WO2010007053A1 - A plant for reducing the nitrogen oxides in exhaust gases - Google Patents

A plant for reducing the nitrogen oxides in exhaust gases Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2010007053A1
WO2010007053A1 PCT/EP2009/058971 EP2009058971W WO2010007053A1 WO 2010007053 A1 WO2010007053 A1 WO 2010007053A1 EP 2009058971 W EP2009058971 W EP 2009058971W WO 2010007053 A1 WO2010007053 A1 WO 2010007053A1
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WO
Grant status
Application
Patent type
Prior art keywords
filter element
additive
made
plant
polymer material
Prior art date
Application number
PCT/EP2009/058971
Other languages
French (fr)
Inventor
Giorgio Girondi
Original Assignee
Ufi Innovation Center S.R.L.
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date

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Classifications

    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F01MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES
    • F01NGAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; GAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES
    • F01N3/00Exhaust or silencing apparatus having means for purifying, rendering innocuous, or otherwise treating exhaust
    • F01N3/08Exhaust or silencing apparatus having means for purifying, rendering innocuous, or otherwise treating exhaust for rendering innocuous
    • F01N3/10Exhaust or silencing apparatus having means for purifying, rendering innocuous, or otherwise treating exhaust for rendering innocuous by thermal or catalytic conversion of noxious components of exhaust
    • F01N3/18Exhaust or silencing apparatus having means for purifying, rendering innocuous, or otherwise treating exhaust for rendering innocuous by thermal or catalytic conversion of noxious components of exhaust characterised by methods of operation; Control
    • F01N3/20Exhaust or silencing apparatus having means for purifying, rendering innocuous, or otherwise treating exhaust for rendering innocuous by thermal or catalytic conversion of noxious components of exhaust characterised by methods of operation; Control specially adapted for catalytic conversion ; Methods of operation or control of catalytic converters
    • F01N3/2066Selective catalytic reduction [SCR]
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
    • B01D2251/00Reactants
    • B01D2251/20Reductants
    • B01D2251/206Ammonium compounds
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
    • B01D2257/00Components to be removed
    • B01D2257/40Nitrogen compounds
    • B01D2257/404Nitrogen oxides other than dinitrogen oxide
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
    • B01D2258/00Sources of waste gases
    • B01D2258/01Engine exhaust gases
    • B01D2258/012Diesel engines and lean burn gasoline engines
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F01MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES
    • F01NGAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; GAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES
    • F01N2610/00Adding substances to exhaust gases
    • F01N2610/02Adding substances to exhaust gases the substance being ammonia or urea
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F01MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES
    • F01NGAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; GAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES
    • F01N2610/00Adding substances to exhaust gases
    • F01N2610/14Arrangements for the supply of substances, e.g. conduits
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F01MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES
    • F01NGAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; GAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES
    • F01N2610/00Adding substances to exhaust gases
    • F01N2610/14Arrangements for the supply of substances, e.g. conduits
    • F01N2610/1406Storage means for substances, e.g. tanks or reservoirs
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T10/00Road transport of goods or passengers
    • Y02T10/10Internal combustion engine [ICE] based vehicles
    • Y02T10/20Exhaust after-treatment
    • Y02T10/24Selective Catalytic Reactors for reduction in oxygen rich atmosphere

Abstract

A plant for treating exhaust gases produced by a combustion, comprising a conduit (3) for the exhaust gases into which a supply line (4) of an additive opens, which additive reduces nitrogen oxides contained in the exhaust gases, and also comprising a filter element (65) made of a polymer material for filtering the additive.

Description

A PLANT FOR REDUCING THE NITROGEN OXIDES IN EXHAUST GASES

Technical field

This invention in general concerns plants for Selective Catalytic Reduction

(SCR) of nitrogen oxides in the exhaust gases which are produced by combustion, in particular, by the combustion of the air/fuel mixture in an internal combustion engine of a vehicle.

Background of invention

Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) is a chemical process for reducing emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), in which a chemical reagent, typically a reducing agent containing nitrogen, such as ammonia or urea, is added to exhaust gases so that it can react with the nitrogen oxides contained in the exhaust gases, thus giving rise to molecular nitrogen (N2) and water (H2O).

The chemical reducing agent is added to the exhaust gases in the presence of an appropriate catalyst, which permits reduction of the nitrogen oxides to take place at lower temperatures (in any case above 250°) and with higher reduction performance, in comparison with what would be the case if reduction were to take place spontaneously without catalysis.

On vehicles with an internal combustion engine, the reducing agent is generally supplied in the form of an additive which goes by the name of

AdBlue.

This additive is a stable, colourless water-like liquid, 32.5% of which is urea, the rest being de-ionised water. It exhibits low toxicity, does not entail the risk of chronic diseases, is neither flammable nor explosive, and is therefore easily transportable in a simple tank located on board a vehicle.

The additive is injected into the stream of exhaust gases through a supply line which flows directly into the exhaust pipe, upstream of an SCR catalyst which accelerates reduction of the nitrogen oxides, and which is integrated into the silencer.

The stream of exhaust gases enters circulation at the entrance to the catalyser, thus heating the catalyser rapidly after the engine is started, until the relatively high temperatures (above 250°) which are necessary to trigger the reducing reaction of nitrogen oxides are reached.

When the liquid additive enters the exhaust pipe, the urea contained in the exhaust pipe breaks down into ammonia and carbon dioxide. Ammonia is the reagent which reduces the NOx giving rise to molecular nitrogen and water.

The supply line of the additive schematically comprises a storage tank, and a pump which entrains the additive contained in the tank, conveying it towards a dosing valve, which injects the additive in dosed quantities into the exhaust pipe.

A filter is also located along the supply line, usually upstream of the pump, which filters the liquid additive.

The filter comprises an external casing provided with an inlet and an outlet for the additive, which casing houses a filter element through which the additive passes, and which traps impurities contained in the additive.

The filtering element is usually a membrane with a pleated surface and a star-like geometry, and is made from a cellulose-based material.

This cellulose-based material tends however to soften and deteriorate rapidly when wetted with water or with aqueous solutions, so that its effectiveness and duration in filtering the additive used in the SCR process are in actual fact very low.

In particular, a membrane exhibiting a star-like geometry and made with a material of this kind tends to deform rapidly, losing the pleating configuration, and assuming an undefined form which strongly limits the available filtering surface.

To overcome this drawback, the cellulose material of the filter membrane is often treated with substances to increase its compatibility with the additive, that is to say, substances which increase its resistance and stability over time when it is used with the particular additive.

Since however the urea and water solution is corrosive, the stability over time of the filter membrane cannot be ensured even if the cellulose-based material is treated with the above-mentioned substances. The aim of this invention is to obviate this drawback, in the ambit of a simple, rational and inexpensive solution.

This aim is achieved by the characteristics of the invention described in the independent claims. The dependent claims delineate preferred and/or particularly advantageous aspects of the invention.

Disclosure of the invention

In particular the invention provides a plant for treating exhaust gases produced by combustion, comprising a conduit for the exhaust gases into which a supply line of an additive opens, which additive reduces the nitrogen oxides contained in the exhaust gases, and at least a filter element, which is made of a polymer material, to filter the additive.

The polymer material is perfectly compatible with the water and urea additive which is normally used in the SCR process, and is not significantly affected by the additive's corrosiveness: this makes the filter element much more resistant and stable compared with the filters at present in use for this type of application.

Preferably, the filter membrane is made from polypropylene, which is one of the available polymers exhibiting the above-mentioned characteristics of compatibility with the additive to the greatest extent.

In a preferred aspect of the invention, the filter element is a depth filter membrane, which in addition to ensuring high filtering efficiency, also exhibits great accumulation capacity, which ensures a longer working life.

Alternatively, the filter element can be a surface filter membrane with a pleated surface, possibly having a star-shaped geometry.

The filter element can be produced from polymer fibres by means of a meltblown process.

Brief description of the drawings

Further characteristics and advantages of the invention will emerge from the following description which is provided as a non-limiting example, with the aid of the appended figures of the drawings, in which: figure 1 is a diagram of a scheme of a plant for treating exhaust gases of a vehicle internal combustion engine, according to the invention. - A -

figure 2 is a section view along a vertical plane of a filter for the additive, which is installed in the plant of figure 1. Description of the preferred embodiment

Figure 1 schematically shows a plant 1 for treating the exhaust gases produced by an internal combustion engine 2, typically but not exclusively a

Diesel engine, which is mounted on board a vehicle, such as a motor car, truck, motor bus or the like.

The plant 1 is designed to subject the exhaust gases to a Selective Catalytic

Reduction (SRC) process, during which the nitrogen oxides (NOx) contained in the exhaust gases undergo a chemical reaction of reduction, giving rise to molecular nitrogen and water.

The plant 1 comprises a conduit 3 for the exhaust gases, in this case an exhaust pipe which connects the exhaust manifold of the engine 2 with the silencer, and a supply line 4 for an additive which operates the reduction of the nitrogen oxides contained in the exhaust gases.

The additive is a reducing agent, generally in the form of a nitrogenous liquid, approximately 32.5% of which is urea, the rest being de-ionised water, and the additive goes by the name of AdBlue.

The supply line 4 comprises a tank 40, and a pump 41 which sucks up additive contained in the tank 40 and supplies it to a dosing valve 42, which injects dosed quantities of the additive directly into the conduit 3 of the exhaust gases.

In particular, the dosing valve 42 injects the additive into the stream of exhaust gases upstream of a catalyser 30, which is incorporated into the silencer, where appropriate catalysing substances accelerate the reduction of the nitrogen oxides.

After the engine 2 has been started, the stream of exhaust gases rapidly heats up the catalyser 30, until the relatively high temperatures (above

2500C) which are necessary to trigger the reaction of reduction of the nitrogen oxides are reached. In these conditions, when the additive enters the exhaust pipe 3, the urea dissolved in the additive breaks down into ammonia and carbon dioxide. Thanks the high temperatures and the presence of the catalyser 30, the ammonia reduces the NOx, giving rise to molecular nitrogen and water, which are then discharged into the atmosphere through the silencer.

For the reduction reaction to take place correctly, the additive must be injected in calibrated quantities which are based on the temperature of the exhaust gases, and on the percentage of NOx contained in the exhaust gases. This calibration is effected automatically by an electronic control unit 9, which controls the operation of the pump 41 and of the dosing valve 42, in response to signals coming from a temperature sensor 90 and from an exhaust gas sensor 91 , which are mounted in the exhaust pipe 3 preferably downstream of the catalyser 30.

The supply line 4 further comprises a filter 5 which filters the additive, and which is preferably positioned between the tank 40 and the pump 41. As shown in figure 2, the filter 5 comprises an external casing 50, which is preferably made from polymer material, the internal volume of which is divided by a cartridge 6 into two distinct chambers, of which a first chamber 7 communicates with an input pipe 51 for the additive to be filtered, and a second chamber 8 communicates with an output pipe 52 for the filtered additive.

More in particular, the external casing 50 comprises a cylindrical beaker- shaped lower container 53, the mouth of which is hermetically closed by an openable upper cover 54, to which both the input conduit 51 and the output conduit 52, arranged respectively in a central and a peripheral position, are constrained.

The cartridge 6 comprises a central cylindrical cage 60 positioned between two coaxial support plates, of which a lower plate 61 is completely closed, and an upper plate 62 is provided with a central hollow bushing 63, which is removably inserted into an internal portion of the input pipe 51 , by interposing a ring seal 64.

The central cage 60 and the support plates 61 , 62 are all made of polymer material, preferably of the same type which is used for the external casing 50. A substantially cylindrical filter element 65 is coaxially inserted into the central cage 60 and is constrained between the support plates 61 and 62 of the cartridge 6. The stream of additive flows from the first chamber 7 to the second chamber 8 such as to trap any impurities contained in the additive. The filter element 65 is made from a polymer material, preferably polypropylene, which is optimally compatible with the additive to be filtered, that is to say, it does not suffer corrosion, damage or become excessively soft, when the additive flows through it, wetting it.

In this way, the filter element 65 has a much longer working life than the filter elements of the prior art which are used for this kind of application, in comparison with which it is also more efficient and stable over time. In a preferred aspect of the invention, the filter element 65 is made of the same polymer material of which the external casing 50 and possibly the central cage 60 and the support plates 61 and 62 are made. In this way, although the filter element 65 and of the other components of the casing 50 and of the cartridge 6 require different manufacturing processes, it is advantageously possible to reduce both the supply costs for the raw materials, and the costs of eliminating the filter 5, since the filter 5 can be entirely disposed of by simply following the procedures which are prescribed for polymer materials, and requiring neither dismantling nor waste separation. In particular, the filter element 65 can be made from a polymer fibre non- woven fabric, obtained for example using a meltblown procedure. In the illustrated example, the filter element 65 is a depth filter membrane which, besides ensuring superior filtering efficiency, allows a substantial accumulation of impurities before it is saturated, thus significantly prolonging the working life of the filter 5.

However the invention does not exclude the possibility that the filter element 65 may have the form of a thinner, pleated surface membrane, possibly wound around a central axis, thus acquiring a star-like geometry. Obviously, a person skilled in the sector might introduce numerous modifications of a technical and applicational nature to the plant 1 described above, without thereby forsaking the ambit of the invention as claimed below.

Claims

1 ). A plant for treating exhaust gases produced during combustion, comprising a conduit (3) for the exhaust gases into which a supply line (4) of an additive opens, which additive causes a reduction of nitrogen oxides contained in the exhaust gases, and also comprising a filter element (65) for filtering the additive, characterised in that the filter element (65) is made of a polymer material.
2). The plant of claim 1 , characterised in that the filter element (65) is made of polypropylene. 3). The plant of claim 1 , characterised in that the filter element (65) is a depth filter membrane.
4). The plant of claim 1 , characterised in that the filter element (65) is a pleated membrane.
5). The plant of claim 1 , characterised in that the filter element (65) is obtained via a meltblown process. 6). The plant of claim 1 , characterised in that the filter element (65) is contained in a casing (50) made of a polymer material, which casing (50) is provided with at least an inlet (51 ) and an outlet (52) for the additive to be filtered, the filter element (65) being made of a same polymer material as the casing (50). 7). The plant of claim 1 , characterised in that the filter element (65) is constrained to support means (60, 61 , 62) made of polymer material, by means of which support means (60, 61 , 62) the filter element (65) is mounted inside a casing affording at least an inlet (51 ) and an outlet (52) for the additive to be filtered, the filter element (65) being made of the same polymer material as the support means (60, 61 , 62). 8). Use of a filter element (65) made of a polymer material to filter an additive which operates a reduction of nitrogen oxides in a plant for treating exhaust gases produced by a combustion.
9). Use of the filter element of claim 8, wherein the filter element (65) is made of polypropylene.
10). Use of the filter element of claim 8, wherein the filter element (65) is a depth filter membrane.
11 ). Use of the filter element of claim 8, wherein the filter element (65) is a pleated membrane. 12). Use of the filter element of claim 8, wherein the filter element (65) is obtained with a meltblown process.
13). Use of the filter element of claim 8, wherein the filter element (65) is contained in a casing (50) made of a polymer material provided with at least an inlet (51 ) and an outlet (52) for additive to be filtered, the filter element (65) being made of the same polymer material as the casing (50).
14). Use of the filter element of claim 8, wherein the filter element (65) is constrained to support means (60, 61 , 62) made of a polymer material, by means of which support means (60, 61 , 62) the filter element (65) is mounted inside a casing provided with at least an inlet (51 ) and an outlet (52) for the additive to be filtered, the filter element (65) being made of the same polymer material as the support means (60, 61 , 62).
PCT/EP2009/058971 2008-07-18 2009-07-14 A plant for reducing the nitrogen oxides in exhaust gases WO2010007053A1 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
ITRE2008A000068 2008-07-18
ITRE20080068A1 ITRE20080068A1 (en) 2008-07-18 2008-07-18 '' Plant for the reduction of nitrogen oxides in the exhaust gases ''

Applications Claiming Priority (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
EP20090797492 EP2300120A1 (en) 2008-07-18 2009-07-14 A plant for reducing the nitrogen oxides in exhaust gases
JP2011517901A JP2011528412A (en) 2008-07-18 2009-07-14 Plant for reducing nitrogen oxides in the exhaust gas

Publications (1)

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WO2010007053A1 true true WO2010007053A1 (en) 2010-01-21

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JP (1) JP2011528412A (en)
WO (1) WO2010007053A1 (en)

Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO2012104379A1 (en) * 2011-02-03 2012-08-09 Mahle International Gmbh Urea filter material
CN102935331A (en) * 2011-08-15 2013-02-20 上海索菲玛汽车滤清器有限公司 Apparatus for reducing nitrogen oxides in exhaust gas

Families Citing this family (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JP2016098698A (en) * 2014-11-20 2016-05-30 株式会社デンソー Exhaust emission control system

Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO1999010080A1 (en) * 1997-08-25 1999-03-04 Hydac Filtertechnik Gmbh Filter element with plastic filter casing
DE102007000538A1 (en) * 2006-10-20 2008-05-08 Denso Corp., Kariya Exhaust gas cleaning device for internal combustion engine, has reverse suction controller device which propels pump in reducing agent reverse suction mode and varies reducing agent pumping mode
DE102007047885A1 (en) * 2006-11-29 2008-06-05 Denso Corp., Kariya Reductive pressure feed pump for use in reducing agent utility system, has drive section producing drive power for driving mechanical section to discharge pressure to reducing agent, which flows through flow path over drive section

Patent Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO1999010080A1 (en) * 1997-08-25 1999-03-04 Hydac Filtertechnik Gmbh Filter element with plastic filter casing
DE102007000538A1 (en) * 2006-10-20 2008-05-08 Denso Corp., Kariya Exhaust gas cleaning device for internal combustion engine, has reverse suction controller device which propels pump in reducing agent reverse suction mode and varies reducing agent pumping mode
DE102007047885A1 (en) * 2006-11-29 2008-06-05 Denso Corp., Kariya Reductive pressure feed pump for use in reducing agent utility system, has drive section producing drive power for driving mechanical section to discharge pressure to reducing agent, which flows through flow path over drive section

Cited By (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO2012104379A1 (en) * 2011-02-03 2012-08-09 Mahle International Gmbh Urea filter material
DE102011003585A1 (en) * 2011-02-03 2012-08-09 Mahle International Gmbh Urea filter material
CN103443413A (en) * 2011-02-03 2013-12-11 马勒国际有限公司 Tail gas filter material and tail gas filter element containing the same
EP2670959B1 (en) 2011-02-03 2016-09-14 Mahle International GmbH Urea filter material
CN102935331A (en) * 2011-08-15 2013-02-20 上海索菲玛汽车滤清器有限公司 Apparatus for reducing nitrogen oxides in exhaust gas

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date Type
JP2011528412A (en) 2011-11-17 application
EP2300120A1 (en) 2011-03-30 application

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