WO2009094882A1 - A tower type earthworm ecological filter chamber system - Google Patents

A tower type earthworm ecological filter chamber system Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2009094882A1
WO2009094882A1 PCT/CN2008/073509 CN2008073509W WO2009094882A1 WO 2009094882 A1 WO2009094882 A1 WO 2009094882A1 CN 2008073509 W CN2008073509 W CN 2008073509W WO 2009094882 A1 WO2009094882 A1 WO 2009094882A1
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Prior art keywords
layer
water
pipe
tower
ecological filter
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PCT/CN2008/073509
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French (fr)
Chinese (zh)
Inventor
Zheng ZHENG
Junzhuang Li
Xingzhang Luo
Shiguan Yang
Jibiao Zhang
Jihong Li
Rongyan Shen
Jingwei Feng
Peipei Li
Guangyin Chen
Caixia Fang
Weiping Wang
Xingxing Zou
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Nanjing University
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Priority to CNA2008100187756A priority Critical patent/CN101250014A/en
Priority to CN200810018775.6 priority
Application filed by Nanjing University filed Critical Nanjing University
Publication of WO2009094882A1 publication Critical patent/WO2009094882A1/en

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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F3/00Biological treatment of water, waste water, or sewage
    • C02F3/32Biological treatment of water, waste water, or sewage characterised by the animals or plants used, e.g. algae
    • C02F3/327Biological treatment of water, waste water, or sewage characterised by the animals or plants used, e.g. algae characterised by animals and plants
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F3/00Biological treatment of water, waste water, or sewage
    • C02F3/02Aerobic processes
    • C02F3/06Aerobic processes using submerged filters
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02WCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO WASTEWATER TREATMENT OR WASTE MANAGEMENT
    • Y02W10/00Technologies for wastewater treatment
    • Y02W10/10Biological treatment of water, waste water, or sewage

Abstract

A tower type earthworm ecological filter chamber system comprises a hydrolysis acidification pool (6) and a poly-stage tower type earthworm ecological filter. The hydrolysis acidification pool is a buried pool. Each layer of the tower type earthworm ecological filter is a treatment unit in the form of square, rectangle or round. The tower adopts stairs mode, gyration mode or combination of them so that it is convenient to be maintained and to exchange the stuffing. The upper layer of the stuffing is made of the loam added with carbon; as the layer has earthworms, it is called earthworm bed (9). Thickness of the earthworm bed (9) is 30-40 cm;the middle layer (12) is filled with fine sand and 3-20 mm gravels in layers; and the lower layer (13) is composed of the scree with grain diameter of 10-50 mm. There are pipes (11) for distributing the water equably in the earthworm bed (9); the water dropping aeration and spraying techniques are adopted to improve the dissolved oxygen concentration of sewage. The tower type earthworm ecological filter chamber system can effectively improve the shock load for the sewage and the hydraulic load at the surface reaches 1 m3/ (m2 d); denitrification and dephosphorization ability are improved greatly.

Description

说明书  Instruction manual
塔式蚯蚓生态滤池系统  Tower raft ecological filter system
技术领域 Technical field
本发明涉及污水处理, 具体地说是一种高负荷的塔式蚯蚓生态滤池, 可用于广大村镇 和旅游景区相对集中排放生活污水的处理。  The invention relates to sewage treatment, in particular to a high-load tower-type ecological filter, which can be used for the treatment of relatively concentrated domestic sewage discharged in the vast villages and towns and tourist scenic spots.
背景技术 Background technique
目前在土地处理系统中应用强化生态技术成为国际上污水处理研究应用领域的热点, 但总体上研究处于起步阶段。 本发明所提到的塔式蚯蚓生态滤池系统就是一种应用强化生 态技术的土地处理系统, 它是根据蚯蚓具有吞食有机物、 提高土壤通气透水性能和蚯蚓与 微生物的协同作用等生态学功能而设计的一种多层多级布水的污水生态处理系统。 该系统 具有基建及运行管理费用低、 氮磷去除能力强、 处理出水水质好、 无公共健康影响问题等 优点。 该系统核心工艺塔式蚯蚓生态滤池是一种生物技术和生态技术相结合的系统, 克服 了单纯采用生态处理技术土地条件不允许, 而单纯采用生物技术又存在除磷脱氮工艺复 杂、 建设和运行费用较高的问题。 对于我国污水大量无序排放而且技术水平相对落后的农 村地区及部分居民点分布分散的村镇来说,塔式蚯蚓生态滤池是一种极具推广价值的污水 处理技术。  At present, the application of enhanced ecological technology in land processing systems has become a hot spot in the field of wastewater treatment research and application in the world, but the overall research is in its infancy. The tower type ecological filter system mentioned in the present invention is a land treatment system using an enhanced ecological technology, which is based on the ecological functions such as the ingestion of organic matter, the improvement of soil aeration and water permeability, and the synergistic action of earthworms and microorganisms. Designed as a multi-layer multi-stage water treatment system for sewage. The system has the advantages of low capital and operation management costs, strong nitrogen and phosphorus removal capacity, good effluent quality, and no public health impact. The core process tower of the system is a combination of biotechnology and ecological technology. It overcomes the land conditions that are not allowed to adopt ecological treatment technology. However, the use of biotechnology alone has complicated process of dephosphorization and denitrification. And the problem of higher running costs. For the rural areas where the sewage is discharged in large quantities and the technical level is relatively backward, and the rural areas where some residential areas are scattered, the tower-type ecological filter is a highly popular sewage treatment technology.
目前塔式蚯蚓生态滤池系统存在的问题有结构优势没有充分发挥、 系统的布水和排 水设计比较简单等, 具体为以下几个方面:  At present, the problems existing in the tower-type ecological filter system have not been fully utilized, and the design of the system is simple and simple, such as the following aspects:
( 1 ) 滤池为竖直塔层结构, 不便于填料更换、 布水管维护、 植物生长、 蚯蚓移种等需要; (1) The filter tank is a vertical tower structure, which is not convenient for the replacement of the packing, maintenance of the water pipe, plant growth, and transplanting of the seedlings;
(2) 系统设计时没有考虑村镇目前排水管网现实情况。 目前村镇普遍的排水系统为混流 式, 即所有污水包括生活污水和部分雨水全部汇入同一管道网进行处理; 同时村镇居民的 生活特点造成污水排放具有日变化系数比较大, 这必然造成系统进水水质波动较大。 这就 需要设计因地制宜的前处理工艺, 使整个系统运行稳定、 高效; (2) The current situation of the current drainage network in villages and towns was not considered in the system design. At present, the general drainage system in villages and towns is mixed-flow type, that is, all sewage including domestic sewage and part of rainwater are all sent to the same pipeline network for treatment; at the same time, the living characteristics of village residents make the sewage discharge have a large daily variation coefficient, which will inevitably cause system water inflow. The water quality fluctuates greatly. This requires designing a pre-treatment process tailored to local conditions to make the entire system stable and efficient.
(3) 布水单一, 仅从填料表层上方布水管布水。 这存在两个问题, 一是当 PVC布水管没 有固定好,外加因素使放置坡度在 1%以下或者 5%以上时,布水管布水过于集中、不均匀; 二是污水中的有机污染物容易被吸附截留在土壤填料表层, 从而造成土壤填料内部脱氮缺 乏碳素作为电子供体, 同时填料中的蚯蚓缺乏有机食料;  (3) The water in the cloth is single, and the water is only distributed from the water pipe above the surface of the filler. There are two problems. First, when the PVC water pipe is not fixed, and the additional factors make the placement slope less than 1% or more than 5%, the cloth water is too concentrated and uneven; Second, the organic pollutants in the sewage are easy. It is adsorbed and trapped on the surface layer of the soil filler, which causes the internal denitrification of the soil filler to deplete carbon as an electron donor, and the niobium in the filler lacks organic foodstuff;
(4) 排水设计不严谨。 没有铺设排水管道, 也没有做边角水泥固封处理, 这样就不仅容 易使出水沿池壁漏出, 而且影响出水顺畅; (5 ) 结构设计中没有应用跌水曝气的优势。 由于缺乏曝气装置, 所以污水中溶解氧浓度 低, 对提高污染物去除效果不利。 塔式结构便于达到跌水曝气的技术要求。 (4) The drainage design is not rigorous. There is no drainage pipe, and there is no corner cement sealing treatment, which not only makes it easy for the effluent to leak along the pool wall, but also affects the smooth water flow; (5) There is no advantage in applying water fall and aeration in structural design. Due to the lack of aeration devices, the dissolved oxygen concentration in the sewage is low, which is detrimental to the effect of improving the removal of pollutants. The tower structure is easy to meet the technical requirements for water aeration.
(6) 缺少自动控制设计。 塔式蚯蚓生态滤池系统高效运行, 需要控制适宜的运行时间,以 确保适宜的干湿投配比。 如果人工控制, 可能造成实际运行中系统干湿投配比的不准确。 这些问题使塔式蚯蚓生态滤池系统的水力负荷技术富余量减少, 影响了系统去除氮、 磷等营养物质的能力, 成为制约塔式蚯蚓生态滤池技术推广与安全运行管理的难点。 发明内容  (6) Lack of automatic control design. The tower-type eco-filter system operates efficiently and requires control of the appropriate run time to ensure a suitable dry-wet ratio. If it is controlled manually, it may cause inaccurate system dry and wet dosing ratio in actual operation. These problems reduce the hydraulic load technology surplus of the tower-type ecological filter system, affecting the ability of the system to remove nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus, and become a difficult point to restrict the promotion and safe operation management of the tower-type ecological filter. Summary of the invention
本发明针对塔式蚯蚓生态滤池系统存在的问题进行了改进, 也是对本申请人的专利 CN200410014641.9的一种改进。 首先它因地制宜采用水解酸化池作为前置的预处理技术, 与塔式蚯蚓生态滤池形成组合工艺; 其次, 改进了塔式蚯蚓生态滤池的结构, 采取梯度塔 层设计, 便于滤池的管理、 维护; 第三, 采取填料表层布水与填料内部布水相结合、 建立 专门的排水系统、 滤池底部坡度设计与边角水泥固封处理等措施, 彻底解决系统布水不均 匀、 实际运行水力负荷偏低的问题, 提高系统脱氮能力与排水能力; 第四, 采取跌水曝气 技术来增加进水中溶解氧浓度。  The present invention is directed to an improvement in the problems associated with the tower type eco-filter system and is an improvement over the applicant's patent CN200410014641.9. Firstly, it adopts the hydrolysis acidification tank as the pre-treatment technology according to local conditions, and forms a combined process with the tower-type ecological filter. Secondly, the structure of the tower-type ecological filter is improved, and the gradient tower layer design is adopted to facilitate the management of the filter. Third, the combination of the surface water of the filler and the internal water of the filler, the establishment of a special drainage system, the slope design of the bottom of the filter and the solidification treatment of the corner cement, completely solve the uneven distribution of water in the system and the actual operation. The problem of low hydraulic load is to improve the nitrogen removal capacity and drainage capacity of the system. Fourth, the water aeration technology is adopted to increase the dissolved oxygen concentration in the influent water.
本发明的技术方案如下:  The technical solution of the present invention is as follows:
一种塔式蚯蚓生态滤池系统, 它由水解酸化池和多级塔式蚯蚓生态滤池组成, 水解酸 化池为一有进出口和检查口的埋地池, 结构如图 1所示。 酸化池设有砖混结构的挡板, 以 防止发生短流。 出水通过潜水电泵投配到塔式蚯蚓生态滤池上方的高位配水槽中。  The utility model relates to a tower type ecological filter system, which is composed of a hydrolysis acidification tank and a multi-stage tower type ecological filter tank. The hydrolysis acidification tank is a buried pool with an inlet and outlet and an inspection port, and the structure is shown in FIG. The acidification tank is provided with a brick-concrete baffle to prevent short-flow. The effluent is dosed through a submersible pump to a high-level distribution tank above the tower-shaped ecological filter.
水解酸化池容积设计主要根据污水量与污水水力停留时间。 计算公式为:  The volume design of the hydrolysis acidification tank is mainly based on the amount of sewage and the hydraulic retention time of the sewage. The calculation formula is:
V = Q X T  V = Q X T
其中 V为酸化池体积; Q为管网收集末端污水流量; T为污水水力停留时间。 Where V is the volume of the acidification tank; Q is the flow rate of the end of the pipe network; T is the hydraulic retention time of the sewage.
塔式蚯蚓生态滤池, 结构见图 2所示, 采用模块化结构、 梯度塔层设计、 多级单元串 联处理的方式, 每一层塔为一个处理单元, 可以是方形、 矩形或圆形。 在实际操作中, 可 以根据实际地形, 采取不同的结构模式组合: 楼梯型或回转型。 楼梯型即塔层拾级而下, 回转型是塔层结构回转, 使得整体滤池占地面积集约化, 同时便于滤池管理、 维护。  The tower type ecological filter has the structure shown in Figure 2. It adopts modular structure, gradient tower design and multi-stage unit serial processing. Each tower is a processing unit, which can be square, rectangular or circular. In practice, different combinations of structural modes can be used depending on the actual terrain: stair type or rotary type. The stair type is the tower level, and the back transformation is the rotation of the tower structure, which makes the overall filter pool intensive, and at the same time facilitates filter management and maintenance.
采取梯度塔层设计后, 光照面积增加, 有助于滤池填料表面植物生长, 强化其根部对 污水中污染物质的吸附转化及其根部泌氧作用。 污水经过每一单元的吸附、 转化后, 流入 下一单元进行净化。 多单元串联处理设计大大提高了系统的去污能力。 塔式蚯蚓生态滤池每一层填料设置基本一致, 填料上层是由当地适宜壤土中添加木 屑、 稻壳等含碳丰富有机物、 细砂 (壤土、 木屑或稻壳、 细砂按 6: 2: 1〜9: 3: 1 的体 积比混合)的人工土组成, 这利于硝化细菌、反硝化细菌的保持较高数量和维持较高活性, 该层由于有蚯蚓活动所以称之为蚯蚓床, 蚯蚓床的厚度一般为 30~40cm; 中间层由细砂、 3〜20mm碎石分层填充, 厚度分别为 10〜15cm。 这样一方面依托细砂和碎石的巨大表面 积形成生物膜继续对污水中的污染物质进行吸附、 降解, 另一方面由于较大的渗透系数可 以保证整个系统的水力负荷; 下层由粒径 10〜50mm、 厚度为 20〜25cm的卵石组成, 起 到承托和排水的作用。 蚯蚓床中投放一定数量、 种类的蚯蚓, 蚯蚓密度为 8g~12g (蚯蚓 )/(L 填料)。 蚓种分为表层种和深层种, 表层种为大平 2号蚯蚓, 投放在 3~7cm深度内; 深层 种为威廉环毛蚯蚓, 投放在蚯蚓床 15〜20cm深度处。 After adopting the gradient tower layer design, the illumination area increases, which helps the plant growth on the surface of the filter packing, strengthens the adsorption and transformation of the roots on the pollutants in the sewage and the oxygen secretion of the roots. After the sewage is adsorbed and converted by each unit, it flows into the next unit for purification. The multi-unit series processing design greatly improves the decontamination capability of the system. The packing of each layer of the tower-type ecological filter is basically the same. The upper layer of the packing is made of wood-rich organic matter such as wood chips and rice husks added to the local suitable loam, fine sand (loam, wood chips or rice husk, fine sand according to 6: 2: 1~9: 3:1 volume ratio of mixed artificial soil composition, which helps nitrifying bacteria, denitrifying bacteria maintain a high amount and maintain high activity, this layer is called a trampoline due to cockroach activity, 蚯蚓The thickness of the bed is generally 30~40cm; the middle layer is layered by fine sand and 3~20mm gravel, and the thickness is 10~15cm respectively. On the one hand, relying on the huge surface area of fine sand and gravel to form biofilm, the pollutants in the sewage will continue to be adsorbed and degraded. On the other hand, the hydraulic pressure of the whole system can be ensured by the larger permeability coefficient; It is composed of 50mm and pebbles with a thickness of 20~25cm, which plays a role of support and drainage. A certain amount and type of strontium are placed in the trampoline, and the density of strontium is 8g~12g (蚯蚓)/(L filler). The species are divided into surface layer and deep layer. The surface layer is Daping No. 2, which is placed in the depth of 3~7cm. The deep layer is William Ring, which is placed at the depth of 15~20cm in the trampoline.
塔式蚯蚓生态滤池系统, 在每一级处理单元, 在表面布水的同时, 为增加布水均匀性, 在特殊土壤填料中设有内层布水管。 在布水管的主进水管上安装有球门阀, 在进水管的分 枝处安装有旁通阀。 这样就可以通过控制球门阀, 确保进水在表层布水管和深层布水管之 间分配平衡。  The tower type 蚯蚓 ecological filter system, in each stage of the processing unit, while the surface is watered, in order to increase the uniformity of the water distribution, an inner layer of water pipes is provided in the special soil filler. A goal valve is installed on the main inlet pipe of the water pipe, and a bypass valve is installed at the branch of the inlet pipe. This allows the inlet valve to be balanced between the surface distribution pipe and the deep distribution pipe by controlling the goal valve.
每一级表层布水管为单排孔的 PVC布水管, 布水孔的直径为 8mm〜12mm, 相连布水 孔的间距为 20~35mm;内层布水管为双排孔的 PVC布水管,布水孔的直径为 6mm〜12mm, 相连布水孔的间距为 35~40mm,内层布水管的埋设深度为填料内 25-30cm处,材质为 PVC 管材; 内层布水管周围是用土工布包裹的的青石子, 土工布外层即是特殊配制的人工土组 成的特殊土壤渗滤层, 特殊土壤填料由当地壤土、 木屑、 细沙组成, 以 6: 2: 1〜9: 3: 1 的比体积比混合。 污水从布水管出来时, 首先经过青石子上的生物膜净化; 然后通过纤维 织物和经人工配制的特殊土壤渗滤层的毛管浸润作用, 缓慢的扩散入周围土壤。  Each level of surface water distribution pipe is a single row of PVC cloth water pipes. The diameter of the water holes of the cloth is 8mm~12mm, the distance between the water holes of the connected cloth is 20~35mm; the inner water distribution pipe is a double-row hole PVC cloth water pipe, cloth. The diameter of the water hole is 6mm~12mm, the distance between the water holes of the connected cloth is 35~40mm, the buried depth of the inner layer water pipe is 25-30cm inside the packing, the material is PVC pipe; the inner layer water pipe is wrapped with geotextile The bluestone, the outer layer of the geotextile is a special soil infiltration layer composed of specially prepared artificial soil. The special soil filler is composed of local loam, wood chips and fine sand, to 6: 2: 1~9: 3: 1 Mix than volume ratio. When the sewage comes out of the water pipe, it is first purified by the biofilm on the bluestone; then it is slowly diffused into the surrounding soil through the capillary infiltration of the fiber fabric and the specially prepared soil infiltration layer.
在第一级处理单元的内层布水管的进水为水解酸化池的出水,其 COD浓度一般为 200 一 500mg/L, 这样就克服了由于完全表面布水带来的有机碳源被上层特殊土壤填料截留所 引起下层人工土填料中后续的反硝化过程中碳源的不足, 大大促进反硝化; 下一级处理单 元的内层布水管的进水为上一级处理单元的出水, 如此, 能有效缓解反硝化过程中碳源的 不足的状况。  The influent water in the inner layer of the first-stage processing unit is the effluent of the hydrolysis acidification tank, and its COD concentration is generally 200-500 mg/L, thus overcoming the special organic carbon source due to the complete surface water distribution. The shortage of carbon source in the subsequent denitrification process of the underlying artificial soil filler caused by the soil filler interception greatly promotes denitrification; the inflow of the inner layer water distribution pipe of the next-stage treatment unit is the effluent of the upper treatment unit, thus, It can effectively alleviate the shortage of carbon sources in the denitrification process.
上述的塔式蚯蚓生态滤池系统, 所述的每一级处理单元的滤池采取砖抹结构, 用二四 墙砌筑, 池体内抹 20mm防水砂浆, 池底采取钢筋混凝土预制件结构; 高位配水槽的槽底 采取预制件结构, 预制件边缘超出墙体 5mm。  In the above-mentioned tower type ecological filter system, the filter tank of each stage of the treatment unit adopts a brick slab structure, which is built with two or four walls, 20 mm waterproof mortar is used in the pool body, and a reinforced concrete prefabricated structure is adopted at the bottom of the pool; The bottom of the groove of the water distribution tank adopts a prefabricated structure, and the edge of the preform is 5 mm beyond the wall.
上述的塔式蚯蚓生态滤池系统, 为防止边缝渗漏, 每一级处理单元的滤池池体四角做 水泥固封处理平面, 结构阴阳角处, 均应做成圆角, 圆孤半径一般阴角为 50mm, 阳角为 10mm。 In the above-mentioned tower type ecological filter system, in order to prevent leakage of the edge joint, the filter pool body of each primary treatment unit is made at four corners. Cement solid sealing treatment plane, structure yin and yang corner, should be rounded, round corner radius is generally 50mm, the angle is 10mm.
上述的塔式蚯蚓生态滤池系统,在高位配水槽采取跌水曝气技术强化进水中溶解氧 DO 含量。 跌水级数可采用 1~3级, 每级跌水高度为 0.5m。污水经潜水泵抽取投放入高位配水 槽时, 即放置竖缝型跌水挡板以使污水冲击挡板后均匀分布,这样能达到较好的充氧效果; 设计单宽流量为 20~50m3/(m2.h)。 高位配水槽出水经球门阀与下一级布水管接通。 In the above-mentioned tower type ecological filter system, the water-discharging aeration technology is adopted in the high-position water distribution tank to strengthen the dissolved oxygen DO content in the influent water. The drop level can be 1~3, and the drop height of each level is 0.5m. When the sewage is pumped into the high-position water distribution tank by the submersible pump, the vertical-type water-falling baffle is placed to make the sewage evenly distributed after impacting the baffle, so that a better oxygenation effect can be achieved; the design single-width flow is 20~50m 3 /(m 2 .h). The high water distribution tank is connected to the lower level water pipe through the goal valve.
上述的塔式蚯蚓生态滤池系统, 每一级表层布水采取淋水装置, 以提高一级处理单元 和二级处理单元出水中的 DO含量, 即采用穿孔管布水, 孔眼直径可采用 6~12mm, 孔眼 流速为 1.5~2.5m/s, 安装高度为 0.3~0.6m。  In the above-mentioned tower type ecological filter system, a water spray device is adopted for each level of surface water distribution to increase the DO content in the effluent of the primary treatment unit and the secondary treatment unit, that is, the perforated pipe is used for water, and the diameter of the perforation can be 6 ~12mm, the flow rate of the hole is 1.5~2.5m/s, and the installation height is 0.3~0.6m.
上述的塔式蚯蚓生态滤池系统, 在系统的底层增加了排水系统, 将深度处理后的污水 通过排水系统排出, 从而增大系统处理污水能力。 排水系统设置在滤池底部的集水管采用 波纹排水管, 管材为 4" ,PVC管材;考虑到排水效率,管网不宜过稀。排水管的间距为 0.7m 左右, 集水管周围, 由鹅卵石组成的隔离层, 能防止渗滤层土壤堵塞集水管影响排水。 该 层填料为卵石层,为粒径不小于 20mm且不大于 50mm的卵石所填充;排水管坡度为 0.5%, 卵石压实系数为 0.9, 并不得破坏 PVC导渗管。  The above-mentioned tower type ecological filter system adds a drainage system to the bottom layer of the system, and discharges the deep treated sewage through the drainage system, thereby increasing the system's ability to treat sewage. The drainage system is provided with a corrugated drainage pipe at the bottom of the filter. The pipe is made of 4" and PVC pipe. Considering the drainage efficiency, the pipe network should not be too thin. The distance between the drainage pipes is about 0.7m, and the water collection pipe is composed of pebbles. The isolation layer can prevent the soil in the percolation layer from blocking the water collecting pipe and affect the drainage. The filling layer is a pebble layer filled with pebbles having a particle diameter of not less than 20 mm and not more than 50 mm; the gradient of the drainage pipe is 0.5%, and the pebble compaction coefficient is 0.9, and shall not damage the PVC guide tube.
上述的塔式蚯蚓生态滤池系统, 使用定时器来控制潜水泵电源开关。 将配水时间与系 统落干时间比控制在 1 : 3〜1: 5的范围内, 将配水周期定为 1天, 可实现蚯蚓生态功能 的最大化, 实现反硝化好氧一缺氧环境的实现。 经过上述技术方案的实施, 塔式蚯蚓生态滤池系统能够有效提高对污水冲击负荷, 表 面水力负荷可达 lm3/(m2.d); 进水溶解氧含量大幅提高, 经跌水曝气后, 进水中 DO可由 0.3mg/L提高到 6mg/L以上; 较大的提高系统的脱氮能力, 在 10°C以上的环境中系统总氮 去除效率达 80%以上; 系统自然水力停留时间延长, 可达 1.5小时以上, 这强化了污染物 去除效果, COD&、氮氮、 总磷去除效率可达 90%以上。在目前村镇污水进水水质条件下, 出水可以达到 《GB8978-1996国家污水排放标准》 要求。 The above-mentioned tower type ecological filter system uses a timer to control the submersible pump power switch. The ratio of water distribution time to system drying time is controlled within the range of 1:3~1: 5, and the water distribution period is set to 1 day, which can maximize the ecological function of the cockroach and realize the realization of denitrification aerobic-anoxic environment. . Through the implementation of the above technical scheme, the tower type ecological filter system can effectively increase the impact load on the sewage, the surface hydraulic load can reach lm 3 /(m 2 .d) ; the dissolved oxygen content in the influent is greatly improved, and the water is aerated by falling water. After that, the DO in the influent water can be increased from 0.3mg/L to more than 6mg/L; the system can greatly improve the nitrogen removal capacity of the system, and the total nitrogen removal efficiency of the system is above 80% in the environment above 10°C; The time is extended to more than 1.5 hours, which enhances the removal of pollutants. The removal efficiency of COD & , nitrogen, and total phosphorus can reach over 90%. Under the current water quality conditions of village and town sewage, the effluent can meet the requirements of GB8978-1996 National Sewage Discharge Standard.
附图说明 DRAWINGS
图 1为水解酸化池结构示意图, 其中: 1为进水管; 2为检查口; 3为安全管; 4为砖 混挡板; 5为潜水泵。  Figure 1 is a schematic diagram of the structure of the hydrolysis acidification tank, wherein: 1 is the inlet pipe; 2 is the inspection port; 3 is the safety pipe; 4 is the brick mixing baffle; 5 is the submersible pump.
图 2为塔式蚯蚓生态滤池系统装置示意图, 其中: 6为水解酸化池; 7为高位配水槽; 8为表面布水管; 9为蚯蚓床; 10为旁通阀; 11为内层布水管; 12为砂石层; 13为卵石 层。 具体实施方式 Figure 2 is a schematic diagram of the tower raft ecological filter system, wherein: 6 is a hydrolysis acidification tank; 7 is a high water distribution tank; 8 is a surface water distribution pipe; 9 is a boring machine; 10 is a bypass valve; 11 is an inner layer water distribution pipe 12 is a sandstone layer; 13 is a pebble Floor. detailed description
实施例一: 日处理能力为 10t的塔式蚯蚓生态滤池系统示范工程。  Embodiment 1: Demonstration project of tower type ecological filter system with daily treatment capacity of 10t.
设计处理水量: Q= 10t/d。  Designed to handle water: Q = 10t/d.
水解酸化池长 4米, 宽 3米, 有效深度为 1.2m, 超高 0.3m, 总深度为 1.5m, 为地下 一层, 顶板面标高为 -0.00, 板厚 20mm。进水管嵌入位置距池墙基部高度 25cm处, 与池墙 夹角成 40°向下, 管口下沿与池墙内壁齐。 出水通过潜水电泵投配到塔式蚯蚓生态滤池上 方的高位配水槽中。 嵌入口用细石混凝土填塞密实。 池子安装采取地埋式, 池体采取砖抹 结构。  The hydrolysis acidification tank is 4 meters long and 3 meters wide. The effective depth is 1.2m, the height is 0.3m, and the total depth is 1.5m. It is a basement layer with a top surface elevation of -0.00 and a plate thickness of 20mm. The inlet pipe is embedded at a height of 25 cm from the base of the pool wall, and the angle between the inlet and the wall is 40° downward, and the lower edge of the pipe is flush with the inner wall of the wall. The effluent is dosed through a submersible pump to the high water distribution tank above the tower raft ecological filter. The embedding port is densely packed with fine stone concrete. The pool installation is buried, and the pool body adopts a brick structure.
塔式蚯蚓生态滤池部分总占地面积为 30 m2, 整体结构采取砖混结构, The total area of the tower type ecological filter is 30 m 2 , and the overall structure adopts brick-concrete structure.
高位配水槽内侧尺寸 4 X 3 X lm, 底板为预制件结构, 其四周伸出侧壁 5mm; 放置 2 级竖缝型跌水挡板以达到的充氧效果, 单宽流量为 25m3/(m2.h)。 The inner side of the high-position water tank is 4 X 3 X lm, the bottom plate is a prefabricated structure, and the side wall is extended by 5 mm; the two-stage vertical slit type water baffle is placed to achieve the oxygenation effect, and the single width flow rate is 25 m 3 / ( m 2 .h).
一级处理单元滤池总体积 12m3 , 表面积 A= 12m2。 取长为 4m, 宽为 3m, 高为 lm, 超高 0.2m。 池底设有一定坡度 1% ; The primary treatment unit filter has a total volume of 12 m 3 and a surface area of A = 12 m 2 . The length is 4m, the width is 3m, the height is lm, and the height is 0.2m. The bottom of the pool has a certain slope of 1%;
二级处理单元滤池总体积 13m3 , 表面积 A=13 m2。取长为 4.3m, 宽为 3m, 高为 lm, 超高 0.2m。 池底设有一定坡度 1% ; The secondary treatment unit has a total volume of 13 m 3 and a surface area of A = 13 m 2 . The length is 4.3m, the width is 3m, the height is lm, and the height is 0.2m. The bottom of the pool has a certain slope of 1%;
三级处理滤池单元总体积 15m3 , 表面积 A= 15m2。 取长为 5m, 宽为 3m, 高为 lm, 超高 0.2m。 池底设有一定坡度 1% ; The tertiary treatment filter unit has a total volume of 15 m 3 and a surface area of A = 15 m 2 . The length is 5m, the width is 3m, the height is lm, and the height is 0.2m. The bottom of the pool has a certain slope of 1%;
每一级表层布水管为单排孔的 PVC布水管, 布水孔的直径为 8mm, 相连布水孔的间 距为 35mm; 内层布水管为双排孔的 PVC布水管, 布水孔的直径为 10mm, 相连布水孔的 间距为 30mm, 内层布水管的埋设深度为填料内 30cm处, 材质为 PVC管材。 内层布水管 周围是用土工布包裹的的青石子, 土工布外层即是特殊配制的人工土组成的特殊土壤渗滤 层。  Each level of surface water pipe is a single row of PVC cloth water pipes. The diameter of the water holes is 8mm, and the distance between the water holes of the connected cloth is 35mm. The inner water pipe is a double-row PVC water pipe, and the diameter of the water hole. For 10mm, the distance between the water holes of the connected cloth is 30mm, and the buried depth of the inner layer water pipe is 30cm inside the packing, and the material is PVC pipe. The inner layer of water pipes is surrounded by bluestones wrapped with geotextiles. The outer layer of geotextiles is a special soil infiltration layer composed of specially prepared artificial soil.
排水系统设置在滤池底部, 排水管采用波纹排水管, 管材为 4 " ,PVC管材; 排水管的 间距为 0.6m, 集水管周围, 由鹅卵石组成的隔离层, 为粒径不小于 10mm且不大于 50mm 的卵石所填充; 排水管坡度为 0.5%, 卵石压实系数为 0.9, 并不得破坏 PVC导渗管。  The drainage system is installed at the bottom of the filter, the drainage pipe is made of corrugated drainage pipe, the pipe is 4", PVC pipe; the distance between the drainage pipes is 0.6m, and the separation layer composed of pebbles around the water collection pipe is not less than 10mm and not Filled with pebbles larger than 50mm; the slope of the drain pipe is 0.5%, the pebble compaction coefficient is 0.9, and the PVC guide pipe must not be damaged.
每一处理单元填料上层为 45cm厚度的人工土填料层, 中间为 20cm厚细纱层、 20cm 厚碎石层、 15cm厚的卵石层。人工土填料由当地适宜壤土、木屑、砂子组成, 按体积比 6: 2: 1的比例混合。 第一级处理单元蚯蚓床体内 3〜7cm处投放大平 2号蚯蚓, 投放密度为 10g (蚯蚓 )/(L 填料); 蚯蚓床 10〜15cm处投放威廉环毛蚯蚓, 投放密度为 14g (蚯蚓 )/(L填料)。 第二级处 理单元蚯蚓床体内 3〜7cm处投放大平 2号蚯蚓, 投放密度为 8g (蚯蚓 )/(L填料); 蚯蚓床 10〜15cm处投放威廉环毛蚯蚓, 投放密度为 12g (蚯蚓 )/(L填料)。 第三级处理单元蚯蚓床 体内 3〜7cm处投放大平 2号蚯蚓,投放密度为 8g (蚯蚓 )/(L填料);蚯蚓床 10〜15cm处投 放威廉环毛蚯蚓, 投放密度为 10g (蚯蚓 )/(L填料)。 实施例二: 日处理能力为 7t的塔式蚯蚓生态滤池系统示范工程。 The upper layer of the filler of each treatment unit is a 45 cm thick artificial soil filler layer, and the middle is a 20 cm thick spun yarn layer, a 20 cm thick gravel layer, and a 15 cm thick pebble layer. The artificial soil filler consists of local suitable loam, wood chips and sand, and is mixed in a ratio of 6:2:1 by volume. The first-stage treatment unit is placed in Daping No. 2 at 3~7cm in the trampoline, and the density is 10g (蚯蚓)/(L filler); the ringworm is placed at 10~15cm in the trampoline, and the density is 14g (蚯蚓). / (L filler). The second-stage treatment unit is placed at 3 to 7 cm in the trampoline, and the delivery density is 8 g (蚯蚓) / (L filler); the trampoline is placed at 10 to 15 cm in the trampoline, and the density is 12 g (蚯蚓). / (L filler). The third-stage treatment unit placed Daping No. 2 at 3~7cm inside the trampoline, and the release density was 8g (蚯蚓)/(L filler); the ringworm was placed at 10~15cm in the trampoline, and the density was 10g (蚯蚓) / (L filler). Example 2: Demonstration project of tower type ecological filter system with daily treatment capacity of 7t.
设计处理水量: Q = 7t/d。  Designed to handle water: Q = 7t/d.
水解酸化池有效深度为 1.2m, 超高 0.3m, 总深度为 1.5m; 长 H = 3m, 宽 L=2m; 池 子安装采取地埋式, 顶板面标高为 -0.00, 板厚 20mm。 进水管嵌入位置距池墙基部高度 25cm, 与池墙夹角成 30°向下。 出水通过潜水电泵投配到塔式蚯蚓生态滤池上方的高位配 水槽中。 嵌入口用细石混凝土填塞密实。 池子安装采取地埋式, 池体采取砖抹结构。 池体 采取砖抹结构。  The hydrolytic acidification tank has an effective depth of 1.2m, an ultra-high 0.3m, a total depth of 1.5m, a length of H = 3m, and a width of L = 2m. The pool is installed in an underground manner with a top surface elevation of -0.00 and a plate thickness of 20mm. The inlet pipe is inserted at a height of 25 cm from the base of the pool wall, and is 30° downward from the pool wall. The effluent is dosed through a submersible pump to a high water tank above the tower's ecological filter. The embedding port is densely packed with fine stone concrete. The pool installation is buried, and the pool body adopts a brick structure. The pool body adopts a brick structure.
塔式蚯蚓生态滤池部分总占地面积为 24 m2: The total area of the tower type ecological filter is 24 m 2 :
高位配水槽内侧尺寸 2.5 X 1.5 X lm, 底板为预制件结构, 其四周伸出侧壁 5mm; 放置 2级竖缝型跌水挡板以达到的充氧效果, 单宽流量为 30m3/(m2.h)。 The inner side of the high-position water tank is 2.5 X 1.5 X lm. The bottom plate is a prefabricated structure with a side wall extending 5 mm around it; a two-stage vertical slit type water baffle is placed to achieve the oxygenation effect, and the single width flow rate is 30 m 3 / ( m 2 .h).
滤池一级单元总体积 9m3 ,表面积 A= 9m2。取长为 3m,宽为 3m,高为 lm,超高 0.2m。 池底设有一定坡度 1%; The primary unit of the filter unit has a total volume of 9 m 3 and a surface area of A = 9 m 2 . The length is 3m, the width is 3m, the height is lm, and the height is 0.2m. The bottom of the pool has a slope of 1%;
滤池二级单元总体积 10.5m3 , 表面积 A=10.5 m2。 取长为 3.5m, 宽为 3m, 高为 lm, 超高 0.2m。 池底设有一定坡度 1% ; The secondary unit of the filter has a total volume of 10.5 m 3 and a surface area of A = 10.5 m 2 . The length is 3.5m, the width is 3m, the height is lm, and the height is 0.2m. The bottom of the pool has a certain slope of 1%;
滤池三级单元总体积 12m3 , 表面积 A= 12m2。 取长为 4m, 宽为 3m, 高为 lm, 超 高 0.2m。 池底设有一定坡度 1% ; The filter unit has a total volume of 12 m 3 and a surface area of A = 12 m 2 . The length is 4m, the width is 3m, the height is lm, and the height is 0.2m. The bottom of the pool has a certain slope of 1%;
每一级表层布水管为单排孔的 PVC布水管, 布水孔的直径为 8mm, 相连布水孔的间 距为 35mm; 内层布水管为双排孔的 PVC布水管, 布水孔的直径为 10mm, 相连布水孔的 间距为 25mm, 内层布水管的埋设深度为填料内 25— 30cm处, 材质为 PVC管材。 内层布 水管周围是用土工布包裹的的青石子, 土工布外层即是特殊配制的人工土组成的特殊土壤 渗滤层。  Each level of surface water pipe is a single row of PVC cloth water pipes. The diameter of the water holes is 8mm, and the distance between the water holes of the connected cloth is 35mm. The inner water pipe is a double-row PVC water pipe, and the diameter of the water hole. For 10mm, the distance between the water holes of the connected cloth is 25mm, and the buried depth of the inner layer water pipe is 25-30cm inside the packing, and the material is PVC pipe. The inner layer of the water pipe is covered with geotextile wrapped in geotextile. The outer layer of the geotextile is a special soil percolation layer composed of specially prepared artificial soil.
排水系统设置在滤池底部, 集水管采用波纹排水管, 管材为 4 " ,PVC管材; 排水管的 间距为 0.8m, 集水管周围, 由鹅卵石组成的隔离层, 为粒径不小于 10mm且不大于 50mm 的卵石所填充; 排水管坡度为 0.5%, 卵石压实系数为 0.9, 并不得破坏 PVC导渗管。 试 The drainage system is installed at the bottom of the filter tank. The water collection pipe adopts corrugated drainage pipe. The pipe is 4", PVC pipe; the distance between the drainage pipes is 0.8m. The isolation layer consisting of pebbles around the water collection pipe is not less than 10mm and not Greater than 50mm The pebbles are filled; the slope of the drain pipe is 0.5%, the pebble compaction coefficient is 0.9, and the PVC guide pipe must not be damaged. test
每一处理单元填料上层为 45cm厚度的人工土填料层, 中间为 20cm厚细纱层、 20cm 厚碎石层、 15cm厚的卵石层。人工土填料由当地适宜壤土、稻壳、砂子组成, 按体积比 6: 2: 1的比例混合。  The upper layer of the filler of each treatment unit is a 45 cm thick artificial soil filler layer, and the middle is a 20 cm thick spun yarn layer, a 20 cm thick gravel layer, and a 15 cm thick pebble layer. The artificial soil filler is composed of local suitable loam, rice husk and sand, and mixed in a ratio of 6:2:1 by volume.
第一级处理单元蚯蚓床体内 3〜7cm处投放大平 2号蚯蚓, 投放密度为 10g (蚯蚓 )/(L 填料); 蚯蚓床 10〜15cm处投放威廉环毛蚯蚓, 投放密度为 14g (蚯蚓 )/(L填料)。 第二级处 理单元蚯蚓床体内 3〜7cm处投放大平 2号蚯蚓, 投放密度为 8g (蚯蚓 )/(L填料); 蚯蚓床 10〜15cm处投放威廉环毛蚯蚓, 投放密度为 12g (蚯蚓 )/(L填料)。 第三级处理单元蚯蚓床 体内 3〜7cm处投放大平 2号蚯蚓,投放密度为 8g (蚯蚓 )/(L填料);蚯蚓床 10〜15cm处投 放威廉环毛蚯蚓, 投放密度为 10g (蚯蚓 )/(L填料)。 实施例三: 实例 1中水解酸化池的稳定功能 <  The first-stage treatment unit is placed in Daping No. 2 at 3~7cm in the trampoline, and the density is 10g (蚯蚓)/(L filler); the ringworm is placed at 10~15cm in the trampoline, and the density is 14g (蚯蚓). / (L filler). The second-stage treatment unit is placed at 3 to 7 cm in the trampoline, and the delivery density is 8 g (蚯蚓) / (L filler); the trampoline is placed at 10 to 15 cm in the trampoline, and the density is 12 g (蚯蚓). / (L filler). The third-stage treatment unit placed Daping No. 2 at 3~7cm inside the trampoline, and the release density was 8g (蚯蚓)/(L filler); the ringworm was placed at 10~15cm in the trampoline, and the density was 10g (蚯蚓) / (L filler). Example 3: Stabilization function of the hydrolysis acidification tank in Example 1
在环境温度为 21 °C时, 在酸化池前端入口处 , 连续一周测其中水质指标, 监测其水质 波动情况; 同时在配水池取水, 分别在该周周一、 周四、 周天测其水质指标, 分析水质稳 定情况。  At an ambient temperature of 21 °C, at the front end of the acidification tank, the water quality index is measured continuously for one week to monitor the fluctuation of water quality. At the same time, water is taken from the distribution pool and the water quality indicators are measured on Monday, Thursday and Sunday. , analysis of water quality stability.
入口处连续测试结果 出水测试结果 指 标 (mg/L) (mg/L)  Continuous test results at the entrance Water test results Index (mg/L) (mg/L)
C0DCr 368 352 373 391 326 365 370 353 357 356 C0D Cr 368 352 373 391 326 365 370 353 357 356
B0D6 238 236 256 248 219 245 251 266 272 274 B0D 6 238 236 256 248 219 245 251 266 272 274
TN 26. 5 28. 9 30. 1 39. 8 35. 6 29. 6 38. 0 28. 2 28. 5 28. 9  TN 26. 5 28. 9 30. 1 39. 8 35. 6 29. 6 38. 0 28. 2 28. 5 28. 9
NH4 +-N 19. 3 22. 1 22. 6 21. 3 20. 6 20. 6 22. 9 19. 5 21. 6 20. 7 NH 4 + -N 19. 3 22. 1 22. 6 21. 3 20. 6 20. 6 22. 9 19. 5 21. 6 20. 7
N03— - N 0. 14 0. 13 0. 12 0. 15 0. 18 0. 12 0. 11 0. 21 0. 27 0. 33 N0 3 — - N 0. 14 0. 13 0. 12 0. 15 0. 18 0. 12 0. 11 0. 21 0. 27 0. 33
TP 3. 23 2. 91 2. 95 3. 03 3. 15 2. 92 3. 18 3. 11 2. 92 2. 97  TP 3. 23 2. 91 2. 95 3. 03 3. 15 2. 92 3. 18 3. 11 2. 92 2. 97
由上表可以得知, 经过酸化池的稳定、 降解, 污水中各类污染物质浓度均趋于稳定, 这提高了系统污染冲击负荷; NH4 +-N浓度有一定升高(达 10〜15%), COD&浓度下降达 8〜 13%, 表明经过酸化池发生了一定量的氨化反应 /稳定化反应, 为系统后续处理能力的提高 提供了基础。 实施例四: 实例 2中水解酸化池的稳定功能。 It can be known from the above table that after the acidification tank is stable and degraded, the concentration of various pollutants in the sewage tends to be stable, which increases the system pollution impact load; the NH 4 + -N concentration has a certain increase (up to 10~15) %), COD & concentration decreased by 8~13%, indicating that a certain amount of ammoniation/stabilization reaction occurred in the acidification tank, which provided the basis for the improvement of the subsequent processing capacity of the system. Example 4: The stable function of the hydrolysis acidification tank in Example 2.
在环境温度为 10°C时, 在酸化池前端入口处, 连续一周测其中水质指标测其中水质指 标, 监测其水质波动情况; 同时在配水池取水, 在该周周一、 周四、 周天测其水质指标, 分析水质稳定情况。 入口处连续测试结果 出水测试结果 When the ambient temperature is 10 °C, at the entrance of the front end of the acidification tank, measure the water quality index for one week in a row. Standards, monitoring the fluctuations of water quality; at the same time taking water in the distribution pool, measuring its water quality indicators on Monday, Thursday and Sunday of the week to analyze the stability of water quality. Continuous test results at the entrance
标 (mg/L) (mg/L)  Standard (mg/L) (mg/L)
C0DCr 355 372 353 390 389 373 367 383 387 376 C0D Cr 355 372 353 390 389 373 367 383 387 376
B0D6 214 254 242 261 233 250 235 296 292 294 B0D 6 214 254 242 261 233 250 235 296 292 294
TN 29. 2 23. 4 25. 5 27. 6 31. 6 32. 7 33. 6 27. 2 26. 5 28. 9  TN 29. 2 23. 4 25. 5 27. 6 31. 6 32. 7 33. 6 27. 2 26. 5 28. 9
NH4 +-N 19. 9 18. 2 16. 3 18. 5 19. 2 18. 9 19. 0 22. 5 25. 7 24. 4 NH 4 + -N 19. 9 18. 2 16. 3 18. 5 19. 2 18. 9 19. 0 22. 5 25. 7 24. 4
N03— - N 0. 18 0. 13 0. 12 0. 11 0. 13 0. 15 0. 13 0. 27 0. 39 0. 35 N0 3 — - N 0. 18 0. 13 0. 12 0. 11 0. 13 0. 15 0. 13 0. 27 0. 39 0. 35
TP 2. 82 3. 23 2. 94 2. 43 3. 87 3. 09 2. 96 3. 13 2. 97 3. 05  TP 2. 82 3. 23 2. 94 2. 43 3. 87 3. 09 2. 96 3. 13 2. 97 3. 05
经过酸化池的稳定、 降解, 污水中各类污染物质浓度变化幅度减小, 这提高了整个系 统污染冲击负荷; NH4 +-N浓度有一定升高 (达 10〜13% ), COD&浓度下降达 8〜15%, 表 明经过在酸化池内实现固液分离与厌氧发酵; 经过一定的停留时间后, 酸化池内的污泥和 悬浮浮渣中细菌对污水进行了降解和稳定。 实施例五: 实施例 1中组合工艺的整体去除污染能力测试。 After the stabilization and degradation of the acidification tank, the concentration of various pollutants in the sewage decreases, which increases the pollution load of the whole system; the concentration of NH 4 + -N increases (up to 10~13%), COD & concentration The drop is 8~15%, which indicates that the solid-liquid separation and anaerobic fermentation are realized in the acidification tank; after a certain residence time, the bacteria in the sludge and suspended scum in the acidification tank degrade and stabilize the sewage. Example 5: The overall decontamination ability test of the combined process in Example 1.
在环境温度为 21 °C时, 进行了组合工艺系统总体去除污染能力测试, 试验条件为: 塔 式蚯蚓生态滤池单级水力负荷为 0.8m3/m2.d,干湿投配时间比为 4: 1, 采用定时器来控制 配水时间。 蚯蚓床中蚯蚓密度为 10g (蚯蚓 )/(L填料)。 结果如下: When the ambient temperature is 21 °C, the overall decontamination ability test of the combined process system is carried out. The test conditions are as follows: The single-stage hydraulic load of the tower type ecological filter is 0.8m 3 /m 2 .d, the dry-wet dosing time ratio For 4: 1, a timer is used to control the water distribution time. The density of the crucible in the trampoline is 10 g (蚯蚓) / (L filler). The results are as follows:
塔式蚯蚓生态滤池在运行中自然水力停留时间为 175分钟左右; 系统总氮去除能力有 了较大幅度的提高, 为 87 %, 说明系统的反硝化能力得到很好的强化; 系统的其他物质去 除率均在 90%以上, 表现了很好的去除效果。 实施例六: 实施例 2中组合工艺的整体去污能力测试。 The natural hydraulic retention time of the tower-type ecological filter is about 175 minutes during operation; the total nitrogen removal capacity of the system has been greatly improved, which is 87%, indicating that the denitrification capacity of the system is well strengthened; The material removal rate is above 90%, showing a good removal effect. Example 6: The overall decontamination capability test of the combined process in Example 2.
在环境温度为 10°C时, 进行了组合工艺系统总体去除污染能力测试, 试验条件为: 水 力负荷为 0.76 m3/m2.d,干湿投配时间比为 4: 1, 采用定时器来控制配水时间。 结果如下: When the ambient temperature is 10 °C, the overall decontamination ability test of the combined process system is carried out. The test conditions are: hydraulic load is 0.76 m 3 /m 2 .d, dry-wet dosing time ratio is 4: 1, using timer To control the water distribution time. The results are as follows:
此运行条件下, 系统自然水力停留时间为 160分钟左右; 系统的总氮去除仍然保持在 86 %; 系统的其他物质去除率均在 90 %左右, 表现了很好的去除效果。  Under this operating condition, the natural hydraulic retention time of the system is about 160 minutes; the total nitrogen removal of the system is still maintained at 86%; the removal rate of other substances in the system is about 90%, showing a good removal effect.

Claims

权利要求书 Claim
1. 一种塔式蚯蚓生态滤池系统, 其特征是: 它由水解酸化池 (6) 和多级塔式蚯蚓生 态滤池组成, 水解酸化池(6)为一有进出口和检查口 (2)的埋地池, 出水通过潜水泵(5 ) 投配到塔式蚯蚓生态滤池上方的高位配水槽 (7 ) 中; 塔式蚯蚓生态滤池, 采用模块化结 构、 梯度塔层设计、 多级单元串联处理的方式, 每一层塔为一个处理单元, 其为方形、 矩 形或圆形, 塔层采取楼梯型或回转型模式组合, 便于维修和填料更换。 塔式蚯蚓生态滤池 每一层填料设置基本一致, 填料上层由添加碳素的壤土组成, 该层由于有蚯蚓活动所以称 之为蚯蚓床 (8), 蚯蚓床 (9) 的厚度为 30~40cm; 中间层 (12) 由细砂、 3〜20mm碎石 分层填充, 下层 (13 ) 由粒径 10〜50mm卵石组成, 蚯蚓床 (9) 中投放蚯蚓, 蚯蚓密度 为 8g~12g (蚯蚓 )/(L填料), 塔式蚯蚓生态滤池系统, 在每一级处理单元, 表面布水的同时, 在蚯蚓床(9)人工土填料中设有内层布水管 (11 ), 内层布水管(11 )为双排孔的 PVC布 水管, 布水孔的直径为 6mm〜12mm, 相连布水孔的间距为 35~40mm, 内层布水管 (11 ) 的埋设深度为填料内 25-30cm处, 材质为 PVC管材; 内层布水管(11 )周围是用土工布包 裹的的青石子, 土工布外层即是特殊配制的人工土组成的特殊土壤渗滤层, 人工土填料由 当地适宜壤土、 木屑或稻壳、 砂子组成, 按体积比 6: 2: 1〜9: 3: 1 的比例混合。 在布 水管的主进水管上安装有球门阀, 在进水管的分枝处安装有旁通阀通过控制球门阀, 使污 水经由旁通阀分别流入表面布水管 (8 ) 和内层布水管 (11 )。 1. A tower type ecological filter system, characterized in that: it consists of a hydrolysis acidification tank (6) and a multi-stage tower type ecological filter tank, and the hydrolysis acidification tank (6) has an inlet and outlet and an inspection port ( 2) The buried pool, the effluent is distributed into the high water distribution tank (7) above the tower raft ecological filter through the submersible pump (5); the tower raft ecological filter tank adopts modular structure, gradient tower layer design, The multi-stage unit is processed in series. Each layer tower is a processing unit, which is square, rectangular or circular. The tower layer adopts a combination of stair type or rotary type for easy maintenance and filler replacement. The packing of each layer of the tower type ecological filter is basically the same. The upper layer of the packing is composed of carbon-added loam. This layer is called the trampoline (8) because of the cockroach activity, and the thickness of the trampoline (9) is 30~ 40cm; The middle layer (12) is layered by fine sand and 3~20mm gravel. The lower layer (13) is composed of pebbles with a particle size of 10~50mm. The boring machine (9) is placed in 蚯蚓, and the density of strontium is 8g~12g. ) / (L packing), tower type ecological filter system, in each stage of processing unit, surface water distribution, in the trampoline (9) artificial soil filler is provided with inner layer water pipe (11), inner layer The water pipe (11) is a double-row PVC water pipe. The diameter of the water hole is 6mm~12mm, the distance between the water holes of the connected cloth is 35~40mm, and the depth of the inner water pipe (11) is 25-. At 30cm, the material is PVC pipe; the inner layer of water pipe (11) is surrounded by bluestone wrapped with geotextile, and the outer layer of geotextile is a special soil infiltration layer composed of specially prepared artificial soil. The artificial soil filler is locally Suitable for loam, wood chips or rice husks, sand, A volume ratio of 6: 1 mixing ratio: 2: 1~9: 3. A goal valve is installed on the main inlet pipe of the water pipe, and a bypass valve is installed at the branch of the inlet pipe to control the goal valve, so that the sewage flows into the surface water pipe (8) and the inner water pipe through the bypass valve ( 11).
2. 根据权利要求 1所述的塔式蚯蚓生态滤池系统, 其特征是: 所述的水解酸化池(6) 内设有砖混结构的挡板 (5)。  2. The tower type ecological filter system according to claim 1, characterized in that: the hydrolysis acidification tank (6) is provided with a brick-concrete structure baffle (5).
3. 根据权利要求 1所述的塔式蚯蚓生态滤池系统, 其特征是: 所述的每一级处理单元 的滤池采取砖抹结构, 用砖砌筑二四墙, 池体采取钢筋预制件结构, 预制件边缘超出墙体 5mm; 池体内抹 20mm防水砂浆, 高位配水槽的槽底采取预制件结构, 预制件边缘超出墙 体 5mm。  3. The tower type ecological filter system according to claim 1, wherein: the filter tank of each stage of the processing unit adopts a brick slab structure, and the second and fourth walls are made of bricks, and the pool body adopts steel prefabrication. Piece structure, the edge of the preform is 5mm beyond the wall; 20mm waterproof mortar is wiped in the pool body, and the bottom of the groove of the high-position water tank adopts the prefabricated structure, and the edge of the preform is 5mm beyond the wall.
4. 根据权利要求 3所述的塔式蚯蚓生态滤池系统, 其特征是: 每一级处理单元的滤池 池体四角做水泥固封处理平面,结构阴阳角处,均应做成圆角,圆孤半径一般阴角为 50mm, 阳角为 10mm。  4. The tower type ecological filter system according to claim 3, wherein: the filter pool of each level of the treatment unit is made of cement sealing treatment plane, and the structure of the yin and yang corners is rounded. The round radius is generally 50mm and the angle is 10mm.
5. 根据权利要求 1所述的塔式蚯蚓生态滤池系统, 其特征是: 所述的蚯蚓种分为表层 种和深层种, 蚯蚓床 3〜7cm处投放大平 2号蚯蚓, 投放密度为 8g (蚯蚓 )/(L填料); 蚯蚓 床 10〜15cm处投放威廉环毛蚯蚓, 投放密度为 12g (蚯蚓 )/(L填料)。 二者合理搭配确保蚯 蚓生态作用的发挥。 5. The tower type ecological filter system according to claim 1, wherein: the seedlings are divided into a surface layer type and a deep layer type, and the Daping No. 2 bowl is placed at a position of 3 to 7 cm in the trampoline, and the seeding density is 8 g. (蚯蚓) / (L filler); William ring ring was placed at 10 to 15 cm in the trampoline, and the density was 12 g (蚯蚓) / (L filler). The two are reasonably matched to ensure 蚯 The role of ecological activities.
6. 根据权利要求 1所述的塔式蚯蚓生态滤池系统, 其特征是: 投配到高位配水槽时采 取跌水曝气技术, 跌水级数可采用 2~3级, 每级跌水高度为 0.5m, 污水经潜水泵抽取投放 入高位配水槽时, 即放置竖缝型跌水挡板以使污水冲击挡板后均匀分布, 这样能达到较好 的充氧效果; 单宽流量为 20~50m3/(m2_h)。 6. The tower type ecological filter system according to claim 1, wherein: the water drop aeration technology is adopted when the water is allocated to the high water distribution tank, and the number of water drop stages can be 2 to 3, and each stage falls. The height is 0.5m. When the sewage is pumped into the high-position water distribution tank by the submersible pump, the vertical-type water-falling baffle is placed to make the sewage evenly distributed after impacting the baffle, which can achieve better oxygenation effect; 20~50m 3 /(m 2 _h).
7. 根据权利要求 1所述的塔式蚯蚓生态滤池系统, 其特征是: 每一级表层布水采用穿 孔的穿孔管(8 )布水, 孔眼直径 6~12mm, 孔眼流速为 1.5~2.5m/s, 安装高度为 0.3~0.6m。  7. The tower type ecological filter system according to claim 1, wherein: each layer of surface water is perforated with a perforated tube (8), the diameter of the hole is 6 to 12 mm, and the flow rate of the hole is 1.5 to 2.5. m/s, installation height is 0.3~0.6m.
8. 根据权利要求 1所述的塔式蚯蚓生态滤池系统, 其特征是: 在系统的底层增加了排 水系统, 将深度处理后的污水通过排水系统排出,排水系统设置在滤池底部的集水管采用 波纹排水管, 管材为 PVC管材, 排水管的间距约为 0.7~lm, 集水管周围由鹅卵石组成的 隔离层, 鹅卵石的粒径不小于 10mm且不大于 50mm; 排水管坡度为 0.5%, 卵石压实系数 为 0.9, 并不得破坏 PVC导渗管。  8. The tower type ecological filter system according to claim 1, wherein: a drainage system is added to the bottom layer of the system, and the deep treated sewage is discharged through the drainage system, and the drainage system is disposed at the bottom of the filter. The water pipe adopts corrugated drainage pipe, the pipe is PVC pipe, the distance of the drainage pipe is about 0.7~lm, the separation layer consisting of pebbles around the water collection pipe, the particle size of the cobblestone is not less than 10mm and not more than 50mm; the slope of the drainage pipe is 0.5%, The pebble compaction coefficient is 0.9 and the PVC guide tube must not be damaged.
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