WO2009115950A1 - Biosensor device having reduced electrical power consumption - Google Patents

Biosensor device having reduced electrical power consumption Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2009115950A1
WO2009115950A1 PCT/IB2009/051020 IB2009051020W WO2009115950A1 WO 2009115950 A1 WO2009115950 A1 WO 2009115950A1 IB 2009051020 W IB2009051020 W IB 2009051020W WO 2009115950 A1 WO2009115950 A1 WO 2009115950A1
Authority
WO
WIPO (PCT)
Prior art keywords
energy
means
cartridge
device
device according
Prior art date
Application number
PCT/IB2009/051020
Other languages
French (fr)
Inventor
Dirk J. Broer
Ralph Kurt
Emiel Peeters
Roel Penterman
David Halter
Hendrik De Koning
Original Assignee
Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V.
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to EP08102668.4 priority Critical
Priority to EP08102668 priority
Application filed by Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. filed Critical Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V.
Publication of WO2009115950A1 publication Critical patent/WO2009115950A1/en

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Classifications

    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N33/00Investigating or analysing materials by specific methods not covered by groups G01N1/00 - G01N31/00
    • G01N33/48Biological material, e.g. blood, urine; Haemocytometers
    • G01N33/483Physical analysis of biological material
    • G01N33/487Physical analysis of biological material of liquid biological material
    • G01N33/48785Electrical and electronic details of measuring devices for physical analysis of liquid biological material not specific to a particular test method, e.g. user interface or power supply
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01LCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL LABORATORY APPARATUS FOR GENERAL USE
    • B01L3/00Containers or dishes for laboratory use, e.g. laboratory glassware; Droppers
    • B01L3/50Containers for the purpose of retaining a material to be analysed, e.g. test tubes
    • B01L3/502Containers for the purpose of retaining a material to be analysed, e.g. test tubes with fluid transport, e.g. in multi-compartment structures
    • B01L3/5027Containers for the purpose of retaining a material to be analysed, e.g. test tubes with fluid transport, e.g. in multi-compartment structures by integrated microfluidic structures, i.e. dimensions of channels and chambers are such that surface tension forces are important, e.g. lab-on-a-chip
    • B01L3/502715Containers for the purpose of retaining a material to be analysed, e.g. test tubes with fluid transport, e.g. in multi-compartment structures by integrated microfluidic structures, i.e. dimensions of channels and chambers are such that surface tension forces are important, e.g. lab-on-a-chip characterised by interfacing components, e.g. fluidic, electrical, optical or mechanical interfaces
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01LCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL LABORATORY APPARATUS FOR GENERAL USE
    • B01L2200/00Solutions for specific problems relating to chemical or physical laboratory apparatus
    • B01L2200/02Adapting objects or devices to another
    • B01L2200/026Fluid interfacing between devices or objects, e.g. connectors, inlet details
    • B01L2200/027Fluid interfacing between devices or objects, e.g. connectors, inlet details for microfluidic devices
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01LCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL LABORATORY APPARATUS FOR GENERAL USE
    • B01L2200/00Solutions for specific problems relating to chemical or physical laboratory apparatus
    • B01L2200/04Exchange or ejection of cartridges, containers or reservoirs
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01LCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL LABORATORY APPARATUS FOR GENERAL USE
    • B01L2300/00Additional constructional details
    • B01L2300/06Auxiliary integrated devices, integrated components
    • B01L2300/0609Holders integrated in container to position an object
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01LCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL LABORATORY APPARATUS FOR GENERAL USE
    • B01L2400/00Moving or stopping fluids
    • B01L2400/04Moving fluids with specific forces or mechanical means
    • B01L2400/0475Moving fluids with specific forces or mechanical means specific mechanical means and fluid pressure
    • B01L2400/0487Moving fluids with specific forces or mechanical means specific mechanical means and fluid pressure fluid pressure, pneumatics

Abstract

In a microfluidic biosensor device comprising a reader device and a removable cartridge, energy generated when inserting the cartridge into the reader device is stored in an energy storage means. At least two actuator means connected to the energy storage means separately actuate energy consuming units in the biosensor device, such as pumps, valves or switches. Accordingly, different energy consuming units may be provided with energy from the energy storagedevice in a successive or stepwise way and at different times.

Description

BIOSENSOR DEVICE HAVING REDUCED ELECTRICAL POWER CONSUMPTION

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

The invention relates to a biosensor device, such as handheld microfluidic biosensor device having reduced electrical power consumption. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION Biosensor devices, in particular handheld microfluidic biosensor devices are commonly used in various applications, such as road side drugs-of-abuse testing, food and environmental diagnostics and forensics. Devices of this kind are also referred to as rapid digital diagnostic testing (RDT) devices. Many units in microfluidic biosensor devices, such as valves and pumps to drive and control fluid flow through the device, require mechanical or electrical energy to function properly. However, due to the limited power budgets of handheld devices the power consumption is an important issue. Moreover, due to the required small form factor, the valves and pumps have to be integrated in the device.

Specifically, RDT devices require independently operating microvalves to control the transport of liquid samples for complex and parallel functions. Existing microvalves are cumbersome to fabricate e.g. due to multilayer fabrication steps or need an external pressure source to operate. For example, pneumatically actuated elastomeric valves may be used. To drive the pneumatic valves, a pump is required which takes volume and needs a power supply. In addition, many devices require local heating or cooling and therefore also an external power supply. Read-out of the devices is often facilitated by light sources, again requiring power supplies.

An integrated fluid manipulation cartridge is disclosed e.g. in US-B- 6,440,725. The cartridge is for separating a desired analyte from a fluid sample and includes a sample port and a sample flow path extending from the port through the body of the cartridge. The sample flow path includes at least one flow-through component such as a filter paper or a micro-fabricated chip for capturing the desired analyte from the sample as the sample flows through the cartridge. The cartridge further may comprise a fluid motive source, such as an electronic pump wherein the fluid inside a sealed pouch is decomposed into gaseous elements by an electrical current, thereby pressuring and expanding the pouch. This sealed pumping pouch is positioned against a reagent pouch and forces the contents of the reagent pouch into the fluidic circuit as the pumping pouch expands. In an alternative embodiment, US-B-6,440,725 describes that a mechanical spring located either inside the cartridge or inside an external instrument into which the cartridge is inserted for processing, may provide for the motive source for pressing on the reagent pouch and forcing the reagent into the fluidic circuit. According to this alternative embodiment, the mechanical energy stored in the spring may either be built into the cartridge during manufacturing or be generated during insertion of the cartridge into the instrument, i.e. by cocking the spring during manual insertion of the cartridge.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

There is therefore a need to provide a microfluidic biosensor device having an energy storage means which is capable of providing energy to more than one energy consuming unit in the cartridge in a more flexible way. In particular, the energy storage means of the biosensor device according to the invention should be capable of providing energy to different energy consuming units in a successive or stepwise way, and/or at different times.

The microfluidic biosensor device according to the invention accordingly comprises a reader device and a removable cartridge. The energy applied when inserting the cartridge into the reader device is stored in an energy storage means. The energy storage means may be included in the cartridge or in the reader device. In order to be able to separately actuate and, in particular, to provide energy to different energy consuming units in the biosensor device, the energy storage means is connected to at least two actuator means which may be separately activated. The actuator means are adapted to actuate and particularly to provide energy to associated energy consuming units. According to an embodiment of the invention, there is provided a storage means in combination with at least two actuator means, which has the advantage that the loaded energy can be released at any given time that is desired. Until that time of release, the energy is stored in the storage means.

The energy consuming units which may be provided with energy by the energy storage device may include means for ejecting the cartridge after finishing the analysis, means for driving, directing or controlling fluid flow and/or fluid mixture in the biosensor device, electrically or mechanically driven valves and means for electrophoretic flow or separation. The stored energy may also be applied for thermally driven actuators, for example by resistive heating, or adiabatic heating to increase the local temperature, for example to activate a valve or to enable a chemical reaction.

The energy storage devices which may be suitably used according to the invention include a spring which is cocked or loaded when the cartridge is inserted into the reader device. According to this embodiment of the invention, the spring is adapted to separately release the stored energy and thus to provide energy to more than one energy consuming unit. This may be achieved for example by providing at least two different springs which are connected to be commonly loaded when the cartridge is inserted into the reader device but may be separately released in a controlled way to provide energy to different energy consuming units. It is also possible to use a flat spiral spring (which is very compact and therefore very suitable for mobile applications), and/or another mechanical spring, such as a torsion spring, or even a pneumatic spring or the like.

In an alternative embodiment, the energy storage device includes a reservoir comprising a compressible fluid. When the cartridge is inserted into the reader device, the volume of the reservoir is reduced and thereby the pressure in the reservoir is increased (or alternatively the volume of the reservoir is increased and thereby the pressure in the reservoir is decreased). By providing at least two outlet channels, each one being connected with a separate actuation means, the pressure stored in the reservoir may be provided to distinct energy consuming units in the biosensor device.

In addition, further to applying energy to the energy storage means when inserting the cartridge into the reader device, energy input means may be provided which allow the user to manually provide energy to the energy storage device, e.g. by further increasing the pressure in the reservoir by pumping the fluid with the finger. As an alternative to the mechanical energy storage means discussed above also electrical energy storage may be used in alternative embodiments. For example, the mechanical energy applied when inserting the cartridge into the reader may be transferred to electrical energy by using piezoelectric charging. The energy may then be stored capacitively or inductively.

The invention further provides a method for analyzing a sample in a microfluidic biosensor device.

With the invention, it is possible to compensate at least some of the electrical power needed during operating micropumps, actuators or valves in a microfluidic biosensor device by mechanical energy which is stored and released in a stepwise manner and/or at a proper moment. The release mechanism may be connectable to valves, switches and/or pumps in order to assist in moving the fluid in the device in a well-controlled way. Due to the use of an energy storage and releasing mechanism, the amount of electricity consumed by the microfluidic device during performing a biological analysis may thus be at least partly reduced and replaced by the energy that is delivered by the mechanical power from the user when inserting the cartridge into the reader. Thus, the electrical power consumption of the biosensor device may be reduced or even be avoided.

These and other aspects of the invention will be apparent from and elucidated with reference to the embodiments described hereafter. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

The sole Figure schematically shows a microfluidic biosensor device according to an embodiment of the invention including an energy storage and releasing mechanism. DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF EMBODIMENTS

According to the present invention, energy generated when inserting a cartridge into a reader device of a microfluidic biosensor device, such as a portable and/or handheld microfluidic biosensor device is stored in an energy storage means and released to provide energy to several energy consuming units of the biosensor device. When inserting the cartridge, a user typically generates a force in the value of about 1 to IO N. According to an embodiment of the invention, this force is coupled to a reservoir filled with a compressible fluid, which is compressed and thus a hydrostatic pressure is built up. Depending on the area, i.e. the cross-section of the compressing channel which typically is in the order of 1 mm2, a pressure of up to about 10 bar can be achieved, which is sufficient for a large number of applications. When the energy is stored in a torsion spring, the angular deflection α is given by

36O n D P R a =

E - d4 where n is the number of windings, D is the mean spring diameter, P is the spring load, R is the distance between the axis of the spring and the point at which load P is applied (in kg force), E is the Young's modulus of the spring material (kg force/mm2), and d is the wire diameter of the spring material. Assuming a steel spring (Young's modulus E of 210,000 N/mm2) with 2 coil windings, a spring diameter of 2 mm, needed force P=O.012 N, a distance R of 10 mm, and a wire diameter d of 0.12 mm, gives a realistic angular deflection of 40°. So during loading of the cartridge this torsion spring is loaded such that it can later on command release its energy e.g. to actuate valves or to drive the fluid flow. A preferred embodiment of a microfluidic biosensor device according to the invention is schematically shown in the Figure. A cartridge 1 is inserted into a reader device 2. The cartridge comprises an energy storage reservoir 3 which is filled with a compressible fluid, for example a gas. When the cartridge 1 is inserted into the reader 2, a pin 4 mounted to the reader 2 is pushing a movable piston 5 deeper into the cartridge 1 and is thereby reducing the volume of the compressible fluid in the reservoir 3, thereby increasing the pressure (or vice versa). In this way, energy is stored in the fluid. In a preferred embodiment, the piston may be arranged in the channel 6 in a way that only a movement of the piston 5 in one direction, namely in the direction, indicated by arrows in the Figure, is possible. This may be realized by using a barbed hook. The cartridge 1 has preferably electric and mechanical connections to the reader 2 after insertion. The reader unit and/or the cartridge containing the energy storage means may comprise a CPU and software to control the energy release means for a proper operation thereof.

The reservoir 3 is coupled to a plurality of outlet channels 7a to 7e, in the following generally referred to with reference numeral 7. The outlet channels 7 are provided with a switching means 8 which is capable to control the flow and/or pressure of the compressible fluid to flow from the reservoir 3 into one of the predefined outlet channels 7. Generally, the switching means 8 preferably are initially in the closed state, i.e. the fluid cannot pass the switching means 8, which may, for example, be realized as a valve. Upon actuation of the switching means 8 by corresponding activation means 9, which can address an individual switch or may also be adapted to address a plurality of predefined switches, the switching means 8 turns to the open state. Thus, the fluid can pass the switching means, and correspondingly pressure can be applied to the corresponding actuation means 11. By that, the stored energy can be released stepwise and at different times to perform different functions or the same function at different times.

The switching means 8 may be realized as a solid droplet of paraffin closing the outlet channel 7. In this case, the activation means 9 may be realized as an electrically driven wire acting as a resistive heating element melting locally the solid paraffin droplet and thereby opening the outlet channel 7. Alternatively, a thin membrane may be manufactured into the outlet channel 7. This membrane again has an integrated heating element which melts or burns the membrane and thereby opens the switching element 8. I.e. the activation means is preferably realized as an electrical or thermal activation means. It is noted, that the above-described types of switching means are single use only, which is considered to be sufficient for most applications. However, it is also possible to create a switching means which may again be closed after use, for example based on materials that undergo a phase transition.

In some applications, at least one of the outlet channels 7b may have a plurality of switching elements 8, 10. In a preferred embodiment, some or all of the actuation means may further be equipped with another switching means that can be used to release the pressure at the actuation means after use, i.e. a further switching means in an outlet channel connecting the actuation means with some further reservoir or the outside of the cartridge. It may further be advantageous to provide actuation means which are connected with more than one outlet channel, as shown for the upper right actuation means 11 in the Figure being connected with outlet channels 7b and 7c. The actuation means itself may be realized as a thin flexible foil, for example a PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) layer, which can be bulged in a way that another micro fluidic channel adjacent to the flexible foil is closed or opened. The piston that is pushed into the reservoir to increase the power may be provided with locking means. In a preferred embodiment said piston is e.g. provided with a unidirectional coupling preventing said piston to slide back and thereby releasing stored energy in an unintended direction. There may also be provided an overload protection means, for example a valve that opens if the pressure in the reservoir is above a certain threshold. Gas and/or pressure in the reservoir may alternatively be produced or generated by electrolysis, thermally or by a chemical reaction which again may be activated by a switching means as described above allowing two chemicals coming together. The stored energy may also be used to eject the cartridge from the reader after performing the analysis.

While the invention has been illustrated and described in detail in the drawings and foregoing description, such illustration and description are to be considered illustrative or exemplary and non-restrictive; the invention is thus not limited to the disclosed embodiments. Variations to the disclosed embodiments can be understood and effected by those skilled in the art and practicing the claimed invention, from a study of the drawings, the disclosure, and the appended claims. In the claims, the word "comprising" does not exclude other elements or steps, and the indefinite article "a" or "an" does not exclude a plurality. A single processor or other unit may fulfill the functions of several items recited in the claims. The mere fact that certain measures are recited in mutually different dependent claims does not indicate that a combination of these measures can not be used to advantage. Any reference signs in the claims should not be considered as limiting the scope.

Claims

CLAIMS:
1. A biosensor device comprising a reader device and a removable cartridge, the device comprising energy storage means for storing the energy applied when inserting the cartridge into the reader device, wherein the energy storage means is connected to at least two actuator means for separately actuating energy consuming units in the biosensor device.
2. The device according to claim 1, wherein the actuators are adapted to provide energy to the energy consuming units.
3. The device according to claim 1, wherein said energy storage means is connected to a loading mechanism for storing the mechanical energy loaded by the loading mechanism, and connected to a release mechanism to release the stored mechanical energy, wherein said release mechanism is adapted to release the stored energy stepwise.
4. The device according to claim 1, wherein the energy storage means is a reservoir filled with a compressible fluid connected with the at least two actuator means via at least two outlet channels.
5. The device according to claim 4, wherein the pressure in the gas reservoir is increased when inserting the cartridge into the reader device by pushing a movable piston into the cartridge to reduce the volume of the reservoir.
6. The device according to claim 4, wherein at least one of said outlet channels includes a switching means which is adapted to be activated by activation means.
7. The device according to claim 6, wherein the switching means and/or the activation means are electrically and/or thermally driven.
8. The device according to claim 1, wherein said storage means comprises an overload protection means adapted to prevent overload of said storage means.
9. The device according to claim 1, wherein the energy storage device includes a spring that is arranged to be loaded when the cartridge is inserted into the reader.
10. The device according to claim 1, including at least two energy storage means which are combined to be commonly loaded when the cartridge is inserted into the reader and are adapted to separately release the stored energy to the at least two actuator means.
11. The device according to claim 1 , wherein the energy storage means is a capacitive and/or inductive energy storage means, wherein the energy applied when the cartridge is inserted is transferred to electrical energy and stored in said energy storage means.
12. The device according to claim 1, wherein the cartridge further includes energy input means for manually providing energy to the energy storage device.
13. The device according to claim 1, wherein the energy consuming unit includes means for ejecting the cartridge from the reader, means for driving, directing and/or controlling the fluid flow and/or fluid mixing in the cartridge, means for electrically and/or mechanically driving valves, and/or means for electrophoretic flow or separation.
14. A method for analyzing a liquid sample in a micro fluidic biosensor device according to claim 1 comprising the steps of:
(a) applying the liquid sample to the cartridge;
(b) inserting the cartridge into the reader device, thereby storing the applied energy in the energy storage means; and
(c) applying the energy stored in the energy storage device for actuating energy consuming units in the biosensor device.
15. The method according to claim 14, wherein the energy stored in the energy storage device is used to control the flow of the liquid sample through the biosensor device.
PCT/IB2009/051020 2008-03-17 2009-03-11 Biosensor device having reduced electrical power consumption WO2009115950A1 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
EP08102668.4 2008-03-17
EP08102668 2008-03-17

Publications (1)

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WO2009115950A1 true WO2009115950A1 (en) 2009-09-24

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Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US6440725B1 (en) * 1997-12-24 2002-08-27 Cepheid Integrated fluid manipulation cartridge
WO2006083833A2 (en) * 2005-01-31 2006-08-10 President And Fellows Of Harvard College Valves and reservoirs for microfluidic systems
US20060240403A1 (en) * 2005-03-18 2006-10-26 Hans List Tape magazine for a hand-held device
WO2008076395A2 (en) * 2006-12-14 2008-06-26 The Trustees Of The University Of Pennsylvania Mechanically actuated diagnostic device

Patent Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US6440725B1 (en) * 1997-12-24 2002-08-27 Cepheid Integrated fluid manipulation cartridge
WO2006083833A2 (en) * 2005-01-31 2006-08-10 President And Fellows Of Harvard College Valves and reservoirs for microfluidic systems
US20060240403A1 (en) * 2005-03-18 2006-10-26 Hans List Tape magazine for a hand-held device
WO2008076395A2 (en) * 2006-12-14 2008-06-26 The Trustees Of The University Of Pennsylvania Mechanically actuated diagnostic device

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