WO2009089694A1 - A falling-film evaporation-cooling absorption refrigeration unit - Google Patents

A falling-film evaporation-cooling absorption refrigeration unit Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2009089694A1
WO2009089694A1 PCT/CN2008/070787 CN2008070787W WO2009089694A1 WO 2009089694 A1 WO2009089694 A1 WO 2009089694A1 CN 2008070787 W CN2008070787 W CN 2008070787W WO 2009089694 A1 WO2009089694 A1 WO 2009089694A1
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Prior art keywords
heat exchange
absorber
solution
condenser
tank
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PCT/CN2008/070787
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French (fr)
Chinese (zh)
Inventor
Yang Xu
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Yang Xu
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Priority to CNU2008200548444U priority Critical patent/CN201152648Y/en
Priority to CN200820054844.4 priority
Application filed by Yang Xu filed Critical Yang Xu
Publication of WO2009089694A1 publication Critical patent/WO2009089694A1/en

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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F28HEAT EXCHANGE IN GENERAL
    • F28DHEAT-EXCHANGE APPARATUS, NOT PROVIDED FOR IN ANOTHER SUBCLASS, IN WHICH THE HEAT-EXCHANGE MEDIA DO NOT COME INTO DIRECT CONTACT
    • F28D5/00Heat-exchange apparatus having stationary conduit assemblies for one heat-exchange medium only, the media being in contact with different sides of the conduit wall, using the cooling effect of natural or forced evaporation
    • F28D5/02Heat-exchange apparatus having stationary conduit assemblies for one heat-exchange medium only, the media being in contact with different sides of the conduit wall, using the cooling effect of natural or forced evaporation in which the evaporating medium flows in a continuous film or trickles freely over the conduits
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25BREFRIGERATION MACHINES, PLANTS OR SYSTEMS; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT-PUMP SYSTEMS
    • F25B37/00Absorbers; Adsorbers
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25BREFRIGERATION MACHINES, PLANTS OR SYSTEMS; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT-PUMP SYSTEMS
    • F25B39/00Evaporators; Condensers
    • F25B39/04Condensers
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25BREFRIGERATION MACHINES, PLANTS OR SYSTEMS; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT-PUMP SYSTEMS
    • F25B2339/00Details of evaporators; Details of condensers
    • F25B2339/04Details of condensers
    • F25B2339/041Details of condensers of evaporative condensers
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A30/00Adapting or protecting infrastructure or their operation
    • Y02A30/27Relating to heating, ventilation or air conditioning [HVAC] technologies
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02BCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO BUILDINGS, e.g. HOUSING, HOUSE APPLIANCES OR RELATED END-USER APPLICATIONS
    • Y02B30/00Energy efficient heating, ventilation or air conditioning [HVAC]
    • Y02B30/62Absorption based systems

Abstract

A falling-film evaporation-cooling absorption refrigeration unit comprises a generator (1), an evaporator (3), an absorber (4), a condenser (5), a throttling device and several cooling-water falling-film sprinkling devices (81). The outer walls or the inner walls of a plurality of heat exchanging tubes or plates (51) of the condenser (5) and the absorber (4) are in contact with the air. At least one cooling-water falling-film sprinkling device (81) is arranged on the upper portion of or above the heat exchanging tubes or plates (51) of the condenser (5) and the absorber (4), so that the cooling-water is sprinkled on the wall contacting the air of the heat exchanging tubes or plates (51) to form a liquid film (100). The liquid film (100) flows down the wall by virtue of the gravity and carries out evaporation-cooling through the convection of the air.

Description

降膜蒸发冷却吸收式制冷机组 技术领域  Falling film evaporative cooling absorption refrigeration unit
本发明涉及吸收式制冷、 致热技术领域, 尤其涉及吸收式制冷机组。 背景技术  The invention relates to the field of absorption refrigeration and heating technology, in particular to an absorption refrigeration unit. Background technique
吸收式制冷机组是一种利用热能为驱动源制取冷源的制冷机组。 由于其制冷 工质为天然制冷剂, 不破坏大气臭氧层, 具有良好的环保性, 加之又可利用余热、 地热、 太阳能等可持续发展能源与天然气等清洁能源为驱动源,因而在世界各国均 得到长足的发展。典型的吸收式制冷机组采用溴化锂一水溶液或氨一水溶液为工质 对。但所有吸收式制冷机组均具有由发生器、冷凝器、蒸发器和吸收器四大部件组 成的结构, 并利用热源和压力差驱动工质对在四大部件中循环从而实现制冷的功 能。 以典型的单效型溴化锂吸收式制冷机为例,冷水在蒸发器内被来自冷凝器减压 节流后的低温冷剂水冷却, 冷剂水自身吸收冷水热量后蒸发, 成为冷剂蒸汽, 进入 吸收器内, 被浓溶液吸收, 浓溶液变成稀溶液。 吸收器里的稀溶液, 由溶液泵送往 热交换器、热回收后温度升高,最后进入发生器,发生器中的稀溶液被发生器热源, 例如热水、 蒸汽、 烟气和直燃等热源加热, 成为浓溶液。 浓溶液进入吸收器, 滴淋 在冷却水管上, 吸收来自蒸发器的冷剂蒸汽, 成为稀溶液。在浓溶液的吸收过程中 大量放热,同时通过冷却水对吸收器的冷却降低浓溶液温度以保障吸收过程的持续 进行。 另一方面, 在发生器内, 发生器热源加热稀溶液后产生的冷剂蒸汽, 进入冷 凝器被冷却水冷却, 经减压节流, 变成低温冷剂, 进入蒸发器, 滴淋在冷水管上, 冷却进入蒸发器的载冷剂。 以上循环如此反复进行, 最终达到降低载冷剂温度, 实 现制冷的目的。  The absorption refrigeration unit is a refrigeration unit that uses heat energy to generate a cooling source for the drive source. Because its refrigerant is a natural refrigerant, it does not damage the atmospheric ozone layer, and it has good environmental protection. In addition, it can use clean energy such as waste heat, geothermal energy, solar energy, and other clean energy sources such as natural gas as the driving source. Great development. A typical absorption refrigeration unit uses a lithium bromide aqueous solution or an aqueous ammonia solution as the working medium pair. However, all absorption refrigeration units have a structure consisting of four components: generator, condenser, evaporator and absorber, and use the heat source and pressure difference to drive the working fluid to circulate in the four major components to achieve the cooling function. Taking a typical single-effect lithium bromide absorption chiller as an example, the cold water is cooled in the evaporator by the low-temperature refrigerant water from the condenser under reduced pressure, and the refrigerant water itself absorbs the heat of the cold water and evaporates to become a refrigerant vapor. Entering the absorber, it is absorbed by the concentrated solution, and the concentrated solution becomes a dilute solution. The dilute solution in the absorber is pumped by the solution to the heat exchanger, the temperature rises after heat recovery, and finally enters the generator. The dilute solution in the generator is generated by the generator heat source, such as hot water, steam, flue gas and direct combustion. The heat source is heated to become a concentrated solution. The concentrated solution enters the absorber and drip onto the cooling water pipe to absorb the refrigerant vapor from the evaporator and become a dilute solution. During the absorption of the concentrated solution, a large amount of heat is released, and at the same time, the cooling of the absorber by the cooling water lowers the temperature of the concentrated solution to ensure the continuation of the absorption process. On the other hand, in the generator, the refrigerant vapor generated by the heat source of the generator heats the dilute solution, enters the condenser and is cooled by the cooling water, is depressurized and throttled, becomes a low-temperature refrigerant, enters the evaporator, and drip in the cold water. On the tube, the coolant entering the evaporator is cooled. The above cycle is repeated as it is, and finally the temperature of the brine is lowered to achieve the purpose of cooling.
在现有的吸收式制冷机中, 无论是氨水系统、 溴化锂系统的单效式、 双效式、 多效式、 以及直燃式、蒸汽型, 热水型等均需要对吸收器和冷凝器进行冷却以保障 系统的持续循环运行,往往通过配备较大容量的冷却塔来保障冷却容量。图 5示出 了目前市场上销售的一种水冷式溴化锂吸收式制冷机组,如图所示, 由冷却水带走 溴化锂吸收式制冷机组中冷凝器 91与吸收器 92的排热量,冷却水温度升高后进至 冷却塔 93, 在冷却塔 93中, 流过水表面的空气与水直接接触, 通过接触传热和蒸 发散热,使冷却水温度降低至高于湿球温度 4度左右后再回至机组中反复使用。为 确保进入机组的冷却水水质, 该制冷机组还需要水处理设备。 若不进行水质处 理, 则机组中吸收器与冷凝器的传热管簇易产生腐蚀与结垢, 影响机组的使用 寿命与性能。 另外, 通过冷却塔中的冷却水经吸收器和冷凝器进行二次热交换, 增大了冷却温度与湿球温度的换热温差。这样不仅降低了系统效率,而且由于提高 了冷却温度还要求更大的热交换面积, 使得冷却塔的占地面积大, 材料消耗多。不 仅如此,冷却塔结构在实际使用中需要持续将水循环喷淋, 需要的水循环量是实际 水分蒸发量的几十倍到上百倍, 由此造成冷却水泵耗电的大大浪费。 同时, 冷却塔 水的长期循环喷淋极易滋生军团菌, 危害人类的身体健康。 In existing absorption chillers, both ammonia and lithium bromide systems require single-effect, double-effect, multi-effect, and direct-fire, steam, and hot water types, all of which require absorbers and condensers. Cooling is carried out to ensure continuous circulation of the system, often with a cooling tower with a larger capacity to ensure cooling capacity. Figure 5 shows a water-cooled lithium bromide absorption refrigeration unit currently on the market. As shown in the figure, the heat of the condenser 91 and the absorber 92 in the lithium bromide absorption refrigeration unit is taken away by the cooling water, and the cooling water temperature is shown. After the rise, it proceeds to the cooling tower 93. In the cooling tower 93, the air flowing through the water surface is in direct contact with the water, and the heat transfer and steaming are contacted. The heat is dissipated, so that the temperature of the cooling water is lowered to about 4 degrees higher than the temperature of the wet bulb, and then returned to the unit for repeated use. To ensure the quality of the cooling water entering the unit, the refrigeration unit also requires water treatment equipment. If water quality treatment is not carried out, the heat transfer tube clusters of the absorber and the condenser in the unit are prone to corrosion and scaling, which affects the service life and performance of the unit. In addition, the secondary heat exchange is performed by the cooling water in the cooling tower through the absorber and the condenser, thereby increasing the heat exchange temperature difference between the cooling temperature and the wet bulb temperature. This not only reduces the efficiency of the system, but also requires a larger heat exchange area due to the increased cooling temperature, resulting in a larger footprint and more material consumption of the cooling tower. Not only that, the cooling tower structure needs to continuously spray the water in actual use, and the required water circulation amount is several tens to several times of the actual water evaporation amount, thereby causing a great waste of power consumption of the cooling water pump. At the same time, the long-term circulating spray of cooling tower water is easy to breed Legionella, which endangers human health.
为克服水冷式吸收式制冷机的上述困难, 人们进行了不同的尝试。 一些厂家开 发了风冷吸收式制冷机。但风冷吸收式制冷机在夏季环境温度高时系统效率迅速下 降, 甚至无法制冷。 发明内容  In order to overcome the above difficulties of water-cooled absorption chillers, different attempts have been made. Some manufacturers have developed air-cooled absorption chillers. However, in air-cooled absorption chillers, the system efficiency drops rapidly when the ambient temperature is high in summer, and it is impossible to cool. Summary of the invention
本发明所要解决的技术问题在于克服现有技术的上述缺陷,提供一种降膜蒸发 冷却吸收式制冷机组,该降膜蒸发冷却吸收式制冷机组无需采用冷却塔即能够实现 吸收器和冷凝器的换热, 且换热温差小, 制冷效率高。  The technical problem to be solved by the present invention is to overcome the above-mentioned drawbacks of the prior art, and to provide a falling film evaporative cooling absorption refrigeration unit capable of realizing an absorber and a condenser without using a cooling tower. Heat exchange, and the heat transfer temperature difference is small, and the refrigeration efficiency is high.
本发明所采用的技术方案是: 一种降膜蒸发冷却吸收式制冷机组, 包括发 生器、 蒸发器、 吸收器、 冷凝器及节流装置; 冷凝器和吸收器各自包括多根热 交换管或多块热交换板, 其特点是, 制冷机组还包括若干个冷却水降膜布液装 置; 冷凝器和吸收器的多根热交换管或多块热交换板的外壁或内壁与空气接 触, 至少有一个冷却水降膜布液装置设置在冷凝器和吸收器的热交换管或热交 换板的上部或上方, 用于将冷却水布置在热交换管或热交换板与空气接触的壁 面上形成液膜, 该液膜受重力作用沿所述壁面流下, 利用空气的对流使液膜进 行蒸发冷却。  The technical solution adopted by the invention is: a falling film evaporative cooling absorption refrigeration unit comprising a generator, an evaporator, an absorber, a condenser and a throttling device; the condenser and the absorber each comprise a plurality of heat exchange tubes or a plurality of heat exchange plates, wherein the refrigeration unit further comprises a plurality of cooling water falling film discharge devices; the plurality of heat exchange tubes of the condenser and the absorber or the outer wall or the inner wall of the plurality of heat exchange plates are in contact with the air, at least a cooling water falling film discharge device is disposed above or above the heat exchange tube or the heat exchange plate of the condenser and the absorber for arranging the cooling water on the wall of the heat exchange tube or the heat exchange plate in contact with the air a liquid film which flows down the wall surface by gravity, and evaporates and cools the liquid film by convection of air.
在上述的降膜蒸发冷却吸收式制冷机组中, 还包括一溶液热交换器, 该溶 液热交换器的浓溶液侧入口与发生器相连通,浓溶液侧出口与吸收器相连通; 溶液 热交换器的稀溶液侧入口与吸收器相连通, 稀溶液侧出口与发生器相连通。  In the above falling film evaporative cooling absorption refrigeration unit, a solution heat exchanger is further included, wherein the concentrated solution side inlet of the solution heat exchanger is in communication with the generator, and the concentrated solution side outlet is connected to the absorber; The dilute solution side inlet of the device is in communication with the absorber, and the dilute solution side outlet is in communication with the generator.
在上述的降膜蒸发冷却吸收式制冷机组中, 还包括一溶液布液装置, 该溶 液布液装置设置在吸收器的多根热交换管或多块热交换板的上部或上方;溶液布液 装置的入口与溶液热交换器相连通, 出口与吸收器相连通,用于将溶液布置在吸收 器的热交换管或热交换板未与空气接触的壁面上。 In the above falling film evaporative cooling absorption refrigeration unit, a solution liquid discharging device is further included, and the solution The liquid cloth liquid device is disposed above or above the plurality of heat exchange tubes or the plurality of heat exchange plates of the absorber; the inlet of the solution liquid discharging device is in communication with the solution heat exchanger, and the outlet is connected to the absorber for the solution It is disposed on the wall of the heat exchange tube or heat exchange plate of the absorber that is not in contact with the air.
在上述的降膜蒸发冷却吸收式制冷机组中, 吸收器包括溶液箱, 溶液箱设 置于吸收器的多根热交换管或多块热交换板底部,并与吸收器的多根热交换管或多 块热交换板相连;冷凝器包括冷剂箱,冷剂箱设置于冷凝器的多根热交换管或多块 热交换板底部, 并与冷凝器的多根热交换管或多块热交换板相连;冷剂箱和溶液箱 均为封闭的箱体。  In the above falling film evaporative cooling absorption refrigeration unit, the absorber comprises a solution tank, and the solution tank is disposed at a plurality of heat exchange tubes of the absorber or a plurality of heat exchange plates at the bottom, and a plurality of heat exchange tubes of the absorber or A plurality of heat exchange plates are connected; the condenser comprises a refrigerant tank, and the refrigerant tank is disposed at a plurality of heat exchange tubes of the condenser or a plurality of heat exchange plates at the bottom, and is heat exchanged with the plurality of heat exchange tubes or plurality of tubes of the condenser The plates are connected; the coolant tank and the solution tank are closed boxes.
在上述的降膜蒸发冷却吸收式制冷机组中, 吸收器和冷凝器的多根热交换 管的主轴线或多块热交换板的主换热面与水平面之间的夹角大于等于 45 ° 且小于 等于 90° 。  In the above-mentioned falling film evaporative cooling absorption refrigeration unit, the main axis of the plurality of heat exchange tubes of the absorber and the condenser or the main heat exchange surface of the plurality of heat exchange plates and the horizontal plane are at an angle of 45 or more and Less than or equal to 90°.
本发明还提供了一种降膜蒸发冷却吸收式制冷机组,包括发生器、蒸发器、 吸收器、 冷凝器、 溶液热交换器、 冷凝水箱、 节流装置、 蒸发水箱及溶液箱; 所述发生器分别与所述冷凝器的入口及所述溶液热交换器的入口相连通, 所述 冷凝器的出口与所述冷凝水箱连通, 冷凝水箱通过所述节流装置与所述蒸发水 箱相连通, 所述蒸发水箱与所述蒸发器相连通; 所述溶液热交换器的出口及所 述蒸发器分别与吸收器的入口相连通, 吸收器的出口与溶液箱连通; 所述冷凝 器和所述吸收器各自包括多根热交换管或多块热交换板, 其特点是, 还包括冷 却水布液装置; 冷凝器和吸收器的多根热交换管或多块热交换板的外壁或内壁 与空气接触, 冷却水布液装置设置在热交换管或热交换板上部, 并将冷却水布 置在热交换管或热交换板与空气接触的壁面上, 进行蒸发冷却。  The invention also provides a falling film evaporative cooling absorption refrigeration unit, comprising a generator, an evaporator, an absorber, a condenser, a solution heat exchanger, a condensate tank, a throttling device, an evaporation water tank and a solution tank; And an inlet of the condenser and an inlet of the solution heat exchanger, wherein an outlet of the condenser is in communication with the condensate tank, and a condensate tank is connected to the evaporation tank through the throttling device, The evaporating water tank is in communication with the evaporator; the outlet of the solution heat exchanger and the evaporator are respectively connected to an inlet of the absorber, and an outlet of the absorber is in communication with the solution tank; the condenser and the Each of the absorbers comprises a plurality of heat exchange tubes or a plurality of heat exchange plates, and is characterized in that it further comprises a cooling water liquid discharging device; a plurality of heat exchange tubes of the condenser and the absorber or outer walls or inner walls of the plurality of heat exchange plates and Air contact, the cooling water liquid discharge device is disposed on the heat exchange tube or the heat exchange plate portion, and the cooling water is disposed on the wall of the heat exchange tube or the heat exchange plate in contact with the air , evaporative cooling.
本发明通过冷却水降膜布液装置在冷凝器和吸收器的热交换管或热交换板 与空气接触的壁面上布置用于蒸发冷凝的液膜, 再利用自然对流或强制对流使 换热表面的液膜蒸发。 由于蒸发潜热的热传递为显热换热量的近百倍, 因而可 节省冷却水泵的功耗, 使得冷凝器和吸收器冷却侧的换热系数更高, 从而得到 比现有吸收式制冷机组更低的冷却温度, 并提高冷凝器和吸收器换热效率, 扩 大吸收式制冷机组运行的环境温度范围。 此外, 本发明省却冷却塔, 杜绝了军 团菌的产生和对人体健康的损害, 减小了机组占地面积, 降低了成本。 附图概述 The invention arranges a liquid film for evaporating condensation on the wall surface of the condenser and the heat exchange tube or the heat exchange plate of the absorber which is in contact with the air through the cooling water falling film cloth discharging device, and then uses the natural convection or forced convection to make the heat exchange surface The liquid film evaporates. Since the heat transfer of latent heat of evaporation is nearly a hundred times that of sensible heat exchange, the power consumption of the cooling water pump can be saved, and the heat transfer coefficient of the condenser and the cooling side of the absorber is higher, thereby obtaining more than the existing absorption refrigeration unit. Low cooling temperature, and improve the heat exchange efficiency of the condenser and absorber, and expand the ambient temperature range in which the absorption refrigeration unit operates. In addition, the invention saves the cooling tower, eliminates the production of Legionella and damages human health, reduces the footprint of the unit, and reduces the cost. BRIEF abstract
本发明的特征、 性能由以下的实施例及其附图进一步描述。  Features and capabilities of the present invention are further described by the following examples and the accompanying drawings.
图 1为本发明第一种实施方式的结构示意图。  1 is a schematic structural view of a first embodiment of the present invention.
图 2为本发明第一种实施方式的冷却水降膜布液结构和溶液降膜布液结构 的局部放大示意图。  Fig. 2 is a partially enlarged schematic view showing the structure of a cooling water falling film cloth and a solution falling film liquid structure according to a first embodiment of the present invention.
图 3为本发明第二种实施方式的结构示意图。  3 is a schematic structural view of a second embodiment of the present invention.
图 4为本发明第二种实施方式冷却水降膜布液结构和溶液降膜布液结构的 局部放大示意图。  Fig. 4 is a partially enlarged schematic view showing the structure of a cooling water falling film cloth and a liquid film falling solution of a second embodiment of the present invention.
图 5为现有的一种溴化锂吸收式制冷机组的结构示意图。 本发明的最佳实施方式  FIG. 5 is a schematic structural view of a conventional lithium bromide absorption refrigeration unit. BEST MODE FOR CARRYING OUT THE INVENTION
下面结合附图对本发明做进一步描述。  The invention will be further described below in conjunction with the accompanying drawings.
参考图 1和图 2, 本发明第一种实施方式的降膜蒸发冷却吸收式制冷机组 包括发生器 1、 蒸发器 3、 吸收器 4 (包含换热器和位于该换热器底部并与换热 器连通的溶液箱 42 ) 、 冷凝器 5 (包含换热器和位于该换热器底部并与换热器 连通的冷剂箱 52 ) 、 冷却水降膜布液装置 81、 及节流装置。 其中, 发生器 1 分别与冷凝器 5的入口及吸收器 4的入口相连通, 冷凝器 5的换热器由多根热 交换管或多块热交换板 51组成, 冷凝器 5的冷剂箱 52连通到蒸发器 3。 在一 种实施方式中, 节流装置是设置在冷凝器 5的冷剂箱 52中的隔板 61, 在隔板 61上设有若干个节流孔。 通过隔板 61,该冷剂箱分为冷凝水箱 525和蒸发水箱 526, 冷凝水箱 525设置在蒸发水箱 526上。 优选地, 本发明还设有一毛细管 62, 毛细管 62的一端与蒸发器 3的底部相连通, 另一端与冷剂箱 52相连通。 毛细管 62将蒸发器 3中多余的冷剂回流到冷剂箱 52。 蒸发器 3与吸收器 4的换热器的 入口相连通, 该换热器的出口与位于该换热器底部的溶液箱 42相连通。 其中, 吸收器 4的换热器由多根热交换管或多块热交换板 41组成。较佳的是, 吸收器 和冷凝器的多根热交换管的主轴线或多块热交换板的主换热面与水平面之间的夹 角大于等于 45 ° 且小于等于 90° 。 通过这种布置方式可使吸收器的冷却水降膜 蒸发冷却和浓溶液对蒸气的降膜吸收同时充分利用重力布液,得到优化。同理, 也可使冷凝器的冷却水降膜蒸发和降膜冷凝同时充分利用重力, 得到优化。 图 中所示出的是吸收器和冷凝器的多根热交换管的主轴线或多块热交换板的主换热 面与水平面垂直的情形。 吸收器 4的溶液箱 42的出口与发生器 1相连通, 冷凝 器 5 的冷剂箱 52的出口与蒸发器 3相连通。 在本发明的第一种实施方式中, 吸收器 4和冷凝器 5的多根热交换管或多块热交换板的外壁均敞露在空气中, 内壁与空气不接触, 冷却水降膜布液装置 81设置在吸收器 4和冷凝器 5 的多 根热交换管或多块热交换板的上部或上方, 沿吸收器 4和冷凝器 5的多根热交 换管或多块热交换板的外壁将冷却水以液膜 100的形式布置在吸收器 4和冷凝 器 5的热交换管或热交换板的敞露在空气中的外壁壁面上, 利用重力使液膜沿 上述外壁壁面流下并进行蒸发冷却。 较佳的是, 本发明还包括用于冷却冷凝器 和吸收器的热交换管或热交换板的风扇 80, 液膜在风扇 80下能够更加迅速地 蒸发, 实现对吸收器和冷凝器的高效冷却。 在一种优选实施方式中, 本发明还 包括一溶液布液装置 82, 该溶液布液装置设置在吸收器 4的入口处。 溶液布液 装置 82 的入口与发生器 1 的出口连通, 出口与吸收器 4相连通。 由发生器 1 流出的浓溶液经过溶液布液装置 82, 在重力的作用下, 沿吸收器的热交换管或 热交换板 41的未与空气接触的内壁壁面向下流动, 形成浓溶液膜 300。 浓溶液 膜 300通过重力作用沿所述未与空气接触的壁面流下。 优选地, 本发明的制冷 机组通过在蒸发器 3和吸收器 4之间设置的若干条使蒸发器 3的腔体内的冷剂 蒸气通向吸收器 4内的吸收剂溶液的蒸发管道 31,来连通蒸发器 3和吸收器 4。 蒸发管道 31穿过溶液布液装置 82, 蒸发管道 31的数量与吸收器的热交换板或 热交换管 41 的数量相对应。 图中, 波浪线表示冷却水溶液, 黑点表示吸收剂浓 溶液, 蒸发器中的絮状阴影表示冷剂蒸气。 1 and 2, a falling film evaporative cooling absorption refrigeration unit according to a first embodiment of the present invention includes a generator 1, an evaporator 3, and an absorber 4 (including a heat exchanger and is located at the bottom of the heat exchanger and is replaced with a solution tank 42 connected to the heat exchanger, a condenser 5 (including a heat exchanger and a refrigerant tank 52 located at the bottom of the heat exchanger and communicating with the heat exchanger), a cooling water falling film discharge device 81, and a throttle device . Wherein, the generator 1 is respectively connected to the inlet of the condenser 5 and the inlet of the absorber 4, and the heat exchanger of the condenser 5 is composed of a plurality of heat exchange tubes or a plurality of heat exchange plates 51, and a refrigerant tank of the condenser 5 52 is connected to the evaporator 3. In one embodiment, the throttling device is a baffle 61 disposed in the coolant tank 52 of the condenser 5, and the baffle 61 is provided with a plurality of orifices. The refrigerant tank is divided into a condensate tank 525 and an evaporating water tank 526 through a partition 61, and the condensate tank 525 is disposed on the evaporating water tank 526. Preferably, the present invention is further provided with a capillary tube 62 having one end communicating with the bottom of the evaporator 3 and the other end communicating with the coolant tank 52. The capillary 62 returns excess refrigerant in the evaporator 3 to the refrigerant tank 52. The evaporator 3 is in communication with the inlet of the heat exchanger of the absorber 4, the outlet of which is in communication with a solution tank 42 located at the bottom of the heat exchanger. The heat exchanger of the absorber 4 is composed of a plurality of heat exchange tubes or a plurality of heat exchange plates 41. Preferably, the main axis of the plurality of heat exchange tubes of the absorber and the condenser or the main heat exchange surface of the plurality of heat exchange plates and the horizontal plane are at an angle of 45 ° or more and 90 ° or less. Through this arrangement, the cooling water falling film of the absorber can be evaporatively cooled and the falling film absorption of the concentrated solution against the vapor can be optimized while fully utilizing the gravity cloth liquid. In the same way, the cooling water of the condenser can be cooled by falling film and falling film condensation while fully utilizing gravity, and optimized. Figure Shown in the middle is the main axis of the plurality of heat exchange tubes of the absorber and the condenser or the main heat exchange surface of the plurality of heat exchange plates being perpendicular to the horizontal plane. The outlet of the solution tank 42 of the absorber 4 is in communication with the generator 1, and the outlet of the refrigerant tank 52 of the condenser 5 is in communication with the evaporator 3. In the first embodiment of the present invention, the outer walls of the plurality of heat exchange tubes or the plurality of heat exchange plates of the absorber 4 and the condenser 5 are all exposed to the air, and the inner wall is not in contact with the air, and the cooling water falling film cloth The liquid device 81 is disposed above or above the plurality of heat exchange tubes or the plurality of heat exchange plates of the absorber 4 and the condenser 5, and a plurality of heat exchange tubes or a plurality of heat exchange plates along the absorber 4 and the condenser 5 The outer wall arranges the cooling water in the form of the liquid film 100 in the heat exchange tube of the absorber 4 and the condenser 5 or the outer wall surface of the heat exchange plate which is exposed to the air, and the liquid film flows down along the outer wall surface by gravity and performs Evaporative cooling. Preferably, the present invention also includes a fan 80 for cooling the heat exchange tubes or heat exchange plates of the condenser and the absorber, the liquid film evaporating more rapidly under the fan 80, achieving efficient operation of the absorber and the condenser cool down. In a preferred embodiment, the present invention also includes a solution dispensing device 82 disposed at the inlet of the absorber 4. The inlet of the solution discharge device 82 is in communication with the outlet of the generator 1, and the outlet is in communication with the absorber 4. The concentrated solution flowing out of the generator 1 passes through the solution discharge device 82, and flows under the action of gravity along the heat exchange tube of the absorber or the inner wall wall of the heat exchange plate 41 which is not in contact with the air, forming a concentrated solution film 300. . The concentrated solution film 300 flows down by the wall surface which is not in contact with the air by gravity. Preferably, the refrigeration unit of the present invention passes the refrigerant vapor in the cavity of the evaporator 3 to the evaporation conduit 31 of the absorbent solution in the absorber 4 through a plurality of strips disposed between the evaporator 3 and the absorber 4. The evaporator 3 and the absorber 4 are connected. The evaporation conduit 31 passes through the solution discharge device 82, and the number of the evaporation conduits 31 corresponds to the number of heat exchange plates or heat exchange tubes 41 of the absorber. In the figure, the wavy line indicates the cooling aqueous solution, the black dot indicates the concentrated solution of the absorbent, and the flocculent shadow in the evaporator indicates the refrigerant vapor.
图 3和图 4为本发明第二种实施方式的结构示意图。 其与第一种实施方式 的主要不同之处在于, 吸收器 4和冷凝器 5均设有外罩 400, 使吸收器 4和冷 凝器 5的多根热交换管或多块热交换板的外壁不与空气接触, 而使所述热交换 管或热交换板的内壁通道与大气相通。 优选地, 可通过外罩 400将冷凝器和吸 收器的多根热交换管或多块热交换板罩入一封闭的腔体 500 内, 再将腔体 500 内 部与空气隔离, 使腔体 500内无空气。 冷剂箱 52和溶液箱 42均为封闭状箱体, 而在冷剂箱 52和溶液箱 42的侧壁上分别设有穿过所述侧壁与大气连通的空气管道 521、 421, 空气管道 521、 421分别与冷凝器和吸收器的多根热交换管或多块热交 换板相连通; 同时,在冷凝器和吸收器的多根热交换管或多块热交换板的上方也分 别设有穿过外罩 400与大气连通的空气管道 523、 423, 空气管道 523、 423分别与 冷凝器和吸收器的多根热交换管或多块热交换板相连通, 从而实现仅仅有吸收器 和冷凝器的热交换管或热交换板的内壁通道与大气相通的情形。 此外, 在发生 器 1和吸收器 4之间增设了溶液热交换器 2。 溶液热交换器 2的浓溶液侧入口 与发生器 1的出口连通, 溶液热交换器 2的浓溶液侧出口与吸收器 4的入口连 通。 溶液热交换器 2 的稀溶液侧入口与吸收器的溶液箱 42相连通, 稀溶液侧 出口与发生器 1的入口相通。 溶液热交换器 2可对发生器发生后的浓溶液的余 热进行回收已提高系统效率。 同时, 本发明中可增设冷剂泵 71, 冷剂泵 71 的 入口与冷凝器 5 的冷剂箱 52相连通, 出口与蒸发器 3 的入口相连通。 冷剂泵 可起到辅助冷剂喷淋的作用。 本发明还可增设溶液泵 72, 溶液泵 72的入口与 吸收器 4的溶液箱 42相连通, 出口与溶液热交换器 2的稀溶液侧入口相连通。 溶液泵可提升溶液的循环。 本发明还可增设冷却水泵 73, 冷却水泵 73 的出口 与冷却水降膜布液装置 81相通。 在本发明中, 可设置辅助风扇 80以提高冷却 水降膜蒸发效果,辅助风扇 80设置在冷凝器和吸收器的多根热交换管或多块热交 换板的上方。 冷却水降膜布液装置 81位于吸收器 4和冷凝器 5的上部或上方, 并在吸收器 4和冷凝器 5的多根换热管或多块换热板与空气接触的内壁上布置 液膜。 形成液膜利用重力沿所述内壁壁面流下并进行蒸发冷却。 而浓溶液经过 位于吸收器 4上部或上方的溶液布液装置 82,在吸收器 4的多根换热管或多块 换热板不与空气接触的外壁面形成液膜。 该液膜在重力的作用下, 沿吸收器的 热交换管或热交换板 41 的未与空气接触的外壁面向下流动, 形成浓溶液膜, 并对冷剂蒸气进行降膜吸收。 3 and 4 are schematic views showing the structure of a second embodiment of the present invention. The main difference from the first embodiment is that the absorber 4 and the condenser 5 are each provided with a cover 400 so that the outer walls of the heat exchanger tubes or the plurality of heat exchange plates of the absorber 4 and the condenser 5 are not Contact with air causes the inner wall passage of the heat exchange tube or heat exchange plate to communicate with the atmosphere. Preferably, a plurality of heat exchange tubes or a plurality of heat exchange tubes of the condenser and the absorber are housed in a closed cavity 500 through the outer cover 400, and the interior of the cavity 500 is isolated from the air to be inside the cavity 500. No air. The refrigerant tank 52 and the solution tank 42 are both closed casings, and air ducts 521 and 421 respectively communicating with the atmosphere through the side walls are provided on the side walls of the refrigerant tank 52 and the solution tank 42, respectively, and the air ducts 521, 421 respectively with a plurality of heat exchange tubes or multiple heat exchangers of the condenser and the absorber The changing plates are connected; at the same time, air pipes 523, 423, air pipes 523, 423, which are communicated with the atmosphere through the outer cover 400, are also disposed above the plurality of heat exchange tubes or the plurality of heat exchange plates of the condenser and the absorber, respectively. The plurality of heat exchange tubes or the plurality of heat exchange plates of the condenser and the absorber are respectively connected to each other, thereby realizing the case where the inner wall passage of the heat exchange tube or the heat exchange plate having only the absorber and the condenser is open to the atmosphere. Further, a solution heat exchanger 2 is added between the generator 1 and the absorber 4. The concentrated solution side inlet of the solution heat exchanger 2 is in communication with the outlet of the generator 1, and the concentrated solution side outlet of the solution heat exchanger 2 is in communication with the inlet of the absorber 4. The dilute solution side inlet of the solution heat exchanger 2 is in communication with the solution tank 42 of the absorber, and the dilute solution side outlet is in communication with the inlet of the generator 1. The solution heat exchanger 2 can recover the residual heat of the concentrated solution after the generator has been generated to improve system efficiency. Meanwhile, in the present invention, a refrigerant pump 71 may be added, the inlet of the refrigerant pump 71 is in communication with the refrigerant tank 52 of the condenser 5, and the outlet is in communication with the inlet of the evaporator 3. The refrigerant pump can act as an auxiliary coolant spray. The present invention may also add a solution pump 72, the inlet of which is in communication with the solution tank 42 of the absorber 4, and the outlet is in communication with the dilute solution side inlet of the solution heat exchanger 2. The solution pump can increase the circulation of the solution. In the present invention, a cooling water pump 73 may be further provided, and the outlet of the cooling water pump 73 communicates with the cooling water falling film discharge device 81. In the present invention, an auxiliary fan 80 may be provided to increase the cooling film falling film evaporation effect, and the auxiliary fan 80 is disposed above the plurality of heat exchange tubes or the plurality of heat exchange plates of the condenser and the absorber. The cooling water falling film discharge device 81 is located above or above the absorber 4 and the condenser 5, and arranges liquid on the inner wall of the absorber 4 and the plurality of heat exchange tubes of the condenser 5 or the plurality of heat exchange plates in contact with the air. membrane. The liquid film is formed to flow down the wall surface of the inner wall by gravity and evaporatively cooled. The concentrated solution passes through the solution liquid discharging device 82 located above or above the absorber 4, and a liquid film is formed on the outer wall surfaces of the plurality of heat exchange tubes or the plurality of heat exchange plates of the absorber 4 which are not in contact with the air. The liquid film flows under the action of gravity along the heat exchange tube of the absorber or the outer wall of the heat exchange plate 41 which is not in contact with the air, forms a concentrated solution film, and reduces the film vapor absorption of the refrigerant vapor.
本发明的制冷循环为发生器产生浓溶液。 浓溶液通过溶液热交换器冷却后 再通过溶液布液装置进入吸收器, 并在吸收器中与蒸发器的蒸气进行吸收。 蒸 气的吸收导致蒸发器中的冷剂蒸发, 从而冷却载冷剂, 实现制冷功能。 同时, 发生器在形成浓溶液过程中得到的冷凝冷剂在节流后和蒸发器中凝结的蒸气 一起被喷淋回蒸发器, 使蒸发过程持续。 而吸收器在吸收后形成的稀溶液被提 升回发生器, 使发生过程持续。  The refrigeration cycle of the present invention produces a concentrated solution for the generator. The concentrated solution is cooled by the solution heat exchanger and then passed through the solution discharge device into the absorber and absorbed in the absorber with the vapor of the evaporator. The absorption of the vapor causes the refrigerant in the evaporator to evaporate, thereby cooling the brine and achieving a cooling function. At the same time, the condensing refrigerant obtained by the generator during the formation of the concentrated solution is sprayed back to the evaporator together with the vapor condensed in the evaporator after the throttling, so that the evaporation process continues. The dilute solution formed by the absorber after absorption is raised back to the generator to continue the process.
本发明通过冷却水降膜布液装置布置在冷凝器和吸收器的热交换管或热 交换板与空气接触的壁面上部或上方, 冷却水通过所述布液装置喷淋或滴落到 所述壁面形成液膜, 所述液膜受重力作用沿壁面流下, 再利用自然蒸发或强制 对流使换热表面的液膜蒸发, 由于蒸发的热传递为显热热交换方式的近百倍, 使得本发明无需采用冷却水塔即能实现吸收器和冷凝器的换热, 节省了部件, 降低了成本, 并减小了占地面积。 吸收式制冷机组冷却水进出口温差为 6°C。 理论上 lKg的冷却水能带走 25KJ的热量,而 lKg水在 35°C的常压下汽化潜热 为 2418KJ。因此本发明的降膜蒸发冷却吸收式制冷机组所需的理论耗水量只有 现有采用冷却水塔的水冷式制冷机组的 1 %左右, 冷却水泵的动力消耗明显降 低。 此外, 本发明的冷凝器的冷凝温度与吸收器的吸收液出口温度有可能更接 近空气的湿球温度, 比现有水冷式制冷机组约低 3〜5 °C, 比风冷式制冷机组低 8〜1 C, 使机组的节能效果显著, 与现有的吸收式制冷机组相比具有更小的 换热温差和更高的制冷效率。 此外, 同时对冷凝器和吸收器采用降膜蒸发的结 构使传统的冷却塔被完全替代。 同时, 通过降膜蒸发的布置, 本发明避免冷却 水长期循环使用, 杜绝军团菌的滋生和对人体健康的危害。 The invention arranges the heat exchange tube or the heat of the condenser and the absorber through the cooling water falling film liquid discharging device The upper or upper side of the wall where the exchange plate is in contact with the air, and the cooling water is sprayed or dripped onto the wall surface to form a liquid film, and the liquid film flows down the wall by gravity, and then uses natural evaporation or forced convection. The liquid film of the heat exchange surface is evaporated, and the heat transfer due to evaporation is nearly 100 times that of the sensible heat exchange mode, so that the present invention can realize heat exchange between the absorber and the condenser without using a cooling water tower, saving parts and reducing costs. And reduce the footprint. The temperature difference between the inlet and outlet of the absorption refrigeration unit is 6 °C. Theoretically, lKg of cooling water can carry away 25KJ of heat, while lKg water vaporizes latent heat at 2418KJ at 35 °C. Therefore, the theoretical water consumption required for the falling film evaporative cooling absorption refrigeration unit of the present invention is only about 1% of that of the existing water-cooled refrigeration unit using the cooling water tower, and the power consumption of the cooling water pump is significantly reduced. In addition, the condensation temperature of the condenser of the present invention and the absorption liquid outlet temperature of the absorber may be closer to the wet bulb temperature of the air, which is about 3 to 5 ° C lower than that of the existing water-cooled refrigeration unit, and is lower than that of the air-cooled refrigeration unit. 8~1 C, the energy saving effect of the unit is remarkable, and the heat exchange temperature difference and the higher cooling efficiency are smaller than those of the existing absorption type refrigeration unit. In addition, the simultaneous cooling of the condenser and absorber allows the conventional cooling tower to be completely replaced. At the same time, through the arrangement of falling film evaporation, the invention avoids the long-term recycling of the cooling water, and eliminates the breeding of Legionella and the harm to human health.
虽然本发明的描述结合了特定的实施例, 但是本领域普通技术人员应该理 解本发明并不限于在此描述的实施例, 并可以进行各种修改和变化而不背离本 发明的精神和范围。 例如, 在不设置冷剂箱和溶液箱的情况下也可以实现本发明 的目的。而在第二种实施方式中所描述的溶液热交换器、溶液泵等也适用于第一种 实施方式。在本发明的两种实施方式中,示出的是冷凝器和吸收器的多根热交换管 或多块热交换板的外壁同时与空气接触以及冷凝器和吸收器的多根热交换管或多 块热交换板的内壁同时与空气接触的情形, 然而本领域技术人员很容易想到, 冷凝器和吸收器中的一者的多根热交换管或多块热交换板仅有外壁与空气接触, 同时另一者的多根热交换管或多块热交换板仅有内壁与空气接触时,同样能够实现 本发明。此外, 本发明还可以设置多个冷却水降膜布液装置, 除了上述实施例中所 示出的设置在冷凝器和吸收器的热交换管或热交换板的上部或上方的冷却水降膜 布液装置,还可进一步包括设置于冷凝器和吸收器的热交换管或热交换板的两侧位 置的冷却水降膜布液装置。 工业应用性 本发明通过冷却水降膜布液装置在冷凝器和吸收器的热交换管或热交换板 与空气接触的壁面上布置用于蒸发冷凝的液膜, 再利用自然对流或强制对流使 换热表面的液膜蒸发。 由于蒸发潜热的热传递为显热换热量的近百倍, 因而可 节省冷却水泵的功耗, 使得冷凝器和吸收器冷却侧的换热系数更高, 从而得到 比现有吸收式制冷机组更低的冷却温度, 并提高冷凝器和吸收器换热效率, 扩 大吸收式制冷机组运行的环境温度范围。 此外, 本发明省却冷却塔, 杜绝了军 团菌的产生和对人体健康的损害, 减小了机组占地面积, 降低了成本。 While the present invention has been described with respect to the specific embodiments, it is understood that the present invention is not limited to the embodiments described herein, and various modifications and changes can be made without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention. For example, the object of the present invention can also be achieved without providing a refrigerant tank and a solution tank. The solution heat exchanger, solution pump, and the like described in the second embodiment are also applicable to the first embodiment. In two embodiments of the present invention, the outer walls of the plurality of heat exchange tubes or the plurality of heat exchange plates of the condenser and the absorber are simultaneously in contact with the air and the plurality of heat exchange tubes of the condenser and the absorber or The case where the inner wall of the plurality of heat exchange plates is simultaneously in contact with the air, however, it is easily recognized by those skilled in the art that the plurality of heat exchange tubes or the plurality of heat exchange plates of one of the condenser and the absorber have only the outer wall in contact with the air. At the same time, when the other of the plurality of heat exchange tubes or the plurality of heat exchange plates have only the inner wall in contact with the air, the present invention can also be realized. In addition, the present invention may also provide a plurality of cooling water falling film discharge devices, in addition to the cooling water falling film disposed above or above the heat exchange tubes or heat exchange plates of the condenser and the absorber shown in the above embodiments. The liquid discharging device may further include a cooling water falling film liquid discharging device disposed at two sides of the heat exchange tube or the heat exchange plate of the condenser and the absorber. Industrial applicability The invention arranges a liquid film for evaporating condensation on the wall surface of the condenser and the heat exchange tube or the heat exchange plate of the absorber which is in contact with the air through the cooling water falling film cloth discharging device, and then uses the natural convection or forced convection to make the heat exchange surface The liquid film evaporates. Since the heat transfer of latent heat of evaporation is nearly a hundred times that of sensible heat exchange, the power consumption of the cooling water pump can be saved, and the heat transfer coefficient of the condenser and the cooling side of the absorber is higher, thereby obtaining more than the existing absorption refrigeration unit. Low cooling temperature, and improve the heat exchange efficiency of the condenser and absorber, and expand the ambient temperature range in which the absorption refrigeration unit operates. In addition, the invention saves the cooling tower, eliminates the production of Legionella and damages human health, reduces the footprint of the unit, and reduces the cost.

Claims

权 利 要 求 Rights request
1、 一种降膜蒸发冷却吸收式制冷机组, 包括发生器、 蒸发器、 吸收器、 冷凝 器及节流装置; 所述冷凝器和所述吸收器各自包括多根热交换管或多块热交换板, 其特征在于: A falling film evaporative cooling absorption refrigeration unit comprising a generator, an evaporator, an absorber, a condenser and a throttling device; the condenser and the absorber each comprising a plurality of heat exchange tubes or a plurality of heats Switch board, which is characterized by:
所述制冷机组还包括若干个冷却水降膜布液装置;  The refrigeration unit further includes a plurality of cooling water falling film discharge devices;
所述冷凝器和所述吸收器的多根热交换管或多块热交换板的外壁或内壁与空 气接触,至少有一个所述冷却水降膜布液装置设置在所述冷凝器和所述吸收器的所 述热交换管或热交换板的上部或上方,用于将冷却水布置在所述热交换管或热交换 板与空气接触的壁面上形成液膜,所述液膜受重力作用沿所述壁面流下,利用空气 的对流使液膜进行蒸发冷却。  The condenser and the outer wall or the inner wall of the plurality of heat exchange tubes or the plurality of heat exchange plates are in contact with the air, and at least one of the cooling water falling film discharge devices is disposed at the condenser and the An upper portion or above of the heat exchange tube or the heat exchange plate of the absorber for arranging cooling water on a wall surface of the heat exchange tube or the heat exchange plate that is in contact with the air to form a liquid film, the liquid film being subjected to gravity Flowing down the wall surface, the liquid film is evaporatively cooled by convection of air.
2、 如权利要求 1所述的降膜蒸发冷却吸收式制冷机组, 其特征在于, 还包括 一溶液布液装置,所述溶液布液装置设置在所述吸收器的多根热交换管或多块热交 换板的上部或上方; 溶液布液装置的入口与所述发生器相连通, 出口与所述吸收器 相连通, 用于将溶液布置在吸收器的热交换管或热交换板未与空气接触的壁面上。  2. The falling film evaporative cooling absorption refrigeration unit according to claim 1, further comprising a solution liquid discharging device, wherein the solution liquid discharging device is disposed in the plurality of heat exchange tubes of the absorber or more An upper portion or an upper portion of the block heat exchange plate; an inlet of the solution liquid discharge device is in communication with the generator, and an outlet is connected to the absorber, and the heat exchange tube or the heat exchange plate for disposing the solution in the absorber is not Air is in contact with the wall.
3、 如权利要求 1所述的降膜蒸发冷却吸收式制冷机组, 其特征在于, 还包括 一溶液热交换器,所述溶液热交换器的浓溶液侧入口与所述发生器相连通,浓溶液 侧出口与所述吸收器相连通;所述溶液热交换器的稀溶液侧入口与所述吸收器相连 通, 稀溶液侧出口与所述发生器相连通。  3. The falling film evaporative cooling absorption refrigeration unit according to claim 1, further comprising a solution heat exchanger, wherein a concentrated solution side inlet of the solution heat exchanger is connected to the generator, and is rich The solution side outlet is in communication with the absorber; the dilute solution side inlet of the solution heat exchanger is in communication with the absorber, and the dilute solution side outlet is in communication with the generator.
4、 如权利要求 3所述的降膜蒸发冷却吸收式制冷机组, 其特征在于, 还包括 一溶液布液装置,所述溶液布液装置设置在所述吸收器的多根热交换管或多块热交 换板的上部或上方; 溶液布液装置的入口与所述溶液热交换器相连通, 出口与所述 吸收器相连通,用于将溶液布置在吸收器的热交换管或热交换板未与空气接触的壁 面上。  4. The falling film evaporative cooling absorption refrigeration unit according to claim 3, further comprising a solution liquid discharging device, wherein the solution liquid discharging device is disposed in the plurality of heat exchange tubes of the absorber or more An upper portion or an upper portion of the block heat exchange plate; an inlet of the solution liquid discharge device is in communication with the solution heat exchanger, and an outlet is in communication with the absorber, and the solution is disposed in the heat exchange tube or the heat exchange plate of the absorber On the wall that is not in contact with air.
5、 如权利要求 4所述的降膜蒸发冷却吸收式制冷机组, 其特征在于, 所述吸收器包括溶液箱,所述溶液箱设置于吸收器的多根热交换管或多块热交 换板底部, 并与吸收器的多根热交换管或多块热交换板相连;  5. The falling film evaporative cooling absorption refrigeration unit according to claim 4, wherein the absorber comprises a solution tank, and the solution tank is disposed in a plurality of heat exchange tubes or a plurality of heat exchange plates of the absorber. The bottom is connected to a plurality of heat exchange tubes or a plurality of heat exchange plates of the absorber;
冷凝器包括冷剂箱,所述冷剂箱设置于冷凝器的多根热交换管或多块热交换板 底部, 并与冷凝器的多根热交换管或多块热交换板相连; The condenser includes a refrigerant tank, and the refrigerant tank is disposed in a plurality of heat exchange tubes or a plurality of heat exchange plates of the condenser The bottom is connected to a plurality of heat exchange tubes or a plurality of heat exchange plates of the condenser;
所述冷剂箱和所述溶液箱均为封闭的箱体。  The coolant tank and the solution tank are both closed tanks.
6、 如权利要求 5所述的降膜蒸发冷却吸收式制冷机组, 其特征在于, 还包括 冷剂泵; 所述冷剂泵的入口与所述冷剂箱相连通, 出口与蒸发器相连通。  6. The falling film evaporative cooling absorption refrigeration unit according to claim 5, further comprising a refrigerant pump; the inlet of the refrigerant pump is in communication with the refrigerant tank, and the outlet is connected to the evaporator .
7、 如权利要求 6所述的降膜蒸发冷却吸收式制冷机组, 其特征在于, 还包括 溶液泵;所述溶液泵的入口与吸收器的溶液箱相连通, 出口与发生器或溶液热交换 器相连通。  7. The falling film evaporative cooling absorption refrigeration unit according to claim 6, further comprising a solution pump; the inlet of the solution pump is in communication with the solution tank of the absorber, and the outlet is heat exchanged with the generator or the solution. The devices are connected.
8、 如权利要求 7所述的降膜蒸发冷却吸收式制冷机组, 其特征在于, 还包括 用于冷却冷凝器和吸收器的热交换管或热交换板的风扇。  8. The falling film evaporative cooling absorption refrigeration unit according to claim 7, further comprising a fan for cooling the heat exchange tube or the heat exchange plate of the condenser and the absorber.
9、 如权利要求 8所述的降膜蒸发冷却吸收式制冷机组, 其特征在于, 还包括 一毛细管, 所述毛细管的一端与蒸发器的底部相连通, 另一端与冷剂箱相连通。  9. The falling film evaporative cooling absorption refrigeration unit according to claim 8, further comprising a capillary tube having one end communicating with the bottom of the evaporator and the other end communicating with the refrigerant tank.
10、 如权利要求 1所述的降膜蒸发冷却吸收式制冷机组, 其特征在于, 所述 吸收器的多根热交换管的主轴线或多块热交换板的主换热面与水平面之间的夹角 大于等于 45 ° 且小于等于 90° 。  10. The falling film evaporative cooling absorption refrigeration unit according to claim 1, wherein a main axis of the plurality of heat exchange tubes of the absorber or a main heat exchange surface of the plurality of heat exchange plates is between the horizontal surface and the horizontal surface The angle is greater than or equal to 45 ° and less than or equal to 90 °.
1 1、 如权利要求 1所述的降膜蒸发冷却吸收式制冷机组, 其特征在于, 所述 冷凝器的多根热交换管的主轴线或多块热交换板的主换热面与水平面之间的夹角 大于等于 45 ° 且小于等于 90° 。  1 1. The falling film evaporative cooling absorption refrigeration unit according to claim 1, wherein a main axis of the plurality of heat exchange tubes of the condenser or a main heat exchange surface and a horizontal plane of the plurality of heat exchange plates The angle between the angles is greater than or equal to 45 ° and less than or equal to 90 °.
12、 一种降膜蒸发冷却吸收式制冷机组, 包括发生器、 蒸发器、 吸收器、 冷凝器、 溶液热交换器、 冷凝水箱、 节流装置、 蒸发水箱及溶液箱; 所述发生 器分别与所述冷凝器的入口及所述溶液热交换器的入口相连通, 所述冷凝器的 出口与所述冷凝水箱连通, 冷凝水箱通过所述节流装置与所述蒸发水箱相连通, 所述蒸发水箱与所述蒸发器相连通; 所述溶液热交换器的出口及所述蒸发器分 别与吸收器的入口相连通, 吸收器的出口与溶液箱连通; 冷凝器和吸收器各自 包括多根热交换管或多块热交换板, 其特征在于:  12. A falling film evaporative cooling absorption refrigeration unit comprising a generator, an evaporator, an absorber, a condenser, a solution heat exchanger, a condensate tank, a throttling device, an evaporation water tank, and a solution tank; An inlet of the condenser is in communication with an inlet of the solution heat exchanger, an outlet of the condenser is in communication with the condensate tank, and a condensate tank is connected to the evaporation tank through the throttling device, the evaporation a water tank is in communication with the evaporator; an outlet of the solution heat exchanger and the evaporator are respectively connected to an inlet of the absorber, and an outlet of the absorber is connected to the solution tank; the condenser and the absorber each comprise a plurality of heats An exchange tube or a plurality of heat exchange plates, characterized by:
还包括冷却水布液装置;  Also includes a cooling water cloth device;
所述冷凝器和所述吸收器的多根热交换管或多块热交换板的外壁或内壁 与空气接触, 所述冷却水布液装置设置在所述热交换管或热交换板上部, 并将 冷却水布置在所述热交换管或热交换板与空气接触的壁面上, 进行蒸发冷却。  The condenser and the outer wall or inner wall of the plurality of heat exchange tubes or the plurality of heat exchange plates are in contact with air, and the cooling water liquid discharging device is disposed on the heat exchange tube or the heat exchange plate portion, and Cooling water is disposed on the wall of the heat exchange tube or the heat exchange plate in contact with the air to perform evaporative cooling.
PCT/CN2008/070787 2008-01-18 2008-04-24 A falling-film evaporation-cooling absorption refrigeration unit WO2009089694A1 (en)

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