaged in holes drilled laterally into the spinous processes.

The head of each facet screw 59 locates in the countersink of the relevant slot 36, 44 and bears against the taper 37, 45. The fact that the slots are laterally elongate is advantageous since this enables the surgeon, after rotating each arm to the optimum orientation, to position each facet screw at the best location along the length of the slot in order to achieve secure anchorage of the arms and fixation of the facet joints.

A feature of the implant 10 is the fact that the upper and lower birfurcated ends of the body 12 are off-set from one another in a posterior-anterior direction. This off-set is indicated in Figure 4 by the numeral 62.

Referring to Figures 7 and 8, the provision of the off-set 62 allows upper and lower implants 10.1 and 10.2 to be installed in close proximity to one another to fuse upper, middle and lower vertebrae 64, 66 and 68 respectively. As shown in Figure 7, the off-set allows the lower end of the upper implant to lie posteriorly alongside the upper end of the lower implant without interference between the two implants. As indicated in this Figure the upper end of the upper implant 10.1 receives the spinous process 70 of the upper vertebra 64, the lower end of the upper implant 10.1 and the upper end of the lower implant 10.2 both receive the spinous process 72 of the middle vertebra and the lower end of the lower implant 10.2 receives the spinous process 74 of the lower vertebra.

Although Figures 7 and 8 shows two implants achieving stabilisation of three adjacent vertebrae only, it will be understood that more than three vertebrae can be stabilised using three or more implants.

In Figure 8, the lower facet screws have been omitted to provide an illustration of the facets 76 of the facet joints 78 in which the facet screws will be anchored in use.

The implant 10 has the advantage that it can be installed rapidly and simply with very little surgical invasion of the soft tissue in the vicinity of the implantation site.

Claims

1.
A spinal implant comprising a rigid body with upper and lower receiving formations shaped to receive spinous processes of adjacent, upper and lower vertebrae, arms which extend laterally from the body, which are pivotable about a posterior-anterior axis relative to the body and which are formed with openings therein spaced laterally from the posterior-anterior axis, and means for locking the arms relative to the body when the arms are pivoted about the posterior-anterior axis to positions in which the openings are aligned with the facet joints of the vertebrae so that facet screws can be passed through the openings and engaged in the facet joints thereby to anchor the arms relative to the vertebrae and fixate the facet joints.
2.
A spinal implant according to claim 1 wherein the receiving formations are bifurcated upper and lower ends of the body.
3.
A spinal implant according to claim 2 comprising laterally spaced apart elements forming the bifurcated upper and lower ends of the body.
4.
A spinal implant according to claim 3 wherein the spaced apart elements have laterally extending holes therein to receive fsteners to be engaged laterally in the spinous processes of the vertebrae.
5.
A spinal implant according to any one of the preceding claims wherein the openings in the arms are laterally elongate slots.
6.
A spinal implant according to any one of claims 1 to 5 wherein the body has an anteriorly facing socket therein to receive rotatably a first hollow spigot extending posteriorly from a first of the arms, and a second of the arms has a second, posteriorly extending, hollow spigot which is receivable rotatably and coaxially in the first hollow spigot, whereby the first arm is rotatable relative to the body and the second arm is rotatable relative to the first arm and hence relative to the body.
7.
A spinal implant according to claim 6 wherein the body has a passage extending through it on the posterior-anterior axis, the passage opening into the socket, and the implant includes a fastener for extending on the posterior-anterior axis through the passage, through the first spigot and into engagement with the second spigot thereby to draw the assembly of body and arms together.
8.
A spinal implant according to claim 7 wherein the fastener is a screw with a threaded end engagable in a threaded passage in the second spigot.
9.
A spinal implant according to any one of claims 6 to 8 wherein the socket and spigots have cooperating tapers.
10.
A spinal implant according to claim 9 wherein the socket and spigots cooperate in Morse taper fashion.
11.
A spinal implant according to any one of claims 1 to 10 wherein the upper and lower receiving formations of the body are off-set from one another in a posterior-anterior direction.
12.
A spinal implant according to claim 11 wherein the receiving formations are off-set from one another in the posterior-anterior direction by a distance which allows upper and lower ends of the bodies of respective upper and lower implants to lie alongside one another in a posterior-anterior direction when the implants are used to stabilise respective pairs of adjacent vertebrae.
13.
A method of stabilising an upper vertebra with respect to a lower vertebra at a vertebral site, the method comprising the steps of:
d) locating an implant according to any one of claims 1 to 12 at the vertebral site, through a posterior incision, with spinous processes of respective upper and lower vertebra received in the upper and lower receiving formations of the body of the implant and with the arms of the implant rotated relative to the body about the anterior-posterior axis to positions in which the openings therein are aligned with the respective facet joints; e) passing facet screws through the openings and engaging them in the facet joints thereby to anchor the arms relative to the vertebrae and fixate the facet joints; and
f) locking the arms to the body either before or after step b).
14.
A method according to claim 13 comprising the further step of fixing the receiving formations of the implant to the spinous processes of the vertebrae.
15.
A method according to claim 14 wherein the receiving formations of the implant include spaced apart elements forming bifurcated upper and lower ends of the body of the implant, the elements having laterally extending holes therein, and wherein the step of fixing the receiving formations to the spinous processes comprises passing fasteners through these holes and into the spinous processes.
PCT/IB2010/051688 2009-04-21 2010-04-19 Spinal implant WO2010122472A1 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
ZA200902755 2009-04-21
ZA2009/02755 2009-04-21

Publications (1)

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Cited By (12)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
EP2460481A1 (en) * 2010-12-01 2012-06-06 FACET-LINK Inc. Fusion implant for facet joints
US20160135851A1 (en) * 2014-11-13 2016-05-19 University Of Maryland, Baltimore Interlaminar, interspinous stabilization devices for the cervical spine
US9451996B2 (en) 2013-03-14 2016-09-27 Thunder Road Properties, Lp Facet lamina plate system
EP3049004A4 (en) * 2013-09-27 2016-09-28 Spinal Elements Inc Device and method for reinforcement of a facet
US9675387B2 (en) 2004-02-06 2017-06-13 Spinal Elements, Inc. Vertebral facet joint prosthesis and method of fixation
US9743937B2 (en) 2007-02-22 2017-08-29 Spinal Elements, Inc. Vertebral facet joint drill and method of use
US9808294B2 (en) 2011-02-24 2017-11-07 Spinal Elements, Inc. Methods and apparatus for stabilizing bone
US9820784B2 (en) 2013-03-14 2017-11-21 Spinal Elements, Inc. Apparatus for spinal fixation and methods of use
USD810942S1 (en) 2011-10-26 2018-02-20 Spinal Elements, Inc. Interbody bone implant
USD812754S1 (en) 2013-03-14 2018-03-13 Spinal Elements, Inc. Flexible elongate member with a portion configured to receive a bone anchor
US9931142B2 (en) 2004-06-10 2018-04-03 Spinal Elements, Inc. Implant and method for facet immobilization
US10022161B2 (en) 2011-02-24 2018-07-17 Spinal Elements, Inc. Vertebral facet joint fusion implant and method for fusion

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US20090036925A1 (en) * 2005-09-21 2009-02-05 Sintea Biotech S.P.A. Device, Kit and Method For Intervertebral Stabilization
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Cited By (20)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US9675387B2 (en) 2004-02-06 2017-06-13 Spinal Elements, Inc. Vertebral facet joint prosthesis and method of fixation
US10085776B2 (en) 2004-02-06 2018-10-02 Spinal Elements, Inc. Vertebral facet joint prosthesis and method of fixation
US9931142B2 (en) 2004-06-10 2018-04-03 Spinal Elements, Inc. Implant and method for facet immobilization
US9743937B2 (en) 2007-02-22 2017-08-29 Spinal Elements, Inc. Vertebral facet joint drill and method of use
WO2012072733A1 (en) * 2010-12-01 2012-06-07 Facet-Link Inc. Fusion implant for facet joints
US9358048B2 (en) 2010-12-01 2016-06-07 Facet-Link Inc. Fusion implant for facet joints
KR101868182B1 (en) * 2010-12-01 2018-06-15 패시트-링크 아이엔씨. Fusion implant for facet joints
CN103501715A (en) * 2010-12-01 2014-01-08 费瑟特-链接公司 Fusion implant for facet joints
JP2014506143A (en) * 2010-12-01 2014-03-13 ファセット−リンク・インコーポレイテッドFacet−Link Inc. Fusion implant for the facet joint
EP2460481A1 (en) * 2010-12-01 2012-06-06 FACET-LINK Inc. Fusion implant for facet joints
US10022161B2 (en) 2011-02-24 2018-07-17 Spinal Elements, Inc. Vertebral facet joint fusion implant and method for fusion
US9808294B2 (en) 2011-02-24 2017-11-07 Spinal Elements, Inc. Methods and apparatus for stabilizing bone
USD810942S1 (en) 2011-10-26 2018-02-20 Spinal Elements, Inc. Interbody bone implant
USD834194S1 (en) 2011-10-26 2018-11-20 Spinal Elements, Inc. Interbody bone implant
USD812754S1 (en) 2013-03-14 2018-03-13 Spinal Elements, Inc. Flexible elongate member with a portion configured to receive a bone anchor
US9820784B2 (en) 2013-03-14 2017-11-21 Spinal Elements, Inc. Apparatus for spinal fixation and methods of use
US9451996B2 (en) 2013-03-14 2016-09-27 Thunder Road Properties, Lp Facet lamina plate system
US9839450B2 (en) 2013-09-27 2017-12-12 Spinal Elements, Inc. Device and method for reinforcement of a facet
EP3049004A4 (en) * 2013-09-27 2016-09-28 Spinal Elements Inc Device and method for reinforcement of a facet
US20160135851A1 (en) * 2014-11-13 2016-05-19 University Of Maryland, Baltimore Interlaminar, interspinous stabilization devices for the cervical spine

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