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WO2010097263A1 - Method and sizing rule for dimensioning and producing fresnel lenses for focusing light - Google Patents

Method and sizing rule for dimensioning and producing fresnel lenses for focusing light

Info

Publication number
WO2010097263A1
WO2010097263A1 PCT/EP2010/050958 EP2010050958W WO2010097263A1 WO 2010097263 A1 WO2010097263 A1 WO 2010097263A1 EP 2010050958 W EP2010050958 W EP 2010050958W WO 2010097263 A1 WO2010097263 A1 WO 2010097263A1
Authority
WO
Grant status
Application
Patent type
Prior art keywords
lens
fresnel
melt
acrylate
weight
Prior art date
Application number
PCT/EP2010/050958
Other languages
German (de)
French (fr)
Inventor
Stefan Delp
Heiko Rochholz
Peter Battenhausen
Original Assignee
Evonik Röhm Gmbh
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date

Links

Classifications

    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE, IN GENERAL
    • B29DPRODUCING PARTICULAR ARTICLES FROM PLASTICS OR FROM SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE
    • B29D11/00Producing optical elements, e.g. lenses or prisms
    • B29D11/00009Production of simple or compound lenses
    • B29D11/00269Fresnel lenses
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE, IN GENERAL
    • B29DPRODUCING PARTICULAR ARTICLES FROM PLASTICS OR FROM SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE
    • B29D11/00Producing optical elements, e.g. lenses or prisms
    • B29D11/00009Production of simple or compound lenses
    • B29D11/00278Lenticular sheets
    • B29D11/00288Lenticular sheets made by a rotating cylinder
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE, IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C37/00Component parts, details, accessories or auxiliary operations, not covered by group B29C33/00 or B29C35/00
    • B29C2037/90Measuring, controlling or regulating
    • B29C2037/903Measuring, controlling or regulating by means of a computer

Abstract

The invention relates to a method for producing linear Fresnel lenses by forming a melt strand of a thermoplastic plastic, such as polymethyl (meth)acrylate, on the surface of a rotating drum that can be heated and cooled in certain areas, wherein the melt strand is pressed onto the rotating drum by means of a device, characterized in that the profile of the rotating drum is engraved according to the stipulations of the optimization program.

Description

Method and dimensioning rule for dimensioning and production of Fresnel lenses to the light beam focusing

Field of the Invention

Compared to massive lenses, Fresnel lenses are suitable because of their low material requirements for large-scale applications. In the field of solar thermal energy is a useful application potential for large positive lenses. You can focus sunlight on heat transfer and heat it to high temperatures. Cheap Fresnel lenses can be pressed from plastics and found in overhead projectors, for passive infrared sensors with simple hand motions and as wide-angle lenses in automobile rear windows and cash registers to control the shopping cart application

The invention relates to the use and the application of an improved method for manufacturing a linear Fresnel lens made of transparent plastics, the geometry of which has been optically and production optimized with a new calculation program. Under a linear Fresnel lens, a Fresnel lens is understood that acts like a cylindrical lens and having a linear focal zone. State of the art

U.S. Patent No. 5,656,209 (Rohm GmbH) describes a process for the extrusion of Fresnel lenses of transparent plastics, such as polymethyl (Kunneth) acrylate (PMMA) or polycarbonate (PC). The beam emerging from a slot die melt stream wraps around the embossing roller, which imparts the melt stream, the profile of the Fresnel lens. The thickness of the lens is approximately 6 mm, the lenses are made of an unspecified polymethylmethacrylate.

WO 01/196000 (Schröder, Nawrath) describes another method for the production of endless, optically imageable films, sheets or plates and a device for practicing the method. Object of the invention is to improve the unmet imaging accuracy of the structures on the film o. Ä..

The solution is aufzupressen emerging from a slot die melt strip of PMMA means of a circumferential steel band to the engraved roll. The temperature of the gravure roll at the impingement of the molten plastic is close to the maximum permissible for extrusion processes temperature (in the case of PMMA), along the circumference of the engraved roll is then cooled, so that a mold release of the resultant fresnel lens is easily possible.

EP 1559528 (Kark AG) describes an apparatus for forming a plastics molding on a rotating drum, the drum is heated and cooled in individual areas. task

It is now the object was to optimize the process for the manufacture of linear Fresnel lenses of transparent plastics with the known devices of the prior art so that one is to provide such an optimized structure of an embossing roller in a position that a so shaped linear fresnel lens parallel incident (sun) light bundles perpendicular to it at optimum Lichtsammeiintensität and energy efficiency in a narrow line focus as possible.

When designing this Fresnel step structure has the following problems were solved or taken into account:

1. aberration: The occurrence of the spherical aberration, so the variation of the focal position of the far axis and near-axis light beams, has been in the calculation rule avoided by an optimized design of the flank angle. (This was added to the medium wavelength range with which the lens is to be irradiated is determined by the refractive index of the polymer used and used in the calculation. The chromatic dispersion, that is the variation of the focal position as a function of the wavelength, because of the dispersion of the refractive index of the polymer used are not affected by a single Fresnel lens. As a central wavelength 630 nm were assumed for example.)

2. Minimizing of the to be formed from the embossing roller material to the range of the width of an edge structure along the entire width of the Fresnel lens. 3. By be minimized rounding of the edges of steps in the Fresnel lens cause interference, which direct and perpendicular to the plane of the panel incident light in undesired directions. The surfaces of the steep flanks between them cause additional losses due to their light refraction according to a diverging cylindrical lens. The design of this angle has been minimized to the required value for demolding. The angle is, for example, approximately 1 ° - 4 °.

4. The calculated contour of the roll for molding is rotated with a wedge-shaped tool. The lens is optically optimized subject to the constraint of the ways of the tool.

solution

The object is achieved by the available position of the profile coordinate, making it possible to control the machine for the engraving of the embossing roll so that so that an embossing roll can be made, with the linear using the prior art Fresnel lenses formed in accordance with the object can be. The invention further provides an optimized linear Fresnel lens made of transparent plastics are available.

Carrying Out the Invention Transparent plastic

As a transparent plastics poly (meth) (PMMA), polycarbonate (PC), cyclic olefin copolymers (OCP) or polystyrene (PS) acrylate are used.

Poly (meth) acrylate (PMMA)

Suitable for carrying out the invention, z is. B. a Polymethylnnethacrylat - molding composition which consists of 80 to 100 wt .-% methyl methacrylate units and optionally 0 to 20 wt .-% of further copolymerizable monomers. These include such. B. hydroxyethyl methacrylate, butyl acrylate, ethyl or preferably methyl. The molecular weight Mw (weight average, determined, for. Example, by DSC or by gel chromatography) may be, for. Example in the range of 5 x 10 4 to 2 x 10 5 lie. The appropriate PMMA types are available under the trademark Plexiglas ® from Evonik Röhm GmbH, such as Plexiglas ® POQ 62 or Plexiglas ® POQ64 or Plexiglas ® 6N.

Readily flowing types of PMMA molding compositions with a melt volume rate of 25 are preferred - 5 cm 3 / 10min used, particularly preferably PMMA molding compositions with a melt volume rate of 20 - used tenth The melt volume rate is determined according to ISO 1133 (230 / 3.8). An impact-modified polymethyl methacrylate (im PMMA)

Impact modified Polymethylnnethacrylat and its preparation is, for. B. from EP-A 0,733,754 is known.

The impact-resistant Polymethylnnethacrylat z can. B. composed of p1) of 4 to 30 wt .-% of an elastomeric phase and of p2) 70 to 96 wt .-% of a thermoplastic matrix phase of polymethyl methacrylate which contains up to 20th parts by weight based on 100 parts by weight of P, may contain at appropriate comonomer contents, wherein the refractive indices of the elastomer phase e and the matrix phase M differing by a maximum of n ≤ 0.02 from each other and the sum of p1) + p2) is 100 wt .-% by weight.

The elastomer phase of crosslinked polymer phase is from 60 to 99.9 parts by weight alkyl acrylate and / or aryl acrylate, suitable from 0.1 to 10 parts by weight of cross-linking agents and optionally from 0 to 30 parts by weight of ethylenically unsaturated monomers at suitable monofunctional built up.

Preferably, alkyl acrylates as C 2 - C 10 -alkyl kylacrylate used, such as for example, ethyl, propyl, iso-propyl acrylate, amyl acrylate, hexyl acrylate, octyl acrylate, decyl acrylate, and particularly preferably butyl acrylate and 2-ethylhexyl acrylate. Preferred acrylates are phenyl acrylate, 2-phenylethyl, 3-phenyl-1 propyl acrylate, 2-phenoxyethyl acrylate, 2-Phenoxyethoxyethylacrylat, and particularly preferably benzyl.

The cross-linking agents are generally compounds containing at least two ethylenically unsaturated, free-radically polymerizable moieties. As a representative of compounds having two ethylenically unsaturated, radically polymerizable groups may be mentioned by way of example: (meth) acrylic esters of diols such as ethylene glycol di (meth) acrylate, or 1, 4-butanediol di (meth) acrylate, aromatic compounds such as divinylbenzene, as well as compounds having at least one allyl group, such as allyl (meth) acrylate. As the crosslinking agent having three or more ethylenically unsaturated, radically polymehsierbaren radicals include triallyl cyanurate, trimethylolpropane tri (meth) acrylate and Pentaerythhtetra (meth) acrylate. Other examples of this are given for example in US-P 4,513,118.

The comonomers which may be present in 0 to 30 parts by weight in the elastomer phase, primarily serve to align the generally lower refractive index of the elastomer phase to that of the matrix phase M. Thus, preferably comonomers having relatively high refractive indices will be selected, such as free-radically polymerizable aromatic compounds. Examples which may be mentioned are: vinyl toluene, styrene or α-methylstyrene, are used in such amounts that they do not impair the weather resistance of the impact-modified polymethyl methacrylate.

With the elastomer phase at least 5 wt .-% covalently linked matrix phase M consists of a polymethyl methacrylate P, which is composed of 80 to 100 parts by weight of methyl methacrylate units, and has a glass transition temperature of at least 70 0 C. Furthermore, parts of further ethylenically unsaturated, radically polymerisable comonomer can in polymethylmethacrylate 0 to 20 parts by weight to be present, preferably alkyl (meth) acrylates having 1 to 4 carbon atoms in the alkyl radical. The average molecular weight M w of the

Polymethyl methacrylate is desirably between 10 and 10, preferably between 3 x 10 to 5 x 10 Dalton (to determine M w for example, see HF Mark et.al., Encyclopedia of Polymer Science and Engineering, 2nd Ed., Vol. 10, pages 1 ff, J. Wiley, New York, 1989).

Preferably, the elastomer phase is part of two- or multi-stage emulsion polymers which exist in the outer shell of the matrix phase forming polymethyl methacrylates. Particularly preferred are emulsion polymers formed from a core made of polymethyl methacrylate, a first shell S1 of the elastomer phase and a second shell S2 of polymethyl methacrylate having an at least three-stage structure, it being possible to connect additional shells corresponding to shells S1 and S2 alternately. The proportion of the emulsion polymers at the impact resistant polymethylmethacrylate is between 5 and 70 wt .-%, preferably between 10 and 50 wt .-%, with the remaining weight be identified from the non-latex particles contained in the polymethyl methacrylate plastic.

Preferably, the impact resistant polymethylmethacrylate is prepared by mixing the emulsion polymer with the polymethyl methacrylate, for example, the ingredients are mixed and then the water phase and the emulsifiers are separated or wherein initially the emulsion polymer is isolated from the aqueous phase and subsequently produced with the, for example, by continuous bulk polymethyl methacrylate is mixed in the melt. Overall, the latex particles, which form the emulsion should have a diameter between 0.1 and 3 microns, preferably 0.15 to 1 microns. The structure of such latex particles and the isolation of the emulsion polymer for two-stage emulsion polymers, for example in EP Patent 0,033,999 (= US Patent 4,543,383), and for three-stage emulsion polymers, for example in EP Patent 0,113,925 (= US Patent 4,513,118) is described. In the aqueous emulsion polymerization is advantageously carried out in a neutral or slightly acidic pH range, wherein the use of long chain alkyl sulfates or alkyl sulfonates is low as emulsifiers. The polymerization initiators used suitably the relevant known azo compounds or organic or inorganic peroxides, such as persulfates, which are generally used in amounts between 10 "and 1 wt .-%, based on the monomers: For adjusting the molecular weight of the above-described M w the present in the emulsion polymer

Polymethyl methacrylate serve the relevant known molecular weight regulators such as mercapto compounds such as 2-ethylhexyl or tert-dodecyl mercaptan.

More preferably those emulsion polymers which are coagulated in an extruder and drains are. The melt is divided in the dewatering zone of the extruder into several sections, which are supported in each case in separate screw flights. The melt phase is then stowed in at least one of these screw grooves in the nip of the double screw, forming a locally narrow pressure gradient into a cohesive melt cake. The water before the limit of the melt cake is allowed to drain through at least one discharge opening under the action of gravity downwardly so that the melt cake is not in contact with a cohesive water phase. Thus, the additives and impurities contained in the water are effectively removed, so obtained a particularly stable weather does not tend to yellow material (s. To EP-A 0683028 and as a two-stage process DE 197 18 597 C1). The appropriate im PMMA types are available under the trademark Plexiglas ® from Evonik Röhm GmbH, such as Plexiglas ® zk6BR, zk6HF or zk6HT.

polycarbonates

The present invention also relates to thermoplastic moldable polycarbonates. Polycarbonates are known in the art plastics. They describe thermoplastic polymers having the general structural formula

which can be formally regarded as polyesters of carbonic acid and aliphatic or aromatic dihydroxy compound. In this case, the radical R denotes divalent aliphatic, cycloaliphatic or aromatic groups, which are derived from the corresponding dihydroxy compounds.

To be used according to the invention, polycarbonates are homopolycarbonates, copolycarbonates, branched polycarbonates straight, branched polycarbonates and mixtures of said polycarbonates.

In the present invention, aromatic radicals R are preferred. These include residues from hydroquinone, resorcinol, 4,4'-dihydroxydiphenol, 2,2-bis- (4-hydroxyphenyl) propane, 2,4-bis (4-hydroxyphenyl) -2-methylbutane itself, 2,2-bis (4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethylphenyl) propane, 2,2-bis (4-hydroxy-3,5-dichlorophenyl) propane, 2,2-bis (4-hydroxy 4-hydroxyphenyl) -3,3,5-trimethyl cyclohexane derived -3,5-dibromophenyl) propane, 1, 1-bis (4-hydroxyphenyl) cyclohexane, or from 1, 1-bis- (. Particularly preferred radicals R are derived from 2,2-bis (4-hydroxyphenyl) propane or the 1, 1-bis (4-hydroxyphenyl) cyclohexane from.

The radicals R may, optionally, further substituents, preferably methyl or halogen groups carry. Particularly preferred substituents are bromine and chlorine atoms. The polycarbonates of the invention preferably have a weight average molecular weight in the range between 10,000 g / mol and 200,000 g / mol. Particularly preferred is a weight average molecular weight in the range between 10,000 g / mol and 100,000 g / mol, in particular between 15,000 g / mol and 45,000 g / mol.

The polycarbonates of the invention may contain other polycarbonate miscible polymers. These include poly (meth) acrylates, polyesters, polyamides, polyimides, polyurethanes, polyethers, ABS, ASA, and PBT.

Miscibility of the various substances mean in the sense of the present invention is that the components form a homogeneous mixture.

Furthermore, the polycarbonates in the art may contain well-known additives. These include antistatic agents, antioxidants, dyes, fillers, light stabilizers, pigments, UV absorbers, weathering stabilizers and plasticizers.

polystyrene

Polystyrene can for example be constructed from the following monomers: styrene, substituted styrenes having an alkyl substituent in the side chain, such as α- methylstyrene and α-ethylstyrene, substituted styrenes with an alkyl substituent on the ring such as vinyltoluene and p-methylstyrene, halogenated styrenes, such as monochlorobenzene, dichloro-styrenes, tribromostyrenes and tetrabromostyrenes. Carrying out the invention

1 Determination of the refractive index

2 Optimization of the lens structure

3 flowchart

1 ad

The value to be used in the calculation for the refractive index results from a measurement on the transparent polymer to be used at a wavelength which lies in the central region of the spectrum to which the lens is to be irradiated. He was determined at 23 ° C. As exemplary value is 1, can take on the 50th

ad 2

The coordinates for the control of a CNC machine for producing the Fresnel lens are determined in the following steps.

figure description

Fig. 1 shows the geometry of which is assumed. A bundle of parallel rays of light is focused by the Fresnel lens to the point F. It should be noted that the linear Fresnel lens spatially results in a line focus. Generally, it is assumed that the bundle of parallel rays at the angle α meets the lens. In addition, the focus at the distance f away from the optical axis. In the following is considered only 0 α = 0 ° and f '=.

The width of the lens is b. It is a Fresnel lens to construct with these optical properties.

Fig. 2 shows that a Fresnel lens is constructed of many juxtaposed elementary edge combinations. An edge combination (3) consists of an optical edge (1) which deflects the light beam in the direction of focus. In addition, close up and down two disturbing edges (2), which lead to the steps of the lens. These are aligned so that as few light rays are incident thereon. These light rays means a reduction in energy output, as these light beams do not reach the focus.

To calculate the optimized geometry of a process by the flow chart leads (Fig. 3) will be described.

1. Determine the start coordinates: In the case of a = 0 ° and f '= 0, the lens is symmetrical to the optical axis and the lens is constructed from the axis to the top. Subsequently, the upper portion is mirrored and completes the lens downward. 2. Point Lower interfering edge: The edge is aligned parallel to the light rays in the lens. When a = 0 °, the demolding is exactly perpendicular to this surface. Therefore, a Entformungsneignung the flank of about 1 ° is - 4 ° used.

3. Align optically effective edge: The edge is oriented so that the central light beam is directed in the focus. The refraction of the light beams is calculated according to the Snell's law of refraction, including the applicable refractive index. The edge is no longer aligned, when a light beam can not be directed at the focus due to the total reflection condition.

4. Upper optimize interfering edge: The edge is aligned parallel to the light beam in the lens. Also the Entformungsneignung of about 1 ° is again - 4 ° considered.

5. scale flank combination: Steps 2 to 4 form an edge combination. A limitation in the preparation is the maximum height h of the edge combination. In addition, only optical flanks with a maximum length z can be produced with optical precision. Under these two conditions the biggest possible cross combination is selected by scale and entered the coordinates. In addition, an equal Matehalfluss to be achieved in manufacturing. Therefore, the edge combination is aligned in the horizontal so that averaged over a cross combination, the material consumption on the dashed line is located.

6. If the nominal width achieved? Lining up edge combinations is continued until the desired width is reached or as a result of entering total reflection is no longer meaningful. 7. Prepare coordinates for the next edge combination: If the nominal width has not yet been reached, the next combination is appended.

8. reflect coordinates: In the case of a = 0 ° and f '= 0 is symmetrical with the lens and the half constructed must also be mirrored. Otherwise, the lower half is calculated separately.

Under a circular Fresnel lens, a lens having concentric stages is understood. Under a linear curved Fresnel lens, a plate is understood, the steps straight. This plate may then - z. Clamp for example, by - as a vault to be built.

Engraving of the embossing roller

The embossing roll is in suitable mech. Machining centers provided by milling and or turning with the present invention optimized Fresnel structure.

Production of the Fresnel lenses of the invention

For the production of the Fresnel lenses of the invention conventional single screw (manufactures like Kuehne, Breier, Krauss Maffei) can be used for plasticizing the selected thermoplastics. Depending on the plastic and plastic Type melt temperatures of about 200 0 C to 300 0 C are to be applied. The initial distribution of the plastic melt is carried out through a slot die. The so applied to the gravure roll melt film is pressed by a rotating mirror belt made of highly polished stainless steel in the gravure roll, resulting in the impression of the invention predetermined Fresnel structure in the solidifying melt strand. one or more rollers may be arranged to generate the contact pressure of the molten web onto the gravure roll, instead of the rotating mirror belt made of highly polished stainless steel. The contact pressure of the rollers may be the same or different. The gravure roll may be heatable and / or coolable fitted, it being possible for individual areas heatable and / or coolable.

The dimension of the lens depends substantially on the capacity of the screw kneader as well as the used T-die and the width of the embossing drum.

The extrusion rate can vary from about 0.1 to 10 m / NNIN and is mainly influenced by the Prägewalzendurchmeser and the lens thickness.

For example, a lens having the following parameters was made:

Width 1000 mm thickness 2.0 mm

Refractive index n = 1, 49

Focal length f = 1500 mm

Abformwinkel φ = 4 ° (slope to the vertical line)

All specified values ​​are to be understood as examples which are not limiting.

Taking into account the Fresnel reflections 89.9% of the light to be transmitted.

Claims

claims
I .A process for the manufacture of linear Fresnel lenses by molding a melt strand of a thermoplastic resin on the surface of a rotating drum, the heating in certain areas and can be cooled, the melt strand is pressed against the rotating drum by means of a device,
characterized, in that
the profile of the rotating drum is engraved according to the requirements of the optimization program.
2.A process for the manufacture of circular Fresnel lenses by molding a melt strand of a thermoplastic resin on the surface of a rotating drum, the heating in certain areas and can be cooled, the melt strand is pressed against the rotating drum by means of a device,
characterized, in that
the profile of the rotating drum is engraved according to the requirements of the optimization program.
3.A process for the production of curved linear Fresnel lenses by molding a melt strand of a thermoplastic resin on the surface of a rotating drum, the heating in certain areas and can be cooled, the melt strand is pressed against the rotating drum by means of a device,
characterized, in that
the profile of the rotating drum is engraved according to the requirements of the optimization program.
4.A method according to any one of the claims 1-3,
characterized,
that the device with which the melt strand is pressed against the rotating drum consists of one or more roles.
δ.Verfahren according to one of the claims 1-3,
characterized,
that the device with which the melt strand is pressed against the rotating drum consists of a band. Θ.Verfahren according to claim 5, characterized in that the strip is made of steel.
PCT/EP2010/050958 2009-02-24 2010-01-28 Method and sizing rule for dimensioning and producing fresnel lenses for focusing light WO2010097263A1 (en)

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