WO2010001970A1 - Moving body posture angle processing device - Google Patents

Moving body posture angle processing device Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2010001970A1
WO2010001970A1 PCT/JP2009/062145 JP2009062145W WO2010001970A1 WO 2010001970 A1 WO2010001970 A1 WO 2010001970A1 JP 2009062145 W JP2009062145 W JP 2009062145W WO 2010001970 A1 WO2010001970 A1 WO 2010001970A1
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output
sensor
gyro sensor
vector
acceleration
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PCT/JP2009/062145
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French (fr)
Japanese (ja)
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興梠 正克
蔵田 武志
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独立行政法人産業技術総合研究所
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Priority to JP2008173970 priority
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Publication of WO2010001970A1 publication Critical patent/WO2010001970A1/en

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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01CMEASURING DISTANCES, LEVELS OR BEARINGS; SURVEYING; NAVIGATION; GYROSCOPIC INSTRUMENTS; PHOTOGRAMMETRY OR VIDEOGRAMMETRY
    • G01C21/00Navigation; Navigational instruments not provided for in preceding groups
    • G01C21/26Navigation; Navigational instruments not provided for in preceding groups specially adapted for navigation in a road network
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01CMEASURING DISTANCES, LEVELS OR BEARINGS; SURVEYING; NAVIGATION; GYROSCOPIC INSTRUMENTS; PHOTOGRAMMETRY OR VIDEOGRAMMETRY
    • G01C19/00Gyroscopes; Turn-sensitive devices using vibrating masses; Turn-sensitive devices without moving masses; Measuring angular rate using gyroscopic effects
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01CMEASURING DISTANCES, LEVELS OR BEARINGS; SURVEYING; NAVIGATION; GYROSCOPIC INSTRUMENTS; PHOTOGRAMMETRY OR VIDEOGRAMMETRY
    • G01C21/00Navigation; Navigational instruments not provided for in preceding groups
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01CMEASURING DISTANCES, LEVELS OR BEARINGS; SURVEYING; NAVIGATION; GYROSCOPIC INSTRUMENTS; PHOTOGRAMMETRY OR VIDEOGRAMMETRY
    • G01C21/00Navigation; Navigational instruments not provided for in preceding groups
    • G01C21/10Navigation; Navigational instruments not provided for in preceding groups by using measurements of speed or acceleration
    • G01C21/12Navigation; Navigational instruments not provided for in preceding groups by using measurements of speed or acceleration executed aboard the object being navigated; Dead reckoning
    • G01C21/16Navigation; Navigational instruments not provided for in preceding groups by using measurements of speed or acceleration executed aboard the object being navigated; Dead reckoning by integrating acceleration or speed, i.e. inertial navigation
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01CMEASURING DISTANCES, LEVELS OR BEARINGS; SURVEYING; NAVIGATION; GYROSCOPIC INSTRUMENTS; PHOTOGRAMMETRY OR VIDEOGRAMMETRY
    • G01C21/00Navigation; Navigational instruments not provided for in preceding groups
    • G01C21/26Navigation; Navigational instruments not provided for in preceding groups specially adapted for navigation in a road network
    • G01C21/28Navigation; Navigational instruments not provided for in preceding groups specially adapted for navigation in a road network with correlation of data from several navigational instruments
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01CMEASURING DISTANCES, LEVELS OR BEARINGS; SURVEYING; NAVIGATION; GYROSCOPIC INSTRUMENTS; PHOTOGRAMMETRY OR VIDEOGRAMMETRY
    • G01C22/00Measuring distance traversed on the ground by vehicles, persons, animals, or other moving solid bodies, e.g. using odometers, using pedometers
    • GPHYSICS
    • G08SIGNALLING
    • G08GTRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEMS
    • G08G1/00Traffic control systems for road vehicles
    • G08G1/005Traffic control systems for road vehicles including pedestrian guidance indicator

Abstract

Provided is a moving body posture angle processing device which can reduce accumulated errors in continuously measuring the moving body posture angle.  The moving body posture angle processing device estimates the posture angle of a moving body according to the outputs from an acceleration sensor, a magnetic sensor, and a gyro sensor which are mounted on the moving body, and outputs the estimation result.  The moving body posture angle processing device includes: a moving state determining device which determines the motion state of the moving body according to the outputs of the gyro sensor which outputs an angular velocity vector, an acceleration sensor which outputs an acceleration vector, a magnetic sensor which outputs a magnetic vector, and the output of the acceleration sensor; and a gyro sensor zero point output estimation device which estimates the zero point output of the gyro sensor according to the output of the acceleration sensor, the output of the magnetic sensor, and the output of the gyro sensor when the motion state determination made by the motion state determining device detects that the moving body is in the stop state.

Description

Attitude angle processing apparatus of the moving body

The present invention relates to attitude angle processor of a mobile body which can reduce cumulative errors in the case of continuously measuring the attitude angle of the mobile object.

State obtaining technical people by wearable system (mobile) grasps the context information of the person, indispensable in realizing an intelligent interface to the computer. Workers situational awareness of the pedestrian navigation and remote work support, such as museums and large-scale exhibition facilities exhibition guide, the deployment of the many applications are expected.

For example, a person is mobile, attitude angle processing apparatus capable of obtaining information on the attitude angle of the person correctly, is worn measured object (small devices such as mobile phones, a PDA, or a human body, etc.) that compact, lightweight and the attitude angles, are obtained by a signal from inexpensive sensors.

Conventionally, a technique for obtaining an absolute posture angle using a magnetic sensor inclination angle sensor or accelerometer, is known. Further, by using the angular velocity sensor, a technique for measuring a relative orientation change from one absolute reference attitude angles are known. A combination of these sensors, more accurately, robustly attempt to measure the absolute posture angle of the measurement target have been made.

Patent No. 3038452 Publication JP 11-211479 discloses

Method of measuring the current absolute posture angle based on the geomagnetic vector is estimated using a magnetic sensor, in particular, in the indoor environment, since the disturbance of the magnetic field due to a variety of electronic devices and building structures is present, trust it is difficult to measure the geomagnetism that can, under a wide range of environments, there is a problem that does not work stably correctly.

Further, in the method for measuring the attitude angles using the gyro sensor and an acceleration sensor, the absolute posture angle as a reference, by the angular velocity vector and the acceleration sensor gyro sensor is measurement integrating the acceleration vector to be measured one by one absolute While estimating the pose angle updates the attitude angle, the problems such as drift components included in the output of the gyro sensor, there has been a problem that it is difficult to continue to acquire the absolute posture angle and long-lasting.

In the gyro sensor and acceleration sensor is very high precision for use in inertial navigation apparatus mounted on an aircraft or the like (IMU), it is possible to measure the relative posture angle change from absolute posture angle as a reference , from the problem size and weight and the economy, there is a problem that wearing it is difficult to small devices and the human body.

In configuring the self-contained navigation system used in the navigation system for pedestrians, the use of a gyro sensor of high accuracy and high price is generally difficult in terms of cost and weight, low-cost MEMS (Micro it is mostly the gyro sensor of the Electro Mechanical Systems) device is used.

However, include offset component of the angular velocity zero-point output of the gyro sensor of the MEMS device (stationary state of the angular velocity sensor output), its components are known to vary slowly over the long term. Some can estimate part that zero point output by the temperature of the gyro sensor, but in many cases, it is necessary to correct the offset component captures the long-term variations.

If it is not possible to correct such a variation, a self-contained navigation system long term continued to be unable to correctly estimate the movement direction, the positioning error may become very large problem.

The present invention has been made to solve such problems, an object of the present invention, the attitude angle of the mobile body which can reduce cumulative errors in the case of continuously measuring the attitude angle of the mobile body and to provide a processing apparatus. More specifically, there is provided a posture angle processing apparatus of a mobile body having means for estimating an offset component of the zero-point output of the angular velocity included such as a gyro sensor of the MEMS device.

To achieve the above object, in the present invention, based on the following concept, which constitute the attitude angle processing apparatus of the mobile. That is, the measurement results obtained in the section that is moving a distance greater than a predetermined threshold value and not at the same point, since the conditions and the environment to be measured is changed every moment, the error of the observed data is an average value vector but it is expected to approach the white noise nature of the 0. Therefore, a series of measurements obtained during the movement is considered to be the data having more suitable properties as an input to such Kalman and particle filter.

Therefore, in the present invention, by detecting the movement, by treating with to determine the two states, different measurement results in each state method when it is stopped to when is moving, better to allow the estimation process of the attitude angle of the mobile object.

Specifically, the acceleration sensor (3-axis) used to detect the gravity direction and motion, a gyro sensor (3-axis) for measuring the angular velocity, a magnetic sensor for measuring a geomagnetism and environmental magnetic field (3-axis), the device combining means for detecting a moving state by the sensors constitute an apparatus for estimating an offset component of the zero-point output of the angular velocity included in a gyro sensor, by using the estimated offset component, the estimation of the attitude angle processing is carried out.

Therefore, the offset value of the zero-point output of the angular velocity of the gyro sensor (3-axis) and (3-D), the gravitational acceleration vector (three dimensions), environmental magnetic vector (3D), with the angular velocity (3D) as a state vector It constitutes an extended Kalman filter, to use it as a gyro-sensor zero-point output estimating device.

Specifically, the present invention provides, in a first aspect, the attitude angle processor of a mobile body according to the present invention, an acceleration sensor attached to the moving body, the posture of the moving body by the output from the magnetic sensor and the gyro sensor, a posture angle estimating apparatus for outputting the estimated angular, and a gyro sensor for outputting an angular velocity vector, and the acceleration sensor for outputting an acceleration vector, a magnetic sensor that outputs the magnetic field vector, based on the output of the acceleration sensor and determining a moving state determining device a moving state of the moving body, when the determination of the moving state by the moving state determining apparatus detects the stationary mobile, the output of the acceleration sensor, the output of the magnetic sensor, wherein based on the output of the gyro sensor, and a gyro-sensor zero-point output estimating unit that performs a process of estimating the zero point output of the gyro sensor, the Using the output of Yairosensazero point output estimating unit, and corrects the zero point of the gyro sensor.

In this case, an acceleration sensor, a magnetic sensor, and the output of the gyro sensor, the attitude angle estimating apparatus for estimating an attitude angle, when the estimation processing the attitude angle of the mobile object, the gyro-sensor zero-point output estimating device based on the output, and correcting the estimated posture angle of the moving body output.

The present invention provides, as a second aspect, the attitude angle processor of a mobile body according to the present invention, an acceleration sensor attached to the moving body, the attitude angle of the mobile body is estimated by the output from the magnetic sensor and the gyro sensor, a posture angle estimating apparatus for outputting Te, a gyro sensor for outputting an angular velocity vector, and the acceleration sensor for outputting an acceleration vector, a magnetic sensor that outputs the magnetic field vector, based on the output of the acceleration sensor and the gyro sensor and determining a moving state determining device a moving state of the moving body, when the determination of the moving state by the moving state determining apparatus detects the stationary mobile, the output of the acceleration sensor, the output of the magnetic sensor, wherein based on the output of the gyro sensor, a gyro sensor zero-point output estimating unit that performs a process of estimating the zero point output of the gyro sensor Wherein the using the output of the gyro sensor zero-point output estimating unit, and corrects the zero point of the gyro sensor.

Further, in this case, an acceleration sensor, a magnetic sensor, and the output of the gyro sensor, the attitude angle estimating apparatus for estimating an attitude angle, when the estimation processing the attitude angle of the mobile object, the gyro-sensor zero-point output estimating device based on the output, and correcting the estimated posture angle of the moving body output.

According to the configuration of the posture angle processing apparatus moving body of the present invention, when performing the processing for estimating the attitude angle of the mobile object, by detecting the presence or absence of movement of the moving body, depending on the presence or absence of the movement, specific specifically the by detecting the Tachidomari corrects the zero point of the gyro sensor, or determines whether the output estimated the attitude angle of the mobile body, so as to output the corrected output of the estimation process of the attitude angle data processing in.

If the wearer of the device is determined to be halted in situ environmental magnetic field measured by the magnetic sensor can be regarded to be constant of the same point. That is, when the output of the movement state determination device is true signals, by utilizing the magnetic vector measured by the magnetic sensor as an observation result of ambient magnetic field, estimating the offset value of the zero point output a state vector of the extended Kalman filter it is possible to become.

Here, the moving state determination device may be configured the magnitude of fluctuations in the output of the acceleration sensor alone or an acceleration sensor and a gyro sensor as a device for detecting a stationary state by using a statistic, such as the dispersion. Accordingly, without any particular add other measuring means, constitutes a gyro sensor zero-point output estimating unit may be configured estimation processor attitude angle.

Further, since the offset value of the zero-point output of the gyro sensor (3-axis) is correctly estimated by the extended Kalman filter, it is possible to reduce the estimation error of the moving azimuth calculated as the integrated results from the angular velocity output of the gyro sensor can, therefore, it is possible to realize a self-contained navigation system for long-term low pedestrian by positioning errors.

It is a block diagram showing the main configuration of the posture angle processing apparatus moving body of the present invention. It is a block diagram showing the configuration of a posture angle processing apparatus moving body of the present invention. It is a block diagram showing another configuration of the attitude angle processor of a mobile body of the present invention. It is a block diagram showing another configuration of the attitude angle processor of a mobile body of the present invention.

DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS When performing the attitude angle processing apparatus of a mobile body according to the present invention will be specifically described with reference to the drawings. Figure 1 is a block diagram showing the main configuration of the posture angle processing apparatus moving body of the present invention. In Figure 1, 201 is an acceleration sensor used to detect the motion and gravity direction, a magnetic sensor for measuring the terrestrial magnetism and environmental magnetic field 202, the gyro sensor for measuring an angular velocity 203, 204 is moving state determining device, 205 gyro a sensor zero-point output estimating device.

In the attitude angle processor of a mobile body, an acceleration sensor 201 of the three axes mounted on the moving body, a magnetic sensor 202 of the three axes, and a gyro sensor 203 of the three axes and sensing means, it is the output of the acceleration sensor 201 based on the acceleration vector 210, the moving state determination unit 204 determines whether the movement of the moving body. Thus, the moving object determination unit 204 determines Tachidomari mobile. Here, the moving state determination unit 204, as a method of determining a moving state of a moving body such sensors is mounted, for example, calculates the variance value of the acceleration vector in the fixed period, it is a given It determines that the moving body is moving when exceeding the threshold. Such techniques, such as when the moving object is a pedestrian, and is effective in moving with a vibration appearing in the acceleration vector.

Moving state determination unit 204, and outputs as an output signal 213 true (TRUE) signal when the moving state is detected, when it is detected to be stationary and outputs a false (FALSE) signal as an output signal 213. Gyro-sensor zero-point output estimating unit 205 is implemented by an extended Kalman filter. The extended Kalman filter has as its state vector, the gravitational acceleration vector (3 axis), and ambient magnetic field vector (3 axis), and the angular velocity vector (three axes), the offset of the zero point output of the angular velocity of the gyro sensor (3-axis) values ​​(3-D), having as its component. Thus, the zero-point output of the gyro sensor (3-axis) is estimated.

The observation direction of gravity, by using the acceleration vector 210 is the output of the acceleration sensor 201, the observation of the environment magnetic field vector, by using a magnetic vector 211 is the output of the magnetic sensor 202, the angular velocity and the gyro sensor the observation of the zero point output, by using the angular velocity vector 212 is the output of the gyro sensor 203, the state of the Kalman filter is updated.

If it is determined that halted, environmental magnetic field measured by the magnetic sensor can be regarded as a constant of the same point. Therefore, if the sufficient number of observations obtained state vector converges over time, it is possible to obtain a zero point output of the gyro sensor as a convergence result. And outputs it as the estimation result 214 from the gyro sensor zero-point estimation device 205. The estimation results in direct, is used as data for correcting the zero point of the gyro sensor. Or, for example, it is utilized as a result of determining whether to use the result to estimate the attitude angle of the mobile object.

Figure 2 is a block diagram showing the configuration of a posture angle processing apparatus of a mobile body according to the present invention. 2, reference numeral 201 denotes an acceleration sensor, a magnetic sensor 202, 203 is a gyro sensor, 204 moving state determining device, 205 gyro sensor zero-point output estimating unit, 206 is a posture angle estimating apparatus. According to this configuration, the output data from the acceleration sensor 201, the output data from the magnetic sensor 202, the output data from the gyro sensor 203 is not only used in estimation processing of the gyro sensor zero point, attitude angle estimation processing unit also used in order to perform the estimation process of the posture angle at 206.

Attitude angle estimation device 206, the acceleration vector 210, a magnetic vector 211, the angular velocity vector 212, and inputs the output data from the zero point output 214 of the gyro sensor. Attitude angle estimating apparatus 206 is specifically implemented by the Kalman filter. A gravity direction vector (3 axis), true north direction vector (3 axis) by geomagnetism state vector having nine components of the angular velocity vector (three axes) is updated.

As we observed in the gravity direction vector, using the acceleration vector 210, as an observation of the true north direction vector, with reference to true north vector obtained by correcting the deviation angle and dip angle of the magnetic north from magnetic vector 211, as an observation of the angular velocity vector, the angular velocity use those obtained by correcting the zero point output 214 from the vector 112. Here using two gravity direction vector and the true north direction vector obtained by updating the observation, and outputs the calculated posture angle of the moving body (215).

Figure 3 is a block diagram showing another configuration of the attitude angle processor of a mobile body of the present invention. The three-axis acceleration sensor 201 and the three-axis magnetic sensor 202,3 axis gyro sensor 203 mounted on the moving body and the sensing means, the angular velocity vector 212 is the output of the acceleration vector 210 and a gyro sensor 203 which is the output of the acceleration sensor 201 based on the movement state determination unit 304 determines the presence or absence of movement of the moving body.

As means for determining a moving state, for example, calculates the variance of the acceleration vectors in the predetermined period, when it exceeds a predetermined threshold value, or, when the angular velocity vector exceeds a certain predetermined threshold, the moving body is moving it can be determined that the. This is a case the moving object is a pedestrian, is effective when moves with a rotary motion and vibration appearing in the acceleration vector and the angular velocity vector. When moving state determination device 304 which moving state is detected, it outputs the true (TRUE) signal as an output signal 313, when it is detected to be stationary and outputs a false (FALSE) signal as an output signal 313.

Gyro-sensor zero-point output estimating device 205 may be implemented by a Kalman filter. The Kalman filter as a state vector, with the gravity direction vector (3 axis) and ambient magnetic field vector (3 axis), the angular velocity vector (three axes), the zero-point output of the gyro sensor (3-axis) as its components. By using the acceleration vector 210 is the output of the acceleration sensor 201 as an observation of the direction of gravity, with a magnetic vector 211 is the output of the magnetic sensor 202 as an observation of the environment magnetic field vector, as observation of the zero point output of the angular velocity and a gyro sensor , using the angular velocity vector 212 is the output of the gyro sensor 203, updates the state of the Kalman filter.

When the sufficient number of observations obtained state vector converges over time, the convergence result can get zero point output of the gyro sensor, outputs this as the estimation result of the gyro sensor zero-point estimator 205 to (214).

Figure 4 is a block diagram showing another configuration of the attitude angle processor of a mobile body of the present invention. In addition to the configuration of FIG. 3 comprises an attitude angle estimation device 206. Attitude angle estimation device 206, the acceleration vector 210 and magnetic vector 211, the angular velocity vector 212, the moving state flag 313, and inputs the zero-point output 214 of the gyro sensor. Attitude angle estimation device 206, for example, is implemented by the Kalman filter.

Its state vector, the gravity direction vector as a state vector (3 axis) and true north direction vector (3 axis), with nine of the components of the angular velocity vector (three axes). As we observed in the gravity direction vector, using the acceleration vector 210, as an observation of the true north direction vector, with reference to true north vector obtained by correcting the deviation angle and dip angle of the magnetic north from magnetic vector 211, as an observation of the angular velocity vector, the angular velocity use those obtained by correcting the zero point output 214 from the vector 212. Here using two gravity direction vector and the true north direction vector obtained by updating the observation, the attitude angle estimating apparatus 206, and outputs the calculated posture angle of the moving body (215).

201 acceleration sensor,
202 magnetic sensor,
203 gyro sensor,
204 moving state determining device,
205 gyro sensor zero-point output estimating unit,
206 attitude angle estimating device,
304 moving state determining device,

Claims (4)

  1. An acceleration sensor mounted on the moving body, a posture angle estimating apparatus for outputting the estimated posture angle of the moving object by the output from the magnetic sensor and the gyro sensor,
    An acceleration sensor for outputting a gyro sensor and an acceleration vector outputted angular velocity vector,
    A magnetic sensor that outputs the magnetic field vector,
    A moving state determining apparatus for determining a moving state of the moving body based on an output of the acceleration sensor, when the determination of the moving state by the moving state determining apparatus detects the stationary mobile, the output of the acceleration sensor , the output of the magnetic sensor based on the output of the gyro sensor, the a gyro sensor zero-point output estimating unit that performs a process of estimating the zero point output of the gyro sensor, the output of the gyro sensor zero-point output estimating device using, attitude angle processor of a mobile body and correcting the zero point of the gyro sensor.
  2. In the attitude angle processing device of a mobile body according to claim 1,
    An acceleration sensor, a magnetic sensor, and the output of the gyro sensor, the attitude angle estimating apparatus for estimating a posture angle based on the output of the gyro sensor zero-point output estimating unit,
    Attitude angle processor of a mobile body, characterized in that to correct the estimated posture angle of the moving body output.
  3. An acceleration sensor mounted on the moving body, a posture angle estimating apparatus for outputting the estimated posture angle of the moving object by the output from the magnetic sensor and the gyro sensor,
    An acceleration sensor for outputting a gyro sensor and an acceleration vector outputted angular velocity vector,
    A magnetic sensor that outputs the magnetic field vector,
    A moving state determining apparatus for determining a moving state of the moving object based on an output of the acceleration sensor and the gyro sensor,
    When the determination of the moving state by the moving state determining apparatus detects the stationary mobile, the output of the acceleration sensor, the output of the magnetic sensor based on the output of the gyro sensor, the zero point output of the gyro sensor and a gyro sensor zero-point output estimating unit that performs a process of estimating,
    Wherein the using the output of the gyro sensor zero-point output estimating unit, attitude angle processor of a mobile body and correcting the zero point of the gyro sensor.
  4. In the attitude angle processing device of a mobile body according to claim 3,
    An acceleration sensor, a magnetic sensor, and the output of the gyro sensor, the attitude angle estimating apparatus for estimating a posture angle based on the output of the gyro sensor zero-point output estimating unit,
    Attitude angle processor of a mobile body, characterized in that to correct the estimated posture angle of the moving body output.
PCT/JP2009/062145 2008-07-02 2009-07-02 Moving body posture angle processing device WO2010001970A1 (en)

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