WO2008157046A1 - Processes for producing higher hydrocarbons from methane - Google Patents

Processes for producing higher hydrocarbons from methane Download PDF

Info

Publication number
WO2008157046A1
WO2008157046A1 PCT/US2008/065837 US2008065837W WO2008157046A1 WO 2008157046 A1 WO2008157046 A1 WO 2008157046A1 US 2008065837 W US2008065837 W US 2008065837W WO 2008157046 A1 WO2008157046 A1 WO 2008157046A1
Authority
WO
WIPO (PCT)
Prior art keywords
metal halide
higher hydrocarbons
process
methane
gaseous methane
Prior art date
Application number
PCT/US2008/065837
Other languages
French (fr)
Other versions
WO2008157046A9 (en
Inventor
George W. Cook
Joe D. Sauer
Allen M. Beard
Joseph E. Coury
Mario A. Garcia
Carroll W. Lanier
Original Assignee
Albemarle Corporation
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to US94403607P priority Critical
Priority to US60/944,036 priority
Priority to US98933107P priority
Priority to US60/989,331 priority
Priority to US61/057,268 priority
Priority to US5726808P priority
Application filed by Albemarle Corporation filed Critical Albemarle Corporation
Publication of WO2008157046A1 publication Critical patent/WO2008157046A1/en
Publication of WO2008157046A9 publication Critical patent/WO2008157046A9/en

Links

Classifications

    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C07ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
    • C07CACYCLIC OR CARBOCYCLIC COMPOUNDS
    • C07C2/00Preparation of hydrocarbons from hydrocarbons containing a smaller number of carbon atoms
    • C07C2/76Preparation of hydrocarbons from hydrocarbons containing a smaller number of carbon atoms by condensation of hydrocarbons with partial elimination of hydrogen
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C01INORGANIC CHEMISTRY
    • C01BNON-METALLIC ELEMENTS; COMPOUNDS THEREOF; METALLOIDS OR COMPOUNDS THEREOF NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASS C01C
    • C01B3/00Hydrogen; Gaseous mixtures containing hydrogen; Separation of hydrogen from mixtures containing it; Purification of hydrogen
    • C01B3/0005Reversible uptake of hydrogen by an appropriate medium, i.e. based on physical or chemical sorption phenomena or on reversible chemical reactions, e.g. for hydrogen storage purposes ; Reversible gettering of hydrogen; Reversible uptake of hydrogen by electrodes
    • C01B3/001Reversible uptake of hydrogen by an appropriate medium, i.e. based on physical or chemical sorption phenomena or on reversible chemical reactions, e.g. for hydrogen storage purposes ; Reversible gettering of hydrogen; Reversible uptake of hydrogen by electrodes characterised by the uptaking medium; Treatment thereof
    • C01B3/0026Reversible uptake of hydrogen by an appropriate medium, i.e. based on physical or chemical sorption phenomena or on reversible chemical reactions, e.g. for hydrogen storage purposes ; Reversible gettering of hydrogen; Reversible uptake of hydrogen by electrodes characterised by the uptaking medium; Treatment thereof of one single metal or a rare earth metal; Treatment thereof
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C07ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
    • C07CACYCLIC OR CARBOCYCLIC COMPOUNDS
    • C07C4/00Preparation of hydrocarbons from hydrocarbons containing a larger number of carbon atoms
    • C07C4/02Preparation of hydrocarbons from hydrocarbons containing a larger number of carbon atoms by cracking a single hydrocarbon or a mixture of individually defined hydrocarbons or a normally gaseous hydrocarbon fraction
    • C07C4/06Catalytic processes
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10GCRACKING HYDROCARBON OILS; PRODUCTION OF LIQUID HYDROCARBON MIXTURES, e.g. BY DESTRUCTIVE HYDROGENATION, OLIGOMERISATION, POLYMERISATION; RECOVERY OF HYDROCARBON OILS FROM OIL-SHALE, OIL-SAND, OR GASES; REFINING MIXTURES MAINLY CONSISTING OF HYDROCARBONS; REFORMING OF NAPHTHA; MINERAL WAXES
    • C10G11/00Catalytic cracking, in the absence of hydrogen, of hydrocarbon oils
    • C10G11/02Catalytic cracking, in the absence of hydrogen, of hydrocarbon oils characterised by the catalyst used
    • C10G11/08Halides
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10GCRACKING HYDROCARBON OILS; PRODUCTION OF LIQUID HYDROCARBON MIXTURES, e.g. BY DESTRUCTIVE HYDROGENATION, OLIGOMERISATION, POLYMERISATION; RECOVERY OF HYDROCARBON OILS FROM OIL-SHALE, OIL-SAND, OR GASES; REFINING MIXTURES MAINLY CONSISTING OF HYDROCARBONS; REFORMING OF NAPHTHA; MINERAL WAXES
    • C10G50/00Production of liquid hydrocarbon mixtures from lower carbon number hydrocarbons, e.g. by oligomerisation
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10GCRACKING HYDROCARBON OILS; PRODUCTION OF LIQUID HYDROCARBON MIXTURES, e.g. BY DESTRUCTIVE HYDROGENATION, OLIGOMERISATION, POLYMERISATION; RECOVERY OF HYDROCARBON OILS FROM OIL-SHALE, OIL-SAND, OR GASES; REFINING MIXTURES MAINLY CONSISTING OF HYDROCARBONS; REFORMING OF NAPHTHA; MINERAL WAXES
    • C10G57/00Treatment of hydrocarbon oils in the absence of the hydrogen, by at least one cracking process or refining process and at least one other conversion process
    • C10G57/02Treatment of hydrocarbon oils in the absence of the hydrogen, by at least one cracking process or refining process and at least one other conversion process with polymerisation
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10GCRACKING HYDROCARBON OILS; PRODUCTION OF LIQUID HYDROCARBON MIXTURES, e.g. BY DESTRUCTIVE HYDROGENATION, OLIGOMERISATION, POLYMERISATION; RECOVERY OF HYDROCARBON OILS FROM OIL-SHALE, OIL-SAND, OR GASES; REFINING MIXTURES MAINLY CONSISTING OF HYDROCARBONS; REFORMING OF NAPHTHA; MINERAL WAXES
    • C10G9/00Thermal non-catalytic cracking, in the absence of hydrogen, of hydrocarbon oils
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C07ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
    • C07CACYCLIC OR CARBOCYCLIC COMPOUNDS
    • C07C2527/00Catalysts comprising the elements or compounds of halogens, sulfur, selenium, tellurium, phosphorus or nitrogen; Catalysts comprising carbon compounds
    • C07C2527/06Halogens; Compounds thereof
    • C07C2527/125Compounds comprising a halogen and scandium, yttrium, aluminium, gallium, indium or thallium
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C07ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
    • C07CACYCLIC OR CARBOCYCLIC COMPOUNDS
    • C07C2527/00Catalysts comprising the elements or compounds of halogens, sulfur, selenium, tellurium, phosphorus or nitrogen; Catalysts comprising carbon compounds
    • C07C2527/06Halogens; Compounds thereof
    • C07C2527/125Compounds comprising a halogen and scandium, yttrium, aluminium, gallium, indium or thallium
    • C07C2527/126Aluminium chloride
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E60/00Enabling technologies or technologies with a potential or indirect contribution to GHG emissions mitigation
    • Y02E60/30Hydrogen technology
    • Y02E60/32Hydrogen storage
    • Y02E60/324Reversible uptake of hydrogen by an appropriate medium
    • Y02E60/327Reversible uptake of hydrogen by an appropriate medium the medium being a metal or rare earth metal, an intermetallic compound or a metal alloy
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P30/00Technologies relating to oil refining and petrochemical industry
    • Y02P30/40Ethylene production
    • Y02P30/44Cracking, e.g. steam cracking
    • Y02P30/446Catalytic cracking

Abstract

Processes are provided for producing higher hydrocarbons wherein at least gaseous methane and a metal halide are combined at a temperature of at least about 100°C; gaseous methane is polymerized to C4 and higher hydrocarbons; and C4 and higher hydrocarbons are cracked to C2 and higher hydrocarbons.

Description

rr^iwi nic i πn

BACKGROUND

[0001] Methane is a major constituent of natural gas and also of biogas. Worid reserves of natural gas are constantly being increased, e.g., due to new discoveries, etc. However, a significant portion of the world reserves of natural gas is in remote locations, where gas pipelines frequently cannot be economically justified. Natural gas is often co-produced with oil in remote offsite locations where reinjection of the gas is not feasible. Much of the natural gas produced along with oil at remote locations, as well as methane produced in petroleum refining and petrochemical processes, is flared. Since methane is classified as a greenhouse gas, future flaring of natural gas and methane may be prohibited or restricted. Thus, significant amounts of natural gas and methane are available to be utilized.

[0002] Different technologies have been described for utilizing these sources of natural gas and methane. For example, technologies are available for converting natural gas to liquids, which are more easily transported than gas. Various technologies are described for converting methane to higher hydrocarbons and aromatics.

[0003] In regard to converting natural gas to liquid fuels, the Fischer Tropsch (FT) reaction involves the synthesis of liquid hydrocarbons or their oxygenated derivatives from the mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, which can be obtained, e.g., by the partial combustion of methane or by the gasification of coal. This synthesis is carried out with metallic catalysts such as iron, cobalt, or nickel at high temperature and pressure. The overall efficiency of the FT reaction and subsequent water gas shift chemistry is estimated at about 15% to 30%, when allowing for the energy required to make the conversion. While FT does provide a route for the liquefication of coal stocks, it is not adequate in its present level of understanding and production for commercial conversion of methane-rich stocks to liquid fuels. FT requires a heavily discounted natural gas source to be economical. Additionally, a FT plant is expensive and bulky, and therefore not suitable for use in many remote Jocations, such as on an offshore oil rig where natural gas comprising methane is routinely flared. [0004] It is possible to hydrogenate carbon monoxide to generate methanol. Methanol, by strict definition of the "gas to liquid" descriptor, would seem to fulfill the target desire of liquefication of normaliy gaseous, toxic feedstocks. However, in many . percentage of their chemical energy by the formation of the C-O bond present. A true "methane to liquid hydrocarbon" process would afford end products that would not suffer these losses.

[0005] Yet another approach for methane utilization involves the halogenation of the hydrocarbon molecule to halomethane and subsequent reactions of that intermediate in the production of a variety of materiais. Again, the efficiency and overall cost performance of such routes would be commercially prohibitive. Such a halogenation process would also suffer from decrease of stored chemical energy during the C-X bond formation. Additionally, the halogen species has to be satisfactorily accounted for (i.e., either recycled, or captured in some innocuous, safe form) within the end-use of the product from this overall route.

[0006] Gas to liquid processes that can convert methane into liquid fuels have been a significant challenge to the petrochemical industry at large. Of note are the works of Karl Ziegler and Giulio Natta regarding aluminum catalysts for ethylene chain growth, culminating in the 1963 Nobel Prize for Chemistry; the work of George Olah in carbocation technology, for which Mr. Olah received the 1994 Nobel Prize for Chemistry; and the work of Peter Wasserscheid regarding transition metal catalysis in ionic liquid media.

[0007] In spite of technologies that are currently described and available, a need exists for commercially feasible means for converting methane to useful hydrocarbons.

THE INVENTION

[0008] This invention meets the above-described needs by providing processes for producing C2 and higher hydrocarbons, comprising combining at least gaseous methane and a metal halide within a temperature range in which at least some of the metal halide is gaseous. In processes of this invention, the gaseous methane and the metal halide can combine to form a second stream and the second stream can be at at least a temperature high enough to initiate polymerization of the methane. This invention also provides processes for producing C2 and higher hydrocarbons, comprising combining at least gaseous methane, a metal halide, and a halogen within a temperature range in which at least some of the metal halide is gaseous. This invention also provides processes for producing C2 and higher hydrocarbons, comprising com ining a e , , within a temperature range in which at least some of the metal halide is gaseous. [0009] We have discovered that usable higher hydrocarbons can be produced directly from methane by processes that comprise combining at least gaseous methane and a metal halide suitable for catalyzing polymerization of the methane. Even in view of extensive research that has been conducted in the areas of catalysis and in looking for commercially suitable utilization of methane, processes such as we disclose herein are not commercially available. Processes of this invention are particularly advantageous in that produced higher hydrocarbons are useful, e.g., as gasoline, diesel fuel, chemical feedstock, heating oils, lubricating oils, and the like. An added benefit of processes of this invention is that usable H2 is produced, as is described in greater detail below. A component suitable for absorbing hydrogen can be used in processes of this invention for recovery of the usable H2. Alternatively, H2 can be recovered by techniques familiar to those skilled in the art, such as by pressure swing absorption, distillation, and the like. The availability of usable H2 is advantageous in that it can be used as a clean- burning fuel with reduced CO2 emissions as compared to traditional fuels. [0010] Also provided by this invention are processes comprising: combining at least gaseous methane and a metal halide at a temperature of at least about 1000C; polymerizing at least some of the gaseous methane to C4 and higher hydrocarbons; and cracking at least some of the C4 and higher hydrocarbons to C2 and higher hydrocarbons; such processes wherein the metal halide comprises aluminum bromide, aluminum chloride, aluminum fluoride, titanium bromide, or aluminum iodide; such processes wherein the metal halide comprises aluminum bromide and the temperature is at least about 1100C; such processes wherein at least some of the gaseous methane and at least some of the gaseous metal halide form a vapor phase and at least some of the polymerizing and at least some of the cracking occur simultaneously in the vapor phase; such processes further comprising combining an additional component with the at least gaseous methane and metal halide, wherein the additional component comprises methyl iodide, titanium bromide, a branched hydrocarbon, ethane, hydrogen, an alkyl halide, an olefin, or a metal halide comprising Li, Na, K, Mg, Ca, Sc, Y, Zr, Cu, Hf, V, Nb, Ta, Fe, Ru, Co, Ni, Pb, B, Ga, Ge, Sn, or Sb and bromine, chlorine, fluorine, or iodine; such processes further comprising combining a hydrogen halide with the at least gaseous methane and metal halide; such processes further comprising combining a hydrogen halide and an additional component with the at least gaseous methane and bromide, a branched hydrocarbon, ethane, hydrogen, an alkyl halide, an o!efin, or a metal halide comprising Li, Na, K, Mg, Ca, Sc, Y, Zr, Cu, Hf, V, Nb, Ta, Fe, Ru, Co, Ni, Pb, B, Ga, Ge, Sn, or Sb and bromine, chlorine, fluorine, or iodine [0011] Also provided are processes for producing C2 and higher hydrocarbons, comprising: (a) heating a metal halide to a temperature of at least about 1000C; (b) combining at least gaseous methane and the heated metal halide; (c) polymerizing at least some of the gaseous methane to C4 and higher hydrocarbons; and (d) cracking at least some of the C4 and higher hydrocarbons to C2 and higher hydrocarbons; such processes wherein the metal halide comprises aluminum bromide and the reaction temperature is at least about 25O0C; such processes wherein (b) is replaced with: (b) combining at least gaseous methane, the heated metal halide, and a component suitable for absorbing hydrogen; such processes wherein the component suitable for absorbing hydrogen comprises Raney nickel, platinum, palladium, tantalum, niobium, yttrium, platinum on carbon, palladium on carbon, platinum on activated carbon, or palladium on activated carbon; such processes wherein at least some of the gaseous methane and at ieast some of the metal halide form a vapor phase and at least some of the polymerizing and at least some of the cracking occur simultaneously in the vapor phase.

[0012] Also provided are processes comprising combining at least gaseous methane, a metal halide, a hydrogen halide, and an additional component at at least about 1000C, wherein the additional component comprises methyl iodide, titanium bromide, a branched hydrocarbon, ethane, hydrogen, an alkyl halide, an olefin, or a metal halide comprising Li1 Na, K, Mg, Ca, Sc, Y, Zr, Cu, Hf, V, Nb, Ta, Fe, Ru, Co, Ni1 Pb, B, Ga, Ge, Sn, or Sb and bromine, chlorine, fluorine, or iodine; polymerizing at least some of the gaseous methane to C4 and higher hydrocarbons; and cracking at least some of the C4 and higher hydrocarbons to C2 and higher hydrocarbons; and such processes wherein at least some of the gaseous methane and at least some of the gaseous metal halide form a vapor phase and at least some of the polymerizing and at least some of the cracking occur simultaneously in the vapor phase.

[0013J A!so provided are processes comprising combining at least gaseous methane and a Lewis acid at at least a temperature at which at least some of the Lewis acid is gaseous, yielding C2 and higher hydrocarbons. Suitable Lewis acids include, without . art, a Lewis acid is defined as a compound capable of accepting an electron pair. [0014] Also provided are processes comprising combining at least gaseous methane, a Lewis acid, and a Bronsted acid, e.g., HBr, at at least a temperature at which at least some of the Lewis acid is gaseous, yielding C2 and higher hydrocarbons. As is familiar to those skilled in the art, a Bronsted acid is defined as a compound capabie of donating a proton.

[0015] These and other aspects of the invention are described herein and by reference to the Figures, in which:

Figure 1 illustrates a batch process according to this invention; and Figure 2 illustrates a batch process according to this invention; and Figure 3 illustrates a batch process according to this invention; and Figure 4 illustrates a continuous process according to this invention. [0016] C2 and higher hydrocarbons produced according to processes of this invention can include without limitation C2 to C3o hydrocarbons, particularly C2 to Ci2 hydrocarbons or C4 to C8 hydrocarbons. The C2 and higher hydrocarbons produced according to this invention can include normal and iso aikanes (CnH2n+2), cyclic alkanes (CnH2n), alkenes (CnH2n), alkynes (CnH2n-2), aromatics, and the like. [0017] The gaseous methane can be provided by a natural gas stream co-produced with oil or otherwise produced, or a natural gas stream from any other suitable source. For example, the gas stream can be produced from coal beds (e.g., anthracite or bituminous); biogas produced by the anaerobic decay of non-fossil organic materia! from swamps, marshes, landfills, and the like; biogas produced from sewage sludge and manure by way of anaerobic digesters; biogas produced by enteric fermentation particularly in cattle and termites; and from other gas sources. H2 can be added with the gas stream,

[0018] The gas stream can comprise at least about 50 vol% methane, or at least about 75 vol% methane. Other components can be present in the gas stream, for example, ethane, butane, propane, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, helium, hydrogen sulfide, water, odorants, mercury, organosulfur compounds, etc. Such components can be removed as needed from the gas stream prior to, during, or after processing according to this invention using techniques familiar to those skilled in the art. The gas stream can consist essentially of methane, e.g., can be zero grade, or essentially pure, methane. hydrocarbons, comprising combining at least a hydrocarbon feed source and a metal haiide within a temperature range in which at least some of the metal halide is gaseous. Suitable hydrocarbon feed sources include, without limitation, paraffin waxes, high density polyethylene, plastic grocery bags, Ciβ straight chain paraffins, isopentane, cyclohexane, heptane, acetylene, ethylene, etc.

[0020] Other components can be present in the hydrocarbon feed source, for example, oxygen, nitrogen, helium, hydrogen sulfide, water, odorants, mercury, organosulfur compounds, etc. Such components can be removed as needed from the hydrocarbon feed source prior to, during, or after processing according to this invention using techniques familiar to those skilled in the art.

[0021] The metal halide or other Lewis acid can be suitable for catalyzing polymerization of methane and can comprise aluminum bromide (e.g., AIBr3 or AI2Br6), aluminum chloride, aluminum fluoride, aluminum iodide, titanium bromide, and the like, including mixtures thereof. For example, titanium bromide in the form Of TiBr2, TiBr4, and the like can be used. Without limiting this invention, metal halides comprising a metal such as Li, Na, K, Mg, Ca, Sc, Y, Zr, Cu, Hf, V, Nb, Ta, Fe, Ru, Co, Ni, Pb, B, Ga, Ge, Sn, or Sb and a halogen such as bromine, chlorine, iodine, or fluorine may also be used in processes of this invention. The metal halide can have a purity of 100% or less than 100%. For example, the metal halide can be of a commercial grade, can have a purity of at least about 95%, or at least about 98%, or at least about 99%, or at least about 99.9%. Impurities can be present on the surface of the metal halide(s); and such impurities can participate in reactions that occur during processes of this invention. [0022] The metal halide can be heated such that it is at a temperature, or is within a temperature range, that is at least high enough to gasify at least some of the metal halide. When the metal halide comprises aluminum bromide, the temperature can be at least about 1000C, and can be from about 1000C to about 4000C, or about 2500C to about 35O0C.

[0023] When a hydrogen halide is used in processes of this invention, any suitable hydrogen halide can be used, for example hydrogen bromide. When a hydrogen halide, such as hydrogen bromide for example, is used, it can have a purity of about 100% or less than about 100%. For example, the hydrogen halide can be of a commercial grade, can have a purity of at least about 95%, or at least about 98%, or at least about 99%, or at least about 99.9%. Additionally, the hydrogen haiide can have a such as H2O, CO, CO2, O2, HCi, HF, Br2 , Cl2, fluorine, or iodine, to name a few. The same is true when another hydrogen halide is used, such as hydrogen fluoride, or hydrogen chloride, or hydrogen iodide.

[0024] The component suitable for absorbing hydrogen can comprise Raney nickel, platinum, palladium, tantalum, niobium, yttrium, platinum on carbon, palladium on carbon, platinum on activated carbon, palladium on activated carbon, etc. Raney nickel can be comprised of aluminum-nickel alloy. Given the teachings of this disclosure, one skilled in the art can select an suitable component for absorbing hydrogen. [0025] Processes according to this invention for producing C2 and higher hydrocarbons can comprise combining at least gaseous methane, a metal halide, and an additional component. Without limiting this invention, the additional component (sometimes referred to herein as a promoter) can comprise a halogen such as bromine, chlorine, fluorine, or iodine; methyl iodide; titanium bromide; metal halides comprising a metal such as Li1 Na, K, Mg, Ca, Sc, Y, Zr, Cu, Hf, V, Nb, Ta, Fe, Ru, Co, Ni, Pb, B, Ga, Ge, Sn, or Sb and a halogen such as bromine, chlorine, fluorine, or iodine; branched hydrocarbons such as isopentane, neopentane, and the like; ethane; hydrogen; alky! halides such as methyl bromide, ethyl bromide, and the like; and/or olefins such as propene, butene, and the like. One or more additional components can be combined. Such additional components can be generated in situ. For example, combined methane and bromine can generate methyl bromide in situ; combined hydrogen bromide and ethylene can generate ethylene bromide in situ, etc.. [0026] Referring, for example, to Figure 1 , in processes of this invention, the metal halide 114 can catalyze polymerization of methane in gaseous methane stream 118 to C2 and higher hydrocarbons. Gaseous methane stream 118 can comprise ethane, butane, olefins, etc., in addition to the methane. The metal halide 114 can be in a container 112. The container 112 can be heated by any suitable means, e.g., by a heated sand bed 116, so that the metal halide 114 is heated, e.g., at least to its melting temperature. The gaseous methane stream 118 can be injected into (or otherwise put into) the container 112 such that the metal halide 114 catalyzes polymerization of the methane. For example, the residence time of methane in the gaseous methane stream 118 within the container 112 and other conditions, such as temperature, can be adequate to initiate polymerization of the methane. For example, the residence time of methane in the gaseous methane stream 118 within the container 112 and other , methane. For example, residence time can be up to about one minute. Longer residence times can be used. For example, residence time of methane in the gaseous methane stream 118 within the container 112 can be longer than about one minute, for example from about one minute to about five minutes, or up to about two minutes. A substantial portion of the polymerization can occur in vapor phase 119. Simultaneously with the polymerization in vapor phase 119, some of the polymerized higher hydrocarbons can be cracked, e.g., by thermal cracking, acid cracking, etc.. At appropriately high temperatures, olefins are formed and hydrogen given off can assist in the cracking process. For example, the temperature can be above about 3500C, or can be from about 3500C to about 10000C, or from about 3500C to about 400°C. At lower temperatures, cracking can be achieved without the assistance of olefins by addition of hydrogen. For example, at a temperature of up to about 3500C, or at about 110°C, cracking can be assisted by addition of hydrogen under pressure. Thermal reforming of hydrocarbons, isomerization of hydrocarbons, and other reactions can also occur in vapor phase 119 and/or elsewhere in container 112. Skeletel or bond isomerization can occur. The metal halide can catalyze polymerization of the methane by action as a Lewis acid. Although not illustrated in Figure 1 , hydrogen given off during the polymerization of the methane can be recovered for sale or use, e.g., by being absorbed by a component suitable for absorbing hydrogen, which component may be in the container 112 with the metal halide 114 or may be in a separate container through which the gaseous methane stream 118 (or a resulting product/product stream (not shown in Figure 1)) is subsequently passed. Produced C2 and higher hydrocarbons can be recovered from container 112 by means known to those skilled in the art (not illustrated in Figure 1). Given the teachings of this disclosure, those skilled in the art can determine appropriate temperatures, pressures, and other process parameters as desired to achieve desired results using processes of this invention.

[0027] Referring, for example, to Figure 2, in processes of this invention, metal halide 214 can catalyze polymerization of methane in gaseous methane stream 218 to C2 and higher hydrocarbons. The metal halide 214 can be in a container 212. Also, component 215 (e.g., packing) can be put into container 212, e.g., for the purpose of increasing surface area within container 212 and/or for supporting the metal halide 214.

One benefit of component 215 is that additional surface area is provided for surface . occur. Suitable packing materials will be well known to those skilled in the art, given the teachings of this disclosure, and can include, for example, glass beads, aluminum oxides, and zeolites. The container 212 can be heated by any suitable means, e.g., by a heated sand bed 216, so that the metal halide 214 is heated, e.g., to at least its melting temperature. The gaseous methane stream 218 can be injected into (or otherwise put into) the container 212 such that the metal halide 214 catalyzes polymerization of the methane. For example, the residence time of methane in the gaseous methane stream 218 within the container 212 and other conditions, such as temperature, can be adequate to initiate polymerization of the methane. A substantial portion of the polymerization can occur on the surface of component 215 and/or in vapor phase 219. Simultaneously with the polymerization on the surface of component 21β and/or in vapor phase 219, some of the polymerized higher hydrocarbons can be cracked by, e.g., thermal cracking, acid cracking, or the like. Thermal reforming of hydrocarbons, isomerization of hydrocarbons, and other reactions can also occur in vapor phase 219 and/or elsewhere in container 212. Although not illustrated in Figure 2, hydrogen given off during the polymerization of the methane can be recovered for sale or use, e.g., by being absorbed by a component suitable for absorbing hydrogen, which component may be in the container with the metal halide or may be in a separate container through which the gaseous methane stream is subsequently passed. Produced C2 and higher hydrocarbons can be recovered from container 212 by means known to those skilled in the art (not illustrated in Figure 2).

[0028] The vapor phase (e.g., 119 in Figure 1 or 219 in Figure 2) can comprise ionic species in that the pressure and temperature conditions allow a substantial portion of the metal halide to remain available as a salt in the vapor phase. A vapor phase containing such ionic species can be conducive to reactions such as alkylation, isomerization, and the like. At least some of such monomolecular ionic species can form a cloud and can, and do, migrate to available surfaces and maintain activity. [0029] Byproducts of processes according to this invention can include red oil or red oil like substances. Red oil is a clathrate of at least olefinic hydrocarbon(s), aluminum halide(s), and, in some cases, Bronsted acid(s) and/or other Lewis acid(s). [0030] A benefit of processes of this invention is that components having a catalytic effect on the polymerization reactions taking place, e.g., aluminum bromide and hydrogen bromide, for example, either do not require regeneration, e.g., when . ] or can be regenerated in situ with hydrogen pressure at the appropriate temperature.

Examples

[0031] The following examples are illustrative of the principles of this invention. It is understood that this invention is not limited to any one specific embodiment exemplified herein, whether in the examples or the remainder of this patent application. [0032] At an offshore oil production site, natural gas comprising at least about 50 vol% methane is being co-produced with oil. Given the remote location of the production site and limited available space on the offshore platform, the natural gas is being flared. None of the valuable energy potential of the methane is being utilized. [0033] To improve the situation, a process according to the present invention is used to produce higher hydrocarbons from the methane. The higher hydrocarbons as well as the hydrogen produced during the process are utilized as fuel at the platform, thus providing a substantial economic benefit to the site.

[0034] Referring to Figure 3, natural gas stream 318 comprises on average from about 70 vol% to about 85 vol% methane, and also includes other components such as ethane, butane, propane, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, helium, and hydrogen sulfide. Instead of being flared, at least a portion of natural gas stream 318 is passed through container 312. Device 313 in container 312 is supported by inert material 310. Device 313 is made from glass, an inert material. Inert material 310 is glass beads; and in addition to supporting device 313, inert material 310 fills at least some of the otherwise empty space in container 312. In general, inert materials 310 used in this invention can include glass and other suitable inert materials. A slurry 317 of about 3 grams to about 5 grams of aluminum bromide 314 and about 0.5 grams to about 2 grams platinum-on-activated-charcoal 315 is in device 313. The temperature inside container 312 is maintained between about 2500C and 4000C by heated sand bed 316. Residence time of methane (in natural gas stream 318) within container 312 is from about 1 minute to about 30 minutes. The conditions in container 312 are adequate to catalyze polymerization of methane to C2 and higher hydrocarbons. A substantial portion of the polymerization occurs in vapor phase 319. Simultaneously with the polymerization, e.g., in vapor phase 319, some of the polymerized higher hydrocarbons are thermally cracked. During the polymerization, produced hydrogen is absorbed by platinum-on-activated-charcoal 315, or another suitable hydrogen absorber. Outlet gas hydrocarbons and any unreacted methane, is input to device 330. Within device 330, recycle stream 334 comprising any unreacted methane is separated from product stream 332 comprising ϋquefied C2 and higher hydrocarbons. Recycle stream 334 comprising methane is input into container 312 along with natural gas stream 318. Product stream 332 comprising liquefied C2 and higher hydrocarbons is removed from device 330 and is put into storage containers (not illustrated in Figure 3) for use as fuel and for chemical feedstock needed at the offshore production site, or is used directly without being stored. Intermittently, platinum-on-activated-charcoal 315 is removed from device 313 in container 312 and replaced with fresh platinum-on-activated- charcoal 315. Hydrogen is recovered as removed platinum-on-activated-charcoal 315 is regenerated for reuse within container 312, using means known to those skilled in the art. The replacement and regeneration of platinum-on-activated-charcoal 315, and recovery of hydrogen therefrom, are not illustrated in Figure 3. Recovered hydrogen is stored for use as fuel, or used directly without being stored. [0035] Referring to Figure 4, which illustrates continuous process system 599 according to this invention, gaseous feedstock in container 500 comprises gaseous methane, HBr, ethane and hydrogen. The gaseous feedstock is fed via conduit 510 to conduit 520. Pressure regulator 530 is used to regulate the pressure within container 500. Flow valve 540 is used to control flow through rotometer 545. Container 550 contains aluminum bromide 560. Aluminum bromide 560 is heated to about 1000C by heat provided by a heating source, e.g., a heating mantle (not shown in Figure 5) with heat from the heating source being transferred through a heat transfer material 555, e.g., sand. Nitrogen from a nitrogen source (not shown in Figure 5) is fed through conduit 570 (via flow valve 572 and rotometer 574) through the aluminum bromide in container 550. Pressure indicator 565 indicates the pressure within container 550. Gaseous nitrogen and aluminum bromide exit container 550 via conduit 580. Both the gaseous feedstock from conduit 510 and the gaseous nitrogen and aluminum bromide from conduit 580 flow into conduit 520 in container 521. Each of conduits 580 and 520 is insulated, e.g., with heating tape. The contents of conduit 520 are fed to stainless capillary coil 590, which is heated to a temperature of about 325°C by heat provided by a heating source, e.g., a heating mantle (not shown in Figure 5) with heat from the heating source being transferred through sand bed 592 in container 591. Stainless capillary coil 590 is about 100 yards long. Product comprising C2 and higher . condenser, separator, collector, and sight glass). Flow valve 611 is used to control flow of product comprising Ca and higher hydrocarbons to storage and/or end use facilities (not shown in Figure 5). Flow valve 620 in conduit 625 controls flow of gaseous fluid through rotometer 640 that is used to regulate flow through continuous process system 599. Gaseous fluid in conduit 625 is vented via vent 623; samples of gaseous fluid in conduit 625 can be taken through valve 645.

[ΘΘ36] Given the teachings of this disclosure, those skilled in the art can determine appropriate temperatures, pressures, and other process parameters as desired to achieve desired results using processes of this invention. [0037] It is to be understood that the reactants and components referred to by chemical name or formula anywhere in the specification or claims hereof, whether referred to in the singular or plural, are identified as they exist prior to being combined with or coming into contact with another substance referred to by chemical name or chemical type (e.g., another reactant, a solvent, or etc.). It matters not what chemical changes, transformations and/or reactions, if any, take place in the resulting mixture or solution or reaction medium as such changes, transformations and/or reactions are the natural result of bringing the specified reactants and/or components together under the conditions called for pursuant to this disclosure. Thus the reactants and components are identified as ingredients to be brought together in connection with performing a desired chemical reaction or in forming a mixture to be used in conducting a desired reaction. Accordingly, even though the claims hereinafter may refer to substances, components and/or ingredients in the present tense ("comprises", "is", etc.), the reference is to the substance, component or ingredient as it existed at the time just before it was first contacted, combined, blended or mixed with one or more other substances, components and/or ingredients in accordance with the present disclosure. Whatever transformations, if any, which occur in situ as a reaction is conducted is what the claim is intended to cover. Thus the fact that a substance, component or ingredient may have lost its original identity through a chemical reaction or transformation during the course of contacting, combining, blending or mixing operations, if conducted in accordance with this disclosure and with the application of common sense and the ordinary skill of a chemist, is thus wholly immaterial for an accurate understanding and appreciation of the true meaning and substance of this disclosure and the claims thereof. As will be familiar to those skilled in the art, the terms "combined", "combined" or that one is "combining" are put into a container with each other. Likewise a "combination" of components means the components having been put together in a container.

[0038] While the present invention has been described in terms of one or more preferred embodiments, it is to be understood that other modifications may be made without departing from the scope of the invention, which is set forth in the claims below.

Claims

What is claimed is:
1. A process comprising:
- combining at least gaseous methane and a metal halide at a temperature of at least about 1000C;
- polymerizing at least some of the gaseous methane to C4 and higher hydrocarbons; and
- cracking at least some of the C4 and higher hydrocarbons to C2 and higher hydrocarbons.
2. The process of claim 1 wherein the metal halide comprises aluminum bromide, aluminum chloride, aluminum fluoride, titanium bromide, or aluminum iodide.
3. The process of claim 1 wherein the metal halide comprises aluminum bromide and the temperature is at least about 11 O0C.
4. The process of claim 1 wherein at least some of the gaseous methane and at least some of the gaseous metal halide form a vapor phase and at least some of the polymerizing and at least some of the cracking occur simultaneously in the vapor phase.
5. The process of claim 1 further comprising combining an additional component with the at least gaseous methane and metal halide, wherein the additional component comprises methyl iodide, titanium bromide, a branched hydrocarbon, ethane, hydrogen, an alkyl haiide, an olefin, or a metal halide comprising Li, Na, K, Mg, Ca1 Sc, Y, Zr, Cu, Hf, V, Nb, Ta, Fe, Ru, Co, Ni, Pb, B, Ga1 Ge, Sn, or Sb and bromine, chlorine, fluorine, or iodine.
6. The process of claim 1 further comprising combining a halogen with the at least gaseous methane and metal halide.
. at least gaseous methane and metal halide.
8. The process of claim 1 further comprising combining a hydrogen haiide and an additional component with the at least gaseous methane and metal halide, wherein the additional component comprises methyl iodide, titanium bromide, a branched hydrocarbon, ethane, hydrogen, an aSkyl halide, an olefin, or a meta! halide comprising Li, Na, K, Mg, Ca, Sc, Y, Zr, Cu, Hf, V1 Nb, Ta, Fe, Ru, Co, Ni, Pb, B, Ga, Ge, Sn, or Sb and bromine, chlorine, fluorine, or iodine
9. A process for producing C2 and higher hydrocarbons, comprising:
(a) heating a metal halide to a temperature of at least about 1000C;
(b) combining at least gaseous methane and the heated metal haϋde;
(c) polymerizing at least some of the gaseous methane to C4 and higher hydrocarbons; and
(d) cracking at least some of the C4 and higher hydrocarbons to C2 and higher hydrocarbons.
10. The process of claim 9 wherein the metal halide comprises aluminum bromide and the reaction temperature is at least about 2500C.
11. The process of claim 9 wherein (b) is replaced with:
(b) combining at least gaseous methane, the heated metal halide, and a component suitable for absorbing hydrogen.
12. The process of claim 11 wherein the component suitable for absorbing hydrogen comprises Raney nickel, platinum, palladium, tantalum, niobium, yttrium, platinum on carbon, palladium on carbon, platinum on activated carbon, or palladium on activated carbon.
13. The process of claim 9 wherein at least some of the gaseous methane and at least some of the metal halide form a vapor phase and at least some of the polymerizing and at least some of the cracking occur simultaneously in the vapor phase.
14. A process comprising combining at least gaseous methane, a metal halide, a hydrogen halide, and an additional component at at least about 1000C, wherein the additional component comprises methyl iodide, titanium bromide, a branched hydrocarbon, ethane, hydrogen, an alkyl halide, an olefin, or a metal halide comprising Li, Na, K, Mg, Ca, Sc, Y, Zr, Cu, Hf, V, Nb, Ta, Fe, Ru, Co, Ni, Pb, B, Ga, Ge, Sn, or Sb and bromine, chlorine, fluorine, or iodine ;
- polymerizing at least some of the gaseous methane to C4 and higher hydrocarbons; and
- cracking at least some of the C4 and higher hydrocarbons to C2 and higher hydrocarbons.
15. The process of claim 14 wherein at least some of the gaseous methane and at least some of the gaseous metal halide form a vapor phase and at least some of the polymerizing and at least some of the cracking occur simultaneously in the vapor phase.
16. A process comprising combining at least gaseous methane, a metal halide, and a halogen at at least about 1000C ;
- polymerizing at least some of the gaseous methane to C4 and higher hydrocarbons; and
- cracking at least some of the C4 and higher hydrocarbons to C2 and higher hydrocarbons.
17. A process comprising combining at least gaseous methane and a metal halide at at least a temperature at which at least some of the metal halide is gaseous, yielding C-2 and higher hydrocarbons.
16. A process comprising:
- combining at least gaseous methane and a Lewis acid at a temperature of at least about 10O0C;
- polymerizing at least some of the gaseous methane to C4 and higher hydrocarbons; and hydrocarbons.
19. A process comprising:
- combining at least gaseous methane, a Lewis acid, and a Bronsted acid at a temperature of at least about 1000C;
- polymerizing at least some of the gaseous methane to C4 and higher hydrocarbons; and
- cracking at least some of the C4 and higher hydrocarbons to C2 and higher hydrocarbons.
PCT/US2008/065837 2007-06-14 2008-06-05 Processes for producing higher hydrocarbons from methane WO2008157046A1 (en)

Priority Applications (6)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US94403607P true 2007-06-14 2007-06-14
US60/944,036 2007-06-14
US98933107P true 2007-11-20 2007-11-20
US60/989,331 2007-11-20
US5726808P true 2008-05-30 2008-05-30
US61/057,268 2008-05-30

Publications (2)

Publication Number Publication Date
WO2008157046A1 true WO2008157046A1 (en) 2008-12-24
WO2008157046A9 WO2008157046A9 (en) 2009-02-19

Family

ID=39769213

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
PCT/US2008/065837 WO2008157046A1 (en) 2007-06-14 2008-06-05 Processes for producing higher hydrocarbons from methane

Country Status (1)

Country Link
WO (1) WO2008157046A1 (en)

Cited By (14)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US7674941B2 (en) 2004-04-16 2010-03-09 Marathon Gtf Technology, Ltd. Processes for converting gaseous alkanes to liquid hydrocarbons
US7880041B2 (en) 2004-04-16 2011-02-01 Marathon Gtf Technology, Ltd. Process for converting gaseous alkanes to liquid hydrocarbons
US8008535B2 (en) 2004-04-16 2011-08-30 Marathon Gtf Technology, Ltd. Process for converting gaseous alkanes to olefins and liquid hydrocarbons
US8173851B2 (en) 2004-04-16 2012-05-08 Marathon Gtf Technology, Ltd. Processes for converting gaseous alkanes to liquid hydrocarbons
US8198495B2 (en) 2010-03-02 2012-06-12 Marathon Gtf Technology, Ltd. Processes and systems for the staged synthesis of alkyl bromides
US8282810B2 (en) 2008-06-13 2012-10-09 Marathon Gtf Technology, Ltd. Bromine-based method and system for converting gaseous alkanes to liquid hydrocarbons using electrolysis for bromine recovery
US8367884B2 (en) 2010-03-02 2013-02-05 Marathon Gtf Technology, Ltd. Processes and systems for the staged synthesis of alkyl bromides
US8436220B2 (en) 2011-06-10 2013-05-07 Marathon Gtf Technology, Ltd. Processes and systems for demethanization of brominated hydrocarbons
US8642822B2 (en) 2004-04-16 2014-02-04 Marathon Gtf Technology, Ltd. Processes for converting gaseous alkanes to liquid hydrocarbons using microchannel reactor
US8802908B2 (en) 2011-10-21 2014-08-12 Marathon Gtf Technology, Ltd. Processes and systems for separate, parallel methane and higher alkanes' bromination
US8815050B2 (en) 2011-03-22 2014-08-26 Marathon Gtf Technology, Ltd. Processes and systems for drying liquid bromine
US8829256B2 (en) 2011-06-30 2014-09-09 Gtc Technology Us, Llc Processes and systems for fractionation of brominated hydrocarbons in the conversion of natural gas to liquid hydrocarbons
US9193641B2 (en) 2011-12-16 2015-11-24 Gtc Technology Us, Llc Processes and systems for conversion of alkyl bromides to higher molecular weight hydrocarbons in circulating catalyst reactor-regenerator systems
US9206093B2 (en) 2004-04-16 2015-12-08 Gtc Technology Us, Llc Process for converting gaseous alkanes to liquid hydrocarbons

Families Citing this family (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CA2730934C (en) 2008-07-18 2017-07-04 Grt, Inc. Continuous process for converting natural gas to liquid hydrocarbons

Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
GB942491A (en) * 1961-04-17 1963-11-20 Sun Oil Co Preparation of paraffin hydrocarbons of the cí¬c range
US3257333A (en) * 1960-09-30 1966-06-21 Sun Oil Co Conversion of methyl halides to high molecular weight organic compositions
US5593569A (en) * 1995-01-09 1997-01-14 Kerr-Mcgee Hydrocracking processes using a homogenous catalysis system comprising a metal halide Lewis acid, a Bronsted acid and an alkane

Patent Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3257333A (en) * 1960-09-30 1966-06-21 Sun Oil Co Conversion of methyl halides to high molecular weight organic compositions
GB942491A (en) * 1961-04-17 1963-11-20 Sun Oil Co Preparation of paraffin hydrocarbons of the cí¬c range
US5593569A (en) * 1995-01-09 1997-01-14 Kerr-Mcgee Hydrocracking processes using a homogenous catalysis system comprising a metal halide Lewis acid, a Bronsted acid and an alkane

Non-Patent Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Title
BREED ET AL: "Natural gas conversion to liquid fuels in a zone reactor" CATALYSIS TODAY, ELSEVIER, vol. 106, no. 1-4, 15 October 2005 (2005-10-15), pages 301-304, XP005161450 ISSN: 0920-5861 *
OSTERWALDER N ET AL: "Direct coupling of bromine-mediated methane activation and carbon deposit gasification" CHEMPHYSCHEM - A EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS & PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY, DEWILEY VCH, WEINHEIM, vol. 8, 1 January 2007 (2007-01-01), pages 297-303, XP002489549 *
YULIATI ET AL: "Photoactive sites on pure silica materials for nonoxidative direct methane coupling" JOURNAL OF CATALYSIS, ACADEMIC PRESS, DULUTH, MN, US, vol. 238, no. 1, 15 February 2006 (2006-02-15), pages 214-220, XP005252929 ISSN: 0021-9517 *

Cited By (16)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US7674941B2 (en) 2004-04-16 2010-03-09 Marathon Gtf Technology, Ltd. Processes for converting gaseous alkanes to liquid hydrocarbons
US7880041B2 (en) 2004-04-16 2011-02-01 Marathon Gtf Technology, Ltd. Process for converting gaseous alkanes to liquid hydrocarbons
US8008535B2 (en) 2004-04-16 2011-08-30 Marathon Gtf Technology, Ltd. Process for converting gaseous alkanes to olefins and liquid hydrocarbons
US8173851B2 (en) 2004-04-16 2012-05-08 Marathon Gtf Technology, Ltd. Processes for converting gaseous alkanes to liquid hydrocarbons
US8642822B2 (en) 2004-04-16 2014-02-04 Marathon Gtf Technology, Ltd. Processes for converting gaseous alkanes to liquid hydrocarbons using microchannel reactor
US8232441B2 (en) 2004-04-16 2012-07-31 Marathon Gtf Technology, Ltd. Process for converting gaseous alkanes to liquid hydrocarbons
US9206093B2 (en) 2004-04-16 2015-12-08 Gtc Technology Us, Llc Process for converting gaseous alkanes to liquid hydrocarbons
US8282810B2 (en) 2008-06-13 2012-10-09 Marathon Gtf Technology, Ltd. Bromine-based method and system for converting gaseous alkanes to liquid hydrocarbons using electrolysis for bromine recovery
US8367884B2 (en) 2010-03-02 2013-02-05 Marathon Gtf Technology, Ltd. Processes and systems for the staged synthesis of alkyl bromides
US8198495B2 (en) 2010-03-02 2012-06-12 Marathon Gtf Technology, Ltd. Processes and systems for the staged synthesis of alkyl bromides
US9133078B2 (en) 2010-03-02 2015-09-15 Gtc Technology Us, Llc Processes and systems for the staged synthesis of alkyl bromides
US8815050B2 (en) 2011-03-22 2014-08-26 Marathon Gtf Technology, Ltd. Processes and systems for drying liquid bromine
US8436220B2 (en) 2011-06-10 2013-05-07 Marathon Gtf Technology, Ltd. Processes and systems for demethanization of brominated hydrocarbons
US8829256B2 (en) 2011-06-30 2014-09-09 Gtc Technology Us, Llc Processes and systems for fractionation of brominated hydrocarbons in the conversion of natural gas to liquid hydrocarbons
US8802908B2 (en) 2011-10-21 2014-08-12 Marathon Gtf Technology, Ltd. Processes and systems for separate, parallel methane and higher alkanes' bromination
US9193641B2 (en) 2011-12-16 2015-11-24 Gtc Technology Us, Llc Processes and systems for conversion of alkyl bromides to higher molecular weight hydrocarbons in circulating catalyst reactor-regenerator systems

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
WO2008157046A9 (en) 2009-02-19

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
Sattler et al. Catalytic dehydrogenation of light alkanes on metals and metal oxides
Matar et al. Chemistry of petrochemical processes
AU2003299488B2 (en) Low-temperature hydrocarbon production from oxygenated hydrocarbons
US6858770B2 (en) Paraffin alkylation
JP5047191B2 (en) For making lubricating oil or fuel blendstock, alkylation of olefins with isoparaffins in the ionic liquid
Olah et al. Hydrocarbon chemistry
NL1021454C2 (en) Washing of CO2 from methane-containing gases using an aqueous stream.
Schulz Short history and present trends of Fischer–Tropsch synthesis
Keil Methanol-to-hydrocarbons: process technology
US7022888B2 (en) Process for the simultaneous conversion of methane and organic oxygenate to C2 to C10 hydrocarbons
US7019184B2 (en) Non-oxidative conversion of gas to liquids
US8232441B2 (en) Process for converting gaseous alkanes to liquid hydrocarbons
US6768035B2 (en) Manufacture of high octane alkylate
JP5396082B2 (en) The process of converting gaseous alkanes to process olefins and liquid hydrocarbons
Hall A new gas to liquids (GTL) or gas to ethylene (GTE) technology
JP5898956B2 (en) Method of converting a carbon-containing feedstock in the hydrocarbon liquid transportation fuels
Sie Process development and scale up: IV. Case history of the development of a Fischer-Tropsch synthesis process
Mokrani et al. Gas conversion to liquid fuels and chemicals: the methanol route‐catalysis and processes development
Corma et al. Current views on the mechanism of catalytic cracking
Leng et al. Catalytic conversion of palm oil to fuels and chemicals
JP3933580B2 (en) Production of diesel fuel oil from the bitumen
AU8018900A (en) Single stage process for converting oxygenates to gasoline and distillate in the presence of unidimensional ten member ring zeolite
CN102666445B (en) A process for making products with low hydrogen halide
Dry Fischer–Tropsch reactions and the environment
US6743962B2 (en) Preparation of high octane alkylate from Fischer-Tropsch olefins

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
121 Ep: the epo has been informed by wipo that ep was designated in this application

Ref document number: 08770145

Country of ref document: EP

Kind code of ref document: A1

NENP Non-entry into the national phase in:

Ref country code: DE

122 Ep: pct app. not ent. europ. phase

Ref document number: 08770145

Country of ref document: EP

Kind code of ref document: A1