WO2009125040A1 - Device for measuring the angle of incidence of luminescent radiation - Google Patents

Device for measuring the angle of incidence of luminescent radiation Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2009125040A1
WO2009125040A1 PCT/ES2009/000192 ES2009000192W WO2009125040A1 WO 2009125040 A1 WO2009125040 A1 WO 2009125040A1 ES 2009000192 W ES2009000192 W ES 2009000192W WO 2009125040 A1 WO2009125040 A1 WO 2009125040A1
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WO
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Patent type
Prior art keywords
characterized
device according
angle
photodiodes
radiation
Prior art date
Application number
PCT/ES2009/000192
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Spanish (es)
French (fr)
Inventor
REBOUL José Manuel QUERO
MUÑOZ Luis CASTAÑER
FRANQUELO Leopoldo GARCÍA
Villasclaras Pablo Ortega
PUMAR Manuel DOMÍNGUEZ
ORTEGA Juan GARCÍA
TARRIDA Cristina LÓPEZ
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Universidad De Sevilla
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01SRADIO DIRECTION-FINDING; RADIO NAVIGATION; DETERMINING DISTANCE OR VELOCITY BY USE OF RADIO WAVES; LOCATING OR PRESENCE-DETECTING BY USE OF THE REFLECTION OR RERADIATION OF RADIO WAVES; ANALOGOUS ARRANGEMENTS USING OTHER WAVES
    • G01S3/00Direction-finders for determining the direction from which infrasonic, sonic, ultrasonic, or electromagnetic waves, or particle emission, not having a directional significance, are being received
    • G01S3/78Direction-finders for determining the direction from which infrasonic, sonic, ultrasonic, or electromagnetic waves, or particle emission, not having a directional significance, are being received using electromagnetic waves other than radio waves
    • G01S3/782Systems for determining direction or deviation from predetermined direction
    • G01S3/783Systems for determining direction or deviation from predetermined direction using amplitude comparison of signals derived from static detectors or detector systems
    • G01S3/784Systems for determining direction or deviation from predetermined direction using amplitude comparison of signals derived from static detectors or detector systems using a mosaic of detectors

Abstract

The present invention relates to the development of an electronic sensor, the aim of which is to measure the angle between luminous radiation and the vertical with respect to the surface of the sensor. The sensor comprises two photodiodes struck by a ray of light passing through a window made in a screen of transparent material serving as cover. The field of vision of the sensor and the precision of the measurement of the angle of incidence are determined by the structural features of the device. The invention applies directly to the field of the positioning of elements with respect to luminous radiation, such as artificial satellites or solar power-generation systems. Same is of use, also, for determining the angle of incidence of light, as in the case of the entry of direct solar radiation into vehicle passenger compartments.

Description

TITLE

Device for the measurement of the angle of incidence of a luminescent radiation.

OBJECT OF THE INVENTION

The present invention relates to the development of an electronic sensor that is intended to measure the angle between light radiation and the vertical with respect to the surface of the sensor. The sensor consists of two photodiodes on a beam of incident light passing through a window made in a cover of transparent material serving as a cover. The field of view of the sensor and the precision of the measurement of the angle of incidence are determined by the structural characteristics of the device.

The invention has direct application in the field of positioning elements for light radiation, such as artificial satellites, solar power generation systems. It is also useful to determine the angle of incidence of the light, as is the case of the entry of the direct solar radiation in vehicle cabins to improve the performance of air conditioning systems.

STATE OF THE ART

Currently, the problem of the location of an object is luminescent booming because new manufacturing technologies are enabling new business applications.

The simplest devices currently used to solve this problem are based on the use of two photosensitive cells arranged symmetrically about a plane at an angle. The difference of incident radiation in each cell provides a measure of the angle of incidence from vertical to said drawing. This approach has the advantage of simplicity, but the disadvantage is has a very low accuracy in the measurement.

An improvement of the above approach is the use of a screen so that a shadow or a light beam passing through a window on the two photosensitive cells is projected. Sensitivity increases considerably with this embodiment. In this scheme, the localization of luminous objects is done by putting the sensor in a position perpendicular to the incident radiation so that the currents generated by the two cells are equal.

There are several techniques and known devices for calculating the angle of incidence of light radiation. In some approaches, as JP9145357 (SAITO YUICHl inventor) can not achieve high integration of the device.

In other approaches, such as JP2000193484 (inventor FUKUHARA KEITA) there are moving parts that reduce the reliability of the given increasing the complexity of the solution device.

There are proposals which allow the microelectronic integration of the solution (see, for example, the patent US5594236, inventors SUZUKI Yasutoshi; YOKOYAMA KENICHI; MIZUNO KOKI; TOYODA INAO; TSUZUKI Yukio), but these approaches employ manufacturing processes involving molding processes, expensive and do not guarantee high precision.

In ES9901375 (inventors JOSE MANUEL QUERO, JUAN GARCIA GARCIA and LEOPOLDO) a manufacturing process where Ia lid covering the photodiodes is made by etching a silicon wafer is proposed. Techniques employed in manufacturing microsystems achieves high accuracy in the measurement, but its realization is complex and expensive.

The high number of patents and scientific publications oriented Ia achieving a device for measuring the angle of incidence of light radiation that can be easily integrated into low cost shows the current interest in such a device.

The main applications of a sensor to determine the angle of incidence of light radiation are:

1. Control attitude of artificial satellites using sunlight as a reference. High sensitivity can be achieved with this device allows high-accuracy positioning satellites at a low cost. 2. Positioning of sensors and / or reflectors in power generation systems for solar power. In solar concentration plants mirrors it is critical to position the mirrors in the heliostats. In photovoltaic plants, tracking the sun by the solar panels increases yields.

3. Determination of the angle of incidence of solar radiation on vehicles. Determining the lateral radiation on a vehicle to optimize the flow of conditioned air and maximize comfort in their cabins.

In all these applications, the device in question simplifies positioning control, reducing the costs of installation and maintenance. The inclusion of a microprocessor circuit enables an autonomous assembly positioners in monitoring systems,

DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

The present invention develops an electronic sensor angular positioning device of a luminescent object relative to the vertical of said device.

It consists of two elements: the first is a semiconductor wafer, typically silicon, on which there are constructed two photodiodes. These photodiodes are made by the necessary doping. The second element is a layer of transparent material on which there is deposited a layer of opaque material, typically a metal. This sheet has been conducted Ia window that allowed the passage of light. The foil is Io sufficiently large to prevent the entry of lateral light falls on the photodiodes. Both elements come together so that the incident light passes through said window and impinges on the photodiodes. Both elements are made using conventional techniques in the manufacture of monolithic integrated circuits (planar technology) and / or hybrid technology (thin and thick), and more specific techniques that can be used for the manufacture of micro and nanosystems. The device shown in Figure 1.

The diodes are reverse biased or shorted to the currents generated by photoelectric effect by entering the terminals connected to the zone n and are collected at the common terminal of the area p. The photogenerated current in each diode is proportional to the illuminated which in turn depends on the angle of incidence of the light area. The difference between the currents of the two photodiodes to deduce the angle of incidence of the light beam.

In Figure 2 can be seen the most important geometrical characteristics of the device. The width (W) of the window and the height (H) to Ia which is of the photodiodes are between about 100 microns to a few millimeters depending on the application and required sensitivity. The maximum deviation (θ max) of the beam can measure the sensor relative the vertical direction is determined by the size of said window and the thickness of the transparent layer according to the expression:

Figure imgf000007_0001

A typical value for 0 max in this configuration is between 10 ° and 120 °.

If the incident light is perpendicular, illuminated areas on both photodiodes shows the same, for which reason photocurrents Ia subtraction is void. If there is a change in the angle of incidence however, these areas differ, and photocurrents Ia subtraction provides a measurement of the tangent of the angle of incidence. According to FIG 3, if the angle of incidence is (Q), then in the photodiodes shown an increase and decrease respectively illuminated area. The length (X) in the varying the illuminated area is related to the height (H) of the cover:

X = Htg (θ)

The total area illuminated in each photodiode is given by:

Figure imgf000007_0002

where e is the dimension of photodiodes perpendicular to the section shown.

Since the photocurrent is proportional to the intensity of the radiation, can have an angle measurement that is independent of said radiation by calculating the quotient between subtraction Ia and the sum of both photocurrents. Furthermore, the dimension e may be determined to achieve a range of desired photocurrents.

The relationship between the angle of incidence (θ) and currents I A and I B contained in the sensor terminals is:

Figure imgf000007_0003
In this expression stresses that the ratio - acts as a factor that amplifies the sensitivity of the device structurally.

Raised device features make it a very reliable and low cost sensor. For space applications, the transparent material forming Ia cover can be chosen to protect the photodiodes of high-energy radiation.

The device can optionally be integrated in the same wafer semiconductor electronic circuits for the adaptation of signal processing and communications shown in Figure 5.

The device can integrate two sensors as described above to enable the measurement of the angles of incidence to the axes X and Y shown in Figure 6.

EMBODIMENT OF THE INVENTION

Io following an exemplary embodiment of the present invention is not intended to be exhaustive nor to limit the field covered by the present invention is explained, and only illustratively includes. The device definition is given by the claims set forth at the end of this patent.

As this standard manufacturing techniques microsystems, the optimum dimensions for this manufacturing method range from a few microns to a few millimeters.

Photodiodes for the manufacturing process uses a substrate or semiconductor wafer, typically silicon. The fabrication sequence as shown in Figure 7, embrace the following steps:

1.a. Growth or deposition of a material on apantanante a semiconductor wafer.

2.a. Definition of regions by photolithographic emitter or equivalent process. 2.b. Introducing dopant by diffusion or ion implantation. 3.a. Apantanante removal material.

4.a. Growth or deposition of a apantanante material and insulation. 5.a. Definition of base contact regions of the photodiodes by photolithography or equivalent. 5.b. Optionally, introducing dopant of the same type of the semiconductor substrate.

6.a. Defining contact regions issuer of the photodiodes by photolithography or equivalent. 7.a selective or not a metal layer deposition. 7.b Optionally (not selective deposition), defining electrodes by photolithography or equivalent. 8.a Annealing of metal. 9. Court of the wafer to isolate different devices.

For metal casings is of a translucent insulating substrate (e.g. pyrex). Its manufacturing process, follow the following sequence:

1. selective or not of an opaque material to light in the translucent Ia substrate the 2nd tank. Optionally (in the case of a non-selective deposition), defining a slit for passing light by photolithography or equivalent

3rd Court translucent substrate with the cover metal

in Ia

Figure 8 shows, as an example, the different steps in the manufacture of the lid using a nonselective metal deposit, in conjunction with Ia called lift-off technique used for engraving.

Finally, to attach the cover photodiodes with metal can be used any conventional bonding technique or welded in the manufacturing processes of microsystems, such as the anodic bonding or glue bonding. DESCRIPTION OF THE FIGURES

Figure 1. Representation of the angle of the luminous radiation measuring sensor.

The device consists of two photosensors (1) and (2) integrated on a same wafer (3) typically silicon. These photodiodes are manufactured by introducing the appropriate dopant to create PN junction diodes. The photodiodes are covered by a layer (4) of transparent material on which there is deposited a layer of opaque material (5). In said metal sheet is made a window (6) to let the radiation (7). Thus a ray of sunshine is projected onto both photosensors. The photocurrent generated in each photosensor is proportional to the illuminated area and hence the difference in photocurrents obtained metallizations A and B is proportional to the tangent of the angle (θ) of incidence of the light with respect to the vertical.

Figure 2. Representation of the main geometrical quantities device.

In this figure the section of the device shown delimiting the main functional dimensions such as the width (W) of the window and the distance (H) between the sheet of opaque material and photodiodes.

Figure 3. Representation of the areas of the photodiodes illuminated by radiation incident upon entering Ia Ia Ia window opaque sheet. This figure depicts the dependence between the zones is illuminated at the photodiodes and the angle (θ) of incidence. When the incident radiation at an angle (θ) relative perpendicular Ia, increases the distance a photodiode illuminated (X), while on the other photodiode is decremented.

Figure 4. Top view of the sensor.

The hatched area in Figure 4 shows the sheet of opaque material, but is drawn translucent to appreciate the photodiodes (1) and (2). The dimensions of the windows are (W) and (L). The dimension (M) of the photodiode is calculated to allow the measurement of the incident angle to the axis independent of the angle of incidence to the axis X. Figure 5. Electronic circuit for the measurement of the angle of incidence of the light.

They may use different electronic levels to perform the conversion of photocurrent to incident angles. A first stage amplifiers used in each photodiode to convert the photocurrents generated in voltages. Subsequent digital analog conversion allows digital values ​​are processed so that the measurement of the incident angle is obtained. A microprocessor performs calculations for angles.

Figure 6. Plant device with two orthogonal sensors. Two sensors may be employed rotated Sθ ° each other for the incident angles of the luminous radiation about the axes X and Y.

Figure 7. Main manufacturing steps of the photodiodes in the semiconductor substrate. Drawing 1 shows the growth or deposition of a material on apantallante a semiconductor wafer. Drawing 2 shows the embodiment of the photodiodes. Picture 3 shows the elimination of apantallante material is shown. In drawing 4 the growth of an insulating material is shown. In the drawings 5 ​​and 6 the base contact regions and emitters photodiodes respectively defined. The drawing 6 shows the metallization is performed for contacts.

Figure 8. Main steps of manufacturing the metal casing by the art lift-off.

Drawing 1 shows the deposition of a photoresist on the translucent material. In drawing 2 Ia definition it is represented by photolithography area of ​​the cover unmetallized. Picture 3 shows the metal deposit on the frontal surface of the translucent material shown. In the drawing 4 is shown as Ia metal region should stop the passage of light to the photodiodes is removed. To this end, in this particular example, the art known Uft-off is used.

Claims

What is claimed
1. microelectronic device for measuring the angle of incidence of light radiation, characterized by being composed of two photodiodes integrated in a semiconductor wafer rectangular and a cover of transparent material whereon is deposited a layer of opaque material with a window.
2. Device according to claim 1 characterized in that the deposition of the sheet of opaque material is also performed on the side walls of the lid.
3. Device according to claim 1 characterized in that the photodiodes may be different from the rectangular shape.
4. Device according to claim 1 characterized in that the window is not arranged symmetrically to the photodiodes to improve the response of the device when the radiation is incident at a certain minimum angle.
5. Device according to claim 1 characterized in that the relative size photodiodes regarding said window to measure the angle of incidence to the axis Y shown in Figure 4, but be insensitive forming angle with the axis X.
6. Device according to claim 1 characterized in that the lid is made of material cover-glass for radiation shielding of high energy particles.
7. Device according to claim 1 characterized in that the cover is made of translucent material.
8. Device according to claim 1 characterized in that the semiconductor wafer and the layer of transparent material are joined by fusion-bonding, anodic-bonding, blue-bonding or similar technique.
9. Device according to claim 1 characterized in that the photodiodes convert received light into two Ia proportional to the areas illuminated by radiation incident Ia entering through the upper window currents.
10. Device according to claim 1 characterized in that the length [X) increase in each cell lit area 3 according to the Figure is related to the height [H) of the lid and the incidence angle [θ) as:
X = Htg (θ)
The total area illuminated in each photodiode is given by:
Figure imgf000013_0001
where e is the dimension of photodiodes perpendicular to the section shown.
11. Method of measuring the angle of a luminous object with respect to the vertical to the sensor defined in claim 1, characterized in that the relationship between the incidence angle [θ) and currents I A and I B contained in the sensor terminals holds that:
Figure imgf000013_0002
12. Device according to claims 1 to 11 characterized by integrating two sensors to measure the angles the radiation with respect to axes X and Y defined in Figure 6.
13. Device according to claims 1 to 11 characterized by including amplifiers integrated photocurrent-voltage conversion Ia.
14. Device according to claims 1 to 13 characterized by integrating an analog to digital converter and a microcontroller for digital processing of the voltages and include calibration curves.
15. Device according to claims 1 to 14 characterized by encapsulation in a device containing an exterior window for the entry of the light radiation.
16. Device according to claims 1 to 11 characterized by integrating two pairs of photodiodes and covers at different heights to facilitate working with different viewing angles and precision of the measurement of the angle of incidence of the radiation.
17. Device according to claims 1 to 11 characterized by allowing the measurement of the direct radiation from the sum of the currents generated by the photodiodes.
'
PCT/ES2009/000192 2008-04-09 2009-04-08 Device for measuring the angle of incidence of luminescent radiation WO2009125040A1 (en)

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ESP200800999 2008-04-09

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* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
ES2423906B1 (en) * 2012-02-22 2014-07-21 Universidad De Sevilla System for positioning a reflective surface with respect to the sun by using a solar sensor in reflected light
ES2542801B1 (en) * 2014-02-11 2016-06-23 Iñigo Antonio ARIZA LOPEZ solar concentrator panel

Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4909856A (en) * 1988-08-22 1990-03-20 Hughes Aircraft Company Composite coverglass for solar cell
GB2316482A (en) * 1993-11-25 1998-02-25 Alps Electric Co Ltd Inclination detection apparatus
US5771092A (en) * 1997-05-08 1998-06-23 Her Majesty The Queen In Right Of Canada, As Represented By The Minister Of National Defence Wavelength agile receiver with noise neutralization and angular localization capabilities (WARNALOC)

Family Cites Families (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JPS62211506A (en) * 1986-03-12 1987-09-17 Toshiba Corp Digital sun sensor
CA2119330A1 (en) * 1994-03-17 1995-09-18 Ishiang Shih Methods to determine spatial angle of a light beam
DE10046785C2 (en) * 2000-09-19 2002-11-21 Jena Optronik Gmbh Arrangement for determining the angle of incidence of light

Patent Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4909856A (en) * 1988-08-22 1990-03-20 Hughes Aircraft Company Composite coverglass for solar cell
GB2316482A (en) * 1993-11-25 1998-02-25 Alps Electric Co Ltd Inclination detection apparatus
US5771092A (en) * 1997-05-08 1998-06-23 Her Majesty The Queen In Right Of Canada, As Represented By The Minister Of National Defence Wavelength agile receiver with noise neutralization and angular localization capabilities (WARNALOC)

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ES2337327A1 (en) 2010-04-22 application

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