WO2010032430A1 - Air conditioning device - Google Patents

Air conditioning device Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2010032430A1
WO2010032430A1 PCT/JP2009/004591 JP2009004591W WO2010032430A1 WO 2010032430 A1 WO2010032430 A1 WO 2010032430A1 JP 2009004591 W JP2009004591 W JP 2009004591W WO 2010032430 A1 WO2010032430 A1 WO 2010032430A1
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Prior art keywords
outdoor
defrosting
heat exchanger
fan
air conditioner
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PCT/JP2009/004591
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French (fr)
Japanese (ja)
Inventor
西原義和
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パナソニック株式会社
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Priority to JP2008236100 priority Critical
Priority to JP2008-236100 priority
Priority to JP2008-236101 priority
Priority to JP2008236101 priority
Application filed by パナソニック株式会社 filed Critical パナソニック株式会社
Publication of WO2010032430A1 publication Critical patent/WO2010032430A1/en

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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25BREFRIGERATION MACHINES, PLANTS OR SYSTEMS; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT-PUMP SYSTEMS
    • F25B13/00Compression machines, plant or systems with reversible cycle
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F24HEATING; RANGES; VENTILATING
    • F24FAIR-CONDITIONING; AIR-HUMIDIFICATION; VENTILATION; USE OF AIR CURRENTS FOR SCREENING
    • F24F11/00Control or safety arrangements
    • F24F11/30Control or safety arrangements for purposes related to the operation of the system, e.g. for safety or monitoring
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25DREFRIGERATORS; COLD ROOMS; ICE-BOXES; COOLING OR FREEZING APPARATUS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • F25D21/00Defrosting; Preventing frosting; Removing condensed or defrost water
    • F25D21/06Removing frost
    • F25D21/12Removing frost by hot-fluid circulating system separate from the refrigerant system
    • F25D21/125Removing frost by hot-fluid circulating system separate from the refrigerant system the hot fluid being ambient air
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F24HEATING; RANGES; VENTILATING
    • F24FAIR-CONDITIONING; AIR-HUMIDIFICATION; VENTILATION; USE OF AIR CURRENTS FOR SCREENING
    • F24F11/00Control or safety arrangements
    • F24F11/30Control or safety arrangements for purposes related to the operation of the system, e.g. for safety or monitoring
    • F24F11/41Defrosting; Preventing freezing
    • F24F11/42Defrosting; Preventing freezing of outdoor units
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F24HEATING; RANGES; VENTILATING
    • F24FAIR-CONDITIONING; AIR-HUMIDIFICATION; VENTILATION; USE OF AIR CURRENTS FOR SCREENING
    • F24F2110/00Control inputs relating to air properties
    • F24F2110/10Temperature
    • F24F2110/12Temperature of the outside air
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25BREFRIGERATION MACHINES, PLANTS OR SYSTEMS; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT-PUMP SYSTEMS
    • F25B2313/00Compression machines, plant, or systems with reversible cycle not otherwise provided for
    • F25B2313/027Compression machines, plant, or systems with reversible cycle not otherwise provided for characterised by the reversing means
    • F25B2313/02741Compression machines, plant, or systems with reversible cycle not otherwise provided for characterised by the reversing means using one four-way valve
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25BREFRIGERATION MACHINES, PLANTS OR SYSTEMS; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT-PUMP SYSTEMS
    • F25B2313/00Compression machines, plant, or systems with reversible cycle not otherwise provided for
    • F25B2313/029Control issues
    • F25B2313/0294Control issues related to the outdoor fan, e.g. controlling speed
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25BREFRIGERATION MACHINES, PLANTS OR SYSTEMS; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT-PUMP SYSTEMS
    • F25B2313/00Compression machines, plant, or systems with reversible cycle not otherwise provided for
    • F25B2313/031Sensor arrangements
    • F25B2313/0315Temperature sensors near the outdoor heat exchanger
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25BREFRIGERATION MACHINES, PLANTS OR SYSTEMS; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT-PUMP SYSTEMS
    • F25B2600/00Control issues
    • F25B2600/02Compressor control
    • F25B2600/025Compressor control by controlling speed
    • F25B2600/0251Compressor control by controlling speed with on-off operation
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25BREFRIGERATION MACHINES, PLANTS OR SYSTEMS; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT-PUMP SYSTEMS
    • F25B2600/00Control issues
    • F25B2600/25Control of valves
    • F25B2600/2513Expansion valves
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25BREFRIGERATION MACHINES, PLANTS OR SYSTEMS; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT-PUMP SYSTEMS
    • F25B2700/00Sensing or detecting of parameters; Sensors therefor
    • F25B2700/21Temperatures
    • F25B2700/2106Temperatures of fresh outdoor air

Abstract

An air conditioning device includes: a heat pump freezing cycle formed by connecting a compressor (1), a four-way valve (2), an indoor heat exchanger (3), a pressure reducer (4), and an outdoor heat exchanger (5) by a coolant circuit; an indoor fan (7) which performs heat exchange between the indoor heat exchanger (3) and the indoor air; an outdoor fan (8) which performs heat exchange between the outdoor heat exchanger (5) and the outdoor air; and an outdoor temperature detection means (6) which detects the outdoor temperature.  Moreover, when defrosting the outdoor heat exchanger (5), the compressor (1) is stopped and the outdoor fan (8) is rotated if the outdoor temperature detected by the outdoor temperature sensor (6) exceeds a predetermined value.

Description

空気調和装置Air conditioner
 本発明は空気調和装置に関するもので、特に、ヒートポンプ式で、室外熱交換器に付着した霜を除霜することができる空気調和装置に関するものである。 The present invention relates to an air conditioner, and more particularly, to an air conditioner that is a heat pump type and can defrost frost adhering to an outdoor heat exchanger.
 従来、ヒートポンプ式の空気調和装置の除霜方式は、一般的に四方弁を切り換え、冷凍サイクルの冷媒を逆方向に流す除霜方式をとっていた。図10は、従来の空気調和装置の四方弁を切り換えて除霜を行うときの制御を示すタイムチャートである。 Conventionally, a defrosting method of a heat pump type air conditioner generally employs a defrosting method in which a four-way valve is switched to flow a refrigerant in a refrigeration cycle in the reverse direction. FIG. 10 is a time chart showing control when defrosting is performed by switching a four-way valve of a conventional air conditioner.
 暖房運転中、時間t1で除霜開始信号を受信すると、圧縮機周波数を減少させ、膨張弁の開度を所定の開度として、四方弁を暖房回路から冷房回路に切り換える。このとき、室外ファンおよび室内ファンは、運転を停止する。すなわち、除霜運転は冷房時と同じ冷媒の流動方向とし、室外熱交換器に高温高圧の冷媒を流して、室外熱交換器に付着した霜を融解している。 When the defrosting start signal is received at time t1 during the heating operation, the compressor frequency is decreased, the opening degree of the expansion valve is set to a predetermined opening degree, and the four-way valve is switched from the heating circuit to the cooling circuit. At this time, the outdoor fan and the indoor fan stop operation. That is, in the defrosting operation, the refrigerant flows in the same direction as that during cooling, and high-temperature and high-pressure refrigerant flows through the outdoor heat exchanger to melt the frost adhering to the outdoor heat exchanger.
 この除霜方式では、室外熱交換器に付着した霜の融解熱は、圧縮機の入力を利用しているため、一般的な12畳暖房タイプの空気調和装置では、除霜運転中に、約1000W~600W程度の入力を消費していた。また、除霜時は、室内熱交換器が蒸発器となるため、室内の温度が低下して冷風感を感じるという不快な運転となっていた。また低気温での暖房では、1時間に約1回の除霜運転が入ることで、さらに省エネ性、快適性でも基本的課題があった。 In this defrosting method, the melting heat of the frost adhering to the outdoor heat exchanger uses the input of the compressor. Therefore, in a general 12 tatami heating type air conditioner, during the defrosting operation, The input of about 1000W to 600W was consumed. In addition, during the defrosting, the indoor heat exchanger becomes an evaporator, so that the indoor temperature is lowered and the user feels a feeling of cold wind. Further, in heating at low temperatures, the defrosting operation is performed about once per hour, and there are further basic problems in terms of energy saving and comfort.
 この基本的課題への対策として、快適性と運転効率の向上を図った空気調和装置が提案されている(例えば、特許文献1参照)。 As a countermeasure to this basic problem, an air conditioner that improves comfort and driving efficiency has been proposed (see, for example, Patent Document 1).
 図11は、特許文献1に記載された従来の空気調和装置の冷凍サイクル図である。図11に示される従来の空気調和装置は、圧縮機101と、四方弁102と、室内熱交換器103と、膨張弁(あるいはキャピラリーチューブ)104と、室外熱交換器105を順次冷媒回路で接続してヒートポンプ式冷凍サイクルを構成している。また、室内熱交換機103には室内ファン106が設けられ、室外熱交換器105には、室外ファン107と、室外熱交換器105の温度を検出する配管温度センサ108が設けられており、配管温度センサ108が検知した温度に基づいて制御手段109は除霜動作を行うための制御を行う。 FIG. 11 is a refrigeration cycle diagram of the conventional air conditioner described in Patent Document 1. In the conventional air conditioner shown in FIG. 11, a compressor 101, a four-way valve 102, an indoor heat exchanger 103, an expansion valve (or capillary tube) 104, and an outdoor heat exchanger 105 are sequentially connected by a refrigerant circuit. Thus, a heat pump refrigeration cycle is configured. The indoor heat exchanger 103 is provided with an indoor fan 106, and the outdoor heat exchanger 105 is provided with an outdoor fan 107 and a pipe temperature sensor 108 that detects the temperature of the outdoor heat exchanger 105. Based on the temperature detected by the sensor 108, the control means 109 performs control for performing a defrosting operation.
 すなわち、制御手段109は、所定周期ごとに配管温度センサ108の検出結果を監視して、その検出温度が所定温度以下であることを所定回数以上連続して検出したときに、室外熱交換器105に付着した霜を除去する除霜運転を行うようにしている。 That is, the control means 109 monitors the detection result of the pipe temperature sensor 108 every predetermined period, and when it detects that the detected temperature is equal to or lower than the predetermined temperature continuously for a predetermined number of times or more, the outdoor heat exchanger 105. The defrosting operation for removing the frost attached to the frost is performed.
 このように、ヒートポンプ運転中、室外熱交換器105に付着した霜の状態を把握して、室外熱交換器105の除霜運転を行うことで、除霜回数を極力低減することができ、不要な除霜運転を行うことなく効率の良い暖房運転ができるとともに、除霜運転による室内温度の低下を抑制することができ、快適性も向上する。 Thus, during the heat pump operation, by grasping the state of frost attached to the outdoor heat exchanger 105 and performing the defrosting operation of the outdoor heat exchanger 105, the number of defrosting times can be reduced as much as possible. It is possible to perform an efficient heating operation without performing a defrosting operation, to suppress a decrease in indoor temperature due to the defrosting operation, and to improve comfort.
特開昭60-133249号公報JP-A-60-133249
 しかしながら、特許文献1に記載された従来の空気調和装置の除霜制御方法では、次のような課題があった。 However, the conventional defrosting control method for an air conditioner described in Patent Document 1 has the following problems.
 この除霜運転は、四方弁102を切り換えて冷房回路にした状態の圧縮機101の運転による除霜方式であるため、室内熱交換器103に冷たい冷媒が流れる回数は減っても、実際に冷媒が室内熱交換器103を流れているので、暖房停止による肌寒い感じと室温降下は大きく、この不快感がなくなるものではない。また、室外熱交換器105の不要な除霜運転はないので、効率の良い運転ができるが、除霜運転中の熱量は、圧縮機1の入力を利用しており、除霜運転としては効率の低いものであった。 Since this defrosting operation is a defrosting method based on the operation of the compressor 101 in a state where the four-way valve 102 is switched to a cooling circuit, even if the number of times the cold refrigerant flows into the indoor heat exchanger 103 is reduced, the refrigerant actually Is flowing through the indoor heat exchanger 103, the chilly feeling due to the heating stop and the room temperature drop are large, and this discomfort is not eliminated. Further, since there is no unnecessary defrosting operation of the outdoor heat exchanger 105, an efficient operation can be performed. However, the heat amount during the defrosting operation uses the input of the compressor 1, and is efficient as the defrosting operation. Was low.
 本発明は、従来技術の有するこのような問題点に鑑みてなされたものであり、複雑な冷凍サイクルを構成せず、一般的な冷凍サイクルおよび一般の空気調和装置に搭載されている部品を利用して構成でき、除霜運転中、大気熱を利用することで極めて低い入力で霜を融解させ、室内熱交換器に冷たい冷媒を通過させることなく、除霜運転中の室温降下も小さく、除霜運転中に冷媒を循環させないので冷媒音がしない除霜運転ができる空気調和装置を提供することを目的としている。 The present invention has been made in view of such problems of the prior art, and does not constitute a complex refrigeration cycle, but uses components mounted on a general refrigeration cycle and a general air conditioner. During the defrosting operation, atmospheric heat is used to melt the frost with an extremely low input, and the cold refrigerant is not passed through the indoor heat exchanger. It aims at providing the air conditioning apparatus which can perform the defrost operation which does not make a refrigerant | coolant sound, since a refrigerant | coolant is not circulated during a frost operation.
 上記目的を達成するため、本発明は、圧縮機、四方弁、室内熱交換器、減圧器、室外熱交換器を順次冷媒回路で連結して構成されたヒートポンプ式冷凍サイクルと、室内熱交換器と室内空気の熱交換を行う室内ファンと、室外熱交換器と室外空気の熱交換を行う室外ファンと、室外温度を検知する室外温度センサとを備えた空気調和装置であって、室外熱交換器の除霜を行う際に、室外温度センサにより検知した室外温度が所定値以上の場合は、圧縮機を停止し、室外ファンを回転させて除霜を行うようにしたものである。 In order to achieve the above object, the present invention provides a heat pump refrigeration cycle configured by sequentially connecting a compressor, a four-way valve, an indoor heat exchanger, a decompressor, and an outdoor heat exchanger with a refrigerant circuit, and an indoor heat exchanger. An air conditioner comprising an indoor fan for exchanging heat between the indoor air, an outdoor fan for exchanging heat between the outdoor heat exchanger and the outdoor air, and an outdoor temperature sensor for detecting the outdoor temperature. When the outdoor temperature detected by the outdoor temperature sensor is equal to or higher than a predetermined value when the defrosting of the chamber is performed, the compressor is stopped and the outdoor fan is rotated to perform the defrosting.
 また、室外熱交換器の除霜運転中、ヒートポンプ式冷凍サイクルは、暖房状態を保持するようにしている。 In addition, during the defrosting operation of the outdoor heat exchanger, the heat pump refrigeration cycle is kept in a heating state.
 さらに、除霜運転時の室外ファンの回転数を、暖房運転時より高い回転数あるいは最大回転数に設定するのが好ましい。 Furthermore, it is preferable to set the rotational speed of the outdoor fan during the defrosting operation to a higher rotational speed or a maximum rotational speed than during the heating operation.
 また、減圧器として膨張弁を用い、除霜運転を行う直前または直後に、膨張弁を閉弁または閉塞に近い絞りにするのがよい。 Also, it is preferable to use an expansion valve as a pressure reducer and close or close the expansion valve close to closing or immediately before or after performing the defrosting operation.
 また、除霜運転を行う前に、圧縮機の運転周波数を減少させ、その後膨張弁を閉弁または閉塞に近い絞りにし、続いて、圧縮機を所定時間運転した後、停止し、さらに室外ファンを回転させるようにしてもよい。 Also, before performing the defrosting operation, the operating frequency of the compressor is reduced, and then the expansion valve is closed or close to closed, and then the compressor is operated for a predetermined time and then stopped, and further the outdoor fan You may make it rotate.
 また、除霜運転を行う前に、膨張弁を閉弁または閉塞に近い絞りにし、その後の所定時間、膨張弁を開制御し、さらに室外ファンを回転させることもできる。 Also, before performing the defrosting operation, the expansion valve can be closed or closed close to closing, and the expansion valve can be controlled to open for a predetermined time thereafter, and the outdoor fan can be rotated.
 また、除霜運転を行う前に、室外ファンを停止させ、膨張弁を全開または全開に近い状態にし、その後所定時間運転した後、圧縮機を停止し、室外ファンを回転させるようにしてもよい。 Further, before performing the defrosting operation, the outdoor fan may be stopped, the expansion valve may be fully opened or close to full opening, and after a predetermined time of operation, the compressor may be stopped and the outdoor fan may be rotated. .
 さらに、本発明の別の形態は、圧縮機、四方弁、室内熱交換器、膨張弁、室外熱交換器を冷媒回路で順次連結して構成されたヒートポンプ式冷凍サイクルと、室内熱交換器と室内空気の熱交換を行う室内ファンと、室外熱交換器と室外空気の熱交換を行う室外ファンと、室外温度を検知する室外温度センサとを備えた空気調和装置であって、室外熱交換器の除霜を行う際に、室外温度センサにより検知した室外温度が所定値未満の場合は、四方弁を切り換えてヒートポンプ式冷凍サイクルを冷房回路とし、その後圧縮機の運転を停止し、且つ、膨張弁を閉弁または閉塞に近い絞りにするとともに、室外ファンを回転させて除霜を行うようにしたものである。 Furthermore, another embodiment of the present invention includes a heat pump refrigeration cycle configured by sequentially connecting a compressor, a four-way valve, an indoor heat exchanger, an expansion valve, and an outdoor heat exchanger with a refrigerant circuit, an indoor heat exchanger, An air conditioner comprising an indoor fan for exchanging heat of indoor air, an outdoor heat exchanger and an outdoor fan for exchanging heat of outdoor air, and an outdoor temperature sensor for detecting outdoor temperature, the outdoor heat exchanger When the outdoor temperature detected by the outdoor temperature sensor is less than a predetermined value when performing defrosting, the four-way valve is switched to set the heat pump refrigeration cycle to the cooling circuit, and then the compressor operation is stopped and the expansion is performed. While the valve is closed or close to closing, the outdoor fan is rotated to perform defrosting.
 この場合、四方弁を切り換えてヒートポンプ式冷凍サイクルを冷房回路とする時間を所定時間以内に設定してもよい。 In this case, the time for switching the four-way valve and setting the heat pump refrigeration cycle to the cooling circuit may be set within a predetermined time.
 また、室外配管温度を検知する室外配管温度センサを設け、該室外配管温度センサにより検知した室外配管温度が所定値未満のときのみ、四方弁を切り換えてヒートポンプ式冷凍サイクルを冷房回路とすることもできる。 In addition, an outdoor pipe temperature sensor for detecting the outdoor pipe temperature may be provided, and only when the outdoor pipe temperature detected by the outdoor pipe temperature sensor is lower than a predetermined value, the four-way valve is switched to make the heat pump refrigeration cycle a cooling circuit. it can.
 さらに、室外温度センサにより検知した室外温度が所定値以上の場合は、室外ファンの運転時間を、室外温度が所定値未満の場合より短く設定するのが好ましい。 Furthermore, when the outdoor temperature detected by the outdoor temperature sensor is equal to or higher than a predetermined value, it is preferable to set the outdoor fan operation time shorter than when the outdoor temperature is lower than the predetermined value.
 本発明によれば、室外熱交換器の除霜を行う際に、室外温度センサにより検知した室外温度が所定値以上の場合は、圧縮機を停止して大気熱利用による除霜運転をするようにしたので、省エネ性、快適性に優れている。 According to the present invention, when defrosting the outdoor heat exchanger, if the outdoor temperature detected by the outdoor temperature sensor is equal to or higher than a predetermined value, the compressor is stopped and the defrosting operation using atmospheric heat is performed. As a result, it is excellent in energy saving and comfort.
 また、四方弁切り換えによる除霜と大気熱利用による除霜を併用したので、四方弁切り換えによる除霜運転で室外側熱交換器前面に付着した霜の一部を融解させることができ、その後、大気熱利用による除霜運転を行うことで、省エネ性、快適性を向上させることができる。 In addition, since defrosting by switching the four-way valve and defrosting by using atmospheric heat are used together, it is possible to melt a part of the frost attached to the front of the outdoor heat exchanger in the defrosting operation by switching the four-way valve, Energy saving and comfort can be improved by performing a defrosting operation using atmospheric heat.
図1は本発明に係る空気調和装置の冷凍サイクル図FIG. 1 is a refrigeration cycle diagram of an air conditioner according to the present invention. 図2は図1の空気調和装置の制御ブロック図2 is a control block diagram of the air conditioner of FIG. 図3は図1の空気調和装置の除霜運転時の制御を示すフローチャートFIG. 3 is a flowchart showing control during the defrosting operation of the air-conditioning apparatus of FIG. 図4は大気熱除霜運転を行う場合の本発明に係る空気調和装置の制御動作を示すタイムチャートFIG. 4 is a time chart showing the control operation of the air conditioner according to the present invention when the atmospheric heat defrosting operation is performed. 図5は大気熱除霜運転を行う場合の本発明に係る空気調和装置の別の制御動作を示すタイムチャートFIG. 5 is a time chart showing another control operation of the air-conditioning apparatus according to the present invention when the atmospheric heat defrosting operation is performed. 図6は大気熱除霜運転を行う場合の本発明に係る空気調和装置のさらに別の制御動作を示すタイムチャートFIG. 6 is a time chart showing still another control operation of the air-conditioning apparatus according to the present invention when the atmospheric heat defrosting operation is performed. 図7は大気熱除霜運転を行う場合の本発明に係る空気調和装置のさらに別の制御動作を示すタイムチャートFIG. 7 is a time chart showing still another control operation of the air-conditioning apparatus according to the present invention when the atmospheric heat defrosting operation is performed. 図8は大気熱除霜運転を行う場合の本発明に係る空気調和装置のさらに別の制御動作を示すタイムチャートFIG. 8 is a time chart showing still another control operation of the air-conditioning apparatus according to the present invention when the atmospheric heat defrosting operation is performed. 図9は四方弁切換除霜運転を行う場合の本発明に係る空気調和装置の制御動作を示すタイムチャートFIG. 9 is a time chart showing the control operation of the air conditioner according to the present invention when the four-way valve switching defrosting operation is performed. 図10は従来の空気調和装置の四方弁切換除霜時のタイムチャートFIG. 10 is a time chart at the time of defrosting the four-way valve switching of the conventional air conditioner 図11は従来の別の空気調和装置の冷凍サイクル図FIG. 11 is a refrigeration cycle diagram of another conventional air conditioner.
 以下、本発明の実施の形態について、図面を参照しながら説明する。なお、この実施の形態によって本発明が限定されるものではない。 Hereinafter, embodiments of the present invention will be described with reference to the drawings. Note that the present invention is not limited to the embodiments.
(空気調和装置の基本構成)
 図1は本発明に係る空気調和装置の冷凍サイクル図であり、図2は同空気調和装置の制御ブロック図である。
(Basic configuration of air conditioner)
FIG. 1 is a refrigeration cycle diagram of an air conditioner according to the present invention, and FIG. 2 is a control block diagram of the air conditioner.
 図1に示されるように、本発明に係る空気調和装置は、冷媒回路で互いに連結された室内機10と室外機11を備えている。室外機11には、圧縮機1と、四方弁2と、減圧器4と、室外熱交換器5と、室外温度を検知する室外温度センサ6と、室外ファン8と、室外熱交換器5の配管温度を検知する室外配管温度センサ9が配設されており、室内機10には、室内熱交換器3と、室内ファン7が配設されている。 As shown in FIG. 1, the air conditioner according to the present invention includes an indoor unit 10 and an outdoor unit 11 connected to each other by a refrigerant circuit. The outdoor unit 11 includes a compressor 1, a four-way valve 2, a decompressor 4, an outdoor heat exchanger 5, an outdoor temperature sensor 6 that detects outdoor temperature, an outdoor fan 8, and the outdoor heat exchanger 5. An outdoor pipe temperature sensor 9 for detecting the pipe temperature is provided, and the indoor unit 10 is provided with an indoor heat exchanger 3 and an indoor fan 7.
 また、圧縮機1と、四方弁2と、室内熱交換器3と、減圧器4と、室外熱交換器5を冷媒回路で順次連結してヒートポンプ式冷凍サイクルを構成している。なお、減圧器4としては、電磁式膨張弁あるいはキャピラリーチューブが使用され、前者を使用する場合は、減圧器4を、以下「膨張弁4」と称する場合がある。 Further, the compressor 1, the four-way valve 2, the indoor heat exchanger 3, the decompressor 4, and the outdoor heat exchanger 5 are sequentially connected by a refrigerant circuit to constitute a heat pump refrigeration cycle. As the pressure reducer 4, an electromagnetic expansion valve or a capillary tube is used. When the former is used, the pressure reducer 4 may be hereinafter referred to as “expansion valve 4”.
 図2は、室内機10の制御器12と室外機11の制御器13を示しており、室内制御器12には、除霜開始信号受信部60と、除霜開始信号受信部60からの出力に基づいて室内ファン7を運転する室内ファン運転部61が設けられている。一方、室外制御器13には、除霜開始判断部50と、除霜開始判断部50に入力される室外温度センサ6の検知温度及び室外配管温度センサ9の検知信号に基づいて、圧縮機1の運転を制御する圧縮機運転部51と、膨張弁4の開度を制御する膨張弁開度可変部52と、室外ファン8の運転を制御する室外ファン運転部53と、四方弁2の切換制御を行う四方弁切換部54が設けられている。 FIG. 2 shows the controller 12 of the indoor unit 10 and the controller 13 of the outdoor unit 11. The indoor controller 12 includes outputs from the defrosting start signal receiving unit 60 and the defrosting start signal receiving unit 60. An indoor fan operation unit 61 that operates the indoor fan 7 based on the above is provided. On the other hand, the outdoor controller 13 includes the compressor 1 based on the detection temperature of the defrost start determination unit 50 and the detection temperature of the outdoor temperature sensor 6 and the detection signal of the outdoor pipe temperature sensor 9 input to the defrost start determination unit 50. Switching of the compressor operating unit 51 that controls the operation of the engine, the expansion valve opening varying unit 52 that controls the opening of the expansion valve 4, the outdoor fan operating unit 53 that controls the operation of the outdoor fan 8, and the four-way valve 2. A four-way valve switching unit 54 that performs control is provided.
 図3は、本発明に係る空気調和装置の除霜運転時の制御を示すフローチャートである。図3に示されるように、除霜運転が必要かどうかの判断は、室外配管温度センサ9の検知結果に基づいて行われ、ステップS1において、室外配管温度センサ9が検知した温度が氷点下の第1の所定温度(例えば、-7℃)と比較される。検知温度が第1の所定温度未満であれば、ステップS2において除霜運転を行う一方、検知温度が第1の所定温度以上であれば、ステップS1に戻る。なお、第1の所定温度は、室外熱交換器5に所定量以上着霜して吸熱できないと判断される温度のことである。 FIG. 3 is a flowchart showing the control during the defrosting operation of the air-conditioning apparatus according to the present invention. As shown in FIG. 3, whether the defrosting operation is necessary is determined based on the detection result of the outdoor pipe temperature sensor 9. In step S <b> 1, the temperature detected by the outdoor pipe temperature sensor 9 is lower than the freezing point. Compared with a predetermined temperature of 1 (eg, -7 ° C.). If the detected temperature is lower than the first predetermined temperature, the defrosting operation is performed in step S2, while if the detected temperature is equal to or higher than the first predetermined temperature, the process returns to step S1. The first predetermined temperature is a temperature at which it is determined that the outdoor heat exchanger 5 is frosted by a predetermined amount or more and cannot absorb heat.
 ステップS3においては、室外温度センサ6が検知した温度が、前記第1の所定温度より高い第2の所定温度(例えば、1℃)と比較され、検知温度が第2の所定温度以上であれば、ステップS4において大気熱除霜運転が行われ、検知温度が第2の所定温度未満であれば、ステップS5において四方弁切換除霜運転が行われる。 In step S3, the temperature detected by the outdoor temperature sensor 6 is compared with a second predetermined temperature (for example, 1 ° C.) higher than the first predetermined temperature, and if the detected temperature is equal to or higher than the second predetermined temperature. In step S4, the atmospheric heat defrosting operation is performed, and if the detected temperature is lower than the second predetermined temperature, the four-way valve switching defrosting operation is performed in step S5.
 ここで、「大気熱除霜運転」とは、四方弁2を切り換えることなく暖房回路を維持した状態で、室外空気の熱(大気の熱)を利用して行う除霜運転のことを意味しており、「四方弁切換除霜運転」とは、四方弁2により暖房回路から冷房回路に切り換えて、冷凍サイクルの冷媒を逆方向に流して行う除霜運転のことを意味している。 Here, “atmospheric heat defrosting operation” means a defrosting operation performed using the heat of the outdoor air (heat of the atmosphere) while maintaining the heating circuit without switching the four-way valve 2. The “four-way valve switching defrosting operation” means a defrosting operation that is performed by switching from the heating circuit to the cooling circuit by the four-way valve 2 and flowing the refrigerant in the refrigeration cycle in the reverse direction.
 なお、除霜運転が必要かどうかの判断を室外配管温度センサ9の検知結果のみに基づいて行うと、外気温度が低い場合に、除霜運転を頻繁に行うことになる可能性があるので、除霜運転が必要かどうかの判断を、室外配管温度センサ9の検知結果に加えて、室外温度センサ6の検知結果、空気調和装置の累積運転時間等に基づいて行うと、不要な除霜運転を極力低減することができる。 In addition, if the determination whether the defrosting operation is necessary is performed based only on the detection result of the outdoor pipe temperature sensor 9, the defrosting operation may be frequently performed when the outside air temperature is low. If it is determined whether or not the defrosting operation is necessary based on the detection result of the outdoor temperature sensor 6, the accumulated operation time of the air conditioner, etc. in addition to the detection result of the outdoor pipe temperature sensor 9, an unnecessary defrosting operation is performed. Can be reduced as much as possible.
 (実施の形態1)
 図4は、大気熱除霜運転を行う場合の本発明に係る空気調和装置の制御動作を示すタイムチャートである。
(Embodiment 1)
FIG. 4 is a time chart showing the control operation of the air conditioner according to the present invention when the atmospheric heat defrosting operation is performed.
 室外制御器13において、室外配管温度センサ9の検知温度に基づいて除霜開始判断が除霜開始判断部50で行われ、除霜開始と判断された時に、圧縮機運転部51、膨張弁開度可変部52、室外ファン運転部53、四方弁切換部54が図4に示される制御をすることにより除霜運転が行われる。 In the outdoor controller 13, the defrosting start determination is performed by the defrosting start determination unit 50 based on the temperature detected by the outdoor pipe temperature sensor 9, and when it is determined that the defrosting is started, the compressor operation unit 51, the expansion valve open The defrosting operation is performed by the degree variable unit 52, the outdoor fan operation unit 53, and the four-way valve switching unit 54 performing the control shown in FIG.
 このとき、室外制御器13からの除霜開始信号を、室内制御器12の除霜開始信号受信部60で受信して、除霜開始信号受信部60からの出力を受けて室内ファン運転部61も図4に示される制御を行う。 At this time, the defrosting start signal from the outdoor controller 13 is received by the defrosting start signal receiving unit 60 of the indoor controller 12, and the output from the defrosting start signal receiving unit 60 is received to receive the indoor fan operation unit 61. Also performs the control shown in FIG.
 暖房運転中、時間t1において除霜開始判断がなされると、圧縮機1を停止させ、室外ファン8の回転を維持し、時間t2において除霜運転に移行し、室外空気と室外熱交換器5との間で熱交換を行ない、室外空気の熱(大気の熱)により、除霜を行なう。 When the defrosting start determination is made at the time t1 during the heating operation, the compressor 1 is stopped, the rotation of the outdoor fan 8 is maintained, and the defrosting operation is shifted to the outdoor air and the outdoor heat exchanger 5 at the time t2. The heat exchange is performed with the air, and defrosting is performed by the heat of the outdoor air (heat of the atmosphere).
 なお、時間t1において圧縮機1は停止するのに対し、室外ファン8は運転を継続し、四方弁2は、冷媒を室外機11に流さないため、暖房回路のままで除霜中も切り換えしない。また、室内ファン7は、暖房を行わないので、停止する。 Note that the compressor 1 stops at time t1, while the outdoor fan 8 continues to operate, and the four-way valve 2 does not flow refrigerant into the outdoor unit 11, so that it remains in the heating circuit and does not switch during defrosting. . Moreover, since the indoor fan 7 does not perform heating, it stops.
 また、時間t2において、室外ファン運転部53により室外ファン8の回転数を暖房運転中の回転数より高い回転数あるいは最大回転数まで増大するのが好ましい。これは、室外ファン8の回転数が高いほど、霜が早く蒸発して、除霜時間が短縮できるからである。ただし、室外ファン8の速度は必ずしも増大する必要はない。 In addition, at the time t2, it is preferable that the outdoor fan operation unit 53 increases the rotational speed of the outdoor fan 8 to a rotational speed higher than the rotational speed during the heating operation or a maximum rotational speed. This is because the higher the rotational speed of the outdoor fan 8, the faster the frost evaporates and the shorter the defrosting time. However, the speed of the outdoor fan 8 does not necessarily increase.
 次に、時間t3において除霜運転を終了し、除霜する前の動作に戻り、時間t4において通常のヒートポンプ暖房運転に復帰する。なお、除霜運転を行う期間(時間t2~時間t3)は、霜が融解すると判断される所定時間(例えば、12分)に設定されるが、室外配管温度センサ9が検知した温度が所定温度(例えば、6℃)以上であれば、霜が融解したと判断できるので、前記所定時間に代えて、室外配管温度センサ9の検知温度に基づいて除霜運転を終了してもよい。 Next, the defrosting operation is terminated at time t3, the operation returns to the state before defrosting, and the normal heat pump heating operation is restored at time t4. The period (time t2 to time t3) during which the defrosting operation is performed is set to a predetermined time (for example, 12 minutes) at which the frost is determined to melt, but the temperature detected by the outdoor pipe temperature sensor 9 is the predetermined temperature If it is (for example, 6 ° C.) or higher, it can be determined that the frost has melted, so the defrosting operation may be terminated based on the temperature detected by the outdoor pipe temperature sensor 9 instead of the predetermined time.
 また、本実施の形態では、圧縮機1の運転周波数を変化させているが、一定速の圧縮機でも同様に除霜運転を行うことができ、室内ファン7の回転数および室外ファン8の回転数は固定しても変動しても構わない。 Further, in the present embodiment, the operating frequency of the compressor 1 is changed, but the defrosting operation can be similarly performed with a constant speed compressor, and the rotational speed of the indoor fan 7 and the rotation of the outdoor fan 8 The number can be fixed or variable.
 さらに、図4に示されるように、減圧器(膨張弁)4の開度は一定に維持されていることから、減圧器4として、電磁式膨張弁のみならずキャピラリーチューブを使用することもできる。 Furthermore, as shown in FIG. 4, since the opening degree of the decompressor (expansion valve) 4 is maintained constant, not only an electromagnetic expansion valve but also a capillary tube can be used as the decompressor 4. .
 また、第1及び第2の所定温度は、暖房運転開始後、初めての除霜を行う場合は低めに、それ以降の除霜の場合は高めに設定してもよく、あるいは、昼間の暖房運転の場合は低めに、夜間の暖房運転の場合は高めに設定することもでき、周囲の諸条件によって変動させることができる。 In addition, the first and second predetermined temperatures may be set lower when performing the first defrosting after the start of the heating operation, and may be set higher during the subsequent defrosting, or during the daytime heating operation. In the case of the heating operation at night, it can be set lower, and in the case of nighttime heating operation, it can be set higher and can be changed according to the surrounding conditions.
 上記構成により、大気熱を利用して室外熱交換器5に付着した霜を融解させることができるとともに、室外ファン8の入力は約100W程度で除霜運転ができることから、除霜効率が向上する。また、四方弁切換除霜運転の場合、霜が融解すると、霜の融解で発生した水が室外機11から下方に排出され、排出された水が低外気温で氷結すると、人がその上を歩いて転倒したり、排水溝を塞ぐという問題がある。しかしながら、本実施の形態においては大気熱除霜運転を採用しているので、室外熱交換器5に付着した後融解した霜は、室外ファン8の送風で空中に蒸発拡散するので、そのような問題は発生しない。 According to the above configuration, frost adhering to the outdoor heat exchanger 5 can be melted by using atmospheric heat, and the defrosting operation can be performed with an input of the outdoor fan 8 of about 100 W, so that the defrosting efficiency is improved. . In the four-way valve defrosting operation, when the frost melts, the water generated by the melting of the frost is discharged downward from the outdoor unit 11, and when the discharged water freezes at a low outdoor temperature, a person moves over it. There are problems of falling on foot and blocking drains. However, since the atmospheric heat defrosting operation is adopted in the present embodiment, the frost that has melted after adhering to the outdoor heat exchanger 5 evaporates and diffuses into the air by the ventilation of the outdoor fan 8, so that There is no problem.
 また、室外熱交換器5の除霜運転中、暖房運転を停止するが、ヒートポンプ式冷凍サイクルは暖房状態に保持されるので、室内機10に冷たい冷媒が流れることはなく、暖房時の余熱をそのまま保持することができる。したがって、室内機10からの冷風感はなく、除霜運転中に室内機10に冷媒が流れないので、不快な冷媒音もない。 Further, the heating operation is stopped during the defrosting operation of the outdoor heat exchanger 5, but since the heat pump refrigeration cycle is maintained in the heating state, a cold refrigerant does not flow into the indoor unit 10, and the remaining heat during heating is reduced. It can be held as it is. Therefore, there is no feeling of cold wind from the indoor unit 10, and since no refrigerant flows into the indoor unit 10 during the defrosting operation, there is no unpleasant refrigerant sound.
 さらに、除霜運転中の室外ファン8の回転数を、暖房運転時の回転数より高く設定すると、室外の多量の大気熱が室外熱交換器5を通過することになることから、室外熱交換器5に付着した霜が早く融解する。また、室外ファン8の回転数を増大することで風速が上がり、霜が溶解した水が室外機11の吹出部に付着することなく、室外機11外へ吹き飛ばされるため、吹出部の凍結も発生しない。 Furthermore, if the rotational speed of the outdoor fan 8 during the defrosting operation is set higher than the rotational speed during the heating operation, a large amount of outdoor atmospheric heat will pass through the outdoor heat exchanger 5, so that the outdoor heat exchange The frost attached to the vessel 5 melts quickly. Moreover, since the wind speed increases by increasing the rotation speed of the outdoor fan 8 and the water in which the frost is dissolved does not adhere to the blowout part of the outdoor unit 11, the blowout part is frozen. do not do.
 (実施の形態2)
 図5は、大気熱除霜運転を行う場合の本発明に係る空気調和装置の別の制御動作を示すタイムチャートである。
(Embodiment 2)
FIG. 5 is a time chart showing another control operation of the air-conditioning apparatus according to the present invention when the atmospheric heat defrosting operation is performed.
 本実施の形態に係る空気調和装置と上記第1の実施の形態に係る空気調和装置と異なる点は、第1の実施の形態では、減圧器4として電磁式膨張弁あるいはキャピラリーチューブを使用できるのに対し、本実施の形態では、減圧器4の開度制御を行う必要があることから、減圧器4として電磁式膨張弁を使用し、除霜運転中に膨張弁4を閉弁または閉塞に近い開度(例えば、全開時の5%以下の絞り)にする点である。 The difference between the air conditioner according to the present embodiment and the air conditioner according to the first embodiment is that in the first embodiment, an electromagnetic expansion valve or a capillary tube can be used as the decompressor 4. On the other hand, in this embodiment, since it is necessary to control the opening degree of the decompressor 4, an electromagnetic expansion valve is used as the decompressor 4, and the expansion valve 4 is closed or closed during the defrosting operation. The point is a close opening (for example, an aperture of 5% or less when fully opened).
 本実施の形態では、時間t1において、圧縮機1、室内ファン7、室外ファン8を停止するとともに、膨張弁4を閉塞あるいは略閉塞し、時間t3において膨張弁4を開弁しているが、時間t2以降の圧縮機1、室内ファン7、室外ファン8の動作は第1の実施の形態の動作と変わるところがない。 In the present embodiment, the compressor 1, the indoor fan 7, and the outdoor fan 8 are stopped at time t1, the expansion valve 4 is closed or substantially closed, and the expansion valve 4 is opened at time t3. The operations of the compressor 1, the indoor fan 7, and the outdoor fan 8 after time t2 are not different from the operations of the first embodiment.
 なお、時間t1において膨張弁4を閉塞あるいは略閉塞しているが、室外ファン8を運転して除霜運転を行うタイミングの時間t2の近傍で、膨張弁4を閉塞するように制御してもよい。 Although the expansion valve 4 is closed or substantially closed at time t1, the expansion valve 4 may be controlled to close near the time t2 when the outdoor fan 8 is operated to perform the defrosting operation. Good.
 すなわち、室外ファン8の運転で除霜するに際し、除霜運転を行う直前または直後に、膨張弁4を閉弁または閉塞に近い絞り位置に設定することで、室内機10から室外熱交換器5への冷媒の移動を阻止することができる。その結果、室外熱交換器5内にある冷媒に熱を奪われることを最小限に抑えて、大気熱を効率的に霜の融解に利用できる。 That is, when the defrosting is performed by the operation of the outdoor fan 8, the expansion valve 4 is set to a throttle position close to closing or closing immediately before or after the defrosting operation, so that the outdoor heat exchanger 5 is switched from the indoor unit 10 to the closed position. It is possible to prevent the refrigerant from moving to. As a result, the heat in the outdoor heat exchanger 5 can be minimized and the atmospheric heat can be efficiently used for melting frost.
 (実施の形態3)
 図6は、大気熱除霜運転を行う場合の本発明に係る空気調和装置のさらに別の制御動作を示すタイムチャートである。
(Embodiment 3)
FIG. 6 is a time chart showing still another control operation of the air-conditioning apparatus according to the present invention when the atmospheric heat defrosting operation is performed.
 本実施の形態に係る空気調和装置と上記第1の実施の形態に係る空気調和装置と異なる点は、図6に示されるように、減圧器4として電磁式膨張弁を用いるとともに、圧縮機1の周波数を減少させ運転した状態で、膨張弁4の閉弁状態を一定時間継続して除霜運転を行うようにしたことである。 The air conditioner according to the present embodiment and the air conditioner according to the first embodiment are different from each other in that an electromagnetic expansion valve is used as the decompressor 4 and the compressor 1 as shown in FIG. The defrosting operation is performed by continuing the closed state of the expansion valve 4 for a certain period of time while operating with the frequency reduced.
 さらに詳述すると、時間t1において、室内ファン7及び室外ファン8の運転を停止し、圧縮機1の周波数を減少して運転した状態で、膨張弁4を閉弁または閉塞に近い絞りに設定し、圧縮機1を所定時間運転した後、時間t2において圧縮機1を停止し、室外ファン8を暖房時の回転数より高い回転数で運転して除霜運転を行うようにしている。 More specifically, at time t1, the operation of the indoor fan 7 and the outdoor fan 8 is stopped and the frequency of the compressor 1 is decreased, and the expansion valve 4 is set to a throttle close to closing or closing. After the compressor 1 is operated for a predetermined time, the compressor 1 is stopped at time t2, and the outdoor fan 8 is operated at a higher rotational speed than that during heating to perform the defrosting operation.
 なお、時間t2以降の圧縮機1、室内ファン7、室外ファン8の動作は第2の実施の形態の動作と同じである。 The operations of the compressor 1, the indoor fan 7, and the outdoor fan 8 after time t2 are the same as those of the second embodiment.
 このように設定することで、室外熱交換器5に溜まった冷媒を室内機10に回収して、室内熱交換器3に溜め込み、室外ファン8の運転による室外熱交換器5の除霜運転時に大気熱が冷媒に奪われることがなく、大気熱を効率的に霜の融解に利用することができる。 By setting in this way, the refrigerant accumulated in the outdoor heat exchanger 5 is collected in the indoor unit 10 and accumulated in the indoor heat exchanger 3, and during the defrosting operation of the outdoor heat exchanger 5 by the operation of the outdoor fan 8. The atmospheric heat is not lost to the refrigerant, and the atmospheric heat can be efficiently used for melting frost.
 (実施の形態4)
 図7は、大気熱除霜運転を行う場合の本発明に係る空気調和装置のさらに別の制御動作を示すタイムチャートである。
(Embodiment 4)
FIG. 7 is a time chart showing still another control operation of the air-conditioning apparatus according to the present invention when the atmospheric heat defrosting operation is performed.
 本実施の形態に係る空気調和装置と上記第1の実施の形態に係る空気調和装置と異なる点は、図7に示されるように、減圧器4として電磁式膨張弁を用いるとともに、除霜開始判断がなされた時間t1において、除霜運転を行う前に膨張弁4を閉弁または閉塞に近い絞りに設定し、室外ファン8を停止した後、時間t2において膨張弁4を、例えば全開状態まで開制御し、室内機10にある暖房余剰熱を室外熱交換器5に流して、室外熱交換器5に付着した霜を一部溶解させるようにしたことである。その後、時間t3において膨張弁4を再度閉弁するとともに室外ファン8を運転して除霜運転する。 The difference between the air conditioner according to the present embodiment and the air conditioner according to the first embodiment is that, as shown in FIG. 7, an electromagnetic expansion valve is used as the decompressor 4 and defrosting is started. At the time t1 when the determination is made, the expansion valve 4 is set to close or close to a closed state before the defrosting operation is performed, and after the outdoor fan 8 is stopped, the expansion valve 4 is turned to, for example, a fully opened state at the time t2. It is controlled to open, and the surplus heating heat in the indoor unit 10 is caused to flow to the outdoor heat exchanger 5 so that the frost adhering to the outdoor heat exchanger 5 is partially dissolved. Thereafter, at time t3, the expansion valve 4 is closed again and the outdoor fan 8 is operated to perform the defrosting operation.
 なお、時間t3以降の圧縮機1、膨張弁4、室内ファン7、室外ファン8の動作は第2の実施の形態の動作と同じである。 The operations of the compressor 1, the expansion valve 4, the indoor fan 7, and the outdoor fan 8 after time t3 are the same as those in the second embodiment.
 除霜運転の初期の霜は、通常、室外熱交換器5の表面に隙間なく付着しているので、室外空気を室外熱交換器5にあて、熱交換させて霜を溶解させようとしても、効率が悪い。このような状態でも、図7の制御を行って、暖房した後の熱を利用して、室外熱交換器5に付着した霜の一部を融解させると、室外ファン8を運転したときに室外気が通過する通風路を形成することができ、大気熱による除霜を効果的に行うことができる。また、暖房した後の熱を、室外熱交換器5に流すことにより、室外熱交換器5のフィンから霜を剥離させやすくできるので、室外ファン8の運転による除霜時間の短縮にもなる。 Since the initial frost in the defrosting operation is usually attached to the surface of the outdoor heat exchanger 5 without a gap, even if the outdoor air is applied to the outdoor heat exchanger 5 to exchange heat, the frost is dissolved. ineffective. Even in such a state, when the control of FIG. 7 is performed and the frost adhering to the outdoor heat exchanger 5 is melted using the heat after heating, the outdoor fan 8 is operated outdoors. A ventilation path through which air passes can be formed, and defrosting by atmospheric heat can be effectively performed. Moreover, since the frost can be easily peeled off from the fins of the outdoor heat exchanger 5 by flowing the heat after heating to the outdoor heat exchanger 5, the defrosting time due to the operation of the outdoor fan 8 can be shortened.
 (実施の形態5)
 図8は、大気熱除霜運転を行う場合の本発明に係る空気調和装置のさらに別の制御動作を示すタイムチャートである。
(Embodiment 5)
FIG. 8 is a time chart showing still another control operation of the air-conditioning apparatus according to the present invention when the atmospheric heat defrosting operation is performed.
 本実施の形態に係る空気調和装置と上記第1の実施の形態に係る空気調和装置と異なる点は、図8に示されるように、減圧器4として電磁式膨張弁を用いるとともに、暖房運転を継続中に膨張弁4を全開にした後圧縮機1を停止して、室外ファン8を運転して除霜運転をするようにしたことである。 The difference between the air conditioner according to the present embodiment and the air conditioner according to the first embodiment is that, as shown in FIG. 8, an electromagnetic expansion valve is used as the decompressor 4 and heating operation is performed. The compressor 1 is stopped after the expansion valve 4 is fully opened during the continuation, and the outdoor fan 8 is operated to perform the defrosting operation.
 さらに詳述すると、暖房運転中、時間t1において除霜開始判断がなされると、圧縮機1及び室内ファン7の運転を継続した状態で、膨張弁4を、例えば全開あるいは全開に近い開度に設定するとともに、室外ファン8の運転を停止する。このように設定することで、暖房運転中の加熱冷媒を室外熱交換器5に流して霜を一部融解することができる。その後、時間t2において、圧縮機1を停止させるとともに、膨張弁4を閉弁する。また、室外ファン8の回転数を暖房時の回転数より増大して運転し、室内ファン7の運転を停止する。 More specifically, when the defrosting start determination is made at time t1 during the heating operation, the expansion valve 4 is, for example, fully opened or close to fully opened while the compressor 1 and the indoor fan 7 are continuously operated. While setting, the operation of the outdoor fan 8 is stopped. By setting in this way, a part of the frost can be melted by flowing the heating refrigerant during the heating operation to the outdoor heat exchanger 5. Thereafter, at time t2, the compressor 1 is stopped and the expansion valve 4 is closed. Moreover, the rotation speed of the outdoor fan 8 is increased from the rotation speed during heating, and the operation of the indoor fan 7 is stopped.
 なお、時間t2以降の圧縮機1、膨張弁4、室内ファン7、室外ファン8の動作は第2の実施の形態の動作と変わるところがない。 The operations of the compressor 1, the expansion valve 4, the indoor fan 7, and the outdoor fan 8 after the time t2 are not different from the operations of the second embodiment.
 本実施の形態によれば、室外熱交換器5の前面に霜が隙間なく付着した状態でも、暖房した後の熱を利用して、室外熱交換器5の一部の霜を融解させることができる。したがって、室外ファン8を運転したときに室外気が通過する通風路が形成され、大気熱による除霜を効率的に行うことができる。また、暖房した後の熱を、室外熱交換器5に直接流すことより、付着した霜を室外熱交換器5のフィンから剥離させやすくなり、室外ファン8の運転による除霜時間の短縮にもつながる。 According to this Embodiment, even if the frost has adhered to the front surface of the outdoor heat exchanger 5 without a gap, it is possible to melt part of the frost of the outdoor heat exchanger 5 using the heat after heating. it can. Therefore, a ventilation path through which outdoor air passes when the outdoor fan 8 is operated is formed, and defrosting by atmospheric heat can be efficiently performed. Moreover, since the heat after heating flows directly to the outdoor heat exchanger 5, the attached frost can be easily separated from the fins of the outdoor heat exchanger 5, and the defrosting time can be shortened by the operation of the outdoor fan 8. Connected.
 (実施の形態6)
 図9は、四方弁切換除霜運転を行う場合の本発明に係る空気調和装置の制御動作を示すタイムチャートである。本実施の形態においては、減圧器4として電磁式膨張弁を用いるとともに、後述するように、四方弁切換除霜運転と大気熱除霜運転を併用している。
(Embodiment 6)
FIG. 9 is a time chart showing the control operation of the air-conditioning apparatus according to the present invention when the four-way valve switching defrosting operation is performed. In the present embodiment, an electromagnetic expansion valve is used as the decompressor 4 and, as will be described later, a four-way valve switching defrosting operation and an atmospheric heat defrosting operation are used in combination.
 図9に示されるように、暖房運転中、時間t1において、室外制御器13の除霜開始判断部50で除霜開始判断がなされ、室外温度センサ6が検知した温度が第2の所定温度未満の場合には、四方弁切換除霜運転を行うため、圧縮機1の運転周波数を一旦低下させ、四方弁2を冷房回路に切り換えるとともに、室外ファン8及び室内ファン7の運転を停止する。このとき、膨張弁4の開度を暖房時の開度の約半分まで閉制御する。 As shown in FIG. 9, during the heating operation, at time t <b> 1, the defrost start determination unit 50 of the outdoor controller 13 makes a defrost start determination, and the temperature detected by the outdoor temperature sensor 6 is less than the second predetermined temperature. In this case, in order to perform the four-way valve switching defrosting operation, the operation frequency of the compressor 1 is once lowered, the four-way valve 2 is switched to the cooling circuit, and the operation of the outdoor fan 8 and the indoor fan 7 is stopped. At this time, the opening of the expansion valve 4 is controlled to close to about half of the opening during heating.
 その後、時間t2において、圧縮機1の周波数を増大するとともに、膨張弁4を暖房運転時の開度と四方弁切換除霜運転時の開度の中間の開度まで開制御する。時間t3において、圧縮機1を停止して、四方弁切換除霜運転を終了し、室外ファン8の運転による大気熱除霜運転に移行する。 Thereafter, at time t2, the frequency of the compressor 1 is increased, and the expansion valve 4 is controlled to open to an intermediate opening between the opening during the heating operation and the opening during the four-way valve switching defrosting operation. At time t <b> 3, the compressor 1 is stopped, the four-way valve switching defrosting operation is terminated, and the process proceeds to the atmospheric heat defrosting operation by the operation of the outdoor fan 8.
 この室外ファン8の運転による大気熱除霜運転は、膨張弁4を閉弁または閉塞に近い絞りに設定して、室内ファン7は停止状態を継続し、四方弁2は、冷房回路のまま保持する。このとき、室外ファン8の運転を開始するが、室外ファン運転部53により室外ファン8の回転数を暖房運転中の回転数より高い回転数あるいは最大回転数まで増大するのが好ましい。しかしながら、室外ファン8の回転数を暖房運転中の回転数に設定してもよい。 In the atmospheric heat defrosting operation by the operation of the outdoor fan 8, the expansion valve 4 is closed or set to a throttle close to closing, the indoor fan 7 is kept stopped, and the four-way valve 2 is kept in the cooling circuit. To do. At this time, the operation of the outdoor fan 8 is started, but it is preferable that the outdoor fan operating unit 53 increases the rotational speed of the outdoor fan 8 to a rotational speed higher than the rotational speed during the heating operation or a maximum rotational speed. However, you may set the rotation speed of the outdoor fan 8 to the rotation speed in heating operation.
 次に、時間t4において除霜運転を終了し、除霜する前の動作に戻り、時間t5において通常のヒートポンプ暖房運転に復帰する。 Next, the defrosting operation is terminated at time t4, the operation returns to the state before defrosting, and the normal heat pump heating operation is resumed at time t5.
 また、四方弁2を切り換え、ヒートポンプ式冷凍サイクルを冷房回路とする時間を所定時間以内とすれば、効率的に短時間で四方弁除霜による室外熱交換器5に付着した霜の一部を溶解することもできる。 Further, if the four-way valve 2 is switched and the time for which the heat pump refrigeration cycle is used as the cooling circuit is within a predetermined time, a part of the frost adhering to the outdoor heat exchanger 5 due to the four-way valve defrosting can be efficiently removed in a short time. It can also be dissolved.
 また、十分な除霜が行われていなくても、室外ファン8による除霜運転時に室外空気が通過できる通風路を確実に形成することができ、大気熱除霜運転を効率的に行うことができる。また、室外配管温度センサ9により室外配管温度を検知しているので、室外配管温度センサ9が第1の所定温度より高い第3の所定温度を検知した場合に、四方弁切換除霜運転から大気熱除霜運転に移行するようにすれば、四方弁切換除霜運転を必要以上に(高い温度まで)行うことなく室外ファン8の運転による大気熱除霜運転に短時間で移行することができ、除霜運転の効率が向上する。 Moreover, even if sufficient defrosting is not performed, the ventilation path which can pass outdoor air at the time of the defrost operation by the outdoor fan 8 can be formed reliably, and atmospheric heat defrost operation can be performed efficiently. it can. Further, since the outdoor pipe temperature sensor 9 detects the outdoor pipe temperature, when the outdoor pipe temperature sensor 9 detects a third predetermined temperature higher than the first predetermined temperature, the four-way valve switching defrosting operation is started. By shifting to the thermal defrosting operation, it is possible to shift to the atmospheric heat defrosting operation by the operation of the outdoor fan 8 in a short time without performing the four-way valve switching defrosting operation more than necessary (up to a high temperature). The efficiency of the defrosting operation is improved.
 なお、上記実施の形態において、室外温度センサ6が検知した温度が、第2の所定温度(例えば、1℃)以上の場合に大気熱除霜運転を行うようにしたが、室外温度センサ6により検知した温度が第2の所定温度より高い第4の所定温度(例えば、5℃)以上の場合は、室外ファン8の運転時間を、室外温度が第4の所定温度未満の場合より短く設定することもできる。室外温度が高い場合は、大気熱の熱量が大きいので、室外熱交換器5に付着した霜の溶解が早くからである。その結果、除霜運転の時間を短縮できる。 In the above embodiment, the atmospheric heat defrosting operation is performed when the temperature detected by the outdoor temperature sensor 6 is equal to or higher than the second predetermined temperature (for example, 1 ° C.). When the detected temperature is equal to or higher than a fourth predetermined temperature (for example, 5 ° C.) higher than the second predetermined temperature, the operation time of the outdoor fan 8 is set shorter than when the outdoor temperature is lower than the fourth predetermined temperature. You can also This is because when the outdoor temperature is high, the amount of atmospheric heat is large, so that the frost adhering to the outdoor heat exchanger 5 is dissolved quickly. As a result, the defrosting operation time can be shortened.
 以上のように、本発明に係る空気調和装置は、一般の空気調和装置の部品構成を変えずに、大気熱を利用して除霜運転を行うことができるので、一般家庭の空気調和装置ばかりでなく、大型の空調設備に利用することもできる。 As described above, the air conditioner according to the present invention can perform a defrosting operation using atmospheric heat without changing the component configuration of a general air conditioner. It can also be used for large air conditioning equipment.
  1 圧縮機
  2 四方弁
  3 室内熱交換器
  4 減圧器
  5 室外熱交換器
  6 室外温度センサ
  7 室内ファン
  8 室外ファン
  9 室外配管温度センサ
 10 室内機
 11 室外機
 12 室内制御器
 13 室外制御器
 50 除霜開始判断部
 51 圧縮機運転部
 52 膨張弁開度可変部
 53 室外ファン運転部
 54 四方弁切換部
 60 除霜開始信号受信部
 61 室内ファン運転部
DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 1 Compressor 2 Four-way valve 3 Indoor heat exchanger 4 Pressure reducer 5 Outdoor heat exchanger 6 Outdoor temperature sensor 7 Indoor fan 8 Outdoor fan 9 Outdoor piping temperature sensor 10 Indoor unit 11 Outdoor unit 12 Indoor controller 13 Outdoor controller 50 Removal Frost start determining unit 51 Compressor operating unit 52 Expansion valve opening varying unit 53 Outdoor fan operating unit 54 Four-way valve switching unit 60 Defrosting start signal receiving unit 61 Indoor fan operating unit

Claims (11)

  1. 圧縮機、四方弁、室内熱交換器、減圧器、室外熱交換器を順次冷媒回路で連結して構成されたヒートポンプ式冷凍サイクルと、前記室内熱交換器と室内空気の熱交換を行う室内ファンと、前記室外熱交換器と室外空気の熱交換を行う室外ファンと、室外温度を検知する室外温度センサとを備えた空気調和装置であって、
     前記室外熱交換器の除霜を行う際に、前記室外温度センサにより検知した室外温度が所定値以上の場合は、前記圧縮機を停止し、前記室外ファンを回転させて除霜を行うことを特徴とする空気調和装置。
    A heat pump refrigeration cycle constructed by sequentially connecting a compressor, a four-way valve, an indoor heat exchanger, a decompressor, and an outdoor heat exchanger with a refrigerant circuit, and an indoor fan for exchanging heat between the indoor heat exchanger and room air An air conditioner comprising: an outdoor fan that exchanges heat between the outdoor heat exchanger and outdoor air; and an outdoor temperature sensor that detects an outdoor temperature,
    When defrosting the outdoor heat exchanger, if the outdoor temperature detected by the outdoor temperature sensor is equal to or higher than a predetermined value, the compressor is stopped and the outdoor fan is rotated to perform defrosting. An air conditioner characterized.
  2. 前記室外熱交換器の除霜運転中、ヒートポンプ式冷凍サイクルは、暖房状態を保持することを特徴とする請求項1に記載の空気調和装置。 The air conditioner according to claim 1, wherein the heat pump refrigeration cycle maintains a heating state during the defrosting operation of the outdoor heat exchanger.
  3. 除霜運転時の前記室外ファンの回転数を、暖房運転時より高い回転数あるいは最大回転数に設定することを特徴とする請求項1あるいは2に記載の空気調和装置。 The air conditioner according to claim 1 or 2, wherein the rotational speed of the outdoor fan during the defrosting operation is set to a higher rotational speed or a maximum rotational speed than during the heating operation.
  4. 前記減圧器として膨張弁を用い、除霜運転を行う直前または直後に、前記膨張弁を閉弁または閉塞に近い絞りにすることを特徴とする請求項1乃至3のいずれか1項に記載の空気調和装置。 The expansion valve is used as the decompressor, and the expansion valve is closed or closed close to closing immediately before or after performing the defrosting operation. Air conditioner.
  5. 前記減圧器として膨張弁を用い、除霜運転を行う前に、前記圧縮機の運転周波数を減少させ、その後前記膨張弁を閉弁または閉塞に近い絞りにし、続いて、前記圧縮機を所定時間運転した後、停止し、さらに前記室外ファンを回転させることを特徴とする請求項1乃至3のいずれか1項に記載の空気調和装置。 An expansion valve is used as the pressure reducer, and before the defrosting operation is performed, the operating frequency of the compressor is decreased, and then the expansion valve is closed or close to a blockage, and then the compressor is kept for a predetermined time. The air conditioner according to any one of claims 1 to 3, wherein the air conditioner is stopped after the operation, and the outdoor fan is further rotated.
  6. 前記減圧器として膨張弁を用い、除霜運転を行う前に、前記膨張弁を閉弁または閉塞に近い絞りにし、その後の所定時間、前記膨張弁を開制御し、さらに前記室外ファンを回転させることを特徴とする請求項1乃至3のいずれか1項に記載の空気調和装置。 An expansion valve is used as the pressure reducer, and before performing the defrosting operation, the expansion valve is closed or close to closed, the expansion valve is controlled to open for a predetermined time, and the outdoor fan is further rotated. The air conditioner according to any one of claims 1 to 3, wherein
  7. 前記減圧器として膨張弁を用い、除霜運転を行う前に、前記室外ファンを停止させ、前記膨張弁を全開または全開に近い状態にし、その後所定時間運転した後、前記圧縮機を停止し、前記室外ファンを回転させることを特徴とする請求項1乃至3のいずれか1項に記載の空気調和装置。 Using an expansion valve as the decompressor, before performing the defrosting operation, stopping the outdoor fan, making the expansion valve fully open or close to full open, and then operating for a predetermined time, then stopping the compressor, The air conditioner according to any one of claims 1 to 3, wherein the outdoor fan is rotated.
  8. 圧縮機、四方弁、室内熱交換器、膨張弁、室外熱交換器を冷媒回路で順次連結して構成されたヒートポンプ式冷凍サイクルと、前記室内熱交換器と室内空気の熱交換を行う室内ファンと、前記室外熱交換器と室外空気の熱交換を行う室外ファンと、室外温度を検知する室外温度センサとを備えた空気調和装置であって、
     前記室外熱交換器の除霜を行う際に、前記室外温度センサにより検知した室外温度が所定値未満の場合は、前記四方弁を切り換えて前記ヒートポンプ式冷凍サイクルを冷房回路とし、その後前記圧縮機の運転を停止し、且つ、前記膨張弁を閉弁または閉塞に近い絞りにするとともに、前記室外ファンを回転させて除霜を行うことを特徴とする空気調和装置。
    A heat pump refrigeration cycle configured by sequentially connecting a compressor, a four-way valve, an indoor heat exchanger, an expansion valve, and an outdoor heat exchanger with a refrigerant circuit, and an indoor fan for exchanging heat between the indoor heat exchanger and indoor air An air conditioner comprising: an outdoor fan that exchanges heat between the outdoor heat exchanger and outdoor air; and an outdoor temperature sensor that detects an outdoor temperature,
    When the outdoor heat exchanger is defrosted, if the outdoor temperature detected by the outdoor temperature sensor is less than a predetermined value, the four-way valve is switched to make the heat pump refrigeration cycle a cooling circuit, and then the compressor The air conditioner is characterized in that the operation is stopped and the expansion valve is closed or closed close to closing, and the outdoor fan is rotated to perform defrosting.
  9. 前記四方弁を切り換えてヒートポンプ式冷凍サイクルを冷房回路とする時間を所定時間以内に設定することを特徴とする請求項8に記載の空気調和装置。 9. The air conditioner according to claim 8, wherein a time for switching the four-way valve to set the heat pump refrigeration cycle as a cooling circuit is set within a predetermined time.
  10. 前記室外配管温度を検知する室外配管温度センサを設け、該室外配管温度センサにより検知した室外配管温度が所定温度未満のとき、前記四方弁を切り換えてヒートポンプ式冷凍サイクルを冷房回路とすることを特徴とする請求項8に記載の空気調和装置。 An outdoor pipe temperature sensor for detecting the outdoor pipe temperature is provided, and when the outdoor pipe temperature detected by the outdoor pipe temperature sensor is lower than a predetermined temperature, the four-way valve is switched to form a heat pump refrigeration cycle as a cooling circuit. The air conditioning apparatus according to claim 8.
  11. 前記室外温度センサにより検知した室外温度が所定値以上の場合は、前記室外ファンの運転時間を、前記室外温度が前記所定値未満の場合より短く設定したことを特徴とする請求項1乃至10のいずれか1項に記載の空気調和装置。 The outdoor fan operation time is set shorter than the case where the outdoor temperature is less than the predetermined value when the outdoor temperature detected by the outdoor temperature sensor is equal to or higher than the predetermined value. The air conditioning apparatus of any one of Claims.
PCT/JP2009/004591 2008-09-16 2009-09-15 Air conditioning device WO2010032430A1 (en)

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