WO2010064245A2 - Signal strength reducing communication system, device, and method - Google Patents

Signal strength reducing communication system, device, and method Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2010064245A2
WO2010064245A2 PCT/IL2009/001144 IL2009001144W WO2010064245A2 WO 2010064245 A2 WO2010064245 A2 WO 2010064245A2 IL 2009001144 W IL2009001144 W IL 2009001144W WO 2010064245 A2 WO2010064245 A2 WO 2010064245A2
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WO
WIPO (PCT)
Prior art keywords
node
reception
client
extender
augmented
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PCT/IL2009/001144
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French (fr)
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WO2010064245A3 (en
Inventor
Doron Ezri
Shimi Shilo
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Greenair Wireless Ltd.
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Priority to US11975508P priority Critical
Priority to US61/119,755 priority
Priority to US12159508P priority
Priority to US61/121,595 priority
Priority to US61/167,201 priority
Priority to US16720109P priority
Priority to US17506309P priority
Priority to US61/175,063 priority
Priority to US61/238,700 priority
Priority to US23870009P priority
Application filed by Greenair Wireless Ltd. filed Critical Greenair Wireless Ltd.
Publication of WO2010064245A2 publication Critical patent/WO2010064245A2/en
Publication of WO2010064245A3 publication Critical patent/WO2010064245A3/en

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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04WWIRELESS COMMUNICATION NETWORKS
    • H04W16/00Network planning, e.g. coverage or traffic planning tools; Network deployment, e.g. resource partitioning or cells structures
    • H04W16/24Cell structures
    • H04W16/26Cell enhancers or enhancement, e.g. for tunnels, building shadow
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04BTRANSMISSION
    • H04B7/00Radio transmission systems, i.e. using radiation field
    • H04B7/14Relay systems
    • H04B7/15Active relay systems
    • H04B7/155Ground-based stations

Abstract

Communication system and method operative to minimize the signal strength required to be emitted by a client-node for uplink communication, and includes an augmented-node coupled with a reception-extender-node. The reception-extender-node is operative to at least wirelessly receive information transmitted from the client-node. If the reception- extender-node comprises wireless transmission capabilities, the wireless transmission capabilities are significantly limited at least when the emission is radiated towards areas in which presence of humans is expected; and the augmented-node and the reception- extender-node are remotely deployed from one another. Additionally, the electromagnetic radiation emitted from client-nodes during a connection and/or handover mechanisms with other nodes is significantly reduced. More specifically, a client-node may connect with or handover to a node for which the signal strength required to be emitted by the client-node is minimized.

Description

SIGNAL STRENGTH REDUCING COMMUNICATION SYSTEM, DEVICE, AND METHOD

FIELD OF THE DISCLOSED TECHNIQUE

[01] The disclosed technique relates to communication systems, devices and methods, in general and more specifically, to the strength of the electromagnetic (EM) radiation associated with communication systems, devices, and methods.

BACKGROUND OF THE DISCLOSED TECHNIQUE

[02] Wireless communication systems, have become an essential part of the modern world. Generally, wireless communication between client-nodes (e.g., cellular mobile devices) is performed using transceiving macrocell base stations, which are primarily used for wireless outdoor coverage; and/or using transceiving Femto and/or Picostations (hereinafter: Femto/Picostations), which are usually deployed indoors or within closed areas in order to ensure coverage within Femto/Picostation range, respectively, like for example in private homes, public buildings, offices, multi-storied buildings, malls, areas of public transportation, airplanes, and the like. As is known in the art, the strength of the electromagnetic (EM) radiation emitted by client-nodes is, inter alia, a function of the distance of the client-nodes from Macro, Femto and Pico-stations (herein: "transceiver stations") deployed in the communication system, as well as a function of other factors such as the type of material around or through which the emitted EM radiation may propagate. The EM radiation discussed herein corresponds to radio frequency (RF) transmission used in wireless communications. Clearly, a denser deployment of transceiver stations results in a reduction in radial distance required and/or in a reduction in path loss between client-nodes and transceiver stations.

[03] As a consequence, the signal strength required for communication from the client- nodes to transceiver stations is reduced, compared to the signal strength required in a less dense deployment of transceiver stations.

[04] On the other hand, a denser deployment of transceiver stations may give rise to increased interference between signals transmitted to and from the client-nodes. Additionally, the closer a person is situated next to transceiver stations transmitting to the client-nodes, the higher the exposure of the person to non voluntary EM radiation emanating from the transceiver stations. Accordingly, the public is generally reluctant to deploy such transceiver base stations possessing transmitting capabilities within their proximity, due to fear of increased exposure to EM radiation. More specifically, with reference to Figure 1 , a communication system 50 and a communication level or device referenced as a client-node 110, as known in the art, is schematically illustrated and exemplified, where macrocell base stations are referenced as base station 160, Femto/Picostations are referenced as Femto/Picostation 150, and repeaters are referenced as 140. Generally speaking, the communication system 50 is operative to enable client-node 110 to communicate over two main levels of wireless connectivity levels with a network cloud 190: over a macro level 101 via an uplink 111 and a downlink 161, in which there is direct macro-cell connectivity, or over an intermediary femto/pico/repeater level 102 via uplink 111 ; and via downlink 151 and 141, in which a femto/picostation and/or repeater-intermediary connectivity exists, respectively. Repeater 140 is communicably coupled with base station 160 via link 142 and 161. Base stations 160 are communicably coupled with network cloud 190 via links 191 , 192; and Femto/Picostation 150 is communicably coupled with network cloud 190 via links 155, 192. Network cloud 190 may refer to any communications network such as, for example, a wide area network. Base stations 160, Femto/Picostation 150 and repeater 140 have transmission and reception capabilities with respect to client-node 110.

[05] Wireless communication includes procedures for initializing communication between a client-node and a transceiver station, and/or for switching communication of a client-node from a first to a second transceiver station. The procedure(s) of switching communication is hereinafter referred to as a "handover", or "handoff , and is primarily performed in accordance with criteria concerning a received signal parameter such as signal strength and/or signal quality as received by the client-nodes. One may distinguish between a "hard-handover" or "hard-handoff" and a "soft-handover" or "soft-handoff". [06] When employing a "hard handover", an existing communication link with a first transceiver station is interrupted prior to establishing a new communication link with a second transceiver station, whereas in a "soft handover" a new communication link is established prior to interrupting the existing communication link. In "hard-handover", if for example, the signal strength and/or signal quality received by a client-node drop below a predefined threshold, the client-node searches for channel availability in neighboring transceiver stations. If a channel is available in at neighboring transceiver station and the channel meets criteria at least pertaining to the signal strength and/or quality received at the client-node, an attempt is made to establish communication between the client-node and the neighboring transceiver station. If the establishment of communication between the at least one client-node and the second transceiver station is successful, a message is fed back to the first transceiver station, terminating communication between the client- node and the first transceiver station.

[07] In view of the aforesaid, the signal strength of EM radiation emitted and received by wireless communication devices and/or received signal quality are key parameters in many procedures involving wireless communication. However, with mounting statistical evidence of, e.g., cancer affecting a larger number of people each year, affecting, on average, a younger population, and suggestions that EM radiation can adversely affect living tissue, there is a growing concern among the general public that wireless communication devices and their associated antennas emitting EM radiation, in particular antennas of devices that are used in proximity to the human body such as, for example client-nodes (e.g., cellular mobile devices), may at least be partly responsible for diseases and disorders that have come to the fore in the past decade. Accordingly, attempts have been made to reduce the signal strength of EM radiation to which the population may be subjected, in connection with wireless communication. Examples of such attempts are listed below.

[08] UK Patent Application No. GB 2,387,288 to Mayer et al, entitled "Non-electrically conductive connection between user and cellular phone", teaches the use of a connection for the conduction of sound to the earpiece and a connection for the conduction of sound from the microphone to be made of an electrical insulator. Such sound conductors which are also electrical insulators may be made from fluids such as water or oil, or from solid polymers. Distortions to signals may be corrected by Digital Signal Processing. [09] US Patent No. 6,559,801 to Davis, entitled "Method and apparatus for reducing electromagnetic radiation emission", teaches a specialized antenna. The antenna includes an encapsulation, or a binder, which coats the entire length of the conductive wire. The binder is a polymeric material which is clear and transparent. The binder includes a quartz crystal powder, reflective flecks such as Mylar, and a fluorescent dye dispersed within it. Emissions are thus reduced.

[010] US Patent No. 6,097,340 to Chang, entitled "Antenna with RF energy shield for a portable cellular telephone", teaches a metal shielding device, which limits the spread of microwave radiation emanating from the antenna. The device is semi-circular in cross section and wraps around the half of the antenna that is closest to the head, shielding it from radiation.

[011] WIPO international publication No. WO 2007/023490 to SeIa, entitled "Cellular communication system for reducing the effects of radiation emitted from cellular phone antennas", teaches a system comprising a cell phone interface unit that includes a transceiver for low power RF communication; a microphone; an earphone; a display; a keypad; a hub device that includes a transceiver for low power RF communication; an antenna for high power RF communication and circuitry and appropriate software components for establishing a communication channel between the hub and a base station. Low power communication takes place between the cell phone and the hub device. High power communication takes place between the hub device and the cellular base station, taking harmful radiation away from the caller. Thus the hub acts as an intermediary.

[012] It should be noted that besides the signal strength and/or received signal quality, non-technical parameters may also be considered when establishing wireless communication links. Patent application US20080232574 for example takes into account the cost of communication with base stations when establishing a communication channel between a transceiver station and a client-node. More specifically, US20080232574 discloses a method of initiating a telecommunication session for a communication device, where the method includes submitting to one or more telecommunication carriers a proposal for a telecommunication session, receiving from at least one of the telecommunication carriers a bid to carry the telecommunications session, automatically selecting one of the telecommunications carriers from the carriers submitting a bid, and initiating the telecommunication session through the selected telecommunication carrier.

SUMMARY OF THE DISCLOSED TECHNIQUE

[013] In accordance with one aspect of the disclosed technique, there is thus provided a communication system enabling communication between a plurality of communication nodes. The communication system includes at least one augmented-node operative to at least transmit information over a wireless communication link to at least one client-node; and at least one reception-extender-node communicably coupled with the at least one augmented-node, the at least one reception-extender-node operative to at least wirelessly receive information transmitted from the at least one client-node.

[014] In embodiments of the disclosed technique, the at least one augmented-node and the at least one reception-extender-node are remotely deployed from one another with respect to at least one configuration of the following group: a first configuration where the distance between the at least one augmented-node and the at least one reception- extender-node is significant with respect to a wireless transmission coverage range of the at least one augmented-node; and a second configuration where the respective path losses from the at least one client-node to the at least one augmented-node and the at least one reception-extender-node are significantly different (e.g., due to propagation loss/ penetration loss).

[015] In embodiments of the disclosed technique, if the at least one reception-extender- node includes wireless transmission capabilities, the wireless transmission capabilities are limited at least when the emission is radiated towards areas in which presence of humans is expected. [016] In embodiments of the disclosed technique, the at least one reception-extender- node is free of radio frequency transmission capabilities.

[017] In embodiments of the disclosed technique, the at least one reception-extender- node is communicably coupled with the at least one augmented-node via wireline. [018] In embodiments of the disclosed technique, the communication system includes a controller operative to control the communication settings between the at least one client- node and at least one node of the following group: the at least one augmented-node; and both the at least one augmented-node and the at least one reception-extender-node, according to operation criteria including at least minimizing the electromagnetic radiation emanating from the at least one client-node.

[019] In embodiments of the disclosed technique, the at least one reception-extender- node is communicably coupled with a plurality of augmented-nodes. [020] In embodiments of the disclosed technique, the at least one reception-extender- node independently processes signals received from the at least one client-node and provides information associated with the processed signals to at least one selected of the plurality of augmented-nodes handling communication with the at least one client-node. [021] In embodiments of the disclosed technique, the at least one reception-extender- node is operative to determine the communicative association between the at least one client-node and at least one augmented-node such that information received at the at least one reception-extender-node from the at least one client-node is provided to the at least one augmented-node according to the communicative association.

[022] In embodiments of the disclosed technique, the at least one augmented-node and/or the at least one client-node provide the at least one reception-extender-node with information based on which the at least one reception-extender-node determines the communicative association.

[023] In embodiments of the disclosed technique, the communication system is operative to perform synchronization of signals emitted by the at least one client-node according to information received by the at least one reception-extender-node.

[024] In embodiments of the disclosed technique, the communication system is operative to perform synchronization of the at least one reception-extender-node according to information the latter receives. For example, information respective of the signals received from the at least one augmented-node and/or signals received from the at least one client-node and/or signals received from a Global Positioning System; and/or signals carrying synchronization commands.

[025] In embodiments of the disclosed technique, synchronization commands are provided according to the IEEE 1588 standard.

[026] In embodiments of the disclosed technique, synchronization is performed according to the following parameters, for example: time and/or frequency.

[027] In embodiments of the disclosed technique, the controller is operative to enable for example, the following procedures: receiving information that is at least about the signal strength required to be emitted from the at least one client-node for communication with at least one other node including, for example, at least one of the following type: a node augmented with at least one reception-extender-node; determining which information respective of the at least one other node meets at least one predetermined criterion, which includes minimizing the signal strength of the electromagnetic radiation required to be emitted by the at least one client-node; selecting at least one node of the at least one other node yielding at least one selected node for communication with the at least one client- node, where the at least one selected node meets the at least one predetermined criterion; and establishing a link between the at least one client-node and the at least one selected node.

[028] In embodiments of the disclosed technique, the communicably coupling between the at least one reception-extender-node and for example, the at least one augmented- node is implemented according to the following communication interfaces for example: wireline and/or highly directional wireless and/or low exposure wireless connection. [029] In embodiments of the disclosed technique, the communicably coupling between the at least one reception-extender-node and the at least one augmented-node is implemented over the Internet.

[030] In embodiments of the disclosed technique, the at least one reception-extender- node is communicably coupled with the at least one augmented-node via a gateway. [031] In embodiments of the disclosed technique, the gateway is operative to perform the following tasks for example: accounting and/or authorization and/or authentication and/or security checks and/or packets tunneling and/or aggregating a multiplicity of identical packets from a plurality of the reception-extender-nodes and/or forwarding packets; and/or gathering statistics, e.g., about the packets.

[032] In embodiments of the disclosed technique, the communicably coupling between the at least one reception-extender-node and the at least one augmented-node is implemented, for example, over the following connections: S1 and/or X2 and/or R8. [033] In embodiments of the disclosed technique, the at least augmented-node is, for example, a cellular base station augmented with the at least one reception-extender-node employing for example, the following technologies: GSM and/or CDMA and/or CDMA2000 and/or WCDMA and/or TD-SCDMA and/or WiMAX and/or LTE, and/or a wireless access- point augmented with the at least one reception-extender-node employing wireless local area network technology;

[034] In embodiments of the disclosed technique, the at least one client-node is a user- device.

[035] In embodiments of the disclosed technique, the at least one reception-extender- node is housed in and/or coupled with appliances.

[036] In embodiments of the disclosed technique, the communication system includes a signal strength reducer operative to reduce the required signal strength emitted by the at least one client-node to a minimized value according to information received from, for example, one of the following: the at least one client-node and/or the at least one reception-extender-node and/or the at least one augmented-node.

[037] In embodiments of the disclosed technique, the least one reception-extender-node is remotely deployed from and communicably coupled with the at least one augmented- node, according to the first configuration, at a distance that is, for example, at least 5% of the transmission coverage range of the at least one augmented-node. [038] In embodiments of the disclosed technique, the transmission coverage range of the at least one augmented-node is, for example, between 10 meters to 50 km. [039] In embodiments of the disclosed technique, the least one reception-extender-node is remotely deployed from and communicably coupled with the at least one augmented- node according to the second configuration, where the path loss difference is, for example, at least 1O dB.

[040] In embodiments of the disclosed technique the operation criteria define, for example, a maximal allowed signal strength emanating from the at least one client-node; and/or a minimum signal quality threshold for the signal as received by, for example, the at least one reception-extender-node and/or the at least one augmented-node. [041] In embodiments of the disclosed technique the at least one reception-extender- node is positioned at least in close proximity to an expected location of the at least one client-node such that the signal strength required to be emitted by the at least one client- node for communication is lower than the maximal possible signal strength (SSmax) emittable by the at least one client-node ranges from, for example, 0.5*SSmax, to 0.000001 *SSmax, where SSmax ranges, for example, from 0 - 33 dBm. [042] In embodiments of the disclosed technique, the signal strength required to be emitted by the at least one client-node for communication decreases to a value ranging for example, from -50 dBm to +10 dBm.

[043] In embodiments of the disclosed technique, a signal emitted by the at least one client-node is received by a plurality of reception-extender-nodes.

[044] In embodiments of the disclosed technique, a signal emitted by the at least one client-node is received by a plurality of augmented-nodes.

[045] In embodiments of the disclosed technique, the communication system is operative to employ at least one multiple antenna reception scheme during communication with the at least one client-node for signals received by the at least one reception- extender-node and/or the at least one augmented-node.

[046] In embodiments of the disclosed technique, the communication system is operative to employ at least one multiple antenna reception scheme during communication with the at least one client-node for signals received, for example, by the at least one reception-extender-node, and/or the at least one augmented-node, where the at least one multiple antenna reception scheme is for example, maximal ratio combining; and/or antenna selection; and/or switched combining; and/or equal gain combining; and/or receive-beamforming; and/or reception of spatially multiplexed signals; and/or selection based on cyclic redundancy check.

[047] In embodiments of the disclosed technique, the at least one reception-extender- node employs a plurality of antennas to be operative to employ the at least one multiple antenna reception scheme.

[048] In embodiments of the disclosed technique, the at least one multiple antenna reception scheme is implemented in accordance with information selected from, for example, analog data, down-converted data, raw data representing A/D converted signals emitted by the at least one client-node; log-likelihood ratios; and/or decoded packets. [049] In embodiments of the disclosed technique the at least one reception-extender- node is operative to provide the at least one augmented-node for example with information respective of control signals transmitted by the at least one client-node, and/or link measures and/or link information provided by the at least one reception-extender-node respective of the at least one the client-node.

[050] In embodiments of the disclosed technique, the control information and link information are for example quality measures and/or SNR and/or SINR and/or timing information and/or frequency alignment information and/or precoding matrix index and/or channel sounding measures and/or ranging and/or random access and/or analog feedbacks.

[051] In embodiments of the disclosed technique the communication system includes at least one first node and at least one second transceiver node that are remotely deployed and communicably coupled with each other, where the transmission capabilities of the at least one second transceiver node are selectively disableable and/or limitable automatically and/or manually such that the at least one second transceiver node constitutes the at least one reception-extender-node and the at least one first node constitutes the at least one augmented-node.

[052] In embodiments of the disclosed technique, the at least one second transceiver node is for example a cellular base station or a femtocell.

[053] In embodiments of the disclosed technique, disabling or limiting the wireless transmission capabilities of the at least one second transceiver node is performed based on activation criteria taking account for example, the following information: characteristics of signals as received by the at least one second transceiver node; and/or requirements of the at least one client-node and/or the at least one first node.

[054] In embodiments of the disclosed technique, the at least one reception-extender- node is positioned indoors and is operative to establish a Femto or Picostation reception range with the at least one client-node.

[055] In embodiments of the disclosed technique, the at least one augmented-node is deployable indoors; and/or outdoors.

[056] In embodiments of the disclosed technique, the controller is operative to select a communication setting upon the occurrence of the following events for example: an attempt to establish an initial connection between the at least one client-node and the at least one augmented-node; and/or both the at least one augmented-node and the at least one reception-extender-node; and/or a handover of the connection of the at least one client-node to for example the at least one augmented-node; and/or both the at least one augmented-node and the at least one reception-extender-node and/or a backend process requesting selection. [057] In embodiments of the disclosed technique, the controller uses a bidding procedure to weigh the operation criteria, where the operation criteria includes for example, maximal allowed signal emitted by the at least one client-node for the link required for link communication and/or minimizing the signal strength emitted by the at least one client-node required for link communication; and/or optimizing for resources of the at least one reception-extender-node and/or augmented-node; and/or ensuring that the signal quality of the received link does not fall below a predetermined threshold; and/or selecting a communication technology from available respective technologies of the reception-extender-node and/or augmented-node according to a predetermined preference; and/or specific association of the reception-extender-node and/or augmented- node with a service subscriber; and/or the specific device configuration employed by the at least one client-node required to generate the link. Optionally, operation criteria include information concerning costs.

[058] In embodiments of the disclosed technique the controller embodies the signal strength reducer.

[059] In embodiments of the disclosed technique, information about a reduction in signal strength due to communication with the at least one reception-extender-node is displayed on an output.

[060] In embodiments of the disclosed technique, the at least one client-node constitutes at least one of the following: a non-augmented-node; and an augmented-node. [061] In embodiments of the disclosed technique, the controller is operative to perform adaptation of signals transmitted by the at least one client-node, communicating with the at least one augmented-node, and to provide feedback according to, for example, at least one of the following signal quality parameters: signal-to-noise-ratio and/or signal-to- interference-and-noise ratio; and/or decoding performance for the respective transmitted signals; and/or Hybrid automatic repeat-request (HARQ) performance, and/or CRC of decoded packets.

[062] In embodiments of the disclosed technique, the signal quality parameters are for example based on the signal received by the at least one augmented-node; and/or the signal received by the at least one reception-extender-node.

[063] In embodiments of the disclosed technique, the controller is operative to select at least one frequency of the carrier wave respective of links, where at the at least one selected frequency, the probability that the emitted EM radiation adversely affects organic material is minimized.

[064] In embodiments of the disclosed technique, the least one augmented-node uses information received from the at least one reception-extender-node to enhance the transmission link to the at least one client-node.

[065] In embodiments of the disclosed technique, the information includes, for example, location of the at least one client-node for beamforming; and/or location of the at least one client-node relative to the at least one reception-extender-node for beamforming; and/or beamforming precoding indices for the transmission; and/or preferred transmission mode; and/or preferred resources; and/or characteristics of the communication channel; and/or characteristics of interference sources; and/or reception capabilities of the at least one client-node.

[066] In embodiments of the disclosed technique, enhancement of the transmission link refers for example to link capacity; and/or signal quality; and/or quality of service; and/or minimizing the signal strength to be emitted by the at least one augmented-node; and/or throughput. [067] In embodiments of the disclosed technique, the at least one augmented-node uses information received from the at least one reception-extender-node to enhance the transmission link quality and transmit to a plurality of client-nodes on overlapping resources in, for example, an SDMA fashion.

[068] In embodiments of the disclosed technique, signals received by the at least one reception-extender-node are used to provide and/or enhance location-based-services. [069] In embodiments of the disclosed technique, the communication system includes a controller operative to enable at least the following procedures: receiving information that is at least about the signal strength required to be emitted from at least one client-node, for communication with at least one other node; determining which information respective of the at least one other node meets at least one predetermined criterion at least including minimizing signal strength of the electromagnetic radiation required to be emitted by the at least one client-node; selecting at least one other node of the at least one other nodes for communication with the at least one client-node, where the at least one selected other node meets the at least one predetermined criterion; and establishing a link between the at least one client-node and the at least one selected other node.

[070] In embodiments of the disclosed technique, the controller is provided with information about the operational capabilities about, for example, the at least one client- node; and/or the at least one other node.

[071] In embodiments of the disclosed technique, the information is provided to the controller for example, from the at least one client-node and/or at least one of the plurality of other nodes. [072] In embodiments of the disclosed technique, the information is for example, about transmission capabilities; and/or maximum transmit power; and/or reception capabilities; and/or noise levels; and/or interference levels; and/or available resources; and/or scheduling policies; and/or decoding policies; and/or type of data carried by the signals. [073] In embodiments of the disclosed technique, the controller assigns weights to each piece of information received from the at least one client-node and the other nodes, and combines the pieces of information according to the weights to determine which information respective of the plurality of other nodes meets the at least one predetermined criterion.

[074] In embodiments of the disclosed technique, the communication system is operative such that the at least one client-node transmits a known sequence over the respective link, and based on the reception parameters of the known sequence, the controller determines which of the plurality of other nodes meets the at least one predetermined criterion.

[075] In embodiments of the disclosed technique the at least one of the plurality of other nodes is for example at least one augmented-node operative to at least transmit information over a wireless link to at least one client-node; and/or at least one reception- extender-node communicably coupled with the at least one augmented-node, the at least one reception-extender-node operative to at least wirelessly receive information transmitted from the at least one client-node.

[076] The present disclosed technique discloses a communication method enabling communication between a plurality of communication nodes.

[077] In embodiments of the disclosed technique, the method includes providing at least one augmented-node operative to at least transmit information over a wireless communication link to at least one client-node; communicably coupling at least one reception-extender-node with the at least one augmented-node; and remotely deploying and/or noise levels; and/or interference levels; and/or available resources; and/or scheduling policies; and/or decoding policies; and/or type of data carried by the signals. [073] In embodiments of the disclosed technique, the controller assigns weights to each piece of information received from the at least one client-node and the other nodes, and combines the pieces of information according to the weights to determine which information respective of the plurality of other nodes meets the at least one predetermined criterion.

[074] In embodiments of the disclosed technique, the communication system is operative such that the at least one client-node transmits a known sequence over the respective link, and based on the reception parameters of the known sequence, the controller determines which of the plurality of other nodes meets the at least one predetermined criterion.

[075] In embodiments of the disclosed technique the at least one of the plurality of other nodes is for example at least one augmented-node operative to at least transmit information over a wireless link to at least one client-node; and/or at least one reception- extender-node communicably coupled with the at least one augmented-node, the at least one reception-extender-node operative to at least wirelessly receive information transmitted from the at least one client-node.

[076] The present disclosed technique discloses a communication method enabling communication between a plurality of communication nodes.

[077] In embodiments of the disclosed technique, the method includes providing at least one augmented-node operative to at least transmit information over a wireless communication link to at least one client-node; communicably coupling at least one reception-extender-node with the at least one augmented-node; and remotely deploying

- 18 - the at least one augmented-node and the at least one reception-extender-node from one another with respect to, for example, a first configuration where the distance between the at least one augmented-node and the at least one reception-extender-node is significant with respect to a wireless transmission coverage range of the at least one augmented- node; and/or a second configuration where the respective path losses from the at least one client-node to the at least one augmented-node and the at least one reception-extender- node are significantly different (e.g., due to penetration loss/propagation loss). [078] In embodiments of the disclosed technique, the method includes limiting the wireless transmission capabilities at least when the emission is radiated towards areas in which presence of humans is expected. The at least one reception-extender-node operative to at least wirelessly receive information transmitted from the at least one client- node;

[079] In embodiments of the disclosed technique, the method includes controlling communication settings between the at least one client-node and the at least one augmented-node; and/or both the at least one augmented-node and the at least one reception-extender, according to operation criteria including at least minimizing the electromagnetic radiation emanating from the at least one client-node. [080] In embodiments of the disclosed disclosed technique, the method includes independently processing signals received from the at least one client-node at the at least one reception-extender-node and providing information associated with the processed signals to at least one selected of the plurality of augmented-nodes handling communication with the at least one client-node.

- 19 - [081] In embodiments of the disclosed technique, the method includes determining the communicative association between the at least one client-node and at least one augmented-node.

[082] In embodiments of the disclosed technique, the method includes performing synchronization of signals emitted by the at least one client-node.

[083] In embodiments of the disclosed technique, the method includes performing synchronization of the at least one reception-extender-node.

[084] In embodiments of the disclosed technique, the method includes performing synchronization according to information retrieved from for example, signals received from the at least one augmented-node; and/or signals received from the at least one client- node; and/or signals received from a Global Positioning Method; and/or signals carrying synchronization commands.

[085] In embodiments of the disclosed technique, the method includes providing the synchronization commands according to the IEEE 1588 standard.

[086] In embodiments of the disclosed technique, the method includes performing synchronization according to time; and/or frequency.

[087] In embodiments of the disclosed technique, the method includes receiving information that is at least about the signal strength required to be emitted from the at least one client-node for communication with at least one other node including at least one of the following type: a node augmented with at least one reception-extender-node; determining which information respective of the at least one other node meets at least one predetermined criterion at least including: minimizing the signal strength of the electromagnetic radiation required to be emitted by the at least one client-node; selecting at least one node of the at least one other node yielding at least one selected node for

- 20 - communication with the at least one client-node, where the at least one selected node meets the at least one predetermined criterion; and establishing a link between the at least one client-node and the at least one selected node.

[088] In embodiments of the disclosed technique, the method includes implementing the communicably coupling between the at least one reception-extender-node and the at least one augmented-node; and/or with both the at least one augmented-node and the at least one reception-extender, according to, for example, at least one of the following communication interfaces: wireline; highly directional wireless; and low exposure wireless connection.

[089] In embodiments of the disclosed technique, the method includes the communicably coupling between the at least one reception-extender-node and the at least one augmented-node over the Internet.

[090] In embodiments of the disclosed technique, the method includes implementing the communicably coupling of the at least one reception-extender-node with the at least one augmented-node via a gateway, which is for example operative to perform accounting and/or authorization; and/or authentication; and/or security; and/or packets tunneling; and/or aggregating a multiplicity of identical packets from a plurality of the reception- extender-nodes; and/or forwarding packets; and/or gathering statistics. [091] In embodiments of the disclosed technique, the method includes communicably coupling between the at least one reception-extender-node and the at least one augmented-node over, for example, at least one of the following connections: S1 , X2, and R8. [092] In embodiments of the disclosed technique, the method includes reducing the required signal strength emitted by the at least one client-node to a minimized value.

- 21 - [093] In embodiments of the disclosed technique, the method includes remotely deploying and communicably coupling the at least one reception-extender-node with the at least one augmented-node, according to the first configuration, at a distance that is at least 5% of the transmission coverage range of the at least one augmented-node. [094] In embodiments of the disclosed technique, the method includes remotely deploying and communicably coupling the at least one reception-extender-node with the at least one augmented-node, according to the second configuration, where the path loss difference is at least 10 dB.

[095] In embodiments of the disclosed technique, the method includes defining operation criteria such as, for example, a maximal allowed signal strength emanating from, the at least one client-node; and/or a minimum signal quality threshold for the signal as received by, for example, at least one of the following: the at least one reception-extender- node and the at least one augmented-node.

[096] In embodiments of the disclosed technique, positioning the at least one reception- extender-node at least in close proximity to an expected location of the at least one client- node such that the signal strength required to be emitted by the at least one client-node for communication is lower than the maximal possible signal strength (SSmax) emittable by the at least one client-node ranges from 0.5*SSmax, to 0.000001 *SSmax, wherein SSmax ranges from 0 - 33 dBm.

[097] In embodiments of the disclosed technique, the method includes the procedure of receiving a signal emitted by the at least one client-node by a plurality of reception- extender-nodes.

- 22 - [098] In embodiments of the disclosed technique, the method includes the procedure of receiving a signal emitted by the at least one client-node by a plurality of augmented- nodes.

[099] In embodiments of the disclosed technique, the method includes the procedure of employing at least one multiple antenna reception scheme during communication with the at least one client-node for signals received by, for example, at least one of the following: the at least one reception-extender-node, and the at least one augmented-node.

[0100] In embodiments of the disclosed technique, the method includes the procedure of providing the at least one augmented-node with, for example, information respective of control signals transmitted by the at least one client-node, and/or link measures and/or link information provided by the at least one reception-extender-node respective of the at least one the client-node, where the control information and link information are about, for example, quality measures; and/or SNR; and/or SINR; and/or timing information; and/or frequency alignment information; and/or precoding matrix index, and/or channel sounding measures; and/or ranging, and/or random access, and/or analog feedbacks.

[0101] In embodiments of the disclosed technique, the method includes the procedure of selectively disabling or limiting in an automatic and/or manual manner the transmission capabilities of at least one second transceiver node that is remotely deployed and communicably coupled with at least one first node such that the at least one second transceiver node selectively constitutes the at least one reception-extender-node and the at least one first node constitutes the at least one augmented-node.

[0102] In embodiments of the disclosed technique, the method includes the procedure of selecting a communication setting upon the occurrence of, for example, at least one of the following events: an attempt to establish an initial connection between the at least one

- 23 - client-node and at least one of the following nodes: the at least one augmented-node; and both the at least one augmented-node and the at least one reception-extender-node; a handover of the connection of the at least one client-node to at least one of the following nodes: the at least one augmented-node; and both the at least one augmented-node and the at least one reception-extender-node; and a backend process requesting selection. [0103] In embodiments of the disclosed technique, the method includes the procedure of using a bidding procedure to weigh the operation criteria, wherein the operation criteria includes, for example, at least one of the following: maximal allowed signal emitted by the at least one client-node for the link required for link communication; minimizing the signal strength emitted by the at least one client-node required for link communication; requirements concerning costs; optimizing for resources of the at least one reception- extender-node and/or augmented-node; ensuring that the signal quality of the received link does not fall below a predetermined threshold; selecting a communication technology from available respective technologies of the reception-extender-node and/or augmented-node according to a predetermined preference; specific association of the reception-extender- node and/or augmented-node with a service subscriber; and the specific device configuration employed by the at least one client-node required to generate the link [0104] In embodiments of the disclosed technique, the method includes the procedure of displaying information about a reduction in signal strength due to communication with the at least one reception-extender-node on an output.

[0105] In embodiments of the disclosed technique, the method includes the procedure of adapting signals transmitted by the at least one client-node, communicating with the at least one augmented-node, and to provide feedback according to for example at least one of the following signal quality parameters: signal-to-noise-ratio; signal-to-interference-and-

- 24 - noise ratio; and decoding performance for the respective transmitted signals; Hybrid automatic repeat-request (HARQ) performance, and CRC of decoded packets.

[0106] In embodiments of the disclosed technique, the method includes the procedure of selecting at least one frequency of the carrier wave respective of links, where at the at least one selected frequency, the probability that the emitted EM radiation adversely affects organic material is minimized.

[0107] In embodiments of the disclosed technique, the method includes the procedure of enhancing the transmission link to the at least one client-node.

[0108] In embodiments of the disclosed technique, the method includes the procedure of enhancing the transmission link quality and transmitting to a plurality of client-nodes on overlapping resources in an SDMA fashion.

[0109] In embodiments of the disclosed technique, the method includes the procedure of enhancing or providing location-based-services by using signals received by the at least one reception-extender-node.

- 25 - BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0110] The disclosed technique will be further understood and appreciated from the following detailed description taken in conjunction with the drawings in which: Figure 1 is a schematic block diagram illustration of connection levels in a communication system as is known in the art;

Figure 2A is schematic block diagram illustration of a communication system, according to an embodiment of the disclosed technique; Figure 2B is a schematic block diagram illustration of connection levels in a communication system according to an embodiment of the disclosed technique;

Figure 3 is a schematic block diagram illustration of a communication system, according to an embodiment of the disclosed technique; Figure 4 is a schematic block diagram illustration of a communication system, according to an embodiment of the disclosed technique; Figure 5 is a schematic block diagram illustration of a communication system, according to an embodiment of the disclosed technique; Figure 6 is a schematic block diagram illustration of a communication system, according to an embodiment of the disclosed technique; Figure 7 is a schematic block diagram illustration of a communication system, according to an embodiment of the disclosed technique; Figure 8 is a schematic block diagram illustration of a communication system, according to an embodiment of the disclosed technique;

- 26 - Figure 9 is a schematic block diagram illustration of the communicative coupling of a gateway according to an embodiment of the disclosed technique;

Figure 10 is a schematic block diagram illustration of a communication system, according to an embodiment of the disclosed technique;

Figure 11 is a schematic block diagram illustration of communication scenarios relating to synchronization scheme, according to an embodiment of the disclosed technique;

Figure 12 is a schematic block diagram illustration of a femto/picostation, according to an embodiment of the disclosed technique;

Figure 13 is a schematic block diagram illustration of a signal strength reducer, according to an embodiment of the disclosed technique;

Figure 14 is a flow-chart illustration of a method to minimize the electromagnetic radiation required to be emitted from a client-node; according to an embodiment of the disclosed technique;

Figure 15 is a schematic illustration of a geographical layout of a communication system operative to perform handoff according to an embodiment of the disclosed technique;

Figure 16 is a schematic block diagram illustration of a controller, according to an embodiment of the disclosed technique; and

Figure 17 is a flow-chart illustration of an alternative method to minimize the electromagnetic radiation required to be emitted from a client-node, according to an embodiment of the disclosed technique.

- 27 - DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE DISCLOSED TECHNIQUE

Definitions:

[0001] It should be understood that where the claims or specification refer to "a" or "an" entity, such reference, unless otherwise indicated by terms like "a single", "only one", "consisting of one", "consisting of a single", is not to be construed as there being only one of that element. Therefore, the term "another node", "the other node", "the augmented- node" and "the reception-extender-node" for example also encompasses the meaning "at least one other node", "the at least one other node", "the at least one augmented-node", and "the at least one reception-extender-node", respectively.

[0111] The term "signal quality" as used herein may refer, inter alia, to the following quality parameters: cyclic redundancy check (CRC) of decoded packets, received signal strength indication (RSSI), signal to noise ratio (SNR), signal to interference and noise ratio (SINR), bit error rate (BER)1 packet error rate (PER), ratio of energy per modulating bit to the noise spectral density (Ec/No), ratio of energy per modulating bit to the noise and interference spectral density (Ec/lo), and data throughput rate, and/or to any other value that may be indicative of the degree of excellence of a communication link and/or channel, which may be measured in dB, or any other appropriate unit or indicative value. [0112] The term "signal strength" as referred to herein, as well as grammatical variations thereof, relates to any value providing an indication of the intensity of an EM field and may, for example, be expressed in Watts or in power ratio of decibels of the measured power referenced to one milliwatt (dBm) or any other appropriate unit or indicative value.

- 28 - [0113] It should be noted that the term "controller" may refer to any hardware module and/or software module operative at least to control the communication settings in a wireless communication link.

[0114] The term "communication setting" as used herein refers to the way signals are transmitted and/or received and/or processed in a communication system.

[0115] The term "link" as used herein refers to a "communication link".

[0116] The term "electromagnetic (EM) radiation" as used herein refers to radio frequency (RF) transmission used in wireless communications.

[0117] The term "node" as used herein refers to a network junction or connection point of the communication system operative to receive signals from other nodes and/or to send signals to other nodes, e.g., wirelessly, such as, for example, a router, a modem, a hub, a switch, a transceiver, a satellite transceiver, a cellular mobile device, a handheld personal digital assistant (PDA), a mobile computer, a laptop computer, a desktop computer, a handheld computer, a notebook computer, a mobile or portable wireless device, a cordless telephone, a digital telephone, a wireless computer accessory (e.g., a wireless pointing device, a wireless keyboard), a designated e-book reading platform, a base station, a femtostation, a picostation, and the like.

[0118] A user-device may be embodied, for example, by a cellular mobile device, a handheld personal digital assistant (PDA), a mobile computer, a laptop computer, a desktop computer, a handheld computer, a notebook computer, a mobile or portable wireless device, a cordless telephone, a digital telephone, a wireless computer accessory

(e.g., a wireless pointing device, a wireless keyboard), a designated e-book reading platform, and the like

- 29 - [0119] The term "client-node" as used herein is introduced to distinguish between the different nodes in a communication system and in no way to be construed as limiting. Accordingly, in respective embodiments of the disclosed technique, as outlined herein below in greater detail, a client-node may refer to a user-device and/or may constitute an augmented-node for another client-node.

[0120] The term "remotely deployed" as used herein relates to a first configuration where the distance between two nodes is significant with respect to the maximal wireless coverage range of any of them; and/or to a second configuration where the respective path losses from at least one other node to at least one first and at least one second node are significantly different.

[0121] With respect to the first configuration, a scenario is considered where, for example, a plurality of nodes embodying macrocell base stations are operative to provide at least wireless outdoor coverage, and where each macrocell base station may provide in urban areas for example a wireless coverage radius R of e.g., 50 meters - 5000 meters; and in rural areas a wireless coverage radius R ranging from, e.g., 500 meters up to 50 km. In this case, a macrocell base station is considered as being remotely deployed from another macrocell base station if the distance between them is larger for example than 0.05*R, where R is the maximal radius of the wireless coverage of any of them. [0122] With respect to the second configuration, a communication scenario is considered, where a node embodying for example a macrocell base station node, is referred to as being remotely deployed from another node embodying, for example, an indoor femtostation, if the path loss from a client-node to the macrocell base station is significantly different than the path loss from the client-node to the indoor femtocell by, for example, a factor ranging, for example from at least 10 (1OdB) to a factor of 1000000 (6OdB). Such a

- 30 - second configuration may for example refer to a scenario where both the indoor femtocell and the client-node are located within the same closed space (e.g., a room of an apartment), whereas the macrocell base station is located outside the building where the closed space is located.

[0123] Data communicated between nodes may represent, but are not limited to, for example, voice, image files, text, electronic mail, video files, streaming data, code instructions, and the like. The communication links between nodes may embody, for example, Internet Protocol (IP) communication links.

[0124] It should be noted that although entities and/or features such as, for example, a signal strength reducer and/or controller of a communication system according to embodiments of the disclosed technique, may be indicated hereinafter as being located in a single geographical and/or architectural location, these entities and/or features may be dispersed and/or parsed over a plurality of geographical and/or architectural locations of the communication system.

[0125] It should be noted that the term "indoor", and "indoor area" may embody, by way of example only, an area or location within a room, a building, a compound, a tunnel, and a vehicle including an aircraft, a mall, and a hall. Conversely, the term "outdoor" and

"outdoor area" may embody any area or location in the open air.

[0126] Although embodiments of the disclosed technique may refer to a single component and/or element, this should not be construed as limiting. Accordingly, the communication system and method may be operative with a plurality of, for example, client-nodes, controllers, signal strength reducers, and the like.

[0127] Although certain embodiments may be outlined with respect to a particular Figure or selection of Figures, this should not be construed as limiting. Accordingly, where

- 31 - appropriate, embodiments of the disclosed technique may be implemented in connection with other implementations of a communication system.

[0128] It should be noted that the expressions "minimizing" and "minimized" as used herein in regard to signal strength, interference, data-resource-saving management data throughput refer to a minimum attainable value of the signal strength of electromagnetic radiation and/or interference, measured at a given location in an EM propagation medium, in consideration of constraints dictated by the parameters (e.g., operation criteria and/or configuration) of the corresponding communication system. Accordingly, the expressions "minimizing" and "minimized" as used herein with respect to data throughput, data storage and data traffic refer to a minimum attainable value of data throughput, storage and traffic, respectively, in consideration of constraints dictated for example by the parameters (e.g. operation criteria and/or configuration) of the corresponding communication system. [0129] The expressions "reduce", "comparably reduce" as well as grammatical variations thereof as used herein with respect to a reduction in signal strength, interference, transmission capabilities, transmission power, capacity, heating, power consumption and the like, refer to a reduction in the value of the respective parameter compared to the value of the parameter if the corresponding embodiment of the disclosed technique was not introduced.

[0130] It should be noted that the phrase "above a threshold", as well as paraphrases and/or grammatical variations thereof, may interchangeably mean the phrase "equal or above a threshold". Accordingly, the phrase "below a threshold" as well as paraphrases and/or grammatical variations thereof, may interchangeably mean the phrase "equal or below a threshold". However, it is clear that should a condition be interpreted as being fulfilled if the value of a given parameter is above a threshold, then the same condition is

- 32 - considered as not being fulfilled if the value of the given parameter is equal or below the given threshold. Conversely, should a condition be interpreted as being fulfilled if the value of a given parameter is equal or above a threshold, then the same condition is considered as not being fulfilled if the value of the given parameter is below (and only below) the given threshold.

[0131] Embodiments of the disclosed technique may include its usage in conjunction with many communications networks and standards. Examples of such networks may include, without limitation, a Global Area Network (GAN) like, e.g., the internet; a wide area network (WAN); local area network (LAN); a Campus Area Network (CAN), a Metropolitan Area Network (MAN), a Virtual Private Network (VPN); an Intranet, an Extranet, a wireless fidelity (WI-FI) network; a wireless communication network such as, for example, a wireless LAN (WLAN) communication network, a wireless virtual private network (VPN), a Bluetooth network, a satellite network, a cellular communication network like, for example, a 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP), such as, for example, a Universal Mobile Terrestrial System (UMTS) network; a worldwide interoperability for microwave access (WIMAX) network; a Long Term Evolution (LTE) network, an Ultra Wide Band (UWB) network, a MESH network, a fixed user network, high-speed packet access (HSPA), Wideband Code Division Multiple Access (WCDMA), CDMA2000, time-division Synchronous Code Division Multiple Access (TD-SCDMA) Global System for Mobile communications (GSM), a Multi-Hop networks, Ad-Hoc networks, and the like.

Overview

[0132] The embodiments of the disclosed techniques are briefly explained in the following. The embodiments of the disclosed technique significantly reduce the EM

- 33 - radiation emitted from client-nodes to a minimized value. In embodiments of the technique, a communication system is considered where a node is operative to wirelessly communicate with a client-node, where said node is communicably coupled with one or more remotely deployed reception-extenders. Such a node is herein referred to as "augmented-node". The reception-extender(s) are operative to enhance the reception capabilities of the augmented-node. Provided that the reception-extenders emit negligible or no EM radiation, they may be deployed in the proximity of the client-node, leading to a significant reduction in the required signal strength to be emitted from the client-node, and thus to a corresponding reduction in exposure to radiation. For example, the augmented- node may embody an outdoor cellular base station, the client-node an indoor-located cellular user-device (e.g., a mobile telephone), and the reception-extender an indoor receive-only device, operative to receive the transmission of user-devices, whereby the reception-extender connects to the base station via wireline. By deploying the receive-only device in the proximity of the user-device (e.g., at a distance of 1 meter in the same indoor room of the location of the user-device) the signal strength of the EM radiation required to be emitted by the user-device for communication with the base station is significantly reduced; and may enable the receive-only device to forward high quality information respective to the transmission of the user-device to the base station, while the base station may instruct the user-device to lower down the signal strength of the emitted EM radiation to minimal required value, resulting in reduced exposure of the respective user to radiation. [0133] Additionally, a technique is disclosed, which significantly reduces the EM radiation emitted from client-nodes during a connection and/or handover mechanisms with other nodes. More specifically, according to an embodiment of the technique, a client-node embodying a cellular user device may connect with or handover to a cellular base station

- 34 - for which the signal strength required to be emitted by the client-node is reduced, thus resulting in reduced exposure of the user to radiation.

Detailed description with reference to the Figures

[0134] We consider a wireless communication system employing nodes at least some of which are operative to communicate with each other. In order to differentiate nodes from each other some of these nodes are referred to as client-nodes. However, as already outlined herein above, this notation should not be construed as limiting. [0135] The term "reception-extender-node11 as used herein refers to a device that is at least operative to wirelessly receive information transmitted from another node of the communication system; that is communicably coupled with and remotely deployed from at least one node denoted as "augmented-node" as outlined herein below; and which in the respective embodiments of the disclosed technique optionally includes wireless transmission capabilities, wherein if the at least one reception-extender-node includes wireless transmission capabilities, they are significantly limited at least when the emission is radiated towards areas in which presence of humans is expected. [0136] The term "significantly limited" as used herein in association with EM wireless emission of transceivers according to embodiments or the disclosed technique refers to a significantly reduced EM emission by said transceivers compared to the EM wireless emission from standard transceivers, as known in the art, both of which are operative in equivalent conditions (e.g., propagation, noise and interference conditions). For example, an indoor reception-extender-node would emit significantly lower EM wireless radiation by, e.g., 20 dB, than a standard indoor femtostation.

- 35 - [0137] The term "augmented-node" as used herein refers to a device that is at least operative to transmit information wirelessly to at least one other node (e.g., client-nodes) of the communication system, optionally operative to receive information from other nodes (e.g., client-nodes) and communicably coupled with at least one reception-extender-node. [0138] In such a configuration, an augmented-node may be communicably coupled with at least one reception-extender-node which is deployed in the proximity of a client-node, such that the path loss and/or separation from the client-node to the reception-extender- node is significantly smaller than the path loss and/or separation from the client-node to the augmented-node. Thusly configured, the deployment of a reception-extender-node in the proximity of a client-node may significantly reduce the required signal strength to be emitted from the client-node.

[0139] In embodiments of the disclosed techniques, the communication system includes a controller that is operative to control communication settings between nodes, for example client-nodes, reception-extender-nodes, and augmented-nodes, where the communication setting is selected according to operation criteria comprising of at least minimizing the EM radiation emanating from or emitted by at least one client-node. The communication system may include a signal strength reducer that is operative to receive and implement commands provided by controller to minimize the signal strength by client- node.

[0140] The term "extended node" refers to a device which includes at least one augmented-node and at least one reception-extender-node communicably coupled with said at least one augmented-node. [0141] Otherwise stated, a reception-extender-node according to embodiments of the disclosed technique has at least reception capabilities but only limited, comparably

- 36 - reduced wireless signal transmission capabilities or is free of wireless transmission capabilities (at least with respect to RF transmission).

[0142] A reception-extender-node employs or embodies, for example, a receiver-only device, a receiver and a transmitter; and/or a transceiver and/or a transmitter-receiver, where at least some of the transmitting component(s) and/or units and/or modules of the transmitter and/or transceiver and/or transmitter-receiver employed for the wireless transmission of signals to a client-node are disabled or removed, and/or whose transmission capabilities are limited, restricted, comparably reduced and/or otherwise modified to cause a reduction in the signal strength of possibly emitted EM radiation compared with the signal strength that would be emitted if the at least one reception- extender-node had unrestricted wireless transmission capabilities. The at least one reception-extender-node may be, for example, an antenna, a cellular base station, a wireless modem, an indoor or outdoor access point, a femtostation, a picostation, a cordless telephone base station, a wireless universal serial bus adapter having comparatively at least comparably reduced or inoperative wireless transmission capabilities or modules. In some embodiments, the transmission capabilities of the at least one reception-extender-node may be selectively modifiable, e.g., disabled. [0143] An augmented-node employs or embodies, for example, transmitters only; and/or a transmitter and a receiver; and/or a transceiver. In some embodiments, receiver components and/or units, and/or modules of receivers, transmitter-receivers and receivers of augmented-nodes may be modified to comparably reduce or limit their reception capabilities or be selectively disabled or removed to render the reception capabilities of the at least one augmented-node inoperative. An augmented-node may be embodied, for example, by a cellular base station, a wireless modem, a wire modem, a femtostation, a

- 37 - picostation, a cordless telephone base station, a wireless universal serial bus adapter or any combination of the aforesaid.

[0144] Reference is now made to Figure 2A, which schematically illustrates a schematic block diagram illustration of a communication system 200, according to an embodiment of the disclosed technique. Communication system 200 includes client-nodes 210 and 290, at least one reception-extender-node, such as, for example, reception-extender-node 220 and reception-extender-node 240 and at least one augmented-node 230. [0145] Signals wirelessly transmitted by client-nodes (e.g., client-nodes 210 and 290) are referred to as uplinks, and signals transmitted wirelessly by augmented-nodes (e.g., augmented-node 230) as downlinks. However, this notation is for convenience only and should not be construed limiting.

[0146] Reception-extender-node 220 is operative to receive data via an uplink 211 emitted by client-node 210, and to forward corresponding data to augmented-node 230 via a communication link 221. Downlink data may be provided to client-node 210 over downlink 232. In the scenario where the path loss from client-node 210 to reception- extender-node 220 is significantly smaller than the path loss from client-node 210 to augmented-node 230, the signal strength of the EM radiation to be emitted by client-node 210 such that the received signal strength of uplink 211 has an acceptable level, is lower for the at least one reception-extender-node than for the at least one augmented-node. For instance, if the path loss from client-node 210 to reception-extender-node 220 is 3OdB smaller than the path loss from client-node 210 to augmented-node 230, then a reduction of approximately 3OdB in required emitted signal strength of client-node 210 is expected, assuming similar or at least approximately equal reception capabilities (antenna gain, decoding schemes, etc.). In an alternative scenario, the signal strength of the EM

- 38 - radiation required to be emitted by client-node 210 such that the quality of the received uplink 211 has an acceptable value may be significantly lower for augmented-node 230 than for reception-extender-node 220. In other scenarios both augmented-node 230 and reception-extender-node 220 may receive uplink 211.

[0147] Communication system 200 includes a controller 198 that is operative to control communication settings between client-node 210 and, for example, reception-extender- nodes 220, 240, and augmented-node 230 where the communication link setting is selected according to operation criteria comprising of at least minimizing the EM radiation emanating from or emitted by client-node 210. Client-node 210 for example may include a signal strength reducer 199 that is operative to receive and implement commands provided by controller 198 to minimize the signal strength by client-node 210. [0148] Although signal strength reducer 199 and controller 198 are disclosed herein as separate elements, this should not be construed as limiting. Accordingly, signal strength reducer 199 may for example be embodied by controller 198.

[0149] According to embodiments of the disclosed technique, values of parameters of a received signal are determined by controller 198. Based on the determined received signal parameter values (like, for example, measured received signal strength value), controller 198 provides a feedback to the emitter (e.g., to a client-node), where the feedback may result in adaptation of the emitted signal parameter values (e.g., in a reduction of the emitted signal strength value) according to at least one criteria which includes minimizing the emitted signal strength. Additional criteria respective of the link of the emitted signal may include, for example, throughput and/or quality of service. Controller 198 may for example determine whether or not the signal quality, e.g. SINR, respective of, e.g., client-node 210 meets the required SINR. If, for example, the required

- 39 - SINR is 15 dB and the measured SINR is 20 dB, client-node 210 may be provided with an adaptation command triggering a corresponding decrease in the radiation by, e.g., 5 dB via suitable communication links. In some embodiments of the disclosed technique, adaptation of signal parameter values may for example include increasing the signal strength up to a certain limit to attain a signal at a sufficiently high quality in order to enable a particular service. According to some embodiments of the disclosed technique, the signal parameter values on which link adaptation is based may be parameters indicative of the decoding performance of the communication system, depending on the combining and decoding strategy employed by the communication system. Other feedbacks such as "acknowledgement" (ACK) and "Negative-acknowledge" (NACK) of "Hybrid automatic repeat-request" (HARQ) may also be signal parameters providing an indication of the decoding performance of the overall system.

[0150] It is appreciated that receiver-controller links (not shown) communicably connecting controller 198 with the at least one reception-extender-node and augmented- node may in some embodiments be unidirectional in the case where only data received at the at least one reception-extender-node is passed on to controller 198, as will be outlined herein below in greater detail.

[0151] In some embodiments, data representing for example information concerning the reception capabilities of augmented-node 230, and/or information respective of uplink 211, may be provided to reception-extender-node 220, e.g., via a link 231. [0152] To simplify the discussion that follows, the terms "at least one reception-extender- node", "at least one augmented-node" and "at least one client-node", are hereinafter referred to as "reception-extender-node", "augmented-node" and "client-node", respectively. Correspondingly, the number of client-nodes, reception-extender-nodes and

- 40 - augmented-nodes illustrated herein with reference to a communication system such as, for example, communication system 200, is for exemplary purposes only and should by no means to be construed as limiting. Therefore, communication system 200 may for example comprise more client-nodes, reception-extender-nodes and augmented-nodes than those schematically illustrated in Figure 2A.

[0153] According to embodiments of the disclosed technique, communication links between augmented-nodes and reception-extender-nodes may be associated with a communication infrastructure (not shown) such that users that may be located within proximity of a reception-extender-node are not subjected to an increased amount of EM radiation, or to a negligible increase. For example, communication link 221 and/or 231 and/or 241 and/or 233 may be established, e.g., over at least one of the following communication infrastructures: a fiber optic cable, a microwave point-to-point link, an E1/T1 link, coaxial transmission line, a wireless optical communication infrastructure (e.g., laser), directional wireless antennas communication positioned on a rooftop or tower, over power lines according to, for example, a HomePlug standard (e.g., HomePlug 1.0, HomePlug AV); and a wire-line connection. The communication infrastructure may constitute or be part of, e.g., an internet backhaul.

[0154] In some embodiments of the disclosed technique, data representing different kinds of information may be sent respectively over link 221 and link 231. For example, only data representing control information (hereinafter: control-data) required during the communication session such as, for example, an identifier of client-node 210, an identifier for augmented-node 230, identifiers of neighboring reception-extender-node (not shown), synchronization information to synchronize between reception-extender-node 220 and augmented-node 230, and the like may be provided over link 231. In contrast, not only

- 41 - control-data but also data representing information provided by the user (hereinafter: user- data) like, e.g., voice, images and text, decoded packets, statistical or processed values (e.g., log-likelihood ratio (LLR) values), signal-to-noise (SNR) estimations, and link and channel information may be provided over link 221.

[0155] In embodiments of the disclosed technique, communication system 200 may be operative to enable multiple antenna reception schemes such as, for example, maximal ratio combining; antenna selection; switched combining; equal gain combining; receive- beamforming; reception of spatially multiplexed signals; and selection based on cyclic redundancy check. Employing multiple antenna reception communication schemes may lead to significantly lower uplink transmission signal strength required to maintain the same performance (with no multiple antenna reception scheme employed) since fading of the signal is reduced and power gain is introduced. More specifically, multiple copies of data sent from a client-node are received by a plurality of signal receiving devices, thus improving the reliability of data reception. That is, if reception of the one of the copies fails, other copies may be used for data decoding. [0156] With N link receiving devices, each having at receive-antennas, the total number

of receive antennas may be given by the equation:

M = ∑at ( 1 )

;=i

Thus, the number of spatial stream links that can be received for a given emitted signal is K, provided that K ≤ M. The received data streams associated with the same link may be combined. For example, both reception-extender-node 220 and reception-extender-node

240 may include a decoder (not shown) and/or detector (not shown) and may be operative

- 42 - to receive data sent via uplink 211 and provide respective decoded data packets or statistical values representing statistic measures like, e.g., LLR values etc., to enable data decoding. The decoded data packets or statistic values may be sent to augmented-node 230 over corresponding links 221 and 241. Such decoding schemes may also be employed for signals received by augmented-node 230, optionally together with signals received by reception-extender-nodes 220 and/or 240. Additionally or alternatively, a reception-extender-node alone such as, for example, reception-extender-node 220 may employ a plurality of antennas to be operative to perform multiple antenna reception schemes independently or together with reception-extender 240 and/or augmented-node 230.

[0157] In some embodiments, a reception-extender-node may be operative to perform simple processing of the received link signals, such as filtering, down conversion and analog to digital (A/D) conversion. Thus, reception-extender-node 220 and/or reception- extender-node 240 may provide augmented-node 230 with raw analogue signals or raw data representing down converted signals or analogue to digital (A/D) converted signals received from client-node 210. The analogue data may be digitized, or the A/D converted signals may be converted back to analogue signals (D/A). In any event, both signal types may then be fed to a receive chain, which is a set of sequentially communicatively coupled modules operative to process the received signals. For instance, a receive chain may include an amplifier, filter, A/D, digital filter and a digital processor.

[0158] In some embodiments of the disclosed technique, reception-extender-nodes may be operative to perform signal processing and analysis of the received signal respective of the same uplink. Accordingly, augmented-node 230 for example may be operative to combine the signals from links 221 and 241 and to decode the data transmitted by client-

- 43 - node 210 by employing a corresponding decoder (not shown). It should however be noted that combining signals received by different receiving entities may be rather suboptimal. This may be particularly true when analogue combining is employed in a scenario where client-node 210 is more closely positioned to a first receiving node (e.g., reception- extender-node 220) than to a second receiving node (e.g., augmented-node 230). In such a scenario, it may be advantageous to employ a decoding scheme operative to take into account the difference between received signal strengths such as, for example, Maximal Ratio Combining (MRC), e.g., as known in the art. Alternatively, information received by reception-extender-node 220 and augmented-node 230 over uplink 211 may be decoded separately but similarly or equally and then combined, e.g., by selection based on cyclic redundancy check. For example, combined signal quality may be determined, e.g., by controller 198, based on a corresponding combined signal obtained when employing a combining method. For example, when MRC is employed an equivalent SINR value may be determined which may be the sum of SINRs being present at, e.g., reception-extender- node 220, reception-extender-node 240 and augmented-node 230. [0159] In some embodiments where a receiving node is endowed with more receive antennas than the number of received spatial stream links K, the receiving node may independently determine parameters such as, for example, the Log-Likelihood Ratio (LLR) for each transmitted bit, respective of the plurality of data streams, and the respective parameter (e.g., LLRs) may be passed on for further processing to, e.g., controller 198. [0160] In some embodiments of the disclosed technique, client-node 210 and reception- extender-node 220 may be located close enough to one another such that reception- extender-node 220 receives uplink 211 at an acceptable quality level, whereas client-node

210 may not be positioned close enough to augmented-node 230 to receive downlink 232

- 44 - at an acceptable quality level. As a consequence, client-node 210 cannot conduct a communication session through augmented-node 230 and reception-extender-node 220. Besides reception-extender-node 220, additional communication entities may receive EM radiation associated with uplink 211 such as, for example, augmented-node 250 and/or reception-extender-node 280 which may enable uplink and downlink communication with client-node 210, e.g., via uplink 211, downlink 251 and link 281. However, uplink 211 received by, e.g., reception-extender-node 220 may interfere with uplinks (e.g., uplink 291) emitted by other client-nodes (e.g., client-node 290 communicating, for example, with augmented-node 230 over downlink 234) conducting a communication session with augmented-node 230 through reception-extender-node 220. That is, since both uplinks 211 and e.g., uplink 291 may be received by reception-extender-node 220. Such client- node-induced interference may be minimized by proper network planning and/or by employing a suitable decoding scheme such as, for example, MRC. Alternatively, client- node-induced interference may be minimized or cancelled out if each receiving node is operative to independently decode received link signals. The decoded data may subsequently be combined at various levels such as, for example, on an LLR level, and a Protocol Data Unit (PDU) level, for example, based on CRC. Therefore, augmented-node 230 may only be provided with verified decoded data, such that the amount of interference passed through the link 221 is comparably reduced. By employing MRC or other more sophisticated combining techniques such as receive beamforming, at least some of the interference possibly induced by, e.g., client-node 210 may be eliminated. [0161] In some embodiments of the technique, reception-extender-node 220 is also communicably coupled with augmented-node 250 via link 222. Thusly configured, an uplink communication session may be conducted over link 222 instead of over link 221,

- 45 - thus possibly avoiding or at least reducing client-node-induced interference to link 221 and augmented-node 230.

[0162] Receive beamforming may in some embodiments be applied if a plurality of receiving nodes, e.g., reception-extender-node 220, reception-extender-node 240 and augmented-node 230, receive signals transmitted by client-node 210, thereby increasing the signal quality (e.g., the SINR) associated with the signals emitted from client-node 110. Correspondingly, the required strength of the signals may be reduced. [0163] When applying antenna selection, controller 198 may determine for each received signal the respective received signal strength and select the one with the strongest signal for further processing. For example, if client-node 210 happens to be located closer to augmented-node 230 than to reception-extender-node 220, then the signal strength received at, e.g., augmented-node 230 is stronger than that at, e.g., reception-extender- node 220, provided that the EM radiation of uplink 211 propagates to augmented-node 230 and reception-extender-node 220 through the same medium or provided that the path loss incurred by the medium on the EM radiation propagating to reception-extender-node 220 is higher than the incurred path loss for the EM radiation propagating to augmented-node 230. Correspondingly, if controller 198 employs the antenna selection method the strengths of the signals with respect to reception-extender-node 220 and augmented-node 230 may be determined and only signals received by augmented-node 230 may be further processed, e.g., by controller 198.

[0164] According to an embodiment of the disclosed technique, receiving nodes may perform individual processing of the signals received at their antennas. For example reception-extender-node 220 may employ receive-beamforming, augmented-node 230 may employ MRC and reception-extender-node 240 may employ antenna selection. It

- 46 - should be noted that additional or alternative individual processing schemes may be performed beyond those exemplified herein.

[0165] In some embodiments of the disclosed technique, reception-extender-node 220 may determine with which augmented-node, client-node 210 is communicating, and forward information respective to uplink 211 to the corresponding augmented-node. This may be accomplished for example by using information conveyed to reception-extender- node 220 through links 231,252, and/or by reception-extender-node 220 receiving and processing downlinks 232, 251.

[0166] In some embodiments of the disclosed technique, augmented-node 230 and augmented-node 250 are communicably coupled to each other, e.g., via a node-manager (not shown) such that uplink communication sessions are processed by augmented-node 230, whereas downlinks communication session are processed by augmented-node 250. More specifically, client-node 210 for example may conduct an uplink communication session over uplink 211 and link 221 through augmented-node 230, whereas a downlink communication session may be conducted over link 251 through augmented-node 250. [0167] In view of the aforesaid, reception-extender-nodes may be communicably coupled with the respective augmented-node over large distances and/or even in cases of complex cell edge scenarios. Considering for example augmented-node 230 and the associated reception-extender-nodes 220 and 240 establishing a first communication cell, and augmented-node 250 and the associated reception-extender-node 280 establishing a second communication cell, then uplink 211 transmitted by client-node 210 being located in the vicinity or within the cell edge of the first and the second communication cell may be received with best quality by reception-extender-node 220 of the first communication cell, whereas the corresponding downlink may be received at best by client-node 210 via link

- 47 - 251 from augmented-node 250 of the second communication cell. However, as already indicated herein above, by communicably coupling augmented-node 230 and augmented- node 250 with, e.g., a node-manager, client-node 210 may conduct an uplink communication session through communication entities of the first communication cell, and the corresponding downlink communication session through communication entities of the second communication cell, or vice versa.

[0168] A communication system according to embodiments of the disclosed technique such as communication system 200 is operative to determine whether a reception- extender-node is communicably coupled with an augmented-node and operative to receive an uplink from a client-node for communication with the at least one augmented-node and to provide a corresponding indication via an output (not shown). For example, reception- extender-node 220 may determine and provide an indication of whether it is operative and communicably coupled with augmented-node 230. Additionally or alternatively, a communication system according to embodiments of the disclosed technique is operative to determine and indicate via an output, the attained reduction in emitted signal strength respective to client-node 210 due to the configuration of the communication system in terms of absolute and/or relative reduction in signal strength. For example, client-node 210 and/or reception-extender-node 220 and/or augmented-node 230 may determine the relative reduction in signal strength and indicate via their respective outputs (not shown) that the reduced signal strength emitted by client-node 210 is, e.g., 1/100th, or 1/1000th of the non-minimized signal strength emitted if client-node 210 were not operative with reception-extender-node 220; and/or determine and specify a value of the reduction in signal strength which may be, for example, 20 dB; and/or specify the absolute

- 48 - transmission power of client-node 210, optionally with an indication that client-node 210 is operative with reception-extender-node 220.

[0169] In some embodiments of the disclosed technique, a reception-extender-node may be included in appliances such as, for example, television sets; computer accessories (e.g., monitors and keyboards); desktop computers; laptop computers; storage devices such as Universal Serial Bus (USB) sticks, external hard-drives; cable television set top boxes; parabolic antennas of satellite television systems; internet modems and routers; media players like e.g., compact disc players video players, digital versatile disc (DVD) players, Blu-ray players, MP3 players; game consoles; audio receivers; media streamers; access points; in base stations of cordless phones such as for example the ones used in Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications (DECT); and in a telephone exchange system. Additionally or alternative, reception-extender-nodes may be embedded in j

I electricity sockets, telephone sockets, cable television sockets, in an Uninterruptable |

Power Supply (UPS) device; and/or in household appliances such as for example a refrigerator.

[0170] In some embodiments of the disclosed technique, the at least one reception- extender-node is remotely deployable and communicably coupleable with at least one other node (which then becomes the respective augmented-node) by the user according to his/her preferences, for example, in a plug-and-play-like manner, e.g., via an Internet connection.

[0171] In some embodiments, communication system 200 is operative to minimize the data throughput transmitted over the respective wireless links, thus minimizing the signal strength required for the wireless communication between entities of communication system 200 compared with the signal strength emitted if the data throughput were not

- 49 - minimized. Reception-extender-node 220 for example, may only transmit control-data to, e.g. client-node 210, and may not transmit any client-data, via the respective link (not shown). It should be noted that reception-extender-node 220 may be operative to receive both control-data and client-data for further processing and operative to transmit control- data only, i.e., the receiver capabilities of reception-extender-node 220 are superior to its transmitter capabilities. Clearly, the signal strength that was required to transmit both control-data and client-data is significantly higher than the signal strength required for the transmission of control-data only to, e.g., client-node. For instance, if the control chosen to be transmitted by reception-extender-node 220 is 1% of the power of the standard control and data, then a decrease of, e.g., 20 dB may be obtained (compared with a regular transceiver, known in the art, employed for cellular communication). In addition, communication system 200 may be operative to minimize storage related resources. For example, some of the data received at a reception-extender-node (e.g., reception- extender-node 220) from an augmented-node may be discarded. Augmented-node 230 for example, may provide reception-extender-node 220 both with client-data and with control-data respective of a communication session with client-node 210, whereupon it may be determined by, e.g., reception-extender-node 220, which of said client-data and control-data may be discarded from reception-extender-node 220. For example, reception-extender-node 220 may determine that at least some of the control-data may be discarded. In some embodiments, only control-data may be provided to, e.g., reception- extender-node 220, some of which may be discarded. Managing for data throughput and data-storage resources with the purpose of obtaining a minimization in at least one of them is hereinafter referred to as "data-resource-saving management".

- 50 - [0172] A possibly transmitting node (e.g., a reception-extender-node) of a communication system according to embodiments of the disclosed technique such as, for example, communication system 200, may be operative to emit EM radiation carrying control-data and/or client-data at a signal strength that remains below an upper-threshold level, which may be, for example, 5 dBm, 0 dBm, or -5 dBm. Accordingly, a possibly transmitting node such as, for example, a reception-extender-node may transmit control and/or management and/or data at an extremely low radiated power, for example 20 dB or 30 dB lower than transceivers, e.g., known in the art.

[0173] In some embodiments of the disclosed technique, controller 198 is operative to select at least one frequency of the carrier wave used for transmitting at least one signal in the system; where at the at least one selected frequency, the probability that the EM radiation adversely affects organic material and/or the signal strength the EM radiation to be emitted is minimized. The selection of the at least one frequency can be performed in both an embodiment of a communication system that includes reception-extender-nodes and in an embodiment that is free of reception-extender-nodes.

[0174] Reference is now made to Figure 2B, which schematically illustrates a schematic block diagram illustration of connection levels in communication system 100 according to an embodiment of the disclosed technique, wherein augmented-nodes may embody base stations augmented with reception-extender-nodes (denoted augmented-base stations); pico/femtostations augmented with reception-extenders, (denoted augmented pico/femtostations) and repeaters augmented with reception-extenders (denoted augmented-repeaters). Communication system 100 may include besides macro level 101 and femto/pico/repeater-level 102, an additional reception-extender-node level 103, enabling communicable link connection between client-node 110 and a reception-

- 51 - extender-node 120 deployed in an area of communication. Employing reception-extender- node 120, various communication schemes may be employed. In a first scheme 11, reception-extender-node 120 may directly communicate with a network cloud 190, and only indirectly with an augmented base station or augmented femto/picostation via network cloud 190. In a second scheme 12, reception-extender-node 120 may communicate directly with an augmented-base station 130. In a third scheme 13, reception-extender- node 120 may communicate directly with an augmented-femto/picostation 151 , and in a fourth scheme 14, reception-extender-node 120 may communicate directly with an augmented repeater 141. It should be noted that the communication schemes and system configuration as outlined herein with respect to Figure 2B are for exemplary purposes only and should thus not be construed as limiting. For example, as outlined herein below, an augmented-base station may in some embodiments be referred to as having included therein a repeater. Optional or limited link transmission capabilities of reception-extender- node 120 are herein indicated by dashed arrows.

[0175] It should be noted that the term "directly" as used herein with respect to Figure 2B refers to the communication levels and should not be construed as limiting. [0176] Additional reference is now made to Figure 3, which schematically shows a communication system 300, according to an embodiment of the disclosed technique. Augmented-node 230 of communication system 300 may employ a Tx-link blocker 239 disabling at least the part of the emission that would otherwise be similar to the emission from Rx/Tx antenna 238 in the absence of Tx-link blocker 239. Thusly configured, a user being in the vicinity of reception-extender-node 220 may only be subjected to EM radiation associated with uplink 211 emitted from client-node 210 and optionally with link 221 A

- 52 - providing data from reception-extender-node 220 to augmented-node 230, but not to radiation that would otherwise be emitted by reception-extender-node 220.

[0177] More specifically, augmented-node 230 may include a transceiver or transmitter

236, an RF splitter 237, and an Rx-Tx antenna 238, all of which may be operatively coupled with each other. RF splitter 237 may include or be operatively coupled with a Tx- link blocker 239. Tx-link blocker 239 may be embodied, for example, by a unidirectional amplifier, or a bi-directional amplifier in which a link-enabling module like, e.g., the link amplifier, is disabled, e.g., by an RF isolator, RF circulator or RF diode.

[0178] A signal carrying information via link 231 provided by transceiver 236 to RF splitter

237, may be split by the latter into two signals links 232A and 232B carrying the corresponding information, where link 232B is associated with Tx-link blocker 239, and link 232A is associated with Rx-Tx antenna 238. Information carried by link 232B may be at least partially blocked by Tx-link blocker 239. As a consequence, link 233B between Tx- link blocker 239 and reception-extender-node 220, or more generally, link 233B between augmented-node 230 and reception-extender-node 220, may be effectively nullified. Thusly configured, at least some of the EM radiation that would otherwise be associated with link 231 may be suppressed. For instance, if reception-extender-node 220 is embodied by an antenna associated with a unidirectional amplifier only, said antenna will receive uplink transmissions, amplify them and convey them to augmented-node 230, but will not transmit. As distinguished from the latter statement, link 232A may be associated with Rx-Tx antenna 238. Accordingly, a corresponding downlink 232C may be transmitted by Rx-Tx antenna 238 and possibly received by client-node 210. In any event, uplink 211 originating from client-node 210 may be received by Rx-Tx antenna 238, as well as by reception-extender-node 220. Information respective of links 221 A may be provided to

- 53 - transceiver 236 over links 221 B and 221 C, and information respective of link 212B to transceiver 236 over link 212C. If uplinks and downlinks are emitted in communication system 300 according to a frequency division duplexing (FDD) scheme, the at least partial blocking of link 231 may be performed by a filter operative to block at least some of the frequencies associated with link 232B. If uplinks and downlinks are emitted according to a time division duplexing (TDD) scheme, the at least partial blocking of link 231 may be performed by blocking transmission during at least some of the timeslots assigned to link 232B.

[0179] The configuration of RF Splitter 237 as exemplified herein may be referred to as being a 1x2 configuration, where the first entry represents the number of inputs that the splitter has and the second entry the number of outputs that the splitter has. Clearly, embodiments of the disclosed technique are not limited to the 1x2 configuration. Any MxN configuration may be realizable, for M > 1 and N > 2. For example, to enable coverage in an indoor area (like e.g., an office space), a plurality of Rx-Tx antennas and/or reception- extender-nodes may have to be associated with a base station and deployed within the indoor area and/or in the vicinity of the latter. Accordingly, at least one RF splitter may be employed by an augmented-node to merge input signals of links and/or split output signals into links handled by a base station configured, e.g., as known in the art, to support any combination of links and links with the Rx-Tx antennas and/or with the at least one reception-extender-node. For example, a communication system (not shown) in association with indoor applications may employ a plurality of reception-extender-nodes employed within a building. In addition, the said communication system may employ a plurality of transceivers embodying access points, e.g., as known in the art, which are employed indoors. Both the plurality of reception-extender-nodes and the plurality of

- 54 - access points are communicably coupled with a transceiver or transmitter augmented- node deployed outsides of the building. The communication system is operative to receive uplinks over the plurality of access points and reception-extender-nodes, whereas downlinks may only be emitted over the indoor access points and the outdoor augmented- node.

[0180] As already outlined hereinabove with reference to communication system 200, communication system 300 too is operative to determine whether a reception-extender- node is communicably coupled with an augmented-node and operative to receive an uplink communication from a client-node for communication with the at least one augmented- node and to provide a corresponding indication via an output (not shown). Additionally or alternatively, communication system 300 according to embodiments of the disclosed technique is operative to determine and indicate via an output the attained emitted signal strength and/or the attained reduction in emitted signal strength of client-node 210 due to the configuration of the communication system in terms of absolute signal strength and/or relative reduction in signal strength. The outputs may correspond to the received links. [0181] In some embodiments, communication system 300 is operative to perform "data- resource-saving management", analogously to what is outlined herein with reference to Figure 2A.

[0182] Additional reference is now made to Figure 4, which schematically illustrates a communication system 400 according to an embodiment of the disclosed technique. In communication system 400, an augmented-node 430 may be operative to send signals from an indoor area 491 to an outdoor area 492, and vice versa. This may be accomplished by an augmented-node 430 comprising a relay 450, which may interface between indoor area 491 and outdoor area 492. Relay 450 may be communicably

- 55 - coupleable with reception-extender-node 220, and Rx-Tx Antenna 238, in indoor area 491 via, e.g., RF splitter 237, and with transceiver or transmitter 236, which may be deployed in outdoor area 492. Relay 450 may be embodied, for example, by a repeater, e.g., as known in the art. Therefore, as is schematically illustrated, a signal may be relayed from indoor Rx-Tx antenna 238 and reception-extender-node 220 respectively, to transceiver 236 located in outdoor area 492 via, e.g., RF splitter 237. Conversely, downlink 231 may be relayed by relay 450 from outdoor transceiver 236 to indoor Rx-Tx antenna 238 over downlinks 232A and 232B, optionally via RF splitter 237. Optionally, reception-extender- node 220 may receive information from Tx-link blocker 239 via link 231 C, which may be conducted over wireline. Communication between relay 450 and transceiver 236 may be implemented, for example, over a wire-line or wireless infrastructure. In embodiments, relay 450 may be at least partially or entirely be deployed in outdoor area 492 (for example, on a rooftop) such that in an embodiment where relay 450 communicates with transceiver 236 via a wireless infrastructure, the EM radiation associated with said wireless infrastructure is mostly or entirely present in outdoor area 492. As a consequence, a user located in indoor area 491 may not be subjected to EM radiation that may be emitted from or received by relay 450, or the EM radiation may be reduced to a minimized value. More specifically, relay 450 may be communicably coupled with Rx-Tx-antenna 238 via a bidirectional amplifier and with reception-extender-node 220 via a uni-directional amplifier. Accordingly, some links (e.g., downlink 232C) may be relayed to client-node 210 which is located indoors, e.g., via Rx-Tx antenna 238, and some links (e.g., downlink 480), may be received directly from transceiver or transmitter 236 or any other transceiving or transmitting node that is operatively coupled with augmented-node 430.

- 56 - [0183] In some embodiments, relay 450 may be operative such that indoor communication with relay 450 is only wireline-based, whereas outdoor communication with relay 450 may be wireline and/or wireless-based. As a consequence, the employment of relay 450 may not increase or may lead to a merely negligible increase (of maximal e.g., 2 dBm, 1 dBm, 0.5 dBm) in the signal strength or flux of EM radiation within indoor area 491. [0184] A communication system according to embodiments of the disclosed technique, such as, for example, communication system 300 and/or 400, includes controller 198. To simplify the discussion that follows, controller 198 is schematically illustrated as being a single unit operatively coupled with transceiver 236 and included in augmented-node 230 or augmented-node 430. It should however be noted that controller 198 may be embodied or be fully or partially included in any kind of network device (not shown), e.g., as known in the art. Accordingly, controller 198 may be embodied by at least one of the following entities like, for example, transceiver 236, a radio network controller (RNC) (not shown) and a base station controller (BSC). Further, in some embodiments, controller 198 may be parsed and/or otherwise architecturally distributed in a communication system according to embodiments of the disclosed technique.

[0185] Controller 198 is operative to initiate measures that may minimize or at least reduce the signal strength of the EM radiation emitted by client-node 210 for example, while for example ensuring that the quality level of the received uplink 211 remains acceptable. For instance, controller 198 may trigger the execution of a procedure, which determines by how much the signal strength emitted by client-node 210 may be reduced. Optionally, the procedure of determining by how much the signal strength emitted by client-node 210 may be reduced, may be executed by controller 198. For example, controller 198 may provide signal strength reducer 199 of client-node 210 with control-data

- 57 - over downlink 480; or via Rx-Tx antenna 238 over links 232A, 232B and 232C, where the control-data may, inter alia, represent information to client-node 210 that transceiver 236 receives uplink 211 transmitted by client-node 210 with a certain quality (e.g. with given SINR). In response to the control-data received by client-node 210, the latter itself may determine by how much the emitted signal strength thus may be reduced whilst still maintaining a reliable and robust uplink 211. Accordingly, client-node 210 may also be viewed as comprising or constituting signal strength reducer 199.

[0186] Alternatively, the possible reduction in signal strength emitted by client-node 210 may be caused by another and/or additional device of communication system 300 and/or 400 other than client-node 210 such as, for example, transceiver 236, a radio network controller (RNC) (not shown), a base station controller (BSC). The control-data representing the information of by how much the signal strength emitted by client-node 210 can be reduced, may be provided to client-node 210, for example, via downlinks 232A, 232B and 232C. In response to the received control-data, client-node 210 may reduce the emitted signal strength to a minimized value.

[0187] It should be noted that signal strength reducer 199 may be employed for the reduction of signal strength associated with uplink 211 emitted by client-node 210 even at the expense of the signal quality of uplink 211 received by any receiving node of communication system 400. However, in some embodiments, the signal strength emitted by client-node 210 may only be minimized by a magnitude while still ensuring a minimal signal quality of received uplink 211. Alternatively, the emitted signal strength may be minimized even though this may result in a disconnection of a session between client-node 210 and an uplink 211 receiving node such as, for example, reception-extender-node 220.

- 58 - [0188] Determining by how much the signal strength emitted by client-node 210 may be minimized may be accomplished, for example, by measuring for uplink 211 the signal strength received by uplink receiving entities of communication system 400, such as for example reception-extender-node 220. If the received signal strength is above a predetermined threshold value required for receiving a robust uplink 211, a corresponding possible reduction in the emitted signal strength may be determined by controller 198. Alternatively, the decision of by how much to reduce the signal strength emitted by client- node 210 may be accomplished by measuring, for example, the combined decoded packet error rate (PER), combined post processing SNR, and the like.

[0189] As already outlined hereinabove with reference to communication system 200, communication system 400 too is operative to determine whether a reception-extender- node is communicably coupled with an augmented-node and operative to receive an uplink communication from a client-node for communication with the at least one augmented- node and to provide a corresponding indication via an output (not shown). Additionally or alternatively, communication system 400 according to embodiments of the disclosed technique is operative to determine and indicate via an output, the attained emitted signal strength and/or reduction in emitted signal strength of client-node 210 due to the configuration of the communication system in terms of absolute signal strength and/or relative reduction in signal strength. The outputs may correspond to the received uplinks. [0190] In some embodiments, communication system 400 is operative to perform "data- resource-saving management", analogously to what is outlined herein with reference to Figure 2A. However, if no Tx-link blocker 239 is employed, relay 450 may be operative to provide reception-extender-node 220 with control-data only, thus reducing the signal

- 59 - strength compared to the signal strength required for transmitting both control-data and user-data to client-node 210.

[0191] Reference is now made to Figure 5, which schematically illustrates a communication system 500 according to an embodiment of the disclosed technique. [0192] Generally, in a communication system operative to perform soft-handoff, reception-extender-nodes embodying receive-only base stations may be deployed in addition to augmented-nodes, where not only augmented-nodes but also reception- extender-nodes are communicably coupled with a high level network (HLN) controller in a manner, such that the HLN controller identifes the at least one reception-extender-nodes as base stations, for example, via an I-UB interface. The HLN controller may be embodied, for example, by a radio network controller (RNC), e.g., of a CDMA architecture, or a base station controller (BSC) and may refer to the receive-only base stations as regular base stations.

[0193] It should be noted that the term "high layer" as used herein refers to network entities that are anything but base stations, augmented-node and reception-extender- nodes, i.e., entities that are only indirectly communicably coupleable with the at least one client-node.

[0194] Communication system 500 for example includes an HLN controller 590, which may embody controller 198. HLN controller 590 is communicably coupled with reception- extender-node 220 and node 230, which is hereinafter referred to as "augmented-node" 230 for being communicably coupled with a reception-extender-node, which may be embodied by devices as outlined herein. HLN controller 590 controls the operation of reception-extender-node 220, augmented-node 230 and optionally of client-node 210, an

- 60 - example of at least one client-node. The communicably coupling between HLN controller 590 and reception-extender-node may be implemented via links 221 and 533. [0195] Alternatively, controller 198 may be operatively coupled with, instead of being included in HLN controller 590 and/or otherwise be incorporated and/or parsed and/or architecturally distributed in communication system 500. HLN controller 590 can be operatively coupled with other network elements and/or can be otherwise incorporated and/or parsed and/or architecturally distributed in communication system 500, such that its placement is not limited to that shown in the figure in any way.

[0196] Since in some embodiments reception-extender-node 220 does not emit any wireless signals (i.e., is free of wireless transmission capabilities), client-node 210 does not have any information about the existence of the former. As a consequence, client-node 210 does not initiate a request for soft-handoff to reception-extender-node 220, nor does it include reception-extender-node 220 in a soft-handoff procedure. Thus, the procedure of handover with a reception-extender-node like, e.g., reception-extender-node 220 to obtain a reduction in the signal strength emitted by client-node 210, may be network-initiated in communication system 500, in distinct contrast to client-node-assisted handover in communication systems, e.g., as known in the art.

[0197] In an embodiment of the disclosed technique, HLN controller 590 comprises a database (not shown) linking between augmented-nodes (e.g., augmented-node 230) and reception-extender-nodes (e.g., reception-extender-node 220) which may be geographically relatively close. This database may be created and maintained manually and/or automatically and may be created and maintained, for example, based on statistics. The statistics may for example refer to the probability that reception-extender-node 220 may be added in soft-handoff with augmented-node 230 with respect to another, randomly

- 61 - referred to, client-node communicating with augmented-node 230. If the probability exceeds a certain threshold, reception-extender-node 220 is linked in the database with augmented-node 230. Accordingly, upon connection of client-node 210 with an augmented-node, HLN controller 590 may determine which reception-extender-nodes in communication system 500 are soft-handoff candidates, e.g., by searching for such candidate-reception-extender-nodes in the database. HLN controller 590 may then initiate soft-handoff by adding reception-extender-node 220 to the active list of client-node 210, for example in the event that reception-extender-node 220 is located closest to client-node 210 in comparison to any other reception-extender-node, which may be determined, for example, based on the signal strength (or any other signal quality characteristics) of the uplink received at the at least one reception-extender-node. Alternatively, HLN controller 590 may decide to add reception-extender-node 220 to the active list without performing any prior signal quality determination. Additionally or alternatively, only those receiving communication entities of an extended communication cell may be added to the database for which the received signal quality exceeds a predetermined quality-threshold value. For example, if the signal strength received at reception-extender-node 220 and reception- extender-node 223 (not shown) exceeds a predetermined quality-threshold of, e.g., 10 dB SNR, then reception-extender-node 220 as well as reception-extender-node 223 may be added to the database. In some embodiments however, should for example the signal strength received at reception-extender-node 220 exceed the signal strength of reception- extender-node 223, then only reception-extender-node 220 may be added to the database, even if for both reception-extender-node 220 and reception-extender-node 223 the received signal strength exceeds the quality-threshold. An extended communication cell refers to a communication system employing reception-extender-nodes.

- 62 - [0198] Additionally or alternatively, HLN controller 590 may provide client-node 210 with information related to reception-extender-nodes deployed in communication system 500. More specifically, HLN controller 590 may for example provide client-node 210 via, e.g., augmented-node 230, with control-data representing information about the reception- extender-nodes that are candidates for soft-handoff with augmented-node 230. As a result, client-node 210 may initiate soft-handoff with any of the reception-extender-nodes (e.g., reception-extender-node 220) for which client-node 210 received information. The soft-handoff may be controlled by HLN controller 590. Control-data provided to client-node 210 may comprise, for example, identifying number, code number, and absolute location of, e.g., reception-extender-node 220 or relative location of the latter with respect to augmented-node 230.

[0199] Network-initiated soft-handoff as described hereinabove may result in unnecessary utilization of network resources like, e.g., bandwidth. To ensure efficient network utilization, the signal quality of uplink 211 (e.g. as received by reception-extender- node 220) during and/or after completion of handover with reception-extender-node 220 may be monitored (e.g., substantially continuously), for example, by reception-extender- node 220 or HLN controller 590. The data gathered during the monitoring may be used to decide whether or not to discard given reception-extender-nodes from the soft-handoff. If for example the signal quality of uplink 211 (e.g. as received by reception-extender-node 220) measured and, e.g., averaged over a period of time, is below a predetermined quality-threshold, HLN controller 590 may remove reception-extender-node 220 from the handover. In analogy to what is outlined hereinabove, the decision of which reception- extender-node to include in or discard from the soft-handoff may additionally or alternatively be made by comparing the received signal strengths and/or qualities of the

- 63 - links at the different receiving communication entities. For example, if for uplink 211 the received signal strength at reception-extender-node 220 is below the signal strength received at another reception-extender-node (not shown), or if reception-extender-node 220 does not contribute to an improvement of the signal-quality, then reception-extender- node 220 may be discarded from the soft-handoff by, e.g., HLN controller 590. [0200] In some embodiments of the disclosed technique, reception-extender-node 220 for example may be provided, e.g., by HLN controller 590, with control-data representing information about the at least one client-node (e.g., client-node 210, which may already be communicably coupled with augmented-node 230) that are positioned close enough to reception-extender-node 220 for the reception of uplink 211. Reception-extender-node 220 may then monitor the quality of the signal received from client-node 210. If the quality exceeds a predetermined quality-threshold during a certain period of time, HLN controller 590 may be requested, e.g., by reception-extender-node 220, to become associated with augmented-node 230 to enable soft-handoff between augmented-node 230 and reception- extender-node 220 pertaining to client-node 210.

[0201] In some embodiments, communication system 500 is operative to perform "data- resource-saving management", analogously to what is outlined herein with reference to Figure 2A. For example, to at least reduce data-storage related resources, some of the data received at reception-extender-node 220 from HLN controller 590 may be discarded. In some embodiments, only control-data may be provided from HLN controller 590 to reception-extender-node 220, some of which may be discarded by the latter. [0202] As already outlined hereinabove with reference to communication system 200, communication system 500 too may be operative to determine whether a reception- extender-node is communicably coupled with an augmented-node and operative to receive

- 64 - an uplink communication from a client-node for communication with the at least one augmented-node and to provide a corresponding indication via an output (not shown). Additionally or alternatively, communication system 500 according to embodiments of the disclosed technique is operative to determine and indicate via an output the attained emitted signal strength and/or reduction in emitted signal strength from client-node 210 due to the configuration of the communication system in terms of absolute signal strength and/or relative reduction in signal strength. The outputs may correspond to the received uplinks.

[0203] According to some embodiments of the disclosed technique, communication system 500, which may for example be based on code division multiple access (CDMA) technology, may be operative to provide client-node 210 with control-data representing control messages to control the signal strength emitted by client-node 210. Such control messages are hereinafter referred to as "signal strength control messages" or "SSC messages", the content of which may be commands to operate the at least one client-node according to maximal emitted signal strength and/or to minimize the emitted signal strength by a first determined magnitude to meet predetermined safety or quality criteria. Optionally, the content of the SSC messages may be a command to decrease the emitted signal by a second determined magnitude to meet predetermined quality criteria. For example, if augmented-node 230 and an augmented-node 530 participate in soft-handoff respective to client-node 210, both may provide client-node 210 with respective SSC messages. The control of client-node 210 for signal strength by augmented-node 230 and/or 530 is herein referred to as of type "inner loop control". Augmented-node 230 and 530 may determine the content of the respective SSC message to client-node 210 over downlinks 232 and 531, respectively, based on inner loop quality references. However,

- 65 - inner loop quality reference values may be operative according to outer loop quality reference values by, e.g., HLN controller 590. Based on the content of the SSC messages, client-node 210 determines whether the emitted signal strength may be decreased.

[0204] In some embodiments of the disclosed technique, reception-extender-nodes may not transmit downlink signals to client-node 210, and may thus not directly control client- node 210 for the emitted signal strength of the latter.

[0205] SSC messages pertaining to reception-extender-node 220 may be provided to client-node 210 from reception-extender-node 220 via HLN controller 590 and the at least one augmented-node (e.g., augmented-node 230) participating in the soft-handoff. Thusly configured, augmented-node 230 controls the signal strength emitted by client-node 210 on behalf of reception-extender-node 220. In some embodiments, reception-extender- node 220 may provide HLN controller 590 with SSC messages only when it is determined, e.g., by reception-extender-node 220, that received signal strength of uplink 211 received from client-node 210 exceeds a predetermined threshold value. Accordingly, when it is determined, e.g., by reception-extender-node 220 that the received signal strength of uplink 211 is below a certain threshold (for example when the at least one client-node has ventured far from reception-extender-node 220), no SSC messages may be provided to HLN controller 590. In that case, an augmented-node (e.g., augmented-node 230) may resume to independently control the emitted signal strength of client-node 210. [0206] In some embodiments, SSC messages may be provided to augmented-node 230 and/or 530, which may participate in soft-handoff, from reception-extender-node 220 not via HLN controller 590, i.e., augmented-node 230 and/or 530 may be communicably

- 66 - coupled, e.g., via a dedicated communication interface, with reception-extender-node 220, to obviate the need for providing the SSC messages via HLN controller 590. [0207] According to some embodiments of the disclosed technique, communication system 500 may employ in association with its core network an application server 580, which may be operative to apply application-based control of client-node 210 for the emitted signal strength. Application server 580 is communicably coupled with at least one reception-extender-node (e.g., reception-extender-node 220) and with HLN controller 590 via direct or any alternative connection such as, for example, an internet cloud, which is schematically illustrated as communication link 581. Application server 580 may include or embody controller 198.

[0208] In embodiments of the disclosed technique, communication system 500 is operative such that upon notification of application server 580, client-node 210 is communicably coupled with a reception-extender-node such as, for example, reception- extender-node 220, a link 222 is established between application server 580 and reception-extender-node 220. Subsequently, application server 580 may provide client- node 210 with SSC messages over the highest level of all communication layers, e.g., via augmented-node 230 over link 581 ' and optionally via HLN controller 590 over links 581 and 532. When referring to the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model, the highest level may be dubbed "application layer". In the application layer, application server 580 may control the signal strength by client-node 210 intermittently, or substantially continuously. Although the SSC messages provided by application server 580 over the high level may arrive at a lower rate than SSC messages provided, e.g., by augmented- node 230 over a lower layer (e.g., PHY/MAC layer), the high-level SSC messages may in some embodiments be prioritized in terms of implementation over the low-level SSC

- 67 - messages, by client-node 210. Providing SSC messages over the application layer may be suitable when the position of client-node 210 changes relatively slowly, e.g., at the pace of a pedestrian carrying client-node 210.

[0209] In some embodiments of the disclosed technique, client-node 210 may continue operating according to the inner-loop SSC messages provided to client-node 210 over the lower communication layer from augmented-node 230, via downlink 232. Application server 580 may control client-node 210 for its emitted signal strength in an outer control loop. For example, if it is determined by application server 580 that the quality of uplink 211 received by reception-extender-node 220 is above a certain threshold, application server 580 may provide client-node 210 with a SSC message via augmented-node 230 and over downlink 232 to decrease the signal strength by a corresponding magnitude, which may be determined by application server 580 for example, or to reset the emitted signal strength (e.g., to a maximal default magnitude) or to alter the emitted signal strength to any other predetermined signal strength magnitude or to define a maximum emitted signal strength for client-node 210. It should be noted that the communicable coupling of application server 580 with client-node 210 via augmented-node 230 may be performed in a selective manner. More specifically, application server 580 may establish link 581 and/or 581* upon reception of a command to provide client-node 210 with SSC messages, and maintain links 581 and/or 581" until the SSC messages are provided to client-node 210, and optionally until application server 580 receives an acknowledge-feedback that the SSC messages have been received by client-node 210, or alternatively until application server 580 receives a command to stop providing client-node 210 with SSC messages. After providing the SSC messages, after receiving the acknowledge-feedback or after receiving the command to stop providing the SSC messages, links 581 and/or 581' may be

- 68 - disconnected. In any event, client-node 210 may alter the magnitude of the emitted signal strength in accordance with SSC messages provided over layers that are lower than the application layer e.g. throughout the standard outer and inner loop power control mechanisms. In some embodiments, during the control of application server 580 over the signal strength emitted from client-node 210, data representing lower layer SSC messages received by client-node 210 may be aggregated and stored in the latter, and later be referred to by client-node 210 upon disconnection of the link between application server 580 and augmented-node 230.

[0210] Reference is now made to Figure 6, which schematically illustrates a schematic block diagram illustration of a communication system 600, according to an embodiment of the disclosed technique. According to some embodiments of the disclosed technique, a communication system 600 includes a reception-extender-node 620, embodying a user- deployable and/or subscriber-deployable (e.g., in a plug-and-play manner) reception- extending access point (AP) enabling the reception of uplink 211 emitted by client-node 210 within femto/picostation link ranges, e.g., as known in the art. Communication system 600 may further include an AP router 680 operative to manage links between reception- extender-node 620 and higher layer network entities such as, for example, HLN controller 590. In some embodiments, AP router 680 may be configured to be identified by HLN controller 590 as a reception-extender-node or a base station, e.g., as known in the art, whereas reception-extender-node 620 may not be identifiable by HLN controller 590. In some embodiments, AP router 680 may be embedded into either reception-extender-node 620, or HLN controller 590, such that it may be considered a part of each of them, respectively. In some embodiments, AP router 680 may be communicably coupled with reception-extender-node 620 via a link 621 embodying, for example, a wired and/or

- 69 - wireless communication implementing, e.g., an internet connection, a point-to-point link, a fiber optic cable , a private network or any combination thereof. AP router 680 may be operative to associate control-data, such as user ID, code number, International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI), modulation, or any other user and session information, received from HLN controller 590 with the respective reception-extender-node. For example, AP router 680 may be operative to identify first control-data and second control-data, e.g., according to a database such as, for example, a look-up-table (LUT), determine in accordance with the database that first control-data and second control-data are associated with reception-extender-node 620 and 640, respectively, and thus in a final step provide first and second control-data to reception-extender-node 620 and 640 via links 621 and 641, respectively. The database associating control-data with reception- extender-nodes may be maintained manually, e.g., by a network administrator, and/or automatically, e.g., employing a machine-readable medium (not shown) executing a set of instructions (not shown) resulting in a reception-extender-node-identification (RNI) application (not shown). RNI application may for example associate reception-extender- nodes with augmented-nodes according to the geographical distance between them. Once HLN controller 590 commands AP router 680 to participate in soft-handoff with a specific client-node such as, for example, client-node 210, AP router 680 instructs the corresponding reception-extender-node (e.g., reception-extender-node 620) to participate in the soft-handoff and provides it with the relevant information (e.g., client-node ID, modulation scheme, communication code, etc.).

[0211] Similar to what has been outlined herein above with reference to Figure 5 (communication system 500), soft-handoff in communication system 600 is network- initiated. The database enabling such network-initiated soft-handoff in connection with

- 70 - communication system 600 may not only associate augmented-nodes with reception- extender-nodes but also with AP router 680. The database may thus additionally include, for example, the ID, PN, and/or position and/or location of AP router 680. In communication system 600, the same measures as in communication system 500 may be undertaken to avoid unnecessary network utilization such as, for example, monitoring of uplink quality, performing data-resource-saving management to minimize the required resourced for data-storage and/or providing data from one node to another in communication system 600.

[0212] As already outlined hereinabove with reference to communication system 200, communication system 600 too is operative to determine whether a reception-extender- node is communicably coupled with an augmented-node and operative to receive an uplink communication from a client-node for communication with the at least one augmented- node and to provide a corresponding indication via an output (not shown). Additionally or alternatively, communication system 600 according to embodiments of the disclosed technique is operative to determine and indicate via an output the attained emitted signal strength and/or the attained reduction in emitted signal strength of client-node 210 due to the configuration of the communication system in terms of absolute signal strength and/or relative reduction in signal strength. The outputs may be indicated in correspondence with the received uplinks.

[0213] Referring now to the issue of control of signal strength emitted by client-node 210 in communication system 600, it is noted that in analogy to what has been described with reference to communication system 500, reception-extender-node 620 and/or application server 580 may not be operative to emit a wireless downlink with client-node 210.

Therefore, SSC messages may be provided to client-node 210 from reception-extend er-

- 71 - node 620 via alternative links (such as, for example, over reception-extender-node, AP router 680 and HLN controller 590), in analogy to what has been described hereinabove with respect to communication system 500 with the difference that some of the SSC messages may be sent to client-node 210 over AP router 680.

[0214] According to some embodiments of the disclosed technique, and in analogy to what is described with reference to Figure 5, augmented-node 230 for example may provide client-node 210 with SSC messages to control the emitted signal strength of client- node 210 with the difference that some of the SSC messages may be provided to client- node 210 via AP router 680. Further, HLN controller 590 and/or AP router 680 for example may determine which augmented-nodes are participating in the soft-handoff with reception-extender-node 620. Moreover, SSC messages may be provided from reception- extender-node 620 to client-node 210 in a selective manner, which may be controlled, for example, by HLN controller 490 and/or AP router 680. In some embodiments, AP router 680 being operative with reception-extender-nodes (e.g., reception-extender-node 620) having the potential to support soft-handoff with augmented-node 230 may be directly communicably coupled with augmented-node 230. In other words, AP router 680 may provide augmented-node 230 with SSC messages while skipping HLN controller 590. [0215] According to some embodiments of the disclosed technique, communication system 600 may comprise application server 580, which may be operative to establish high-layer links with reception-extender-node 620, for example, via links 621 and 682 through AP router 680, or for example over link 621" and which may be communicably coupled with HLN controller 590 via, e.g., the internet cloud, which is schematically illustrated as link 581. Upon notification of application server 580, that client-node 210 is communicably coupled with a reception-extender-node such as, for example, reception-

- 72 - extender-node 620, link 682 is established between application server 580 and AP router 680, thus communicably coupling reception-extender-node 620 with application server 580.

[0216] Providing client-node 210 with SSC messages over the application level and/or controlling the signal strength emitted from client-node 210 by application server 580 may be performed in a manner that is analogous to what is outlined with reference to communication system 500. It should be noted that in communication system 600 the communicable coupling of application server 580 with client-node 210 via augmented-node 230 may be performed in a selective manner as is outlined with reference to communication system 500.

[0217] Additional reference is now made to Figure 7, which is a schematic block diagram illustration of a communication system 700, according to an embodiment of the disclosed technique. In some embodiments of the disclosed technique, a reception-extender-node, may include a receiving part (hereinafter: extender-Rx) and a transmitting part (hereinafter: extender-Tx) that are physically separated from one another, where the extender-Tx is collocated with the at least one augmented-node of the communication system. Thusly configured, a client-node may receive downlinks from the extender-Tx and the at least one augmented-node at least approximately in synchronization. As is exemplified with reference to communication system 700, a reception-extender-node 720 may include an extender-Rx 721 and an extender-Tx 722, which are physically separated and located at different distinct geographical locations of communication system 700. More specifically, extender-Tx 722 is collocated with augmented-node 230 at collocation spot 750, whereas extender-Rx 721 may be located in a different physical location. Thusly configured, downlink 725 and downlink 232 are received by client-node 210 at least approximately in

- 73 - synchronization. Therefore, client-node 210 may decode messages sent both over downlink 725 and downlink 232, without the need for any further adaptation of client-node 210. For example, based on the signal strength of received uplink 211 at extender-Rx 721, a reduction in the magnitude of the emitted signal strength may be determined, e.g., by extender-Rx 721 and then be sent as an SSC message to client-node 210 over link 723 to extender-Tx 722, and from the latter to client-node 210 via downlink 725. In addition or as an alternative to the SSC messages provided to client-node 210, extender-Tx 722 may transmit control-data over downlink 725, such that client-node 210 can request to add reception-extender-node 720 to the soft-handoff. For example, the control-data may represent the downlink pilot channel, synchronization channel and paging channel corresponding to reception-extender-node 720, as known in the art. It should be noted that communication via link 723 may be conducted, for example, over an internet connection, which may be enabled over a communication infrastructure, e.g., as known in the art such as, for example, over a fiber optic, coax or point to point microwave link. [0218] In some embodiments, AP router 680 may be embedded into either reception- extender-node 620, or HLN controller 590, such that AP router 680 may be considered to be a part of each of them, respectively. In analogy to what has been described in connection with reception-extender-node 720, the transmitting part (not shown) of AP router 680 may in some embodiments be geographically separated from its receiving part, whereby the transmitting part of AP router 680 may be collocated with augmented-node 230. Thusly configured, the downlink (not shown) associated with the transmitter-part of AP router 680 may at least approximately be received by client-node 210 in synchronization with downlink 232. In analogy to what has been described in connection with reception-extender-node 720, client-node 210 may decode both messages sent over

- 74 - downlink 232 as well as messages over the link that is present between the receiver part of AP router 680 and client-node 210, without the need for any further adaptation of client- node 210 to enable such decoding.

[0219] In further to what has been described hereinabove, the control of client-node 210 for signal strength by augmented-node 230 and/or 530 is herein referred to as a type of "inner loop control". However, inner loop quality reference values may be operative according to outer loop quality reference values by, e.g., HLN controller 590 or application server 580. Based on the content of the SSC messages, client-node 210 determines whether or not the emitted signal strength may be decreased.

[0220] Further reference is now made to Figure 8, which schematically illustrates a schematic block diagram illustration of a communication system 800, according to an embodiment of the disclosed technique. Communication system 800 employs augmented- node 830 embodying, for example, a base station e.g., as known in the art, may be communicably coupled via a link 821 and 841 with at least one reception-extender-node, (e.g., reception-extender-node 820 and reception-extender-node 840), respectively. In some embodiments, the at least one reception-extender-node may be communicably coupled with a plurality of base stations and/or augmented-nodes, as is exemplified by reception-extender-node 840 which is communicably coupled with both augmented-node 830 as well as with augmented-node 850.

[0221] In some embodiments, handover procedures and the uplink signal strength emitted by client-nodes may be controlled for example by controller 198. Controller 198 may govern the at least one signal strength reducer (not shown) in order to obtain a reduction in emitted signal strength. In accordance with the aforesaid, controller 198 may be physically located in many elements within a communication system like, e.g.,

- 75 - communication system 800, for example, in augmented-node 830, thereby allowing augmented-node 830 to perform control functions. Signal strength reducer 199 may also be physically located in many elements within the communication system 800. Reception- extender-nodes 820 and 840 are communicably connected (directly or indirectly) with, for example, augmented-node 830 and data pertaining to uplink 211 (such as decoded data, SINR measurements, statistical values (e.g., LLR values), and the like) and may be provided to augmented-node 830 for example, over wire-line and/or wireless communication infrastructures and/or networks, e.g., as known in the art, implementing for example, the internet. For example, reception-extender-node 820 may be embodied by a macro, pico or femtostation, and data pertaining to uplink 211 (such as decoded data, SINR measurements, statistical values (e.g., LLR values), and the like) may be provided from reception-extender-node 820 to augmented-node 830 over communication interfaces such as, for example, S1 , X2 or R8. Data pertaining to uplink 211 may be provided to augmented-node 830 over e.g., an internet connection, a point-to-point link, a fiber optic cable, a private network or any combination thereof. In some embodiments, reception- extender-node 820 may connect directly to a certain augmented-node like, for example, augmented-node 830 (e.g. through a network, as known in the art such as, for example the internet) and connect to other augmented-nodes, for example augmented-node 850 indirectly through augmented-node 830.

[0222] In some embodiments, when controlling the emitted signal strength, augmented- node 830 may take into account the processed information received from a reception- extender-node (e.g., reception-extender-node 820) embodying, e.g., a base station. For example, in case client-node 210 is in the proximity of reception-extender-node embodying a base station, the latter receives the uplink transmission of client-node 210 with sufficient

- 76 - quality and forwards the respective (high quality) information to augmented-node 830. In turn, augmented-node 830 determines anew the change in signal strength to be emitted and sends a correspondingly updated SSC message to client-node 210. [0223] In some embodiments of the disclosed technique, communication system 800 may be configured such that a plurality of client-nodes may communicate with a plurality of augmented-nodes over the same reception-extender-node. To enable such a scenario, the plurality of client-nodes and the plurality of augmented-nodes have to be identified and correctly associated with each other. For example, client-node 810A and 810B may communicate with augmented-node 850 via reception-extender-node 840, and client-node 210 may communicate with augmented-node 830 via reception-extender-node 840 as well. Augmented-nodes 830 and 850 may provide, e.g., reception-extender-node 840 with control information over links 841 and 842, respectively. In some embodiments, reception- extender-node 840 is operative to retrieve communication control information directly from downlinks 832, 852A and 852B, such as, for example, DL-MAP and UL-MAP messages, timing advance commands, etc. In any event, reception-extender-node 840 is thus enabled to respectively provide augmented-nodes 830 and 850 with information associated with client-nodes 210, 810A and 810B. Moreover, in case of handover, the identity of the at least one augmented-node to which uplink data respective of the at least one client-node is forwarded, may be dynamically changed. For example, in case of handover from augmented-node 850 to augmented-node 830, reception-extender-node 840 may correspondingly change the identity of the at least one augmented-node according to which uplink data is forwarded. Client-node 810A and 810B may communicate with reception-extender-node 840 via links 811 A and 811 B, respectively.

- 77 - [0224] In some embodiments of the disclosed technique, a reception-extender-node such as reception-extender-node 840 may communicably connect with augmented-node 830 directly through the internet (IP based connection).

[0225] Additional reference is now made to Figure 9, which is a schematic block diagram illustration of the communicative coupling of a gateway according an embodiment of the disclosed technique. In some embodiments, reception-extender-node 840 may communicably connect with augmented-node 830 via a router or a gateway 880, over link 881 , to minimize the traffic from the at least one reception-extender-node to augmented- node 830 and to ensure that security issues are accommodated.

[0226] Gateway 880 may be connected to a plurality of communication devices. For example, gateway 880 may be connected to augmented-node 830 and/or reception- extender-nodes 840 (via link 843) and/or 820 (via link 823) and/or transceiver BS (not shown) and/or femtostations and/or picostations, etc. This connection to reception- extender-nodes and/or augmented-nodes may be provided over interfaces known in the art such as S1 , X2 or R8. Gateway 880 may be embodied, for example, by a femtocell gateway operative to accommodate reception-extender-nodes and/or other communication entities. Gateway 880 may include or embody a security controller which ensures that reception-extender-nodes are authorized to communicably connect with augmented-nodes via gateway 880. The security controller may thus for example perform functions similar, analogue or identical to those of an Accounting Authentication and Authorization (AAA) agent, e.g., as known in the art, such as authentication and/or authorization and/or accounting. Additionally or alternatively, gateway 880 may include or embody a management entity operative to manage and to collect information on the at least one reception-extender-node that are connected to gateway 880.

- 78 - [0227] Gateway 880 may be communicably connected with a plurality of augmented- nodes (not shown) and a plurality of reception-extender-nodes such as, for example reception-extender-node 840 and reception-extender-node 820, and operative to manage the signals received at the plurality of reception-extender-nodes. For example, if uplink 811 is received at reception-extender-node 820 and 840 and provided to gateway 880, the latter may aggregate (i.e. choose a decoded packet based on CRC or any other signal- quality measure) all of the received uplinks and forward only one copy of data respective of one reception-extender-node (which corresponds to a single client-node) to, e.g., augmented-node 830. Gateway 880 may respectively associate data representing signal quality with the forwarded decoded signal. Gateway 880 may communicate with augmented-node 830 via for example an X2 or R8 interface.

[0228] Providing client-node 210 with SSC massages may be managed and accomplished analogously as outlined, with reference to communication system 500 for example. The main difference lies in that the signal strength emitted by client-node 210 may be controlled by augmented-node 830 instead by HLN controller 590. Correspondingly, augmented-node 830 may comprise a database linking between augmented-node 830 and reception-extender-nodes that are located geographically nearby augmented-node 830. It should however be noted that the database may be located in any other entity of communication system 800 like, for example, in a signal strength reducer (not shown) thereof. Additionally or alternatively, once a reception- extender-node is capable of receiving a client-node's uplink with sufficient quality, which may be determined according to, for example, CRC check or SINR estimation, the at least one reception-extender-node may forward information respective to the received uplink to the serving augmented-node.

- 79 - [0229] Data-resource management may also be performed in communication system 800 analogously to the data-resource management outlined with reference to communication system 500 for example. Moreover, the criteria and/or the method(s) according to which SSC messages are provided in communication system 800 to client-node 210 may be analog to the criteria and/or the methods outlined with respect to communication system 500 for example. Accordingly, communication system 800 may include, for example, application server 580 which may provide client-node 210 with SSC messages in a manner analogous to the one outlined with reference to communication 500, 600 and 700. Application server 580 may be communicably coupled with reception-extender-node via Iink 821\

[0230] In some embodiments, a reception-extender-node such as, for example, reception-extender-node 820 may be operative to provide a client-node (e.g., client-node 210) with control-data, such as SSC messages, via link 824 at a very low power of maximal, e.g., 10 dBm.

[0231] Reverting now to Figures 6 and 7 and further making reference to Figure 10, which schematically illustrates a block diagram illustration of a communication system 1000, according to an embodiment of the disclosed technique. Controlling client-node 210, an example of a client-node, for the emitted signal strength in communication system 1000 including an augmented-node 1030, and at least one, possibly user-deployable and/or subscriber-deployable, reception-extender-node 1020 may be accomplished in a manner analogous to the one outlined with reference to communication system 600 and 700. Accordingly, augmented-node 1030 may comprise a database linking between augmented-node 1030 and reception-extender-nodes that are communicably coupleable therewith. In some embodiments this database may be created and managed by at least

- 80 - one controller (not shown) of communication system 1000. As already outlined hereinabove, such databases may be created and/or maintained manually and/or automatically according to suitable criteria which may be based, for example, on statistics and/or on the geographical location of a reception-extender-node with respect to augmented-node 1030. For example, if the distance between reception-extender-node 1020 and augmented-node 1030 is below a predetermined distance-threshold, they may be linked with each other in the database.

[0232] SSC messages may be generated and/or provided to client-node 210 in communication system 1000 analogously as outlined hereinabove, e.g., with respect to communication system 600 and/or 700.

[0233] Similarly to what has been outlined with respect to communication system 700, an extender-Tx (not shown) of reception-extender-node 1020 may be collocated with augmented-node 1030, whereas an extender-Rx (not shown) of reception-extender-node 1020 may be located in the vicinity of client-node 210. Said extender-Tx may provide client-node 210 with SSC messages, the content of which may be determined, e.g., by reception-extender-node 1020, according to the received signal strength of uplink 211 received at the node-Rx.

[0234] In some embodiments, communication system 1000 may comprise application server 580 operative to provide client-node 210 with high-layer SSC messages in a manner analogous to the one outlined hereinabove with respect to communication systems 500, 600, 700 and 800.

[0235] As already outlined hereinabove with reference to communication system 200, communication system 1000 too is operative to determine whether a reception-extender- node is communicably coupled with an augmented-node and operative to receive an uplink

- 81 - communication from a client-node for communication with the at least one augmented- node and to provide an indication concerning the communicative coupling (not shown) at an output (not shown). Additionally or alternatively, communication system 1000 according to embodiments of the disclosed technique is operative to determine and indicate via an output, e.g. on the at least one reception-extender-node or the at least one client-node, the attained emitted signal strength and/or attained reduction in emitted signal strength of client-node 210 due to the configuration of the communication system in terms of absolute signal strength and/or relative reduction in signal strength. The outputs provided may be with respect to the received uplinks.

[0236] Communication systems according to embodiments of the disclosed technique are employable in connection with location-based services (LBS). The communication systems thus enable a more accurate localization of client-nodes and of nearby entities respective of each client-node such as, for example, addresses of hotels, entertainment venues, restaurants, and the like, without the need for incorporating additional radiation sources (such as additional transceiver base stations and/or femto or picostations) to obtain such an improvement, which otherwise might have been required if the localization were accomplished in a communication system that is free of reception-extender-nodes. More specifically, the location of client-nodes that are communicative with communication systems according to embodiments of the disclosed technique may be determined with higher precision. For instance, in some embodiments, by identifying and localizing the origin of an uplink signal received by at least one reception-extender-node and/or by at least one base station, the location of the at least one client-node performing uplink communication with said at least one reception-extender-node and/or base station may be determined, e.g., based on the received signal strength and optionally by determining the

- 82 - direction of the received EM radiation uplink. It should further be noted that by adding reception-extender-nodes to communication systems, the range and accuracy of LBS may be increased without the need for increasing the signal strength.

Synchronization and alignment of signals

(i) Synchronizing transmitted links with received links

[0237] Remotely deployed reception-extender-nodes may have to be synchronized in frequency and/or time with downlink and/or uplink signals. For example, synchronization data (e.g. frequency reference and an indication of the point in time the frame starts) and/or downlink information data may be provided to reception-extender-node 1020 over link 681 and link 1021 and/or obtained by reception-extender-node 1020 by receiving downlink 1032 (schematically indicated as downlink 10321) or link 1021". Alternatively, reception-extender-node 1020 may utilize information from uplink 211 to synchronize in frequency and/or time with the downlink(s) and/or uplink(s). In case the option of providing data to reception-extender-node 1020 over link 681 and link 1021 and/or downlink 1032 (schematically indicated as downlink 10321) or link 1021' is selected, controller 198 (Figure 2A) may provide additional synchronization correction (e.g. correction to the point in time the frame of the link starts).

(ii) Synchronizing between received links

[0238] In some embodiments it is required to synchronize between client-nodes according to signals received by reception-extender-nodes from the client-nodes.

Information enabling such synchronization may be provided to client-nodes via an

- 83 - augmented-node. The reception-extender-node(s) may determine the required synchronization information (hereinafter referred to as 'sync-data') to be passed on to the client-nodes (e.g., similar to how a transceiver may determine the synchronization information). For example, reception-extender-node 1020 may determine the sync-data respective to client-node 210. Reception-extender-node 1020 then forwards the sync-data to augmented-node 1030, which in turn transmits the sync-data to client-node 210 via downlink 1032. Alternatively, in case reception-extender-node 1020, is equipped with limited transmission capabilities, it may transmit the sync-data itself to client-node 210. [0239] In wireless communication systems known in the art (not shown), a plurality of signals received by a transceiver station from a respective plurality of client-nodes are synchronized with one another so as to enable simultaneous processing of the received signals at the transceiver station. For example, a first signal emitted from a first client- node has to be at least approximately temporally aligned with a second signal emitted from a second client-node when arriving at the transceiver-station, to enable simultaneous processing of the first and the second signal. At least approximate alignment between the pluralities of signals may be accomplished, e.g., as known in the art, by providing the at least one client-node with respective information concerning the timing of the transmission of the signal of respective client-nodes. If for example the first signal is identified as having a longer propagation time than the second signal, controller 198 (Figure 2A) for example may instruct the first and the second client-node to start sending the first and the second signals at their respective time stamps, whereby the second time stamp may be delayed compared to the first time stamp, such that the first and the second signals arrive at the receiving nodes at least approximately in alignment, i.e., at the same time.

Synchronization between the first and the second signals may thus be performed in

- 84 - accordance with their distance to the receiving nodes. Other synchronization methods may also be employed in the communication system known in the art such as associating a guard interval with symbols to increase the tolerance of the required temporal alignment, increasing search windows, and the like.

[0240] In view of the aforesaid, it is clear that by communicably associating, for example, reception-extender-node 1020 and augmented-node 1030 with client-node 210, the different coordinates of reception-extender-node 1020 and augmented-node 1030 may have to be considered to enable synchronization between uplink signals received at reception-extender-node 1020 and augmented-node 1030, in particular if there is a significant difference in path loss between the propagation to reception-extender-node 1020 and augmented-node 1030 with respect to at least one client-node and/or the distance between reception-extender-node 1020 and augmented-node 1030 with respect to the coverage range of augmented-node 1030 without reception-extender-node 1020 is significant.

[0241] In embodiments of the disclosed technique, synchronization of signals received at a plurality of reception-extender-nodes may be accomplished, for example, by increasing the guard interval that may be employed in association with, e.g., communication system 1000, to increase the tolerance concerning the temporal alignment of the plurality of signals. Increasing the guard interval may be considered as being analogous to virtually increasing the cell size of an extended-node 1050, which at least includes augmented- node 1030 and reception-extender-node 1020, since longer propagation distances, and thus increased temporal shifting of the signal, is tolerated. Increasing the guard interval may, inter alia, be applicable if communication system 1000 for example is based, e.g., on

Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA), Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing

- 85 - (OFDM), Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA), and/or single carrier frequency division multiple access (SC-FDMA) technology. Similarly, in Time Division Duplex (TDD) systems for example, the transmit-transition gap (TTG) and/or the receive- transition gap (RTG) may be increased to accommodate a virtually larger cell size. [0242] Additionally or alternatively, extended-node 1050 for example may be planned such that parameters of the transmitted signals correspond to communication range, e.g., increased search windows or increased guard intervals are employed to increase the tolerance between possibly unaligned signals. Modification of the search window sizes may be employed, for example, if communication system 1000 is based on Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) or Wideband-CDMA technologies (WCDMA). [0243] Additionally or alternatively, the at least one reception-extender-node, according to which synchronization of client-nodes may be performed, may be chosen in accordance with the signal strengths or quality received at the respective reception-extender-nodes, as is outlined hereinafter with reference to Figure 11 , which schematically illustrates a block diagram of communication scenarios relating to synchronization schemes, according to an embodiment of the disclosed technique. In one embodiment for example, each client-node may be synchronized to the at least one reception-extender-node receiving its signal with the highest strength or quality. For example, an extended-node 205 may be operative to compare for the signal strength and/or quality received from client-node 210 at reception- extender-nodes 220 and 240. For example, reception-extender-node 220 may receive uplink signal 211 at a higher quality or signal strength than reception-extender-node 240. As a consequence, data representing a command to synchronize reception-extender-node 220 may be sent via a respective downlink to client-node 210. Similarly, reception- extender-node 240 may receive uplink signals 261 from client-node 260 at a higher signal

- 86 - strength or quality than reception-extender-node 220. Consequently, data representing a command to synchronize reception-extender-node 240 may be sent to client-node 260 via a respective downlink.

[0244] As already indicated hereinabove, to enable synchronization according to reception-extender-node 220 and 240 with a plurality of client-nodes (e.g., client-node 210 and 260), the plurality of client-nodes may have to be provided with data representing synchronizing information (hereinafter referred to as "sync-data"). The sync-data may be determined, for example, at reception-extender-node 220 and 240 and transmitted to the plurality of client-nodes, e.g., via augmented-node 230. Alternatively, in case an uplink signal is received at a high quality above the threshold by more than one reception- extender-node, it may be partially aligned with a plurality of reception-extender-nodes and the at least one augmented-node, such that the misalignment is not too large at any of the at least one reception-extender-node. In this case too the combined temporal shift order is based on the signal quality indicator at the at least one reception-extender-node. [0245] Although various issues such as the issue of synchronization are herein outlined with respect to reception-extender-nodes only, this should not be construed as limiting. Accordingly, these issues such as synchronization may be relevant with respect to any uplink receiving devices. Therefore, synchronization may be performed between a reception-extender-node and an augmented-node.

Notifying public with signs:

[0246] In some embodiments, the public may be made aware of the deployment of reception-extender-nodes. More specifically, to avoid confusion between a reception- extender-node and an augmented-node; and a reception-extender and a transceiver

- 87 - station, differences should be pointed out. A reception-extender-node, for example, may look the same or similar to a conventional transceiver-station, yet may not emit any radiation. For example, reception-extender-nodes may be color-coded and/or differently shaped than augmented-nodes to differentiate them. The general public should be made aware of this to avoid a bias against the deployment of reception-extender-nodes. To this end, reception-extender-nodes may be marked as such, and optionally augmented-nodes and conventional transceiver-stations may be marked with notices explaining the benefits of deploying a large network of reception-extender-nodes. The notices may, for example, explain to the public that by additionally deploying at least one reception-extender-node, the emission of a comparatively weaker, healthier, uplink signal suffices for uplink communication due to the denser deployment of uplink receiving devices. Optionally, these reminders and/or notices should inform the public that a reception-extender-node should not be mistakenly identified as a reception-extender-node or transceiver-station, which generates and emits radiation.

[0247] Reference is now made to Figure 12, which schematically illustrates a femto/picostation, according to an embodiment of the disclosed technique. In an embodiment of the disclosed technique, a reception-extender-node is operative to have processing capabilities similar to those of a femto/picostation known in the art, except that the at least one reception-extender-node may have reception capabilities only, as already outlined herein. By deploying reception-extender-nodes (e.g., in a plug-and-play manner) for receiving uplink signals within the femto/picostation range, interference issues due to uncoordinated transmissions may be eliminated. Such interference issues may otherwise arise if instead of the at least one reception-extender-node regular femto/picostations were employed. A regular femto/picostation may be modified to form reception-extender-node

- 88 - 1220 by disabling the transmission part of the regular femto/picostation and modifying it so it may receive the uplink information via receiver-processor link 1242 and/or through the wireless downlink 1215" from an augmented-node 1230.

[0248] In some embodiments of the disclosed technique, a modified client-node 1231 may be configured in a similar or identical way to, e.g., client-node 1210, except that modified client-node 1231 may not have any wireless transmission capabilities. For example, at least some of the transmission modules of modified client-node 1231 may be disabled. Consequently, modified client-node 1231 may also listen to downlink transmission 1215 through its receive antenna 1205 and provide reception-extender-node 1220 with the information transmitted over downlink signals 1215/1215'. Therefore, the amount of downlink information that controller 198 would otherwise have to provide to reception-extender-node 1220 via receiver-processor link 1242 is minimized. In some embodiments for example, receiver-processor link 1242 may be unidirectional from reception-extender-node 1220 to controller 198 such that all the information from controller 198 may be provided to reception-extender-node 1220 via downlink signals 1215/1215*. Client-node 1231 may be communicably coupled with reception-extender-node 1220 via link 1203.

[0249] According to another embodiment of the disclosed technique, a femto/picostation may either operate in a combined (regular) transmit-and-receive mode (regular femto/picostation), or in a receive-only mode (Rx-femto/picostation) and vice versa. Switching between said modes may be performed automatically and/or manually (by its user), according to a predetermined criterion. The femto/pico-station may for example receive commands triggering the switching between modes from an external source (e.g., a user) via an input unit (not shown), or initiate the change in mode independently. A criterion for

- 89 - changing the mode could be for instance the transmission coverage of augmented-node 1230 and/or the downlink requirements of client-node 1210. If the signal transmitted by augmented-node 1230 is received with sufficient quality (defined by a respective quality threshold) by the pico/femtostation and/or client-node, then the receive-only mode may be preferable from a safety perspective and thus employed. Otherwise, the pico/femtostation may switch to the combined transmit-and-receive mode. The pico/femtostation may provide an output providing an indication about the operational mode of the same station. The output may be, for example, a green light indicating that the femto/picostation is operating in the receive-only mode.

[0250] Further reference is now made to Figure 13, which schematically illustrates a block diagram of signal strength reducer 199, according to an embodiment of the disclosed technique. In embodiments of the disclosed technique, signal strength reducer 199 includes a storage device 1310 storing therein at least signal strength reducing instructions (not shown), a processor 1320, and a power supply 1340, all of which may be operatively coupled with each other. Processor 1320 executing the instructions results in an application 1330 that may cause the reduction of the signal strength emitted by a client- node. It should be noted that signal strength reducer 199 may be embodied for example, by at least one module which may be implemented for example, by hardware and/or software and/or any hybrid software and hardware.

[0251] In some embodiments, advertisements may be displayed on respective outputs of reception-extender-nodes. For example, advertisements may be downloaded to reception- extender-nodes that are connected to the Internet and presented by the respective outputs (not shown). The operator or service provider may determine and control which advertisement may be downloaded and displayed and/or provided as an audio output, in

- 90 - embodiments where the at least one reception-extender-node includes speakers. In particular, advertisements that are associated to entities located nearby a reception- extender-node may be downloaded to the latter and visually and/or audibly provided by an output of said reception-extender-node.

[0252] In embodiments of the disclosed technique, if for example the signal quality received at a reception-extender-node from a client-node is sufficient, the communication system may instruct the at least one client-node to shut down other communication modules (supporting for instance other communication protocols) in order to lower the power consumption of the at least one client-node and thus reduce the respective heating effect and save battery life. For instance, when the at least one reception-extender-node receives a client-node communicating in UMTS with sufficient quality, the 2G and/or WiFi communication modules may be instructed to shut down or turn to a low consumption mode. The shut down instruction may be sent to the at least one client-node in a similar manner like the SSCs outlined in the discussion above (e.g. from the at least one augmented-node or directly from the at least one reception-extender-node). The at least one client-node may be instructed to reactivate at least one communication module if changes in the received signal characteristics or channel are detected such as, for example a decrease in the corresponding signal quality as received by the at least one reception-extender-node to below a certain threshold and/or if the movement of the at least one client-node within the communication system exceeds a certain speed-threshold.

Optimizing DL and UL

[0253] In embodiments of the disclosed technique, a communication system may utilize information provided by a reception-extender-node respective of the uplink of a client-node

- 91 - and/or merely the fact that a client-node is received with sufficient quality by a reception- extender-node in order to enhance uplink and downlink transmission. For example, the at least one augmented-node may decide on which frequency band to transmit the downlink message to the at least one client-node and/or beamform the downlink transmission to the at least one client-node according to information received at the at least one augmented- node from, e.g., the at least one reception-extender-node. Such information may represent, for example, absolute location of the at least one client-node with respect to world coordinates, relative location of the at least one client-node with respect to the position of the at least one augmented-node, beamforming weights, preferred transmission mode, preferred resources, preferred frequency bands, characteristics of communication channel, reception capabilities of client-node, etc. The downlink optimization information may be constant for all client-nodes received by a certain reception-extender-node or may depend on the specific client-node (e.g. the relative location of the at least one client-node with respect to the at least one reception-extender-node and/or the channel between the at least one client-node and the at least one reception-extender-node, and/or feedback received from the at least one client-node). In embodiments where a client-node is received by a plurality of reception-extender-nodes, at least one of said plurality of reception-extender-nodes may provide the corresponding augmented-node with information that may facilitate optimizing the downlink transmission to the at least one client-node. Therefore, the signal quality of the downlink received by the at least one client-node may be significantly enhanced while the overhead required by the at least one client-node to determine and send information such as sounding and/or feedback may be reduced. Accordingly, the transmission power required by the at least one augmented- node and associated downlink radiation may be reduced by, e.g., 10 dB. Alternatively, the

- 92 - information provided by the at least one reception-extender-node, e.g. about the location of the at least one client-node, may be used for the formation of space division multiple access (SDMA) groups to obtain an increase in uplink and downlink capacity. [0254] In some embodiments of the disclosed technique, the at least one reception- extender-node may optimize the uplink and/or downlink transmission by providing the at least one augmented-node with information regarding uplink and/or downlink interference. The at least one reception-extender-node may inform the at least one augmented-node of characteristics of uplink and/or downlink interference and interference sources. Such interference sources may include uncoordinated transmitters such as femto/picostations or client-nodes communicating with other base stations. The at least one reception-extender- node may inform the at least one augmented-node with information respective to the interference itself (e.g. type of signal, signal strength, occupied frequency bands, direction of arrival, etc) and the interference source (e.g. estimated relative or absolute location, synchronization information etc). The at least one augmented-node may use this information to optimize the uplink and/or downlink, for example by avoiding uplink allocations for client-nodes in frequency bands and geographical locations experiencing significant interference.

[0255] In embodiments of the disclosed technique, a transceiver-node may be operative to receive as an input a command for reducing or shutting down its transmission capabilities, from, e.g., the user of the corresponding client-node. For example, a transceiver-node embodying an access point of a femto/picostation may be provided by the user with inputs representing the maximal or average transmission power of said transceiver-node. In case the transceiver-node is communicably coupleable with another augmented-node, providing an input representing a command for zero transmission by the

- 93 - transceiver-node is an admissible option, which transforms the transceiver-node into a non-transmitting reception-extender-node. For example, in this way the transmission capabilities of transceiver base stations may be limited or shut down in times when the capacity needed is relatively low (e.g., during night), turning them into reception-extender- nodes communicably coupleable with other base stations that transmit. [0256] In some embodiments, the access point establishing the femtocell/picostation may be operative to change its maximal or average transmission power and to independently shut-off transmission according to the status of the communication network as sensed by the access point and/or according to an instruction received from other communication entities of the communication network such as transceivers like e.g., base stations. For example, in case a femtocell detects a sufficient downlink signal from a nearby base station, it may shut down its transmission in order to act as a non-transmitting reception- extender-node, while received uplink information may be forwarded to the base station. The base station thus becomes an augmented-node. The at least one reception-extender- node may indicate on its output, or the output of the at least one client-node, that it is working with minimized transmission or is free of wireless transmission.

Coverage and Optimization Simulation

[0257] A coverage and optimization simulator is disclosed herein operative to provide simulations for communication systems according to embodiments of the disclosed technique. More specifically, the simulator enables simulating the behaviour of communication systems, i.e., the deployment of augmented-nodes, and/or augmenting given base stations with reception-extender-nodes, and simulates the resulting effects in a certain geographical environment with regard to various network parameters such as, for

- 94 - example, interference, reduction in emitted signal strength, noise rise, and uplink and downlink network capacity. The simulator may further optimize the deployment of a given number of augmented-nodes and/or reception-extender-nodes for at least one of the above-mentioned parameters. The simulator is operative to simulate for indoor, outdoor and combined indoor/outdoor environments.

[0258] In embodiments, the simulator may simulate and provide outputs comparing the operational parameters of communication system that do not include augmented-nodes (i.e., communication systems that do not employ reception-extender-nodes) with the operational parameters of communication systems according to embodiments of the disclosed technique. These parameters may relate, for example, to signal strengths of EM radiation emitted by client-nodes, interference level measured at neighbouring base stations and antennas, noise rise, uplink and downlink network capacity, and the like. [0259] In embodiments, the simulator may enable analyzing drive-test and walk-test results which can be used to further enhance and calibrate propagation simulation results. [0260] In embodiments, the simulator may be operative to suggest uplink capacity-limited areas which may benefit in terms of increased uplink capacity by adding reception- extender-nodes and/or augmented-nodes.

[0261] In embodiments, the simulator may enable suggesting areas where the impact of the addition of reception-extender-nodes on the required signal strength emitted by the at least one client-node will be most beneficial to the safety of the user. [0262] In embodiments, the simulator may enable simulating the effect of adding reception-extender-nodes to systems employing soft-handoff. In particular, the simulator may suggest areas, where the addition of augmented-nodes and/or the addition of

- 95 - reception-extender-nodes to existing base stations, are free of additional uplink interference or for which uplink interference is minimized.

[0263] In embodiments, the simulator may enable simulating the effect of adding augmented-nodes and/or adding reception-extender-nodes to existing base stations on the network's uplink voice and data capacity and/or quality.

[0264] In embodiments, the simulator may enable simulating a multitude of co-located technologies, such as but not limited to CDMA, WCDMA, HSPA, WiMAX and LTE. [0265] In some embodiments of the disclosed technique, the simulator may be employed for cell edge planning of communication systems supporting soft-handoff to select and provide information about a scenario for which interference in the communication systems supporting soft-handoff is below a predetermined, considered tolerable, threshold level. [0266] As already briefly indicated herein above, embodiments of the disclosed technique may be implemented in association with MESH communication network architectures, where a first client-node (e.g., client-node 210) may transmit signals to a second client- node (e.g., client-node 260). Therefore, the second client-node embodies an uplink- receiving device with respect to the first client-node and optionally a downlink transmitting device. Accordingly, the second client-node may be referred to as a reception-extender- node or an augmented-node. In the case where the second client-node is referred to as a reception-extender-node, a third client-node may be provided from the second client-node with information respective of the received uplink signal, where the third client-node may transmit downlink signals to the first client-node. Correspondingly, the third client-node is referred to as an augmented-node. [0267] Reference is now made to Figure 14, which is a flow-chart illustration of a method to minimize the EM radiation required to be emitted from a client-node, according to an

- 96 - embodiment of the disclosed technique. A method for minimizing the EM radiation emanating from at least one client-node includes, for example, as indicated by procedure 1410, remotely deploying at least one reception-extender-node from at least one other node. The at least one other node and the at least one reception-extender-node are remotely deployed from one another with respect to at least one of the following configurations: a first configuration wherein the distance between the at least one other node and the at least one reception-extender-node is significant with respect to the wireless range of the communication system; and a second configuration where the respective path losses from said at least one client-node to the at least one other node and the at least one reception-extender-node are significantly different.

[0268] The method further includes, as indicated by procedure 1420, communicably associating the at least one reception-extender-node with the at least one other node. Consequently, the corresponding at least one other node thus constitutes an at least one augmented-node.

[0269] If the at least one reception-extender-node has wireless transmission capabilities, the method further includes, as indicated by procedure 1430, significantly limiting the wireless transmission capabilities of the at least one reception-extender-node at least when the EM emission radiates towards areas in which human presence is expected. [0270] Reference is now made to Figure 15, which schematically illustrates a geographical layout of a communication system 1500 operative to initiate connection and perform handover according to an embodiment of the disclosed technique. [0271] According to some embodiments, the communication system and method enable determining the signal strength required to be emitted by at least one client-node for establishing links with at least one other node. Thereafter, the at least one other node may

- 97 - be selected at least by taking into account the emitted signal strength required for establishing the link. For example, connection of the at least one client-node with at least one other first node and/or handover of the at least one client-node from the at least one other first node to at least one other second node may be accomplished such that the client-node emitted signal strength would be minimal when required for connection with the at least one other first node and/or handover to the at least one other second node. More specifically, the emitted signal value may be monitored during communication with the at least one other first node. If the emitted signal value from the at least one client-node is above a predetermined emission threshold and/or the received signal quality at the at least one other first node is below a predetermined receive threshold, e.g., due to movement out of the coverage area of the at least one other first node, the at least one client-node may then search for at least one other second node. The selected at least one other second node should have a minimal emitted signal value required for establishing a link and one for which the at least one criterion is met. In some embodiments, the at least one client- node may notify the at least one other first and/or the at least one other second node about the initiation of a handover procedure. In some other embodiments the at least one client- node may neither notify the at least one other first node nor the at least one other second node about the initiation of the handover procedure.

[0272] According to some embodiments of the disclosed technique, the communication system may enable and/or the method may include instigating a bidding procedure for the at least one other node for which, for example, the required client-node emitted signal strength is the lowest. However, additional criteria may be considered for determining a winner of the bidding procedure such as, for example, associated costs, reception capabilities of the at least one other node, the at least one client-node and the like.

- 98 - [0273] Such a bidding procedure may be instigated in association with the initial connection of the at least one client-node with the at least one other node and/or in association with a handover of the at least one client-node from the at least one other first node to the at least one other second node. The bidding procedure may include, for example, requesting a proposal from the at least one other node, exchanging of client-data and node-data between the at least one client-node and the at least one other node, transmitting of test signals, and selecting the at least one other node. [0274] According to some embodiments, connection with and handover between the at least one other nodes may be accomplished regardless of the at least one other nodes' association with a particular subscription and/or operator, and/or the at least one client- node's association with a particular subscription and/or operator.

[0275] The instigation of the bidding procedure, e.g., by a controller or the at least one client-node may for example result in the at least one other nodes allocating more resources to reduce the respective required client-node emitted signal value. The at least one other node with the lowest required client-node emitted signal value may be the winner of the bid (taking into account additional parameters).

[0276] The bidding procedure may in some embodiments be respective of the technology and/or specific association of the at least one client-node with a subscription-provider. Alternatively, the bidding procedure may be performed irrespective of the at least one client-node's association with a specific subscription with a particular operator and/or the respective technology infrastructure.

[0277] According to some embodiments, establishing a link between at least one client- node and at least one other node may be accomplished regardless of the wireless communication technology required to establish the link. Therefore, a handover for

- 99 - example of the at least one client-node from the at least one other first to the at least one other second node may be accompanied by switching from a first communication technology to a second communication technology. For example, the at least one client- node may be communicably coupled with the at least one other first node by a WIMAX (Wireless Microwave Access)-based technology and with the at least one other second node by a cellular HSPA (High Speed Packet Access)-based technology, and with the at least one other third node via a wired connection. Since wired technology is a zero- emission technology, the at least one client-node communicably couples with the at least one other third node, provided that the remaining criteria are met as well. [0278] According to some embodiments, the selection of the at least one other node to which the at least one client-node connects may be based on information that the at least one client-node may pass on to the controller. The controller may be external to both the at least one client-node and the at least one other node. Additionally or alternatively, the controller may be included in the at least one client-node and/or in at least one of the at least one other nodes. For example, the at least one client-node may provide the controller of the at least one other node with information concerning the emitted signal value, and/or the at least one other node may provide the controller operatively associated with the at least one client-node with information concerning the operational capabilities of the at least one other node. Moreover, the controller of, e.g., the at least one client-node may ask for specific information from the at least one other node and/or vice versa. Based on such information, which at least takes into account the signal strength of the EM radiation emitted by the client-node, the at least one other selected node is one of a group of a plurality of other nodes selected to couple with the at least one client-node.

- 100 - [0279] Communication system 1500, for which a geographical layout is schematically illustrated, includes at least one other node such as, for example, a first node 1502, a second node 1504 and a third node 1506, a client-node 1512, and a controller 1570. Client-node 1512 is capable of forming a first uplink 1521 and a first downlink 1522 with first node 1502, as well as a second uplink 1531 and a second downlink 1532 with second node 1504. The transmission coverage of first node 1502, second node 1504 and third node 1506 are schematically illustrated and exemplified with circles 1551, 1552 and 1553, respectively.

[0280] Controller 1570 may be communicably coupled with first node 1502 and second node 1504. For exemplary purposes, controller 1570 is herein illustrated as being external to first node 1502, second node 1504 and client-node 1512. It should however be noted that in some embodiments, controller 1570 may be embedded in either one first node 1502 and/or second node 1504 and/or client-node 1512, and that optionally further controllers (not shown) may be communicably coupled with controller 1570. For example, controller 1570 may be embedded in first node 1502, and at least one additional controller (not shown) may be communicably coupled with controller 1570 and embedded in second node 1504 and/or client-node 1512.

[0281] Further reference is now made to Figure 16, which schematically illustrates a block diagram illustration of a controller, according to an embodiment of the disclosed technique.

[0282] Controller 1570 may employ a communication processor 1571 , a storage unit 1572 that stores instructions 1573, and a power supply 1574, all of which are operatively coupled with each other. Communication processor 1571 executing instructions 1573 results in an application 1575 selecting the node for which at least the uplink meets at least

- 101 - one predetermined criterion, which may at least be based on the signal value emitted by client-node 1512, as outlined hereinafter.

[0283] Selecting another node may be accomplished in association with the initial communicable connection of a client-node with another node, for example, to initiate the transmission of data from a client-node to another node, as well as in association with the handover of a client-node from a first other node to a second other node. [0284] For example, in the event that for establishing or maintaining a link, the emitted signal value from client-node 1512 exceeds a predetermined client-node emitted threshold and/or a client-node received signal strength as received by at least one other node (e.g., first node 1502) drops below a client-node received signal strength threshold, e.g., due to movement of client-node 1512 towards the limit of coverage area 1551 into overlapping area 1591 (which is the overlapping area for both coverage areas 1552 and 1551), client- node 1512 initiates a search for alternative at least one other nodes. Client-node 1512 may inform controller 1570 that a search has been initiated. Moreover, the search procedure may use a list of nearby at least one other node provided by first node 1502. Such a list is hereinafter referred to as the neighbors list.

[0285] According to some embodiments of the disclosed technique, first node 1502, second node 1504 and third node 1506 may pass on information (hereinafter: node-data) to controller 1570 about parameters related to their operative capabilities, e.g., via first node-controller link 1581 , second node-controller link 1582 and third node-controller link 1583. Optionally, client-node 1512 passes on information (hereinafter: client-data) to controller 1570 about parameters related to client-node 1512, e.g., via client-module link 1590.

- 102 - [0286] The node-data and the client-data may be passed on to controller 1570 intermittently or continuously whilst client-node 1512 is communicably coupled with first node 1502. In some embodiments, controller 1570 issues a request to obtain the node- data corresponding to first, second and third nodes 1502, 1504 and 1506, respectively, in response to receiving a search-initiating message from client-node 1512. Node-data as well as client-data may represent information about, for example, maximal transmission power from the at least one other node and the at least one client-node, the number of receive and/or transmit antennas associated with each at least one other node and the at least one client-node, the type of antennas employed, the decoding scheme, the level of received interference, the noise of the received signal, the received signal strength, the emitted signal strength, the distance between the nodes, the type of data that can be processed (e.g., voice only, voice/video, internet protocol), and the like. Based on the node-data and/or client-data, application 1575 selects the at least one other node for communication with client-node 1512.

[0287] According to some embodiments of the disclosed technique, each parameter represented by the node-data and client-data may be assigned a weight, which may be different for each parameter. Thus the parameters represented by client-data and node- data are ranked according to their significance for connection and/or handover and application 1575 determines the weighted sum, weighted average or the median value of the said weights for each at least one other node. For example, if the weighted average determined for second node 1504 is higher than the weighted average for third node 1506, controller 1570 may issue a command to client-node 1512 to communicably connect with second node 1504. The weights of the node-data parameters may be given or defined by the client-data and/or vice versa. At least one parameter represented by the node-data

- 103 - has to be supported by at least one other node or meet a criterion in order to be considered relevant for communicable coupling.

[0288] According to some embodiments, application 1575 determines (e.g., estimates) the client-node emitted signal value respective of first, second and third nodes 1502, 1504 and 1506 based on the node-data. Optionally, application 1575 also takes into account client-data for determining the emitted signal value respective of first node 1502, second node 1504 and third node 1506. For example, node-data may represent, inter alia, information about the at least one other node-emitted signal strength, and client-data may represent, inter alia, information about the at least one client-node received signal strength. Therefore, application 1575 may determine the path loss of first, second and third downlinks 1522, 1532 and 1562, respectively. When reciprocity is valid, as in some time division duplex (TDD) systems, determining the path loss of the downlinks transmitted by the at least one other nodes together with additional other node-data and, optionally, client-data, may for example enable determining the path loss and/or relative and/or absolute post processing SINR of first, second and third uplinks 1521 , 1531, 1561, respectively. Consequently, the at least one client-node emitted signal value associated with each uplink is determined, and the at least one other node to which client-node 1512 is communicably coupled, is selected accordingly.

[0289] The additional required node-data (discussed in the previous paragraph) may represent various parameters such as, for example, the number of receive antennas and/or level of noise and/or interference level at the at least one other node, and/or decoding scheme employed by the at least one other node. In some embodiments, the reduction in signal strength, e.g., in dB corresponding to different decoding and/or

- 104 - reception strategies is represented by the additional required node-data, where said reduction of signal strength is a representation of the above-listed parameters. [0290] Similarly, the additional required client-data may include the number of transmission antennas, supported methods of transmission etc., at least some of which may also be represented in a combined manner by the reduction of signal strength. [0291] In some cases, reciprocity may be compromised as occurs in frequency division duplex (FDD) systems and/or when the transmitting other node and receiving other node are remotely deployed from one another with respect to at least one of the following configurations: a first configuration where the distance between the at least one other transmitting node and the at least one other receiving node is significant with respect to the wireless range of the communication system; and a second configuration where the respective path losses from the at least one client-node to the at least one other transmitting node and the at least one other receiving node are significantly different, as is already outlined hereinabove. Accordingly, the transmitting other node refers in this case to an augmented-node and the receiving other node to a reception-extender-node. In order to accommodate such situations, the node-data should include information enabling determining the validity (or invalidity) of the reciprocity assumption, or recommending procedures to be used.

[0292] As already indicated hereinabove, client-data may supply information stating that client-node 1512 employs a plurality of transmitter-antennas. In order to take full advantage of the plurality of transmitter-devices of client-node 1512, at least one other node such as, for example, second node 1504 has to be operative to support multiple antenna transmission schemes such as, for example, uplink transmit beamforming.

Moreover, node-data representing the operable capabilities of second node 1504 may be

- 105 - passed on to controller 1570 and/or client-node 1512 to enable optimal utilization of the transmit-antennas at client-node 1512, in order to minimize the client-node emitted signal strength during connection with or handover to second node 1504.

[0293] According to some embodiments of the disclosed technique, node-data may additionally represent information concerning the policy employed by the respective at least one other node (e.g. policy of scheduling and/or decoding). For example, node-data respective of second node 1504 may represent information not only about the number of receiver-devices employed by the second node, but also about the intended usage of these receiver-devices. In one instance for example, the node-data provides information stating that N receive antennas employ a spatial multiplexing (SM) decoding algorithm to concurrently receive N link spatial streams. In another instance, the node-data provides information stating that the plurality of receiver-devices may be employed for establishing a link such as, for example, uplink 1531 with client-node 1512, thereby enabling, e.g., receive beamforming and/or a combining scheme for uplink 1531. In some embodiments, the node-data provides information concerning the combining scheme employed by the at least one other node. For example, node-data concerning second node 1504 and third node 1506 may provide information stating that each of them employs a second and third plurality of receiver-devices. However, node-data may include information that the second plurality of receiver-devices is allocated for establishing uplink 1531 for example, according to maximal ratio combining (MRC) and/or receive beamforming, whereas a third plurality of receiver-devices is allocated for establishing uplink 1561 together with multiple other uplinks respective of other client-nodes (not shown). Correspondingly, application 1575 determines, optionally by also taking into account additional client-data and/or node-data, that the client-node emitted signal strength required for establishing uplink 1531 is lower

- 106 - than the signal strength required to establish uplink 1561. Therefore, application 1575 sends at least one message triggering the establishment of uplink 1531, e.g., for the handover of client-node 1512 moving along path 1540.

[0294] According to some embodiments of the disclosed technique, client-data provides information about the association of the at least one client-node with respective groups. A first group may be a group comprising at least one privileged client-node (e.g. client-node 1512) and respective privileged users (not shown) who pay a premium. A second group may be a group comprising at least one ordinary client-node (not shown), associated with ordinary users. Client-nodes of the first group may be allocated more resources (e.g., priority in allocation at low interference slots or priority in transmission/decoding schemes) than client-nodes of the second group, thereby enabling a lower client-node emitted signal value, compared with a client-node emitted signal value when no priority is given. In some embodiments, the node-data represents another node's ability (e.g., the ability of first other node 1502) to accommodate such privileged clients and the policy associated with that ability.

[0295] In some embodiments of the disclosed technique, client-data provides information concerning fees that a user is willing to pay in order to obtain a communication service minimizing the client-node emitted signal strength. Additionally or alternatively, the node- data shows the fees required to obtain privileged services.

[0296] According to some embodiments of the disclosed technique, controller 1570 issues a request to receive selected node-data, and may thus reduce the volume of data being transmitted over the respective node-controller links. If for example controller 1570 is embedded in client-node 1512, node-controller link 1581 is embodied by downlink 1522.

- 107 - By requesting the transmission of a selection of node-data, the total amount of data that has to be processed by client-node 1512 is reduced.

[0297] According to some embodiments of the disclosed technique, client-node 1512 may send out a test signal to first node 1502, second node 1504 and third node 1506. For each receiver-device of the respective at least one other nodes, the respectively received signal value (e.g., signal strength and/or signal quality) is determined. The at least one other node-received signal value varies for each node owing, inter alia, to the distance of client-node 1512 from the at least one other nodes, and/or the operational capabilities of each of the at least one other nodes. The node-received signal value may then be sent to controller 1570, optionally together with client-data representing the respective client-node emitted signal value and other data. Application 1575 then determines the minimal signal strength required to maintain uplink 1521 such that node-received signal quality (data throughput, bit error rate, SINR, SNR, and the like) is still sufficiently high. The at least one other node may provide controller 1570 with several node-received signal values, each corresponding to a different decoding scheme.

[0298] According to some embodiments of the disclosed technique, the test signal may be transmitted successively or concurrently to, e.g. second and/or third node 1504 and

1506, respectively.

[0299] According to some embodiments, the transmission of a test signal may be in accordance with a specific transmission mode such as, for example, space time coding and/or transmit-beamforming. The transmission mode by which the test-signal is transmitted may be predetermined, e.g., in controller 1570.

[0300] In some embodiments, the test signal instigates a bidding procedure between the various other nodes.

- 108 - [0301] It should be noted that the embodiments disclosed herein may also be implemented in association with MESH communication network architectures. Therefore, the at least one client-node may embody at least one other node and vice-versa. [0302] Reference is now made to Figure 17, which illustrates a flow-chart of a method to minimize the EM radiation required to be emitted from a client-node, according to an embodiment of the disclosed technique.

[0303] According to some embodiments of the disclosed technique, a method for minimizing the EM radiation emanating from client-node 1512 includes, for example, as indicated by procedure 1710, passing on data to controller 1570 about a plurality of other nodes (e.g. first and second node 1502 and 1504, respectively) and/or client-node 1512, where the data at least contain client-node emitted signal values. Some of the client-node emitted signal values may be determined in accordance with the test-signal emitted by client-node 1512 to, e.g., first, second and third nodes 1502, 1504 and 1506, respectively. Some of the node-data, for example, post-processing SINR, may depend on the client- node emitted signal values. In some embodiments, at least one of the client-node emitted signal values (e.g., required signal strength) may be obtained or determined in accordance with the above-mentioned bidding procedure.

[0304] As indicated by procedure 1720, the method may further include, for example, determining which information respective of said plurality of other nodes meets at least one predetermined criterion.

[0305] As indicated by procedure 1730, the method may further include, for example, selecting at least one other node of said plurality of nodes, where the selected at least one node meets the at least one predetermined criterion referring to minimized signal strength of the EM radiation emitted by the at least one client-node.

- 109 - [0306] As indicated by procedure 1740, the method may include establishing a link between client-node 1512 and the at least one selected node.

[0307] It should be noted that in some embodiments of the disclosed technique, client- node 1512 may be merely provided with feedback to lower the emitted signal strength. For example, a given communication system (not shown) may only include first node 1502. However, regardless of the fact that client-node 1512 may only establish uplink 1521, first node 1502 may be operative to provide client-node 1512 with feedback represented by a command to reduce the client-node emitted signal strength, if for example the other node- received signal value (e.g., SNR, SINR) is above a predetermined threshold. [0308] It should be noted that in some embodiments of the disclosed technique, only one other node (e.g., second node 1504) may be available for communicable coupling with client-node 1512. Therefore, the procedure of selecting at least one other node may be aborted. However, second node 1504 and/or client-node 1512 may be operative (e.g., second node 1504 may employ receive-beamforming) to reduce the actual required client- node emitted signal value in comparison with the initial required client-node emitted signal value if, e.g., no receive beamforming is employed.

[0309] It should be understood that embodiments of the disclosed technique may be implemented, for example, using an electronic signals decoding medium operative to decode instructions which, if executed by a processor, causes the performance of a method, or operation, or both, in accordance with embodiments of the disclosed technique. Such an electronic signals decoding medium may include, for example, any suitable processing platform, computing platform, controller platform, computing device, processing device, computing system, processing system, controller, computer, processor, or the like,

- 110 - and may be implemented by hardware and/or software, and/or firmware and/or hybrid modules.

[0310] It will be appreciated by persons skilled in the art that the technique is not limited to what has been particularly shown and described hereinabove.

- 111 -

Claims

CLAIMSWhat is claimed is:
1. A communication system enabling communication between a plurality of communication nodes, the communication system comprising: at least one augmented-node operative to at least transmit information over a wireless communication link to at least one client-node; and at least one reception-extender-node communicably coupled with said at least one augmented-node, said at least one reception-extender-node operative to at least wirelessly receive information transmitted from said at least one client-node; wherein said at least one augmented-node and said at least one reception- extender-node are remotely deployed from one another with respect to at least one configuration of the following group: a first configuration wherein the distance between said at least one augmented-node and said at least one reception-extender-node is significant with respect to a wireless transmission coverage range of said at least one augmented-node; and a second configuration wherein the respective path losses from said at least one client-node to said at least one augmented-node and said at least one reception-extender-node are significantly different; and wherein if said at least one reception-extender-node comprises wireless transmission capabilities, said wireless transmission capabilities are limited at least when said emission is radiated towards areas in which presence of humans is expected.
- 112 -
2. The communication system according to claim 1 , wherein said at least one reception- extender-node is free of radio frequency transmission capabilities, and is communicably coupled with said at least one augmented-node via wireline.
3. The communication system of claim 1 or 2 comprising a controller that is operative to control the communication settings between said at least one client-node and at least one of the following group: said at least one augmented-node; and both said at least one augmented-node and said at least one reception-extender according to operation criteria comprising at least minimizing the electromagnetic radiation emanating from said at least one client-node.
4. The communication system according to any of the preceding claims, wherein said at least one reception-extender-node is communicably coupled with a plurality of said at least one augmented-nodes.
5. The communication system according to any of the claims 2-4, wherein said at least one reception-extender-node independently processes signals received from said at least one client-node and provides information associated with the processed signals to at least one selected of said plurality of augmented-nodes handling communication with said at least one client-node.
6. The communication system according to any preceding claims, wherein said at least one reception-extender-node is operative to determine the communicative association
- 113 - between said at least one client-node and at least one augmented-node such that information received at said at least one reception-extender-node from said at least one client-node is provided to said at least one augmented-node according to said communicative association.
7. The communication system according to claim 6, wherein said at least one augmented- node and/or said at least one client-node provide said at least one reception-extender- node with information based on which said at least one reception-extender-node determines said communicative association.
8. The communication system according to any of the preceding claims operative to perform synchronization of signals emitted by said at least one client-node according to information received by said at least one reception-extender-node.
9. The communication system according to any of the preceding claims operative to perform synchronization of said at least one reception-extender-node according to information received from at least one of the following sources: signals received from said at least one augmented-node; signals received from said at least one client-node; signals received from a Global Positioning System; and signals carrying synchronization commands.
10. The communication system according to claim 8 or 9, wherein said synchronization commands are provided according to the IEEE 1588 standard.
- 114 -
11. The communication system according to any of the claims 8-10, wherein said synchronization is performed according to at least one of the following parameters: time; and frequency.
12. The communication system according to any of the claims 3-11 , wherein said controller is operative to enable at least the following procedures: receiving information that is at least about the signal strength required to be emitted from said at least one client-node for communication with at least one other node comprising at least one of the following type: a node augmented with at least one reception-extender-node; determining which information respective of said at least one other node meets at least one predetermined criterion at least comprising: minimizing the signal strength of the electromagnetic radiation required to be emitted by said at least one client- node; selecting at least one node of said at least one other node yielding at least one selected node for communication with said at least one client-node, wherein said at least one selected node meets said at least one predetermined criterion; and establishing a link between said at least one client-node and said at least one selected node.
13. The communication system according to any of the preceding claims, wherein the communicably coupling between said at least one reception-extender-node and at least one node of the following group: said at least one augmented-node; and with both said at least one augmented-node and said at least one reception-extender, is implemented
- 115 - according to at least one of the following communication interfaces: wireline; highly directional wireless; and low exposure wireless connection.
14. The communication system according to any of the preceding claims, wherein the communicably coupling between said at least one reception-extender-node and said at least one augmented-node is implemented over the Internet.
15. The communication system according to claim 14, wherein said at least one reception- extender-node is communicably coupled with said at least one augmented-node via a gateway.
16. The communication system according to claim 15, wherein said gateway is operative to perform at least one of the following tasks: accounting; authorization; authentication; security; packets tunneling; aggregating a multiplicity of identical packets from a plurality of said reception-extender-nodes; forwarding packets; and gathering statistics.
- 116 -
17. The communication system according to any of the preceding claims, wherein the communicably coupling between said at least one reception-extender-node and said at least one augmented-node is implemented over at least one of the following connections: S1 , X2, and R8.
18. The communication system according to any of the preceding claims, wherein said at least one augmented-node is at least one of the following group: cellular base station augmented with said at least one reception-extender-node employing at least one of the following technologies: GSM, CDMA, CDMA2000, WCDMA, TD-SCDMA, WiMAX, LTE, and a wireless access-point augmented with said at least one reception-extender-node employing wireless local area network technology; and wherein said at least one client- node represents a user-device.
19. The communication system according to any of the preceding claims, wherein said at least one reception-extender-node is comprised in appliances.
20. The communication system according to any of the preceding claims comprising a signal strength reducer operative to reduce the required signal strength emitted by said at least one client-node to a minimized value according to information received from at least one of the following: said at least one client-node, said at least one reception- extender-node, and said at least one augmented-node.
- 117 -
21. The communication system according to any of the preceding claims, wherein said at least one reception-extender-node is remotely deployed from and communicably coupled with said at least one augmented-node, according to said first configuration, at a distance that is at least 5% of said transmission coverage range of said at least one augmented-node.
22. The communication system according to any of the preceding claims, wherein said transmission coverage range of said at least one augmented-node is between 10 meters to 50 km.
23. The communication system according to any of the preceding claims, according to said second configuration, wherein said path loss difference is at least 10 dB.
24. The communication system according to any of the claims 3-23, wherein said operation criteria define at least one of the following: a maximal allowed signal strength emanating from said at least one client-node; and a minimum signal quality threshold for the signal as received by at least one of the following: said at least one reception-extender-node and said at least one augmented-node.
- 118 -
25. The communication system according to any of the preceding claims, wherein said at least one reception-extender-node is positioned at least in close proximity to an expected location of the at least one client-node such that the signal strength required to be emitted by the at least one client-node for communication is lower than the maximal possible signal strength (SSmax) emittable by the at least one client-node ranges from 0.5*SSmax, to 0.000001 *SSmax, wherein SSmax ranges from 0 - 33 dBm.
26. The communication system according to any of the preceding claims, wherein the signal strength required to be emitted by said at least one client-node for communication decreases to a value ranging from -50 dBm to +10 dBm.
27. The communication system according to any of the preceding claims, wherein a signal emitted by said at least one client-node is received by a plurality of reception-extender- nodes.
28. The communication system according to any of the preceding claims, wherein a signal emitted by said at least one client-node is received by a plurality of augmented-nodes.
- 119 -
29. The communication system according to any of the preceding claims, operative to employ at least one multiple antenna reception scheme during communication with said at least one client-node for signals received by said at least one of the following: said at least one reception-extender-node, and said at least one augmented-node.
30. The communication system according to claim 29, wherein said at least one reception- extender-node employs a plurality of antennas operative to employ said at least one multiple antenna reception scheme.
31. The communication system according to claim 29 or 30, wherein said at least one multiple antenna reception scheme is implemented in accordance with information selected from the group at least comprising the following: analog data, down-converted data, raw data representing A/D converted signals emitted by said at least one client- node; log-likelihood ratios; and decoded packets.
32. The communication system according to any of the preceding claims, wherein said at least one reception-extender-node is operative to provide said at least one augmented- node with at least one of the following: information respective of control signals transmitted by said at least one client-node, and link measures information provided by said at least one reception-extender-node respective of said at least one said client- node, wherein said control information and link information are about at least one of the following: quality measures; SNR; SINR; timing information; frequency alignment
- 120 - information; precoding matrix index, channel sounding measures; ranging, random access, and analog feedbacks.
33. The communication system according to any of the preceding claims comprising at least one first node and at least one second transceiver node that are remotely deployed and communicably coupled with each other, wherein the transmission capabilities of said at least one second transceiver node are selectively disableable or limitable automatically and/or manually such that said at least one second transceiver node constitutes said at least one reception-extender-node and said at least one first node constitutes said at least one augmented-node.
34. The communication system according to claim 33, wherein said at least one second transceiver node is at least one of the following type: a cellular base station, and a femtocell.
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35. The communication system according to claims 33 or 34, wherein disabling or limiting the wireless transmission capabilities of said at least one second transceiver node is performed based on activation criteria taking account at least one of the following information: characteristics of signals as received by said at least one second transceiver node; and requirements of said at least one client-node and said at least one first node.
36. The communication system according to any of the preceding claims, wherein said at least one reception-extender-node is positioned indoors and is operative to establish a Femto or Picostation reception range with said at least one client-node.
37. The communication system according to any of the preceding claims, wherein said at least one augmented-node is deployable in at least one of the following locations: indoor; and outdoor.
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38. The communication system according to any of the claims 3-37, wherein said controller is operative to select a communication setting upon the occurrence of at least one of the following events: an attempt to establish an initial connection between said at least one client-node and at least one of the following nodes: said at least one augmented-node; and both said at least one augmented-node and said at least one reception-extender-node; a handover of the connection of said at least one client-node to at least one of the following nodes: said at least one augmented-node; and both said at least one augmented-node and said at least one reception-extender-node; a backend process requesting selection.
39. The communication system according to any of the claims 3-38, wherein said controller uses a bidding procedure to weigh the operation criteria, where the operation criteria comprises at least one of the following group: maximal allowed signal emitted by the at least one client-node for the link required for link communication; minimizing the signal strength emitted by the at least one client-node required for link communication; optimizing for resources of the at least one reception-extender-node and/or augmented- node; ensuring that the signal quality of the received link does not fall below a predetermined threshold; selecting a communication technology from available respective technologies of the reception-extender-node and/or augmented-node according to a predetermined preference; specific association of the reception-extender- node and/or augmented-node with a service subscriber; and the specific device configuration employed by the at least one client-node required to generate the link.
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40. The communication system according to any of the claims 3-39, wherein said controller is said signal strength reducer.
41. The communication system according to any of the preceding claims, wherein information about a reduction in signal strength due to communication with said at least one reception-extender-node is displayed on an output
42. The communication system according to any of the preceding claims, wherein said at least one client-node constitutes at least one of the following: a non-augmented-node; and an augmented-node.
43. The communication system according to any of the claims 3-42, wherein said controller is operative to perform adaptation of signals transmitted by said at least one client-node, communicating with said at least one augmented-node, and to provide feedback according to at least one of the following signal quality parameters: signal-to-noise-ratio; signal-to-interference-and-noise ratio; decoding performance for the respective transmitted signals; Hybrid automatic repeat-request (HARQ) performance, and CRC of decoded packets; and wherein said signal quality parameters are based on at least one of the following: the signal received by said at least one augmented-node; and the signal received by said at least one reception-extender-node.
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44. The communication system according to any of the claims 3-43, wherein said controller is operative to select at least one frequency of the carrier wave respective of links, wherein at the at least one selected frequency, the probability that the emitted EM radiation adversely affects organic material is minimized.
45. The communication system according to any of the preceding claims, wherein said at least one augmented-node uses information received from said at least one reception- extender-node to enhance the transmission link to said at least one client-node.
46. The communication system according to claim 45, wherein said information comprises at least one of the following: location of said at least one client-node for beamforming; location of said at least one client-node relative to said at least one reception-extender- node for beamforming; beamforming precoding indices for the transmission; preferred transmission mode; preferred resources; characteristics of the communication channel; characteristics of interference sources; and reception capabilities of said at least one client-node.
47. The communication system according to any of the claims 45-46, wherein enhancement of said transmission link refers to at least one of the following parameters: link capacity; signal quality; quality of service; minimizing the signal strength to be emitted by said at least one augmented-node; and throughput.
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48. The communication system according to any of the preceding claims, wherein said at least one augmented-node uses information received from said at least one reception- extender-node to enhance the transmission link quality and transmit to a plurality of client-nodes on overlapping resources in an SDMA fashion.
49. The communication system according to any of the preceding claims, wherein signals received by said at least one reception-extender-node are used to provide and/or enhance location-based-services.
50. A communication system enabling communication between communication nodes, said communication system comprising: a controller operative to enable at least the following procedures: receiving information that is at least about the signal strength required to be emitted from at least one client-node, wherein said emitted signal values are respective of at least one other node; determining which information respective of said at least one other node meets at least one predetermined criterion at least comprising minimizing signal strength of the electromagnetic radiation required to be emitted by said at least one client-node; selecting at least one other node of said at least one other nodes for communication with said at least one client-node, wherein said at least one selected other node meets said at least one predetermined criterion; and establishing a link between said at least one client-node and said at least one selected other node.
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51. The communication system of claim 50, wherein said controller is provided with information about the operational capabilities about at least one of the following: said at least one client-node; and said at least one other node.
52. The communication system according to claim 51 , wherein said information is provided to said controller from at least one of the following: said at least one client-node; at least one of said plurality of other nodes.
53. The communication system according to claim 51 or 52, wherein said information is about least one of the following group: transmission capabilities; maximum transmit power; reception capabilities; noise levels, interference levels; available resources, scheduling policies; decoding policies; and type of data carried by the signals.
54. The communication system of the claims 50-53, wherein said controller assigns weights to each piece of information received from said at least one client-node and said other nodes, and combines the pieces of information according to said weights to determine which information respective of said plurality of other nodes meets said at least one predetermined criterion.
55. The communication system according to any of the claims 50-54, operative such that said at least one client-node transmits a known sequence over the respective link, and based on the reception parameters of said known sequence, and wherein said
- 127 - controller determines which of said plurality of other nodes meets said at least one predetermined criterion.
56. The communication system according to claim 50-55, wherein at least one of said plurality of other nodes is at least one of the following type: at least one augmented-node operative to at least transmit information over a wireless link to at least one client-node; and at least one reception-extender-node communicably coupled with said at least one augmented-node, said at least one reception-extender-node operative to at least wirelessly receive information transmitted from said at least one client-node; wherein said at least one augmented-node and said at least one reception- extender-node are remotely deployed from one another with respect to at least one of the following configurations: a first configuration wherein the distance between said at least one augmented-node and said at least one reception-extender-node is significant with respect to the wireless range of the communication system; and a second configuration wherein the respective path losses from said at least one client-node to said at least one augmented-node and said at least one reception-extender-node are significantly different; and wherein if said at least one reception-extender-node comprises wireless transmission capabilities, said wireless transmission capabilities are significantly limited at least when said emission is radiated towards areas in which presence of humans is expected.
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57. The communication system according to claim 56, wherein said at least one reception- extender-node is free of radio frequency transmission capabilities, and is communicably coupled with said at least one augmented-node via wireline.
58. The communication system according to any of the claims 56-57, comprising a controller operative to control communication settings between said at least one client- node and at least one node of the following group: said at least one augmented-node; and both said at least one augmented-node and said at least one reception-extender, according to operation criteria comprising at least minimizing the electromagnetic radiation emanating from said at least one client-node.
59. The communication system according to any of the claims 56-58, wherein said at least one reception-extender-node is communicably coupled with a plurality of said at least one augmented-nodes.
60. The communication system according to any of the claims 56-59, wherein said at least one reception-extender-node independently processes signals received from said at least one client-node and provides information associated with the processed signals to at least one selected of said plurality of augmented-nodes handling communication with said at least one client-node.
61. The communication system according to any of the claims 56-60, wherein said at least one reception-extender-node is operative to determine the communicative association between said at least one client-node and at least one augmented-node such that
- 129 - information received at said at least one reception-extender-node from said at least one client-node is provided to said at least one augmented-node according to said communicative association.
62. The communication system according to claim 61 , wherein said at least one augmented-node and/or said at least one client-node provide said at least one reception-extender-node with information based on which said at least one reception- extender-node determines said communicative association.
63. The communication system according to any of claims 56-62 operative to perform synchronization of signals emitted by said at least one client-node according to information received by said at least one reception-extender-node.
64. The communication system according to any of the claims 56-63 operative to perform synchronization of said at least one reception-extender-node according to information retrieved from at least one of the following sources: signals received from said at least one augmented-node; signals received from said at least one client-node; signals received from a Global Positioning System; and signals carrying synchronization commands.
65. The communication system according to claim 63 or 64, wherein said synchronization commands are provided according to the IEEE 1588 standard.
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66. The communication system according to any of the claims 63-65, wherein said synchronization is performed according to at least one of the following parameters: time; and frequency.
67. The communication system according to any of the claims 58-66, wherein said controller is operative to enable at least the following procedures: receiving information that is at least about the signal strength required to be emitted from said at least one client-node for communication with at least one other node comprising at least one of the following type: a node augmented with at least one reception-extender-node; determining which information respective of said at least one other node meets at least one predetermined criterion at least comprising: minimizing the signal strength of the electromagnetic radiation required to be emitted by said at least one client- node; selecting at least one node of said at least one other node yielding at least one selected node for communication with said at least one client-node, wherein said at least one selected node meets said at least one predetermined criterion; and establishing a link between said at least one client-node and said at least one selected node.
68. The communication system according to any of the claims 56-68, wherein the communicably coupling between said at least one reception-extender-node and at least one node of the following group: said at least one augmented-node; and with both said at least one augmented-node and said at least one reception-extender, is implemented
- 131 - according to at least one of the following communication interfaces: wireline; highly directional wireless; and low exposure wireless connection.
69. The communication system according to any of claims 56-68, wherein the communicably coupling between said at least one reception-extender-node and said at least one augmented-node is implemented over the Internet.
70. The communication system according to claim 69, wherein said at least one reception- extender-node is communicably coupled with said at least one augmented-node via a gateway.
71. The communication system according to claim 70, wherein said gateway is operative to perform at least one of the following tasks: accounting; authorization; authentication; security; packets tunneling; aggregating a multiplicity of identical packets from a plurality of said reception-extender-nodes; forwarding packets; and gathering statistics.
72. The communication system according to any of the claims 56-71 , wherein the communicably coupling between said at least one reception-extender-node and said at least one augmented-node is implemented over at least one of the following connections: S1 , X2, and R8.
73. The communication system according to any of the claims 56-72, wherein said at least one augmented-node is at least one of the following group: cellular base station augmented with said at least one reception-extender-node employing at least one of the
- 132 - following technologies: GSM, CDMA, CDMA2000, WCDMA, TD-SCDMA, WiMAX, LTE, and a wireless access-point augmented with said at least one reception-extender-node employing wireless local area network technology; and wherein said at least one client- node represents a user-device.
74. The communication system according to any of the claims 56-73, wherein said at least one reception-extender-node is comprised in appliances.
75. The communication system according to any of the claims 56-74 comprising a signal strength reducer operative to reduce the required signal strength emitted by said at least one client-node to a minimized value according to information received from at least one of the following: said at least one client-node, said at least one reception- extender-node, and said at least one augmented-node.
76. The communication system according to any of the claims 56-75, wherein said at least one reception-extender-node is remotely deployed from and communicably coupled with said at least one augmented-node, according to said first configuration, at a distance that is at least 5% of said transmission coverage range of said at least one augmented-node.
77. The communication system according to any of claims 56-77, wherein said transmission coverage range of said at least one augmented-node is between 10 meters to 50 km.
- 133 -
78. The communication system according to any of the claims 56-77, according to said second configuration, wherein said path loss difference is at least 10 dB.
79. The communication system according to any of the claims 58-78, wherein said operation criteria define at least one of the following: a maximal allowed signal strength emanating from said at least one client-node; and a minimum signal quality threshold for the signal as received by at least one of the following: said at least one reception- extender-node and said at least one augmented-node.
- 134 -
80. The communication system according to any of the claims 56- 79, wherein said at least one reception-extender-node is positioned at least in close proximity to an expected location of the at least one client-node such that the signal strength required to be emitted by the at least one client-node for communication is lower than the maximal possible signal strength (SSmax) emittable by the at least one client-node ranges from 0.5*SSmax, to 0.000001 *SSmax, wherein SSmax ranges from 0 - 33 dBm.
81. The communication system according to any of claims 56-80, wherein the signal strength required to be emitted by said at least one client-node for communication decreases to a value ranging from -50 dBm to +10 dBm.
82. The communication system according to any of the claims 56-81 , wherein a signal emitted by said at least one client-node is received by a plurality of reception-extender- nodes.
83. The communication system according to any of the claims 56-82, wherein a signal emitted by said at least one client-node is received by a plurality of augmented-nodes.
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84. The communication system according to any of the claims 56-83, operative to employ at least one multiple antenna reception scheme during communication with said at least one client-node for signals received by said at least one of the following: said at least one reception-extender-node, and said at least one augmented-node, wherein said at least one multiple antenna reception scheme is at least one of the following: maximal ratio combining; antenna selection; switched combining; equal gain combining; receive- beamforming; reception of spatially multiplexed signals; and selection based on cyclic redundancy check.
85. The communication system according to claim 84, wherein said at least one reception- extender-node employs a plurality of antennas operative to employ said at least one multiple antenna reception scheme.
86. The communication system according to claim 84 or 85, wherein said at least one multiple antenna reception scheme is implemented in accordance with information selected from the group at least comprising the following: analog data, down-converted data, raw data representing A/D converted signals emitted by said at least one client- node; log-likelihood ratios; and decoded packets.
87. The communication system according to any of the claims 56-86, wherein said at least one reception-extender-node is operative to provide said at least one augmented-node with at least one of the following: information respective of control signals transmitted by said at least one client-node, and link measures link information provided by said at
- 136 - least one reception-extender-node respective of said at least one said client-node, wherein said control information and link information are about at least one of the following: quality measures; SNR; SINR; timing information; frequency alignment information; precoding matrix index, channel sounding measures; ranging, random access, and analog feedbacks.
88. The communication system according to any of the claims 56-87 comprising at least one first node and at least one second transceiver node that are remotely deployed and communicably coupled with each other, wherein the transmission capabilities of said at least one second transceiver node are selectively disableable or limitable automatically and/or manually such that said at least one second transceiver node constitutes said at least one reception-extender-node and said at least one first node constitutes said at least one augmented-node.
89. The communication system according to claim 88, wherein said at least one second transceiver node is at least one of the following type: a cellular base station, and a femtocell.
- 137 -
90. The communication system according to claims 88 or 89, wherein disabling or limiting the wireless transmission capabilities of said at least one second transceiver node is performed based on activation criteria taking account at least one of the following information: characteristics of signals as received by said at least one second transceiver node; and requirements of said at least one client-node and said at least one first node.
91. The communication system according to any of the claims 56-90, wherein said at least one reception-extender-node is positioned indoors and is operative to establish a Femto or Picostation reception range with said at least one client-node.
92. The communication system according to any of the claims 56-91 , wherein said at least one augmented-node is deployable in at least one of the following locations: indoor; and outdoor.
- 138 -
93. The communication system according to any of the claims 58-92, wherein said controller is operative to select a communication setting upon the occurrence of at least one of the following events: an attempt to establish an initial connection between said at least one client-node and at least one of the following nodes: said at least one augmented-node; and both said at least one augmented-node and said at least one reception-extender-node; a handover of the connection of said at least one client-node to at least one of the following nodes: said at least one augmented-node; and both said at least one augmented-node and said at least one reception-extender-node; a backend process requesting selection.
94. The communication system according to any of the claims 58-93, wherein said controller uses a bidding procedure to weigh the operation criteria, where the operation criteria comprises at least one of the following group: maximal allowed signal emitted by the at least one client-node for the link required for link communication; minimizing the signal strength emitted by the at least one client-node required for link communication;; optimizing for resources of the at least one reception-extender-node and/or augmented- node; ensuring that the signal quality of the received link does not fall below a predetermined threshold; selecting a communication technology from available respective technologies of the reception-extender-node and/or augmented-node according to a predetermined preference; specific association of the reception-extender- node and/or augmented-node with a service subscriber; and the specific device configuration employed by the at least one client-node required to generate the link.
- 139 -
95. The communication system according to any of the claims 58-94, wherein said controller is said signal strength reducer.
96. The communication system according to any of the preceding claims, wherein information about a reduction in signal strength due to communication with said at least one reception-extender-node is displayed on an output.
97. The communication system according to any of the claims 56-96, wherein said at least one client-node constitutes at least one of the following: a non-augmented-node; and an augmented-node.
98. The communication system according to any of the claims 58-97, wherein said controller is operative to perform adaptation of signals transmitted by said at least one client-node, communicating with said at least one augmented-node, and to provide feedback according to at least one of the following signal quality parameters: signal-to- noise-ratio; signal-to-interference-and-noise ratio; decoding performance for the respective transmitted signals; Hybrid automatic repeat-request (HARQ) performance, and CRC of decoded packets; and wherein said signal quality parameters are based on at least one of the following: the signal received by said at least one augmented-node; and the signal received by said at least one reception-extender-node.
- 140 -
99. The communication system according . -to .any . of . the claims .58-98,.. wherein said controller is operative to select at least one frequency of the carrier wave respective of links, wherein at the at least one selected frequency, the probability that the. emitted EM radiation adversely affects organic material is minimized.
100. The communication system according to any of the claims 56-99, wherein said at least one augmented-node uses information received from said at least one reception- extender-node to enhance the transmission link to said at least one client-node.
101. The communication system according to claim 100, wherein said information comprises at least one of the following: location of said at least one client-node for beamforming; location of said at least one client-node relative to said at least one . reception-extender-node for beamforming; beamforming precoding indices for the transmission; preferred transmission mode; preferred resources; characteristics of the communication channel; characteristics of interference sources; and reception capabilities of said at least one client-node.
102. The communication system according to any of the claims 100-101 , wherein enhancement of said transmission link refers to at least one of the following parameters: link capacity; signal quality; quality of service; minimizing the signal strength to be emitted by said at least one augmented-node; and throughput.
- 141 -
103. The communication system according to any of the claims 56-102, wherein said at least one augmented-node uses information received from said at least one reception- extender-node to enhance the transmission link quality and transmit to a plurality of client-nodes on overlapping resources in an SDMA fashion.
104. The communication system according to any of the claims 56-103, wherein signals received by said at least one reception-extender-node are used to provide and/or enhance location-based-services.
105. A communication method enabling communication between a plurality of communication nodes, the communication method comprising the following procedures: providing at least one augmented-node operative to at least transmit information over a wireless communication link to at least one client-node; and communicably coupling at least one reception-extender-node with said at least one augmented-node, said at least one reception-extender-node operative to at least wirelessly receive information transmitted from said at least one client-node; remotely deploying said at least one augmented-node and said at least one reception-extender-node from one another with respect to at least one configuration of the following group: a first configuration wherein the distance between said at least one augmented-node and said at least one reception-extender-node is significant with respect to a wireless transmission coverage range of said at least one augmented- node; and a second configuration wherein the respective path losses from said at least
- 142 - one client-node to said at least one augmented-node and said at least one reception- extender-node are significantly different; and wherein if said at least one reception-extender-node comprises wireless transmission capabilities, the method comprises limiting said wireless transmission capabilities at least when said emission is radiated towards areas in which presence of humans is expected.
106. The communication method according to claim 105, wherein said at least one reception-extender-node is free of radio frequency transmission capabilities, and is communicably coupled with said at least one augmented-node via wireline.
107. The communication method of claim 105 or 106, comprising the following procedures: controlling communication settings between said at least one client-node and at least one node of the following group: said at least one augmented-node; and both said at least one augmented-node and said at least one reception-extender, according to operation criteria comprising at least minimizing the electromagnetic radiation emanating from said at least one client-node.
108. The communication method according to any of the claims 105-107, wherein said at least one reception-extender-node is communicably coupled with a plurality of said at least one augmented-nodes.
- 143 -
109. The communication method according to any of the claims 105-108, comprising the procedure of independently processing signals received from said at least one client- node at said at least one reception-extender-node and providing information associated with the processed signals to at least one selected of said plurality of augmented-nodes handling communication with said at least one client-node.
110. The communication method according to any of the claims 105-109 comprising the procedure of determining the communicative association between said at least one client-node and at least one augmented-node.
111. The communication method according to any of the claims 105- 108 comprising the procedure of performing synchronization of signals emitted by said at least one client- node.
112. The communication method according to any of the claims 105-111 comprising the procedure of performing synchronization of said at least one reception-extender-node.
113. The communication method according to any of the claims 105-112, wherein said synchronization is performed according to information retrieved from at least one of the following sources: signals received from said at least one augmented-node; signals received from said at least one client-node; signals received from a Global Positioning Method; and signals carrying synchronization commands.
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114. The communication method according to claim 8 or 9, wherein said synchronization commands are provided according to the IEEE 1588 standard.
115. The communication method according to any of the claims 111-114, wherein said synchronization is performed according to at least one of the following parameters: time; and frequency.
116. The communication method according to any of the claims 107-115, comprising the following procedures receiving information that is at least about the signal strength required to be emitted from said at least one client-node for communication with at least one other node comprising at least one of the following type: a node augmented with at least one reception-extender-node; determining which information respective of said at least one other node meets at least one predetermined criterion at least comprising: minimizing the signal strength of the electromagnetic radiation required to be emitted by said at least one client- node; selecting at least one node of said at least one other node yielding at least one selected node for communication with said at least one client-node, wherein said at least one selected node meets said at least one predetermined criterion; and establishing a link between said at least one client-node and said at least one selected node.
117. The communication method according to any of the claims 105-116, wherein the communicably coupling between said at least one reception-extender-node and at least
- 145 - one node of the following group: said at least one augmented-node; and with both said at least one augmented-node and said at least one reception-extender, is implemented according to at least one of the following communication interfaces: wireline; highly directional wireless; and low exposure wireless connection.
118. The communication method according to any of the claims 105 - 117, wherein the communicably coupling between said at least one reception-extender-node and said at least one augmented-node is implemented over the Internet.
119. The communication method according to claim 118, wherein said at least one reception-extender-node is communicably coupled with said at least one augmented- node via a gateway.
120. The communication method according to claim 119, wherein said gateway is operative to perform at least one of the following tasks: accounting; authorization; authentication; security; packets tunneling; aggregating a multiplicity of identical packets from a plurality of said reception-extender-nodes; forwarding packets; and gathering statistics.
121. The communication method according to any of the claims 105-120, wherein the communicably coupling between said at least one reception-extender-node and said at least one augmented-node is implemented over at least one of the following connections: S1 , X2, and R8.
- 146 -
122. The communication method according to any of the claims 105-121 , wherein said at least one augmented-node is at least one of the following group: cellular base station augmented with said at least one reception-extender-node employing at least one of the following technologies: GSM, CDMA, CDMA2000, WCDMA, TD-SCDMA, WiMAX, LTE, and a wireless access-point augmented with said at least one reception-extender-node employing wireless local area network technology; and wherein said at least one client- node represents a user-device.
123. The communication method according to any of the claims 105-122, wherein said at least one reception-extender-node is comprised in appliances.
124. The communication method according to any of the claims 105-123 comprising the following procedure: reducing the required signal strength emitted by said at least one client-node to a minimized value.
125. The communication method according to any of the claims 105-124, wherein said at least one reception-extender-node is remotely deployed from and communicably coupled with said at least one augmented-node, according to said first configuration, at a distance that is at least 5% of said transmission coverage range of said at least one augmented-node.
126. The communication method according to any of the claims 105-125, wherein said transmission coverage range of said at least one augmented-node is between 10 meters to 50 km.
- 147 -
127. The communication method according to any of the claims 105-126, according to said second configuration, wherein said path loss difference is at least 10 dB.
128. The communication method according to any of the claims 107-127, wherein said operation criteria define at least one of the following: a maximal allowed signal strength emanating from said at least one client-node; and a minimum signal quality threshold for the signal as received by at least one of the following: said at least one reception- extender-node and said at least one augmented-node.
129. The communication method according to any of the claims 105-128, wherein said at least one reception-extender-node is positioned at least in close proximity to an expected location of the at least one client-node such that the signal strength required to be emitted by the at least one client-node for communication is lower than the maximal possible signal strength (SSmaχ) emittable by the at least one client-node ranges from 0.5*SSmax, to 0.000001 *SSmax, wherein SSmax ranges from 0 - 33 dBm.
130. The communication method according to any of the claims 105-129, wherein the signal strength required to be emitted by said at least one client-node for communication decreases to a value ranging from -50 dBm to +10 dBm.
131. The communication method according to any of the claims 105-130 comprising the procedure of receiving a signal emitted by said at least one client-node by a plurality of reception-extender-nodes.
- 148 -
132. The communication method according to any of the claims 105-131 , comprising the procedure of receiving a signal emitted by said at least one client-node by a plurality of augmented-nodes.
133. The communication method according to any of the claims 105-132 comprising the procedure of employing at least one multiple antenna reception scheme during communication with said at least one client-node for signals received by said at least one of the following: said at least one reception-extender-node, and said at least one augmented-node.
134. The communication method according to claim 133 wherein said at least one multiple antenna reception scheme is at least one of the following: maximal ratio combining; antenna selection; switched combining; equal gain combining; receive- beamforming; reception of spatially multiplexed signals; and selection based on cyclic redundancy check.
135. The communication method according to claim 134, wherein said at least one reception-extender-node employs a plurality of antennas operative to employ said at least one multiple antenna reception scheme.
136. The communication method according to claim 134 or 135, wherein said at least one multiple antenna reception scheme is implemented in accordance with information selected from the group at least comprising the following: analog data, down-converted
- 149 - data, raw data representing A/D converted signals emitted by said at least one client- node; log-likelihood ratios; and decoded packets.
137. The communication method according to any of the claims 105-136 comprising the procedure of providing said at least one augmented-node with at least one of the following: information respective of control signals transmitted by said at least one client-node, and link measures link information provided by said at least one reception- extender-node respective of said at least one said client-node, wherein said control information and link information are about at least one of the following: quality measures; SNR; SINR; timing information; frequency alignment information; precoding matrix index, channel sounding measures; ranging, random access, and analog feedbacks.
138. The communication method according to any of the claims 105 - 137 comprising the procedure of selectively disabling or limiting in an automatic and/or manual manner the transmission capabilities of at least one second transceiver node that is remotely deployed and communicably coupled with at least one first node such that said at least one second transceiver node selectively constitutes said at least one reception- extender-node and said at least one first node constitutes said at least one augmented- node.
139. The communication method according to claim 138, wherein said at least one second transceiver node is at least one of the following type: a cellular base station, and a femtocell.
- 150 -
140. The communication method according to claims 138 or 139, wherein disabling or limiting the wireless transmission capabilities of said at least one second transceiver node is performed based on activation criteria taking account at least one of the following information: characteristics of signals as received by said at least one second transceiver node; and requirements of said at least one client-node and said at least one first node.
141. The communication method according to any of the claims 105 - 140, wherein said at least one reception-extender-node is positioned indoors and is operative to establish a Femto or Picostation reception range with said at least one client-node.
142. The communication method according to any of the claims 105-141 , wherein said at least one augmented-node is deployable in at least one of the following locations: indoor; and outdoor.
143. The communication method according to any of the claims 107-142, comprising the procedure of selecting a communication setting upon the occurrence of at least one of the following events: an attempt to establish an initial connection between said at least one client-node and at least one of the following nodes: said at least one augmented-node; and both said at least one augmented-node and said at least one reception-extender-node;
- 151 - a handover of the connection of said at least one client-node to at least one of the following nodes: said at least one augmented-node; and both said at least one augmented-node and said at least one reception-extender-node; a backend process requesting selection.
144. The communication method according to any of the claims 107-144, comprising using a bidding procedure to weigh said operation criteria, wherein the operation criteria comprises at least one of the following group: maximal allowed signal emitted by the at least one client-node for the link required for link communication; minimizing the signal strength emitted by the at least one client-node required for link communication; optimizing for resources of the at least one reception-extender-node and/or augmented- node; ensuring that the signal quality of the received link does not fall below a predetermined threshold; selecting a communication technology from available respective technologies of the reception-extender-node and/or augmented-node according to a predetermined preference; specific association of the reception-extender- node and/or augmented-node with a service subscriber; and the specific device configuration employed by the at least one client-node required to generate the link.
145. The communication method according to any of the claims 107-144 comprising the procedure of displaying information about a reduction in signal strength due to communication with said at least one reception-extender-node on an output.
146. The communication method according to claim 145, wherein said output is provided on at least one of the following: the at least one reception-extender-node; the
- 152 - augmented-node, the at least one client-node, an appliance comprising said at least one reception-extender-node.
147. The communication method according to any of the claims 105-146, wherein said at least one client-node constitutes at least one of the following: a non-augmented-node; and an augmented-node.
148. The communication method according to any of the claims 105-147 comprising the procedure of adapting signals transmitted by said at least one client-node, communicating with said at least one augmented-node, and to provide feedback according to at least one of the following signal quality parameters: signal-to-noise-ratio; signal-to-interference-and-noise ratio; and decoding performance for the respective transmitted signals; Hybrid automatic repeat-request (HARQ) performance, and CRC of decoded packets.
149. The communication method according to claims 148, wherein said signal quality parameters are based on at least one of the following: the signal received by said at least one augmented-node; and the signal received by said at least one reception- extender-node.
150. The communication method according to any of the claims 105-149 comprising the procedure of selecting at least one frequency of the carrier wave respective of links, wherein at the at least one selected frequency, the probability that the emitted EM radiation adversely affects organic material is minimized.
- 153 -
151. The communication method according to any of the claims 105-148 comprising the procedure of enhancing the transmission link to said at least one client-node.
152. The communication method according to claim 151 , enhancing said transmission link is performed based on information comprising at least one of the following: location of said at least one client-node for beamforming; location of said at least one client-node relative to said at least one reception-extender-node for beamforming; beamforming precoding indices for the transmission; preferred transmission mode; preferred resources; characteristics of the communication channel; characteristics of interference sources; and reception capabilities of said at least one client-node.
153. The communication method according to any of the claims 151-152, wherein enhancement of said transmission link refers to at least one of the following parameters: link capacity; signal quality; quality of service; minimizing the signal strength to be emitted by said at least one augmented-node; and throughput.
154. The communication method according to any of the claims 105-153 comprising the procedure of enhancing the transmission link quality and transmitting to a plurality of client-nodes on overlapping resources in an SDMA fashion.
155. The communication method according to any of the preceding claims, comprising the procedure of enhancing or providing location-based-services by using signals received by said at least one reception-extender-node.
- 154 -
156. A communication method enabling communication between communication nodes, said communication method comprising at least one of the following procedures receiving information that is at least about the signal strength required to be emitted from at least one client-node, wherein said emitted signal values are respective of communication with at least one other node; determining which information respective of said at least one other node meets at least one predetermined criterion at least comprising minimizing signal strength of the electromagnetic radiation required to be emitted by said at least one client-node; selecting at least one other node of said at least one other nodes for communication with said at least one client-node, wherein said at least one selected other node meets said at least one predetermined criterion; and establishing a link between said at least one client-node and said at least one selected other node.
157. The communication method of claim 157, comprising the procedure of providing a controller with information about the operational capabilities about at least one of the following: said at least one client-node; and said at least one other node.
158. The communication method according to claims 156 or 157, wherein said information is provided to said controller from at least one of the following: said at least one client-node; at least one of said plurality of other nodes.
- 155 -
159. The communication method according to claim 157 or 158, wherein said information is about least one of the following group: transmission capabilities; maximum transmit power; reception capabilities; noise levels, interference levels; available resources, scheduling policies; decoding policies; and type of data carried by the signals.
160. The communication method of any of the claim 156-159, comprising the procedure of assigning weights to each piece of information received from said at least one client- node and said other nodes, and combining the pieces of information according to said weights to determine which information respective of said plurality of other nodes meets said at least one predetermined criterion.
161. The communication method according to any of the claims 156-161 comprising transmitting a known sequence from said at least one client-node over the respective link, and based on the reception parameters of said known sequence, and determining which of said plurality of other nodes meets said at least one predetermined criterion.
162. The communication method according to claim 156-161 , wherein at least one of said plurality of other nodes is at least one of the following type: at least one augmented-node operative to at least transmit information over a wireless link to at least one client-node; and at least one reception-extender-node communicably coupled with said at least one augmented-node, said at least one reception-extender-node operative to at least wirelessly receive information transmitted from said at least one client-node;
- 156 - wherein said at least one augmented-node and said at least one reception- extender-node are remotely deployed from one another with respect to at least one of the following configurations: a first configuration wherein the distance between said at least one augmented-node and said at least one reception-extender-node is significant with respect to the wireless range of the communication method; and a second configuration wherein the respective path losses from said at least one client-node to said at least one augmented-node and said at least one reception-extender-node are significantly different; and wherein if said at least one reception-extender-node comprises wireless transmission capabilities, said wireless transmission capabilities are significantly limited at least when said emission is radiated towards areas in which presence of humans is expected.
163. The communication method according to claim 156-162, wherein said at least one reception-extender-node is free of radio frequency transmission capabilities, and is communicably coupled with said at least one augmented-node via wireline.
164. The communication method according to any of the claims 157-162 comprising controlling communication settings between said at least one client-node and at least one node of the following group: said at least one augmented-node; and both said at least one augmented-node and said at least one reception-extender, according to operation criteria comprising at least minimizing the electromagnetic radiation emanating from said at least one client-node.
- 157 -
165. The communication method according to any of the claims 156-164, wherein said at least one reception-extender-node is communicably coupled with a plurality of said at least one augmented-nodes.
166. The communication method according to any of the claims 156-165, comprising the procedure of independently processing signals received from said at least one client- node by said at least one reception-extender-node and providing information associated with the processed signals to at least one selected of said plurality of augmented-nodes handling communication with said at least one client-node.
167. The communication method according to any of the claims 156-166, comprising the procedure of determining the communicative association between said at least one client-node and at least one augmented-node such that information received at said at least one reception-extender-node from said at least one client-node is provided to said at least one augmented-node according to said communicative association.
168. The communication method according to any of claims 156-167 comprising the procedure of performing synchronization of signals emitted by said at least one client- node.
169. The communication method according to any of the claims 156-168 comprising the procedure of performing synchronization of said at least one reception-extender-node.
- 158 -
170. The communication method according to any of the claims 156-169 wherein said synchronization is performed based on information received from at least one of the following sources: signals received from said at least one augmented-node; signals received from said at least one client-node; signals received from a Global Positioning Method; and signals carrying synchronization commands.
171. The communication method according to claim 168 or 170, wherein said synchronization commands are provided according to the IEEE 1588 standard.
172. The communication method according to any of the claims 168-169, wherein said synchronization is performed according to at least one of the following parameters: time; and frequency.
173. The communication method according to any of the claims 156-172 comprising the following procedures: receiving information that is at least about the signal strength required to be emitted from said at least one client-node for communication with at least one other node comprising at least one of the following type: a node augmented with at least one reception-extender-node; determining which information respective of said at least one other node meets at least one predetermined criterion at least comprising: minimizing the signal strength of the electromagnetic radiation required to be emitted by said at least one client- node;
- 159 - selecting at least one node of said at least one other node yielding at least one selected node for communication with said at least one client-node, wherein said at least one selected node meets said at least one predetermined criterion; and establishing a link between said at least one client-node and said at least one selected node.
174. The communication method according to any of the claims 156-173, wherein the communicably coupling between said at least one reception-extender-node and at least one node of the following group: said at least one augmented-node; and with both said at least one augmented-node and said at least one reception-extender, is implemented according to at least one of the following communication interfaces: wireline; highly directional wireless; and low exposure wireless connection.
175. The communication method according to any of claims 156-174, wherein the communicably coupling between said at least one reception-extender-node and said at least one augmented-node is implemented over the Internet.
176. The communication method according to claim 175, wherein said at least one reception-extender-node is communicably coupled with said at least one augmented- node via a gateway.
177. The communication method according to claim 177, wherein said gateway is operative to perform at least one of the following tasks: accounting; authorization; authentication; security; packets tunneling; aggregating a multiplicity of identical packets
- 160 - from a plurality of said reception-extender-nodes; forwarding packets; and gathering statistics.
178. The communication method according to any of the claims 156-177, wherein the communicably coupling between said at least one reception-extender-node and said at least one augmented-node is implemented over at least one of the following connections: S1 , X2, and R8.
179. The communication method according to any of the claims 156-178, wherein said at least one augmented-node is at least one of the following group: cellular base station augmented with said at least one reception-extender-node employing at least one of the following technologies: GSM, CDMA, CDMA2000, WCDMA, TD-SCDMA, WiMAX, LTE, and a wireless access-point augmented with said at least one reception-extender-node employing wireless local area network technology; and wherein said at least one client- node represents a user-device.
180. The communication method according to any of the claims 156-179, wherein said at least one reception-extender-node is comprised in appliances.
181. The communication method according to any of the claims 156-180 comprising reducing the required signal strength emitted by said at least one client-node to a minimized value according to information received from at least one of the following: said at least one client-node, said at least one reception-extender-node, and said at least one augmented-node.
- 161 -
182. The communication method according to any of the claims 156-181 , wherein said at least one reception-extender-node is remotely deployed from and communicably coupled with said at least one augmented-node, according to said first configuration, at a distance that is at least 5% of said transmission coverage range of said at least one augmented-node.
183. The communication method according to any of claims 156-182, wherein said transmission coverage range of said at least one augmented-node is between 10 meters to 50 km.
184. The communication method according to any of the claims 156-183, according to said second configuration, wherein said path loss difference is at least 10 dB.
185. The communication method according to any of the claims 156-184, wherein said operation criteria define at least one of the following: a maximal allowed signal strength emanating from said at least one client-node; and a minimum signal quality threshold for the signal as received by at least one of the following: said at least one reception- extender-node and said at least one augmented-node.
186. The communication method according to any of the claims 156-185, wherein said at least one reception-extender-node is positioned at least in close proximity to an expected location of the at least one client-node such that the signal strength required to be emitted by the at least one client-node for communication is lower than the
- 162 - maximal possible signal strength (SSmax) emittable by the at least one client-node ranges from 0.5*SSmax, to 0.000001 *SSmax, wherein SSmax ranges from 0 - 33 dBm.
187. The communication method according to any of claims 156-186, wherein the signal strength required to be emitted by said at least one client-node for communication decreases to a value ranging from -50 dBm to +10 dBm.
188. The communication method according to any of the claims 156-187, wherein a signal emitted by said at least one client-node is received by a plurality of reception- extender-nodes.
189. The communication method according to any of the claims 156-188, wherein a signal emitted by said at least one client-node is received by a plurality of augmented- nodes.
190. The communication method according to any of the claims 156-189, comprising the procedure of employing at least one multiple antenna reception scheme during communication with said at least one client-node for signals received by said at least one of the following: said at least one reception-extender-node, and said at least one augmented-node,
191. The communication method according to claim 190 wherein said at least one multiple antenna reception scheme is at least one of the following: maximal ratio combining; antenna selection; switched combining; equal gain combining; receive-
- 163 - beamforming; reception of spatially multiplexed signals; and selection based on cyclic redundancy check.
192. The communication method according to claims 190 or 191 , wherein said at least one reception-extender-node employs a plurality of antennas operative to employ said at least one multiple antenna reception scheme.
193. The communication method according to claim 190 to 192, wherein said at least one multiple antenna reception scheme is implemented in accordance with information selected from the group at least comprising the following: analog data, down-converted data, raw data representing A/D converted signals emitted by said at least one client- node; log-likelihood ratios; and decoded packets.
194. The communication method according to any of the claims 156-193, wherein said at least one reception-extender-node is operative to provide said at least one augmented- node with at least one of the following: information respective of control signals transmitted by said at least one client-node, and link measures link information provided by said at least one reception-extender-node respective of said at least one said client- node.
195. The communication method according to any of the claims 194, wherein said control information and link information are about at least one of the following: quality measures; SNR; SINR; timing information; frequency alignment information; precoding
- 164 - matrix index, channel sounding measures; ranging, random access, and analog feedbacks.
196. The communication method according to any of the claims 156-195 comprising the procedure of selectively disabling or limiting the transmission capabilities a second transceiver node that is communicably coupled and remotely deployed from a first at least transmitter node.
197. The communication method according to claim 196 wherein said procedure of selectively disabling or limiting the transmission capabilities is performable automatically and/or manually.
198. The communication method according to claim 197, wherein said selective disabling or limiting is performed according to activation criteria taking account at least one of the following information: characteristics of signals as received by said second transceiver node; and requirements of said at least one client-node and said first at least transmitter node.
199. The communication method according to any of the claims 196-198, wherein said at least one second transceiver node is at least one of the following type: a cellular base station, and a femtocell.
- 165 -
200. The communication method according to any of the claims 156-199, wherein said at least one reception-extender-node is positioned indoors and is operative to establish a Femto or Picostation reception range with said at least one client-node.
201. The communication method according to any of the claims 156-200, wherein said at least one augmented-node is deployable in a plug-and-play like manner in at least one of the following locations: indoor; and outdoor.
202. The communication method according to any of the claims 156-201 comprising the procedure of selecting a communication setting upon the occurrence of at least one of the following events: an attempt to establish an initial connection between said at least one client-node and at least one of the following nodes: said at least one augmented-node; and both said at least one augmented-node and said at least one reception-extender-node; a handover of the connection of said at least one client-node to at least one of the following nodes: said at least one augmented-node; and both said at least one augmented-node and said at least one reception-extender-node; a backend process requesting selection.
203. The communication method according to any of the claims 156-202 comprising the procedure of using a bidding procedure to weigh the operation criteria, where the operation criteria comprises at least one of the following group: maximal allowed signal emitted by the at least one client-node for the link required for link communication; minimizing the signal strength emitted by the at least one client-node required for link
- 166 - communication; optimizing for resources of the at least one reception-extender-node and/or augmented-node; ensuring that the signal quality of the received link does not fall below a predetermined threshold; selecting a communication technology from available respective technologies of the reception-extender-node and/or augmented- node according to a predetermined preference; specific association of the reception- extender-node and/or augmented-node with a service subscriber; and the specific device configuration employed by the at least one client-node required to generate the link.
204. The communication method according to any of the claims 156-203 comprising the procedure of displaying information about a reduction in signal strength due to communication with said at least one reception-extender-node on an output.
205. The communication method according to any of the claims 156-202, wherein said at least one client-node constitutes at least one of the following: a non-augmented-node; and an augmented-node.
206. The communication method according to any of the claims 156-205 comprising the procedure of performing adaptation of signals transmitted by said at least one client- node, communicating with said at least one augmented-node, and to provide feedback according to at least one of the following signal quality parameters: signal-to-noise-ratio; signal-to-interference-and-noise ratio; decoding performance for the respective transmitted signals; Hybrid automatic repeat-request (HARQ) performance, and CRC of decoded packets; and
- 167 -
200. The communication method according to any of the claims 156-199, wherein said at least one reception-extender-node is positioned indoors and is operative to establish a Femto or Picostation reception range with said at least one client-node.
201. The communication method according to any of the claims 156-200, wherein said at least one augmented-node is deployable in a plug-and-play like manner in at least one of the following locations: indoor; and outdoor.
202. The communication method according to any of the claims 156-201 comprising the procedure of selecting a communication setting upon the occurrence of at least one of the following events: an attempt to establish an initial connection between said at least one client-node and at least one of the following nodes: said at least one augmented-node; and both said at least one augmented-node and said at least one reception-extender-node; a handover of the connection of said at least one client-node to at least one of the following nodes: said at least one augmented-node; and both said at least one augmented-node and said at least one reception-extender-node; a backend process requesting selection.
203. The communication method according to any of the claims 156-202 comprising the procedure of using a bidding procedure to weigh the operation criteria, where the operation criteria comprises at least one of the following group: maximal allowed signal emitted by the at least one client-node for the link required for link communication; minimizing the signal strength emitted by the at least one client-node required for link
- 166 - communication; optimizing for resources of the at least one reception-extender-node and/or augmented-node; ensuring that the signal quality of the received link does not fall below a predetermined threshold; selecting a communication technology from available respective technologies of the reception-extender-node and/or augmented- node according to a predetermined preference; specific association of the reception- extender-node and/or augmented-node with a service subscriber; and the specific device configuration employed by the at least one client-node required to generate the link.
204. The communication method according to any of the claims 156-203 comprising the procedure of displaying information about a reduction in signal strength due to communication with said at least one reception-extender-node on an output.
205. The communication method according to any of the claims 156-202, wherein said at least one client-node constitutes at least one of the following: a non-augmented-node; and an augmented-node.
206. The communication method according to any of the claims 156-205 comprising the procedure of performing adaptation of signals transmitted by said at least one client- node, communicating with said at least one augmented-node, and to provide feedback according to at least one of the following signal quality parameters: signal-to-noise-ratio; signal-to-interference-and-noise ratio; decoding performance for the respective transmitted signals; Hybrid automatic repeat-request (HARQ) performance, and CRC of decoded packets; and
- 167 - wherein said signal quality parameters are based on at least one of the following: the signal received by said at least one augmented-node; and the signal received by said at least one reception-extender-node.
207. The communication method according to any of the claims 156-206 comprising the procedure of selecting select at least one frequency of the carrier wave respective of links, wherein at the at least one selected frequency, the probability that the emitted EM radiation adversely affects organic material is minimized.
208. The communication method according to any of the claims 156-207 comprising the procedure of enhancing the transmission link emitted to said at least one client-node.
209. The communication system according to claim 208, wherein enhancing the transmission link is performed based on information comprising at least one of the following: location of said at least one client-node for beamforming; location of said at least one client-node relative to said at least one reception-extender-node for beamforming; beamforming precoding indices for the transmission; preferred transmission mode; preferred resources; characteristics of the communication channel; characteristics of interference sources; and reception capabilities of said at least one client-node.
210. The communication method according to any of the claims 208-209, wherein enhancement of said transmission link refers to at least one of the following parameters:
- 168 - link capacity; signal quality; quality of service; minimizing the signal strength to be emitted by said at least one augmented-node; and throughput.
211. The communication method according to any of the claims 208-210 comprising the procedure of enhancing the transmission link quality and transmit to a plurality of client- nodes on overlapping resources in an SDMA fashion.
212. The communication method according to any of the claims 208-211 , wherein signals received by said at least one reception-extender-node are used to provide and/or enhance location-based-services.
213. The communication system according to any of the preceding claims, wherein said operation criteria include information concerning costs.
214. The communication method according to any of the preceding claims, wherein said operation criteria include information concerning costs.
- 169 -
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US16720109P true 2009-04-07 2009-04-07
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