WO2008119293A1 - Circuit protection and control system, and protection and control method applying the system - Google Patents

Circuit protection and control system, and protection and control method applying the system Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2008119293A1
WO2008119293A1 PCT/CN2008/070584 CN2008070584W WO2008119293A1 WO 2008119293 A1 WO2008119293 A1 WO 2008119293A1 CN 2008070584 W CN2008070584 W CN 2008070584W WO 2008119293 A1 WO2008119293 A1 WO 2008119293A1
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control
terminal
circuit
relay
semiconductor
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PCT/CN2008/070584
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French (fr)
Chinese (zh)
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Haoyi Lu
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Haoyi Lu
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Priority to CNA2007100866875A priority Critical patent/CN101277009A/en
Priority to CN200710086687.5 priority
Application filed by Haoyi Lu filed Critical Haoyi Lu
Publication of WO2008119293A1 publication Critical patent/WO2008119293A1/en

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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60RVEHICLES, VEHICLE FITTINGS, OR VEHICLE PARTS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B60R16/00Electric or fluid circuits specially adapted for vehicles and not otherwise provided for; Arrangement of elements of electric or fluid circuits specially adapted for vehicles and not otherwise provided for
    • B60R16/02Electric or fluid circuits specially adapted for vehicles and not otherwise provided for; Arrangement of elements of electric or fluid circuits specially adapted for vehicles and not otherwise provided for electric constitutive elements
    • B60R16/03Electric or fluid circuits specially adapted for vehicles and not otherwise provided for; Arrangement of elements of electric or fluid circuits specially adapted for vehicles and not otherwise provided for electric constitutive elements for supply of electrical power to vehicle subsystems or for

Abstract

A circuit protection and control system, and a protection and control method applying the system. The system includes a control module and various control apparatus including the control module. The control module consists of a signal output circuit, a signal dividing circuit and a locking control circuit. The various control apparatus are used to form an automobile semiconductor protection and control system (SPCS). The protection and control method includes a circuit protection and control method, a storage battery cyclic charge control method and an automobile storage battery start-delay charge control method.

Description

电路保护与控制系统以及应用该系统的保护控制方法 技术领域  Circuit protection and control system and protection control method using the same
本发明涉及电路保护与控制系统及应用该系统的保护控制方法, 特别是 指可用于机动车辆、 蓄电池充放电等场合的电路保护与控制。  The invention relates to a circuit protection and control system and a protection control method using the same, in particular to a circuit protection and control which can be used in a motor vehicle, a battery charge and discharge, and the like.
背景技术 Background technique
汽车常用电路保护元件为熔断器 (或称保险丝) 和断路器, 二者均依靠 电能转变成热能进行控制, 前者为不可恢复型, 后者利用双金属片热胀冷縮 特性可重复使用。 断路器 (包括熔断器, 下同) 对电路短路或过载具有一定 的保护作用, 但对汽车使用中可能出现的各种复杂情况, 诸如蓄电池意外反 向连接、 跨接起动时可能出现的过压或过载情况、 停机时蓄电池漏放电等情 况, 断路器均无能为力; 另外, 大电流断路器对局部线路可能发生的间歇短 路反应迟钝, 对汽车用电设备, 特别是电子设备的保护能力也不足。 图 1 为 常见汽车电路保护系统的原理简图, 易熔线盒和主接线盒位于发动机室内, 副接线盒位于驾驶室仪表板底下。 主副接线盒内布置有各类熔断器、 断路器 和 /或继电器。 图 1 中的 100A主熔断器, 满足双向通电需要, 通常位于易熔 线盒内或主接线盒内。 这种系统每个分支线路均有一级或多级保险, 看似安 全可靠, 但各地不断发生的汽车因电路短路而自燃的报道说明, 现有保护措 施仍存在安全隐患。  The common circuit protection components of automobiles are fuses (or fuses) and circuit breakers, both of which rely on the conversion of electrical energy into thermal energy. The former is unrecoverable, and the latter can be reused by utilizing bimetal expansion and contraction characteristics. Circuit breakers (including fuses, the same below) have a certain protection against short circuit or overload of the circuit, but various complicated situations that may occur in the use of the vehicle, such as accidental reverse connection of the battery, overvoltage that may occur during jump start In the case of overload or battery leakage during shutdown, the circuit breaker is powerless; in addition, the large current circuit breaker is slow to react to the intermittent short circuit that may occur on the local line, and the protection capability for the vehicle electrical equipment, especially the electronic equipment. Figure 1 shows a schematic diagram of a common automotive circuit protection system. The fusible link box and main junction box are located in the engine compartment, and the sub-junction box is located under the dashboard of the cab. Various fuses, circuit breakers and/or relays are arranged in the main and auxiliary junction boxes. The 100A main fuse in Figure 1 meets the need for bidirectional power, usually in a fusible link box or in a main junction box. Each branch of this system has one or more levels of insurance, which seems to be safe and reliable, but reports of auto-ignition of cars that are constantly occurring in various places due to short circuits indicate that existing protection measures still pose a safety hazard.
铅酸蓄电池使用寿命在不同领域或不同使用条件下差别显著, 距统计, 作为电信行业备用电源, 其寿命达 5〜10年; 作为车用辅助电源, 大部分出租 车用蓄电池寿命 1-2年, 家用车蓄电池寿命 2-3年。影响铅酸蓄电池使用寿命 的因素有许多, 比如蓄电池制造因素、 环境温度、 使用不当造成的蓄电池深 度放电等, 都会影响蓄电池使用寿命; 另一主要原因预计与充电方式和充电 电压有直接关系。 营运车 (如出租车) 蓄电池报废时, 大部分蓄电池正极板 脱落严重, 这是发电机长时间以较高的充电电压持续充电造成蓄电池过充电 引起的。 无论是电信行业还是机电 (含汽车) 行业, 或其它使用二次电池的 行业, 现有的蓄电池充电方式, 在正常工作期间蓄电池一般都处于浮充状态, 如果浮充电压不合适(如部分车用蓄电池),将会影响蓄电池使用寿命。另外, 现有车用发电机及电压调节器只能调节输出的电压, 如果电路系统发生过载 或短路情况, 发电机系统仍然会持续供电, 这会危及发电机、 电路系统及车 辆安全。 The service life of lead-acid batteries varies significantly in different fields or under different conditions of use. According to statistics, as a backup power source for the telecommunications industry, its service life is 5 to 10 years. As a vehicle auxiliary power supply, most taxi batteries have a life span of 1-2 years. , family car battery life 2-3 years. There are many factors affecting the service life of lead-acid batteries, such as battery manufacturing factors, ambient temperature, battery deep discharge caused by improper use, etc., which will affect the battery life; another main reason is expected to be directly related to the charging method and charging voltage. Operating Vehicles (such as Taxi) When the battery is scrapped, most of the battery positive plates fall off seriously. This is caused by the battery being overcharged by the generator charging for a long time with a high charging voltage. Whether in the telecommunications industry or the electromechanical (including automotive) industry, or other industries that use secondary batteries, existing battery charging methods, during normal operation, the battery is generally in a floating state, if the floating voltage is not suitable (such as some cars) With battery), it will affect the battery life. In addition, existing vehicle generators and voltage regulators can only regulate the output voltage. If the circuit system is overloaded or short-circuited, the generator system will continue to supply power, which will endanger the generator, circuit system and vehicle. Safety.
随着现代汽车电器设备的增加, 所需发电机的功率也在增加, 这也造成 起动过程中, 发电机消耗功率增加, 且环境温度越低, 起动过程发电机消耗 越大; 另外, 随着发动机排放法规要求越来越高, 特别是从欧 III起, 冷起动 过程前 40s的排放计入测试循环,使得不少汽车厂家面临严峻挑战。研究表明, 冷起动阶段发动机排放量占整个测试循环总排放量的 60〜80%。为解决冷起动 过程的排放问题, 人们进行了大量的理论和实验探索, 提出了许多行之有效 的解决方案并推广应用, 其中机内措施包括缸内直接喷射 GDI发动机、 可变 气门正时和升程等, 机外措施主要是快速起燃催化转化器有关内容, 这些措 施有效降低了冷起动过程的排放量, 但同时也大大增加了发动机制造成本。  With the increase of modern automobile electrical equipment, the power of the required generator is also increasing, which also causes the power consumption of the generator to increase during the starting process, and the lower the ambient temperature, the greater the generator consumption during the starting process; Engine emission regulations are getting higher and higher. Especially since Euro III, the 40s before the cold start process is included in the test cycle, which makes many auto manufacturers face serious challenges. Studies have shown that engine emissions in the cold start phase account for 60 to 80% of the total emissions of the entire test cycle. In order to solve the problem of emissions during the cold start process, a large number of theoretical and experimental explorations have been carried out, and many effective solutions have been proposed and promoted, including in-cylinder direct injection GDI engines, variable valve timing and For lifts, etc., the off-board measures are mainly related to the rapid ignition of catalytic converters. These measures effectively reduce the emissions from the cold start process, but at the same time greatly increase the engine manufacturing costs.
如何进一歩降低发动机冷起动过程的排放是人们一直关注的课题。 发动 机起动后, 发电机迅速进入发电状态, 其输出电压达 14V以上, 而此时蓄电 池因大电流起动耗电, 其端电压正从最低点向上恢复; 发电机到蓄电池较大 的初始压差, 造成蓄电池极板遭受高达 80A以上的大电流冲击, 同时造成发 电机耗能增加, 消耗发动机宝贵的起动能量, 并增加起动排放。 如果起动发 动机时推迟发电机向蓄电池和其它用电设备的供电时间, 使起动后蓄电池端 电压有个自我恢复过程, 将会有助于减小蓄电池极板的大电流冲击、 并减小 起动燃油消耗和起动排放。  How to reduce the emission of the engine during the cold start process is a subject that people have been paying attention to. After the engine is started, the generator quickly enters the power generation state, and its output voltage reaches 14V or more. At this time, the battery consumes power due to the large current, and its terminal voltage is recovering from the lowest point; the initial differential pressure of the generator to the battery is large. The battery plate is subjected to a large current surge of up to 80A or more, and at the same time, the generator consumes energy, consumes valuable engine starting energy, and increases starting emissions. If the power supply time of the generator to the battery and other electrical equipment is postponed when the engine is started, the self-recovery process of the battery terminal voltage after starting will help reduce the large current surge of the battery plate and reduce the starting fuel. Consumption and start emissions.
发明内容 Summary of the invention
本发明提供一种电路保护与控制系统, 至少包括一个控制模块, 所述控 制模块包括信号输出电路、 信号分解电路以及锁控电路; 所述信号分解电路 和信号输出电路并联连接; 并且所述信号分解电路至少包括第一信号分解元 件和第二信号分解元件; 所述锁控电路从所述第一信号分解元件和第二信号 分解元件之间连接至所述信号输出电路, 并且所述锁控电路根据输入信号的 变化按与门极电压固定的单向晶闸管相同或相似的正向伏安特性输出信号; 所述信号输出电路根据其本身的输入和所述锁控电路的输出信号、 或根据所 述控制模块的接地输出的变化, 来输出控制信号, 进而控制电子开关或通过 单片机或其它电路控制电子开关使受控电路导通或断开。  The present invention provides a circuit protection and control system, comprising at least one control module, the control module comprising a signal output circuit, a signal decomposition circuit and a lock control circuit; the signal decomposition circuit and the signal output circuit are connected in parallel; and the signal The decomposition circuit includes at least a first signal decomposition element and a second signal decomposition element; the lock control circuit is connected between the first signal decomposition element and the second signal decomposition element to the signal output circuit, and the lock control The circuit outputs a signal according to a forward volt-ampere characteristic of the same or similar unidirectional thyristor as the gate voltage is fixed according to the change of the input signal; the signal output circuit is based on its own input and the output signal of the lock control circuit, or according to The control module changes the ground output to output a control signal, thereby controlling the electronic switch or controlling the electronic switch through a single chip or other circuit to turn the controlled circuit on or off.
本发明还提供一种采用所述的电路保护与控制系统的保护控制方法, 包 括以下歩骤: S1 : 在供电源与负载之间设置所述电路保护与控制系统, 并且 所述供电源的输出端连接到所述电路保护与控制系统的信号输出电路和信号 分解电路的输入端; S2: 通过设定所述信号输出电路和信号分解电路, 来选 择所述锁控电路的工作区间; S3: 根据所述供电源输出或所述负载的变化, 触发所述锁控电路改变其工作状态并输出相应信号, 进而由所述信号输出电 路根据其本身的输入和所述锁控电路的输出信号, 或根据所述控制模块的接 地输出的变化, 来输出控制信号; S4: 在所述供电源和负载之间设置电子开 关, 根据来自所述信号输出电路的控制信号来控制所述电子开关的导通或截 止, 进而控制所述供电源和负载之间的导通或截止。 The present invention also provides a protection control method using the circuit protection and control system described above, comprising the following steps: S1: setting the circuit protection and control system between a power supply and a load, and outputting the power supply a signal output circuit and signal connected to the circuit protection and control system Decomposing an input end of the circuit; S2: selecting a working interval of the lock control circuit by setting the signal output circuit and a signal decomposition circuit; S3: triggering the change according to the power supply output or the load change The lock control circuit changes its working state and outputs a corresponding signal, and the signal output circuit outputs the control signal according to its own input and the output signal of the lock control circuit, or according to the change of the ground output of the control module. S4: setting an electronic switch between the power supply and the load, controlling conduction or deactivation of the electronic switch according to a control signal from the signal output circuit, thereby controlling a guide between the power supply and the load Pass or cut off.
以上为本发明核心内容的概括描述, 可在此基础上进一歩发展得出以下 十种相关产品和三种具体控制方法。 其中, 电路短路控制遵从电流连续性原 理, 以及基于该原理的直流电路三分支流动原理, BP : 在一个包含电源线、 负载线和控制线的三分支节点, 当负载线路发生短路时, 在电源供电响应的 最小时间标度以下, 电源线电流变化接近于零, 负载线路和控制电路在该时 间内电流变化量大小相等方向相反。 短路控制主要不是依靠温度变化来切断 电路, 而是依据电信号, 省去了电能到热能的转化时间, 因而断电控制时间 远远小于熔断器或断路器。  The above is a general description of the core content of the present invention, and on the basis of this, the following ten related products and three specific control methods can be further developed. Among them, the circuit short-circuit control follows the principle of current continuity, and the three-branch flow principle of the DC circuit based on the principle, BP: in a three-branch node including a power line, a load line, and a control line, when the load line is short-circuited, the power source Below the minimum time scale of the power supply response, the power line current change is close to zero, and the load line and the control circuit are equal in magnitude in the opposite direction. Short-circuit control mainly does not rely on temperature changes to cut off the circuit, but based on the electrical signal, eliminating the conversion time of electrical energy to thermal energy, so the power-off control time is much smaller than the fuse or circuit breaker.
1、 十种相关产品:  1. Ten related products:
1 ) 半导体断路 /继电器 SBR (参见图 2), 主要由控制单元 SD08和一个 内含热敏二极管组 Ri的温度感应型 P沟道 MOS场效应管 M, 以及外围元件 组成, 可用作具备电路保护功能的断路器或继电器, 也可用于制作蓄电池充 电控制和发电机电压调节等电子控制装置。  1) The semiconductor open circuit/relay SBR (see Figure 2) is mainly composed of a control unit SD08 and a temperature-sensing P-channel MOS field effect transistor M containing a thermal diode group Ri, and peripheral components, which can be used as a circuit. Circuit breakers or relays with protection functions can also be used to make electronic control devices such as battery charge control and generator voltage regulation.
2) 半导体断路 /继电控制单元 SD08 (见图 2), 由过流控制单元 (CUi) 和电压调节控制单元(CUv)两部分组成, 其中过流控制包含短路、 过载和蓄 电池过放电控制, 电压调节控制包含过压断电控制, 用于控制各种开关元件。  2) The semiconductor open/relay control unit SD08 (see Figure 2) consists of an overcurrent control unit (CUi) and a voltage regulation control unit (CUv), where the overcurrent control includes short circuit, overload and battery overdischarge control. The voltage regulation control includes an overvoltage power-off control for controlling various switching components.
3 )蓄电池充放电调节器 CDAB (见图 4), 主要由用于蓄电池充电控制的 半导体断路 /继电器 SBR1 与用于其它电路保护控制的半导体断路 /继电器 SBR2组成, 用于包括汽车发电机的任何直流电源对蓄电池进行循环充电, 同 时保护电路系统;  3) Battery charge and discharge regulator CDAB (see Figure 4), mainly composed of semiconductor open circuit/relay SBR1 for battery charge control and semiconductor circuit breaker/relay SBR2 for other circuit protection control, for any motor generator including The DC power source cyclically charges the battery while protecting the circuit system;
4)汽车发电机电压电流调节器 VCAG (见图 4), 主要由蓄电池充放电调 节器 CDAB与用于调节发电机输出电压的半导体断路 /继电器 SBR3组成, 用 于实现蓄电池循环充电和蓄电池起动延时充电控制, 同时保护汽车电路系统。  4) Automotive generator voltage and current regulator VCAG (see Figure 4), mainly composed of battery charge and discharge regulator CDAB and semiconductor open circuit / relay SBR3 for regulating generator output voltage, used to achieve battery cycle charging and battery start delay Time charging control while protecting the automotive circuitry.
5 ) 半导体断电延时起动继电装置 SSR (见图 5 ), 主要由半导体断路 /继 电器 SBR4、 肖特基二极管 Dl、 D2、 D3等, 以及用于起动过程发电机发电或 蓄电池充电电路断电控制的控制单元 SD08-5、 快充慢放控制器 CR和一个 N 沟道 MOS场效应管 M5n及外围阻容元件组成; 用于控制起动机及发动机起 动相关电器装置, 并使发电机磁场电路和 /或蓄电池充电电路在起动过程延时 接通, 以降低起动过程的燃油消耗和排放, 同时保护蓄电池。 5) Semiconductor power-off delay start relay device SSR (see Figure 5), mainly by semiconductor open/continuous Electrical SBR4, Schottky diodes Dl, D2, D3, etc., and control unit SD08-5, fast charge and slow release controller CR and an N-channel MOS field for start-up generator power generation or battery charging circuit power-off control The effect tube M5n and the peripheral RC components are used; for controlling the starter and the engine start related electrical device, and delaying the generator magnetic field circuit and/or the battery charging circuit during the starting process to reduce the fuel consumption during the starting process and Discharge while protecting the battery.
6) 两路输出半导体控制继电装置 SRII (见图 6), 由半导体断路 /继电器 SBR6和 SBR7和一通一断双位接地开关 S7组成, 用于取代传统 5脚继电器, 并对所控制的两路用电设备进行有效保护。  6) Two-output semiconductor control relay device SRII (see Figure 6) consisting of semiconductor open circuit/relay SBR6 and SBR7 and one-to-one-off double-position grounding switch S7, which is used to replace the traditional 5-pin relay and control the two Road electrical equipment for effective protection.
7) 半导体控制电磁断路器 SEB (见图 7), 主要由控制单元 SD08-8、 常 闭触点电磁断电装置 Br、 发光二极管 LED、 N沟道 MOS场效应管或 NPN三 极管 M8n、 NTC热敏元件 Ri8及其它外围阻容元件组成。  7) Semiconductor control electromagnetic circuit breaker SEB (see Figure 7), mainly by control unit SD08-8, normally closed contact electromagnetic power-off device Br, light-emitting diode LED, N-channel MOS field effect transistor or NPN transistor M8n, NTC heat The sensitive component Ri8 and other peripheral RC components are composed.
8) 半导体控制电磁继电器 SER, 主要由控制单元 SD08-9、 常开触点电 磁断电装置 Rl、 P沟道 MOS场效应管或 PNP三极管 M9p、 NTC热敏元件 Ri9 及其它外围阻容元件; 上述电磁断路器 SEB和继电器 SER, 用于当大容量低 导通电阻的 MOSFET元件, 因各种原因无法满足需要时, 采用电磁执行元件 也可基本实现与半导体断路 /继电器 SBR相同的保护控制功能。  8) Semiconductor control electromagnetic relay SER, mainly by control unit SD08-9, normally open contact electromagnetic power-off device Rl, P-channel MOS field effect transistor or PNP transistor M9p, NTC thermal element Ri9 and other peripheral RC components; The electromagnetic circuit breaker SEB and the relay SER are used for the MOSFET component of the large-capacity low on-resistance, and the electromagnetic protection actuator can basically achieve the same protection control function as the semiconductor disconnect/relay SBR when the MOSFET component of the large-capacity low on-resistance cannot be satisfied for various reasons. .
9) 半导体控制接线盒 JBSC和副接线盒 Sub-JBSC (参见图 8), 主要由 安置在各条线路上的半导体断路 /继电器 SBR、 半导体断电延时起动继电装置 SSR、 输入输出接口装置等组成; 副接线盒 Sub-JBSC内主要包含半导体断路 /继电器 SBR和部分分支线路保险丝; 接线盒 JBSC或副接线盒 Sub-JBSC内 也可以包含两路输出半导体继电装置 SRII、半导体控制电磁断路器 SEB和继 电器 SER; 用于汽车电路系统集中配线, 并对所连接线路及电器电子设备进 行保护与控制。  9) Semiconductor control junction box JBSC and sub-junction box Sub-JBSC (see Figure 8), mainly consisting of semiconductor open circuit/relay SBR, semiconductor power-off delay start relay device SSR, input/output interface device placed on each line The sub-junction box Sub-JBSC mainly includes semiconductor open circuit/relay SBR and partial branch line fuse; junction box JBSC or sub-junction box Sub-JBSC can also contain two output semiconductor relay devices SRII, semiconductor control electromagnetic circuit breaker SEB and relay SER; used for centralized wiring of automotive circuit systems, and protection and control of connected circuits and electrical and electronic equipment.
10)汽车电路半导体保护与控制系统 SPCS (参见图 8), 主要由汽车发电 机电压电流调节器 VCAG, 与半导体控制接线盒 JBSC和副接线盒 Sub-JBSC 以及后备保险装置 (Fsl和 Fs2) 等组成, 用于实现汽车蓄电池起动延时充电 控制, 包括蓄电池循环充电控制的控制效果, 延长蓄电池使用寿命、 降低发 动机起动燃油消耗和排放, 保护电路及电器电子设备使其免遭电路过压、 过 载、 短路的损害, 消除因电路短路原因引起的汽车自燃现象。  10) Automotive circuit semiconductor protection and control system SPCS (see Figure 8), mainly by automotive generator voltage and current regulator VCAG, with semiconductor control junction box JBSC and sub-junction box Sub-JBSC and backup safety devices (Fsl and Fs2) The composition is used to realize the vehicle battery start delay charging control, including the control effect of the battery cycle charging control, prolonging the battery life, reducing the engine starting fuel consumption and emissions, protecting the circuit and the electrical and electronic equipment from overvoltage and overload of the circuit. Short-circuit damage, eliminating auto-ignition caused by short circuit.
2、 三种具体控制方法:  2. Three specific control methods:
1 ) 电路保护与控制方法 包括过流控制、 电压调节控制和继电控制方法, 其中过流控制包含短路、 过载和蓄电池过放电 (电流过小) 控制, 电压调节控制包含过压断电控制, 过流和过压控制针对电路保护、 继电控制针对电路保护与控制, 具体如下:1) Circuit protection and control methods Including overcurrent control, voltage regulation control and relay control method, wherein overcurrent control includes short circuit, overload and battery over discharge (current too small) control, voltage regulation control includes overvoltage power failure control, overcurrent and overvoltage control Circuit protection and relay control are for circuit protection and control, as follows:
(1)过流控制: 当负载电路的电流增加或蓄电池电压减小时, 流过半导体 断路 /继电控制单元 SD08锁控电路的电流减小; 当负载电流超过预定值或蓄 电池电压减小到预定值, 将使上述锁控电路内的晶闸管 Ti由导通突变截止, 进而控制单元发出断电控制信号, 使 SBR的执行元件 P沟道 MOS场效应管 M以不可自动恢复 (即锁定) 形式切断负载电路; (1) Overcurrent control: When the current of the load circuit increases or the battery voltage decreases, the current flowing through the semiconductor open circuit/relay control unit SD08 lock control circuit decreases; when the load current exceeds a predetermined value or the battery voltage decreases to a predetermined value The value will cause the thyristor Ti in the above lock control circuit to be cut off by the conduction mutation, and the control unit issues a power-off control signal, so that the SBR actuator P-channel MOS field effect transistor M is cut off in an unrecoverable (ie, locked) manner. Load circuit
(2)电压调节控制: 预设可恢复断电电压 VI和不可恢复断电电压 V2, 当 半导体断路 /继电器 SBR控制单元主控信号输入端 e的电压 Ve<Vl时, 控制 单元内晶闸管 T 及其下游的三极管 T2截止, 负载电路导通; 当 Ve增加到: Vl≤Ve<V2时, 流过稳压二极管 Dv的旁通电流, 使三极管 T2导通, 进而使 场效应管 M截止并切断负载电路, 此时, 若 e端电压下降一定数值, 三极管 T2可再截止, 电路自动恢复导通, 此即电压调节控制; 当 Ve V2时, Tv突 变导通, 切断负载电路, 此时 e端电压的正常下降将不能使电路自动恢复导 通, 此即过压断电控制;  (2) Voltage regulation control: preset resettable power-off voltage VI and unrecoverable power-off voltage V2, when the voltage of the main circuit signal input terminal e of the semiconductor open circuit/relay SBR control unit is Ve < V1, the thyristor T in the control unit The downstream transistor T2 is turned off, and the load circuit is turned on; when Ve is increased to: Vl ≤ Ve < V2, the bypass current flowing through the Zener diode Dv turns on the transistor T2, and the FET M is turned off and cut off. Load circuit, at this time, if the voltage at the e terminal drops by a certain value, the transistor T2 can be turned off again, and the circuit automatically resumes conduction, which is the voltage regulation control; when Ve V2, the Tv mutation is turned on, and the load circuit is cut off. A normal drop in voltage will not cause the circuit to automatically resume conduction, which is the overvoltage power-off control;
(3)继电控制: 打开或关闭半导体断路 /继电器 SBR的接地开关 S时, SBR 切断或接通负载电路, 实现小电流控制大电流目的; 电路导通时, SBR 同时 对负载电路进行上述过流控制或过压断电控制。  (3) Relay control: When the grounding switch S of the semiconductor disconnect/relay SBR is turned on or off, the SBR cuts off or turns on the load circuit to achieve small current control and large current. When the circuit is turned on, the SBR performs the above on the load circuit. Flow control or overvoltage shutdown control.
2) 蓄电池循环充电控制方法  2) Battery cycle charging control method
该方法涉及的元器件包括直流充电电源或带调压器的发电机、 蓄电池、 蓄电池充放电调节器 CDAB、 蓄电池直接供电的用电设备 Lm及经过调节器 CDAB供电的用电设备 Le等; 蓄电池从开始时的亏电状态由直流充电电源或 带调压器的发电机经调节器 CDAB充电至足电状态, 蓄电池极板上放电时的 生成物在充电过程基本得以还原; 当蓄电池被充电至端电压接近足电电压值 Vh时, 调节器 CDAB切断蓄电池充电电路同时保证其它电路上电器设备 Le 的正常安全用电;连在蓄电池端的用电设备 Lm使蓄电池端电压迅速下降, 当 蓄电池端电压下降到接近其对应的开路电压 Vs值时,调节器 CDAB接通蓄电 池充电电路, 并开始循环充电, 这样可使蓄电池正负极板深层材料易于进行 电化学反应, 实现蓄电池充电过程的化学反应平衡和热平衡, 使蓄电池充电 更充分、 使用寿命更长。 该方法适合车用蓄电池, 也适合其它二次电池充电 控制。 The components involved in the method include a DC charging power source or a generator with a voltage regulator, a battery, a battery charge and discharge regulator CDAB, a power supply device Lm directly powered by a battery, and a power device Le powered by a regulator CDAB; From the beginning of the deficient state, the DC charging power supply or the generator with the voltage regulator is charged to the full power state via the regulator CDAB, and the product when the battery plate is discharged is basically restored during the charging process; when the battery is charged to When the terminal voltage is close to the foot voltage value Vh, the regulator CDAB cuts off the battery charging circuit and ensures the normal safe power consumption of the electrical equipment Le on other circuits; the power device Lm connected to the battery terminal causes the battery terminal voltage to rapidly drop, when the battery terminal voltage When it drops to its corresponding open circuit voltage Vs value, the regulator CDAB turns on the battery charging circuit and starts circulating charging, so that the deep material of the positive and negative plates of the battery can be easily electrochemically reacted, and the chemical reaction balance of the battery charging process is realized. And heat balance to make the battery more fully charged and longer lasting. This method is suitable for vehicle batteries and is also suitable for charging other secondary batteries. Control.
针对车用蓄电池, 每次起动发动机后蓄电池的充电方式属于大循环充电, 即蓄电池从开始时的亏电状态充电至足电状态; 发动机正常运行期间蓄电池 充电方式属于小循环充电。 正常工作期间, 蓄电池循环充电控制通过调节器 For the vehicle battery, the charging mode of the battery after each engine start is a large cycle charging, that is, the battery is charged from the deficient state at the beginning to the full power state; the battery charging mode is a small cycle charging during normal engine operation. Battery cycle charge control through regulator during normal operation
CDAB包含的 SBR1 使蓄电池端电压与直流充电电源电压不同歩, 使蓄电池 不再一直处于浮充状态; 蓄电池端出现的是有规律的正负脉冲电流, 通过选 择上述 CDAB内 SBR1外围电容 Cv和负载 Lm的大小,调整负脉冲宽度与脉 冲电流峰值, 使每个充放循环中, 放电过程产生的热量, 在充电过程得以吸 收; 通过小循环充电减小极板表面生成物和表面电荷对极板深层材料参与电 化学反应的阻碍作用,另通过 SBR1的限压限流作用,减少充电过程蓄电池内 电阻产生的热量, 从而实现蓄电池内化学反应平衡和热平衡, 达到延长蓄电 池使用寿命的目的。 The CDB contains SBR1 which makes the battery terminal voltage different from the DC charging power supply voltage, so that the battery is no longer in the floating state; the battery terminal has a regular positive and negative pulse current, by selecting the SBR1 peripheral capacitor Cv and the load in the above CDAB. The size of Lm, the negative pulse width and the pulse current peak are adjusted, so that the heat generated by the discharge process is absorbed in each charging and discharging cycle, and the surface of the plate surface and the surface charge are reduced by small cycle charging. The deep material participates in the inhibition of the electrochemical reaction, and the SBR1's voltage limiting current limiting function reduces the heat generated by the internal resistance of the battery during the charging process, thereby achieving the chemical reaction balance and heat balance in the battery, thereby achieving the purpose of prolonging the service life of the battery.
3 ) 汽车蓄电池起动延时充电控制方法  3) Automobile battery start delay charging control method
该方法涉及的汽车元件包括不含调压器的发电机、 驱动发电机的发动机、 蓄电池、 汽车发电机电压电流调节器 VCAG、 半导体断电延时起动继电装置 SSR、 蓄电池直接供电的用电设备 Lm及经过调节器 VCAG供电的用电设备 Le等; 发动机起动后, 通过上述调节器 VCAG和起动继电装置 SSR延时接 通蓄电池充电电路和发电机励磁线圈电路, 以降低发电机与蓄电池之间的压 差、 减小蓄电池极板的电流冲击, 同时降低发动机起动特别是冷起动期间的 能量消耗、 减少起动时有害气体排放; 调节器 VCAG同时可对蓄电池进行循 环充电控制并保护用电设备 Le及其电路的安全; 延时时间可根据蓄电池电压 恢复和 /或汽车排放等情况确定。  The automobile components involved in the method include a generator without a voltage regulator, an engine for driving the generator, a battery, a motor generator voltage and current regulator VCAG, a semiconductor power failure delay starting relay device SSR, and a battery directly powered power supply. The device Lm and the electric equipment Le powered by the regulator VCAG; after the engine is started, the battery charging circuit and the generator excitation coil circuit are delayed by the regulator VCAG and the starting relay device SSR to reduce the generator and the battery The pressure difference between the two, reducing the current impact of the battery plate, while reducing the energy consumption of the engine start, especially during the cold start, reducing the harmful gas emissions during start-up; the regulator VCAG can also charge and control the battery and protect the electricity The safety of the device Le and its circuitry; the delay time can be determined based on battery voltage recovery and/or vehicle emissions.
附图说明 DRAWINGS
下面将结合附图及实施例对本发明作进一歩说明, 附图中:  The present invention will be further described with reference to the accompanying drawings and embodiments in which:
图 1为常见汽车电路保护系统的原理简图。  Figure 1 is a schematic diagram of the principle of a common automotive circuit protection system.
图 2为半导体断路 /继电器 SBR及控制单元 SD08结构图。  Figure 2 shows the structure of the semiconductor open circuit/relay SBR and the control unit SD08.
图 3为锁控电路的伏安特性输出信号的示意图。  Figure 3 is a schematic diagram of the volt-ampere characteristic output signal of the lock control circuit.
图 4 给出了蓄电池电压电流调节器 CDAB 和发电机电压电流调节器 VCAG电路图。  Figure 4 shows the circuit diagram of the battery voltage and current regulator CDAB and the generator voltage and current regulator VCAG.
图 5给出了半导体断电延时起动继电装置 SSR电路简图。  Figure 5 shows a simplified schematic of the SSR circuit for a semiconductor power-off delay start-up relay.
图 6给出了具有保护并控制两条输出线路设备的半导体继电装置 SRII电 路简图。 Figure 6 shows the semiconductor relay device SRII with protection and control of two output line devices. Road diagram.
图 7给出了半导体控制电磁断路器 SEB电路简图。  Figure 7 shows a simplified circuit diagram of the semiconductor controlled electromagnetic circuit breaker SEB.
图 8给出了半导体控制电磁继电器 SER电路简图。  Figure 8 shows a simplified diagram of the SER circuit for a semiconductor controlled electromagnetic relay.
图 9给出了半导体控制接线盒 JBSC内部结构和汽车电路半导体保护控制 系统 SPCS电路简图。  Figure 9 shows a schematic diagram of the internal structure of the semiconductor control junction box JBSC and the SPCS circuit of the automotive circuit semiconductor protection control system.
具体实施方式 Detailed ways
图 2给出了半导体断路 /继电器 SBR及控制单元 SD08结构图。 控制单元 SD08主要包括包含短路、 过载和蓄电池过放电控制的过流控制单元 CUi, 和 包含过压断电控制的电压调节控制单元 CUv两部分。  Figure 2 shows the structure of the semiconductor open circuit/relay SBR and the control unit SD08. The control unit SD08 mainly includes an overcurrent control unit CUi including short circuit, overload and battery overdischarge control, and a voltage regulation control unit CUv including overvoltage power failure control.
过流控制单元 CUi主要包括限流电阻 R3、信号分解电阻 R4和 R5、 限流 稳压二极管 Dl、 稳压二极管 Di、 单向晶闸管 Ti、 输出控制信号的三极管 Tl、 防外部干扰的肖特基二极管 D2等。 其中, 限流电阻 R3和三极管 T1组成信 号输出电路; 限流稳压二极管 Dl、 稳压二极管 Di和单向晶闸管 Ti组成锁控 电路; 信号分解电阻 R4和 R5组成信号分解电路。 信号输入端 1分别经电阻 R3和三极管 T1的集电极和发射极到接地端 2, 另经信号分解电阻 R4和 R5 到接地端 2; 锁控电路从信号分解电阻 R4和 R5的中间经反偏连接的稳压二 极管 D1接晶闸管 Ti的阳极、 晶闸管 Ti的阴极接三极管 T1的基极, 稳压二 极管 Di反偏连接在晶闸管 Ti的阳极与门极间; 在三极管 T1的集电极引出信 号输出端 4; 在信号分解电阻 R4和 R5的中间引出锁控端 3; 二极管 D2阳极 连接在二极管 T1的集电极上。  The overcurrent control unit CUi mainly includes a current limiting resistor R3, a signal decomposing resistor R4 and R5, a current limiting Zener diode Dl, a Zener diode Di, a unidirectional thyristor Ti, a triode Tl for outputting a control signal, and a Schottky for preventing external interference. Diode D2, etc. The current limiting resistor R3 and the triode T1 form a signal output circuit; the current limiting diode Dl, the Zener diode Di and the unidirectional thyristor Ti form a lock control circuit; the signal decomposition resistors R4 and R5 form a signal decomposition circuit. The signal input terminal 1 passes through the resistor R3 and the collector and emitter of the transistor T1 to the ground terminal 2, and the signal decomposition resistors R4 and R5 to the ground terminal 2; the lock control circuit is reverse-biased from the middle of the signal decomposition resistors R4 and R5. The connected Zener diode D1 is connected to the anode of the thyristor Ti, the cathode of the thyristor Ti is connected to the base of the transistor T1, and the Zener diode Di is reversely connected between the anode and the gate of the thyristor Ti; at the collector output signal output end of the transistor T1 4; The lock terminal 3 is led out in the middle of the signal decomposition resistors R4 and R5; the anode of the diode D2 is connected to the collector of the diode T1.
电压调节控制单元 CUv主要包括限流电阻 R6和 R7、 信号分解电阻 R8 和 R9、 限流稳压二极管 D3、 稳压二极管 Dv、 单向晶闸管 Tv、 信号转换用三 极管 Τ2、 输出控制信号的三极管 Τ3、 防外部干扰的肖特基二极管 D4等。 其 中,限流电阻 R6和 R7、三极管 T2和 T3组成信号输出电路;稳压二极管 Dv、 限流稳压二极管 D3和单向晶闸管 Tv组成锁控电路; 信号分解电阻 R8和 R9 组成信号分解电路。 电压调节控制电路的信号输入端 21分别经电阻 R6和三 极管 Τ3的集电极和发射极到接地端 22, 另经电阻 R7和三极管 Τ2的集电极 和发射极到接地端 22, 另经信号分解电阻 R8和 R9到接地端 22;锁控电路从 信号分解电阻 R8和 R9的中间经反偏连接的稳压二极管 D3接晶闸管 Tv的阳 极、 晶闸管 Tv的阴极接三极管 T2的基极, 稳压二极管 Dv反偏连接在晶闸 管 Tv的阳极与门极间; 三极管 T2的集电极接三极管 T3的基极, 并且在三极 管 T3的集电极引出信号输出端 24, 在信号分解电阻 R8和 R9的中间引出锁 控端 23; 二极管 D4阳极连接在三极管 Τ3的集电极上。 The voltage regulation control unit CUv mainly includes current limiting resistors R6 and R7, signal decomposition resistors R8 and R9, current limiting Zener diode D3, Zener diode Dv, unidirectional thyristor Tv, signal conversion transistor Τ2, and output control signal transistor Τ3 , Schottky diode D4 against external interference, etc. Among them, the current limiting resistors R6 and R7, the triodes T2 and T3 constitute a signal output circuit; the Zener diode Dv, the current limiting Zener diode D3 and the unidirectional thyristor Tv constitute a lock control circuit; the signal decomposition resistors R8 and R9 constitute a signal decomposition circuit. The signal input terminal 21 of the voltage regulation control circuit passes through the collector and emitter of the resistor R6 and the transistor Τ3 to the ground terminal 22, and the collector and emitter of the resistor R7 and the transistor 到2 to the ground terminal 22, and the signal decomposition resistor R8 and R9 to the ground terminal 22; the lock control circuit is connected from the signal decomposing resistor R8 and R9 through the reverse biased Zener diode D3 to the anode of the thyristor Tv, the cathode of the thyristor Tv is connected to the base of the transistor T2, the Zener diode Dv The reverse bias is connected between the anode and the gate of the thyristor Tv; the collector of the transistor T2 is connected to the base of the transistor T3, and at the three poles The collector of the tube T3 is taken out of the signal output terminal 24, and the latching terminal 23 is led out between the signal decomposing resistors R8 and R9; the anode of the diode D4 is connected to the collector of the triode Τ3.
信号输入端 1和信号输入端 21相接形成控制单元 SD08的主控信号输入 端 e; 二极管 D2和 D4的阴极相接形成控制单元 SD08的输出端 c; 接地端 2 和接地端 22相接形成控制单元 SD08的接地端 h;锁控端 3形成控制单元 SD08 的过流控制端 f; 锁控端 23形成控制单元 SD08的电压调节端 g。 其中 f与!! 端、 e与 g端之间可根据需要外接 NTC热敏元件过流控制; e与 f或 e与 g端、 f与 h或 g与 h端之间根据需要可接入外围电阻和 /或电容元件; SD08所含两 个控制电路的信号输入及控制方式可根据需要变化。 SD08可采用集成电路技 术单独制作, 也可把多个 SD08芯片封装一体, 以降低成本。  The signal input end 1 and the signal input end 21 are connected to form a main control signal input end e of the control unit SD08; the cathodes of the diodes D2 and D4 are connected to form an output end c of the control unit SD08; the ground end 2 and the ground end 22 are connected to form a contact end The ground terminal h of the control unit SD08; the lock terminal 3 forms an overcurrent control terminal f of the control unit SD08; the lock terminal 23 forms a voltage regulating terminal g of the control unit SD08. Among them, f and !! can be connected to the external NTC thermal element as needed; e and f or e and g end, f and h or g and h end can be connected to the periphery as needed Resistor and / or capacitive components; the signal input and control of the two control circuits included in the SD08 can be changed as needed. The SD08 can be fabricated separately using integrated circuit technology, or multiple SD08 chips can be packaged together to reduce cost.
控制单元 SD08 的核心控制部分是稳压二极管 (Di、 Dv) 和单向晶闸管 (Ti、 Tv) 组成的复合元件; 稳压二极管反偏接在单向晶闸管的阳极与门极 间, 单向晶闸管的阳极和阴极, 也作为该复合元件的阳极和阴极, 且其阳极 到阴极电流电压特性, 与其包含的单向晶闸管在门极电压固定时具有类似的 正向电流电压特性。  The core control part of the control unit SD08 is a composite component composed of a Zener diode (Di, Dv) and a unidirectional thyristor (Ti, Tv); the Zener diode is reverse biased between the anode and the gate of the unidirectional thyristor, the unidirectional thyristor The anode and cathode, also serving as the anode and cathode of the composite component, and their anode-to-cathode current-voltage characteristics have similar forward current-voltage characteristics as the unidirectional thyristors they contain when the gate voltage is fixed.
正常工作期间, 除起动断电延时控制单元 SD08-5外, 晶闸管 Ti处于导 通状态, 且其工作点位于由导通变截止转折点 A前一定区域内 (图 3 E〜F区 域); 当负载电流超过预定值或蓄电池电压减小到预定值时, 晶闸管 Ti将因通 过的电流过小而由导通突变截止, 进而发出断电控制信号, 并通过输出端 c 输出到 P沟道 MOS场效应管 M的栅极, 控制场效应管 M以不可自动恢复形 式切断连接在源极和漏极上的负载电路。另外,可以通过在过流控制端 f施加 不同的电位信号来控制输出端 c的输出。  During normal operation, except for the start power-off delay control unit SD08-5, the thyristor Ti is in an on state, and its operating point is located in a certain area before the turn-on turning point A (Fig. 3 E~F area); When the load current exceeds a predetermined value or the battery voltage decreases to a predetermined value, the thyristor Ti will be turned off by the conduction abrupt due to the passing current being too small, and then the power-off control signal is issued, and output to the P-channel MOS field through the output terminal c. The gate of the effect transistor M controls the field effect transistor M to cut off the load circuit connected to the source and the drain in an unrecoverable manner. Alternatively, the output of the output c can be controlled by applying a different potential signal to the overcurrent control terminal f.
正常工作期间, 晶闸管 Tv—般处于截止状态, 且其工作点位于由截止变 导通转折点 B前一定区域内 (图 3的 C〜D区域), 当控制单元主控信号输入 端 e的电压大于预定最大电压时, 晶闸管 Tv突变导通, 二极管 T2导通、 三 极管 T3截止, 此时信号输出端 24输出高电位信号, 控制场效应管 M截止, e端电压的正常下降将不能使电路自动恢复导通, 从而实现过压断电控制; 用 于发电机电压调节控制时, 晶闸管 Tv处于截止状态, 但经过稳压二极管 Dv 的旁通电流, 可使其下游的三极管 T2导通或截止, 从而实现电压调节控制。  During normal operation, the thyristor Tv is normally in an off state, and its operating point is located in a certain area before the turn-off point B (Fig. 3C to D area), when the voltage of the control unit main control signal input terminal e is greater than When the maximum voltage is reserved, the thyristor Tv is abruptly turned on, the diode T2 is turned on, and the transistor T3 is turned off. At this time, the signal output terminal 24 outputs a high potential signal, and the FET M is turned off, and the normal drop of the voltage at the e terminal cannot automatically recover the circuit. Turning on, thereby implementing overvoltage and power-off control; when used for generator voltage regulation control, the thyristor Tv is in an off state, but the bypass current of the Zener diode Dv can turn on or off the downstream transistor T2, thereby Realize voltage regulation control.
如图 2所示,控制单元 SD08的信号输出端 c接场效应管 M的栅极、 SD08 的其它端子均作为 SBR的同名端子引出, 包括主控信号输入端 e、 过流控制 端 f、 电压调节端 g、 接地端 h。 图中分别连接在 e与 f端和 e与 g端的可调 电阻 R1和 R2,用于调整或标定 SBR的工作范围。当 SBR用于发电机和蓄电 池充电控制时, e和 g端之间可外接 NTC热敏元件 Rv; f与 h端接场效应管 M 包含的热敏二极管组 Di对应端子; h端经接地开关 S接地, 该接地点应尽量 与 SBR所控制负载电路的接地点保持等电位;场效应管 M的源极作为半导体 断路 /继电器 SBR的电源输入端 a、 场效应管 M的漏极作为所述 SBR的电源 输出端 b; 控制单元 SD08与场效应管 M可以分置, 也可以封装一体制成独 立的 SBR半导体元件。 As shown in Figure 2, the signal output terminal c of the control unit SD08 is connected to the gate of the FET M, and the other terminals of the SD08 are taken as the same-name terminal of the SBR, including the main control signal input terminal e, and the overcurrent control. Terminal f, voltage regulation terminal g, ground terminal h. The figure shows the adjustable resistors R1 and R2 at the e and f terminals and the e and g terminals, respectively, for adjusting or calibrating the operating range of the SBR. When SBR is used for generator and battery charging control, the NTC thermal element Rv can be externally connected between the e and g terminals; the f and h terminals are connected to the FET type M corresponding to the thermal diode group Di; the h end is grounded. S grounding, the grounding point should be kept at the same potential as the grounding point of the load circuit controlled by the SBR; the source of the field effect transistor M is used as the power input terminal a of the semiconductor breaking/relay SBR, and the drain of the field effect transistor M as the SBR power output b; control unit SD08 and FET M can be separated, or can be packaged into a separate SBR semiconductor component.
SBR用于车辆时, 对于起动时必需保持导通线路的 SBR, 其 f端在起动 发动机时通过起动继电装置 SSR接通驱动电源正极、 起动后断开; 其它线路 的 SBR, 其接地端 h在起动发动机时通过 SSR断开, 起动后接通; 这样可保 证所有 SBR不受起动压降的影响。为便于故障诊断,用作断路器使用的 SBR, 在其内部场效应管 M的源极与漏极间接入驱动电流小于 1mA的小电流 LED (带限流电阻), 电路系统正常时 LED熄灭, 发生过载或短路时, 场效应管 M截止、 LED同时点亮。  When the SBR is used in a vehicle, the SBR must be kept on the conduction line when starting, and the f-end is turned on by the starting relay device SSR when the engine is started, and is turned off after starting; the SBR of other lines, the grounding end h thereof It is disconnected by SSR when starting the engine and turned on after starting; this ensures that all SBRs are not affected by the starting pressure drop. In order to facilitate fault diagnosis, the SBR used as a circuit breaker is connected with a small current LED (with current limiting resistor) with a driving current of less than 1 mA between the source and the drain of the internal FET M, and the LED is extinguished when the circuit system is normal. When an overload or short circuit occurs, the FET M is turned off and the LED is lit at the same time.
SBR 的短路控制主要不是依靠温度变化来切断电路, 而是依据电信号, 准确讲是根据负载电路的短路信号传至控制单元 SD08, 引起其主控信号输入 端 e与接地端 h之间的电压信号、或由 e端到 h端的电流信号的变化,使执行 元件 M切断电路。 发生短路时, SBR省去了电能到热能的转化时间, 因而断 电控制时间远远小于熔断器或断路器。  SBR's short-circuit control mainly does not rely on temperature changes to cut off the circuit, but is based on the electrical signal, which is accurately transmitted to the control unit SD08 according to the short-circuit signal of the load circuit, causing the voltage between its main control signal input terminal e and ground terminal h. The change in the signal, or the current signal from the e-end to the h-end, causes the actuator M to cut the circuit. In the event of a short circuit, the SBR eliminates the conversion time of electrical energy to thermal energy, so the power-off control time is much smaller than the fuse or circuit breaker.
SBR的过载控制是利用 NTC热敏元件或热敏二极管温度升高压降减小原 理 (单个热敏二极管在 0°C时压降约 680mV,压降温度变化系数约为 -2.1 mV/°C ), 当过载引起场效应管 M的温度异常升高时, 起其内部的热敏二极管 组 Ri压降减小使通往晶闸管 Ti的电流下降, 在 M的设定温度或极限许可温 度(150〜175°C )前, 晶闸管 Ti截止, 从而断开电路; 通过选择热敏二极管数 量, 可以控制过载量, 在预定的 SBR温度点切断过载电路。  SBR overload control is based on NTC thermal element or thermal diode temperature rise voltage drop reduction principle (single thermal diode voltage drop is about 680mV at 0 °C, pressure drop temperature coefficient of variation is about -2.1 mV / °C) When the overload causes the temperature of the FET M to rise abnormally, the voltage drop of the internal thermal diode group Ri decreases, and the current to the thyristor Ti decreases, at the set temperature of M or the limit permit temperature (150~ Before 175 ° C), the thyristor Ti is turned off, thereby breaking the circuit; by selecting the number of thermal diodes, the amount of overload can be controlled, and the overload circuit is cut off at a predetermined SBR temperature point.
蓄电池过放电控制分两种情况, 一是若发动机点火或供油系统有故障, 反复打火起动造成蓄电池过放电至预定电压值,来自 f端的驱动电压不足以使 晶闸管 Ti导通, 此时控制系统将自动中断起动电路; 二是停机时忘关某电器 开关或车辆久置不用, 当蓄电池电量下降到预定值, 通过晶闸管 Ti的电流降 低到不能维持其导通时, 晶闸管 Ti突变截止, 漏电电路自动断开。 凡是因晶 闸管 Ti电压突变原因切断负载电路, 只能排除故障后通过启闭电源或开关 S 恢复控制系统工作。 The battery over-discharge control is divided into two situations. First, if the engine is ignited or the fuel supply system is faulty, the repeated ignition starts to cause the battery to over-discharge to a predetermined voltage value, and the driving voltage from the f-end is insufficient to turn on the thyristor Ti. The system will automatically interrupt the starting circuit; second, forget to turn off an electrical switch or the vehicle is not used for a long time when the machine is stopped. When the battery power drops to a predetermined value, the current through the thyristor Ti is reduced to be unable to maintain its conduction, the thyristor Ti is abruptly cut off, leakage The circuit is automatically disconnected. Everything The sudden change of the Ti voltage of the thyristor causes the load circuit to be cut off. Only after the fault is removed, the control system can be resumed by turning on or off the power supply or the switch S.
可以理解的, 根据需要可以单独使用过流控制单元 CUi或电压调节控制 单元 CUv, 来输出不同的控制信号, 实现对电路的控制。  It can be understood that the overcurrent control unit CUi or the voltage adjustment control unit CUv can be used separately to output different control signals to realize control of the circuit.
图 4 给出了蓄电池电压电流调节器 CDAB 和发电机电压电流调节器 VCAG电路图。 如图所示, 调节器 CDAB的电源输入端 J同时接半导体断路 / 继电器 SBR1与 SBR2的电源输入端 al、 a2; SBR1内的电压调节控制单元对 蓄电池进行循环充电, 其负载接入端 bl作为 CDAB的电源输出端 B接蓄电 池正极和电器设备 Lm; SBR2用于保护电器设备 Le及其电路安全,其负载接 入端 b2作为 CDAB的电源输出端 A接电器设备 Le; SBR1的控制单元 SD08-1 的主控信号输入端 el接 SBR1 的负载接入端 bl ; SBR2的控制单元 SD08-2 的主控信号输入端 e2接 SBR2的电源输入端 a2; SD08-1 的主控信号输入端 el和电压调节端 gl之间外接用于感应蓄电池温度的 NTC热敏元件 Rv对应端 子、 gl和接地端 hi之间接用于调整充电脉冲频率的电容 Cv; SD08-1的接 地端 hi作为 CDAB的接地端 h引出、 SD08-2的过流控制端 G作为 CDAB的 过流控制端 f引出; SD08-2的接地端 h2经接地开关 S2接地。 Figure 4 shows the circuit diagram of the battery voltage and current regulator CDAB and the generator voltage and current regulator VCAG. As shown in the figure, the power input terminal J of the regulator CDAB is connected to the power input terminals a1, a2 of the semiconductor disconnect/relays SBR1 and SBR2; the voltage regulation control unit in the SBR1 cyclically charges the battery, and its load access terminal bl acts as CDAB's power output terminal B is connected to the battery positive pole and electrical equipment Lm; SBR2 is used to protect electrical equipment Le and its circuit safety, its load access terminal b2 as CDAB power output terminal A electrical equipment Le; SBR1 control unit SD08- The main control signal input end el of 1 is connected to the load access terminal bl of SBR1; the main control signal input end e2 of the control unit SD08-2 of SBR2 is connected to the power input end a2 of SBR2 ; the main control signal input end el of SD08-1 The voltage regulating terminal gl is externally connected to the NTC thermal element Rv corresponding terminal for sensing the battery temperature, and the capacitor Cv for adjusting the charging pulse frequency is connected between the gl and the grounding terminal hi; the grounding terminal hi of the SD08-1 is used as the grounding end of the CDAB. h, the overcurrent control terminal G of SD08-2 is taken out as the overcurrent control terminal f of CDAB; the grounding terminal h2 of SD08-2 is grounded via the grounding switch S2.
采用上述 CDAB对蓄电池进行循环充电控制时, 该控制方法涉及的元器 件包括直流充电电源或带调压器的发电机、 蓄电池、 蓄电池充放电调节器 CDAB, 蓄电池直接供电的用电设备 Lm及经过调节器 CDAB供电的用电设 备 Le 等。 原车接蓄电池正极的发电机供电端和蓄电池电压信号端均接在 CDAB 的 J端。 蓄电池从开始时的亏电状态由直流充电电源或带调压器的发 电机经调节器 CDAB充电至足电状态, 蓄电池极板上放电时的生成物在充电 过程基本得以还原。 当蓄电池被充电至端电压达到足电电压值 Vh时, 如车用 蓄电池 14.4v, 调节器 CDAB的 SD08-1输出高电位控制信号, 控制场效应管 Ml截止, 切断蓄电池充电电路, 同时 SD08-2保持导通, 保证其它电路上电 器设备 Le的正常安全用电。 此时, 连在蓄电池正极的用电设备 Lm使蓄电池 端电压迅速下降,当蓄电池端电压下降到其对应的开路电压值 Vs时,如 12.8v, SD08-1输出低电位控制信号, 控制场效应管 Ml重新导通, 接通蓄电池充电 电路, 并开始循环充电, 这样可使蓄电池正负极板深层材料易于进行电化学 反应, 实现蓄电池充电过程的化学反应平衡和热平衡, 使蓄电池充电更充分、 使用寿命更长。 该方法适合车用蓄电池, 也适合其它二次电池充电控制。 针对车用蓄电池, 每次起动发动机后蓄电池的充电方式属于大循环充电, 即蓄电池从开始时的亏电状态充电至足电状态; 发动机正常运行期间蓄电池 充电方式属于小循环充电。 正常工作期间, 蓄电池循环充电控制通过调节器When the above-mentioned CDAB is used for cyclic charging control of the battery, the components involved in the control method include a DC charging power source or a generator with a voltage regulator, a battery, a battery charging and discharging regulator CDAB, a battery directly powered by the battery Lm and a passing battery. The power device Le et al. powered by the regulator CDAB. The generator power supply terminal and the battery voltage signal terminal of the original vehicle connected to the positive battery are connected to the J terminal of the CDAB. The depletion state of the battery from the beginning is charged by the DC charging power source or the generator with the voltage regulator through the regulator CDAB to the full power state, and the product when the battery plate is discharged is basically restored during the charging process. When the battery is charged until the terminal voltage reaches the full voltage value Vh, such as the vehicle battery 14.4v, the SD08-1 of the regulator CDAB outputs a high potential control signal, the control field effect transistor M1 is turned off, the battery charging circuit is cut off, and at the same time SD08- 2 Keep on, to ensure the normal safe use of electrical equipment Le on other circuits. At this time, the battery terminal Lm connected to the positive battery of the battery rapidly drops the battery terminal voltage. When the battery terminal voltage drops to its corresponding open circuit voltage value Vs, such as 12.8v, SD08-1 outputs a low potential control signal to control the field effect. The tube M1 is turned on again, the battery charging circuit is turned on, and the cycle charging is started, so that the deep material of the positive and negative plates of the battery can be easily electrochemically reacted, and the chemical reaction balance and heat balance of the battery charging process are realized, so that the battery is fully charged. Longer service life. This method is suitable for vehicle batteries and is also suitable for other secondary battery charging controls. For the vehicle battery, the charging mode of the battery after each engine start is a large cycle charging, that is, the battery is charged from the deficient state at the beginning to the state of full power; the battery charging mode is a small cycle charging during normal engine operation. Battery cycle charge control through regulator during normal operation
CDAB包含的 SBR1 使蓄电池端电压与直流充电电源电压不同歩, 使蓄电池 不再一直处于浮充状态; 蓄电池端出现的是有规律的正负脉冲电流, 通过选 择上述 CDAB内 SBR1外围电容 Cv和负载 Lm的大小,调整负脉冲宽度与脉 冲电流峰值, 使每个充放循环中, 放电过程产生的热量, 在充电过程得以吸 收; 通过小循环充电减小极板表面生成物和表面电荷对极板深层材料参与电 化学反应的阻碍作用,另通过 SBR1的限压限流作用,减少充电过程蓄电池内 电阻产生的热量, 从而实现蓄电池内化学反应平衡和热平衡, 达到延长蓄电 池使用寿命的目的。 The CDB contains SBR1 which makes the battery terminal voltage different from the DC charging power supply voltage, so that the battery is no longer in the floating state; the battery terminal has a regular positive and negative pulse current, by selecting the SBR1 peripheral capacitor Cv and the load in the above CDAB. The size of Lm, the negative pulse width and the pulse current peak are adjusted, so that the heat generated by the discharge process is absorbed in each charging and discharging cycle, and the surface of the plate surface and the surface charge are reduced by small cycle charging. The deep material participates in the inhibition of the electrochemical reaction, and the SBR1's voltage limiting current limiting function reduces the heat generated by the internal resistance of the battery during the charging process, thereby achieving the chemical reaction balance and heat balance in the battery, thereby achieving the purpose of prolonging the service life of the battery.
蓄电池放电持续时间可调整到 1 毫妙以下, 放电电流大小设定在充电电 流的 1〜3倍。 实际运行中, 来自发电机的 14.5V左右的电压, 经过 CDAB后 调整到 14.4V以下, 而进出蓄电池电流的脉动范围是充电电流值的 2〜4倍, 这有利于减小蓄电池极化现象, 延长蓄电池使用寿命。 蓄电池附近的 NTC热 敏元件 Rv 可使充电电压随蓄电池温度的升高而下降。 在发电机不工作时, CDAB可以保护直接连接在其 A端的电子设备, 包括误将蓄电池反向连接的 保护, 同时可对蓄电池漏放电进行保护, 比如当蓄电池电压下降到某一预定 值(如 12.0V) 时, 通过 SBR2可切断漏放电电路, 这样可以避免因司机忘关 某电器开关造成蓄电池深度放电无法起动发动机的现象, 并可保护蓄电池。  The battery discharge duration can be adjusted to less than 1 millisecond, and the discharge current is set to 1 to 3 times the charge current. In actual operation, the voltage from the generator of about 14.5V is adjusted to below 14.4V after CDAB, and the pulsation range of the incoming and outgoing battery current is 2~4 times of the charging current value, which is beneficial to reduce the polarization of the battery. Extend battery life. The NTC thermal sensor Rv near the battery causes the charging voltage to drop as the battery temperature increases. When the generator is not working, the CDAB can protect the electronic equipment directly connected to its A terminal, including the protection of the reverse connection of the battery, and protect the battery leakage, such as when the battery voltage drops to a predetermined value (such as When 12.0V), the leakage and discharge circuit can be cut off by SBR2, which can avoid the phenomenon that the driver can forget to turn off the engine due to the deep discharge of the battery caused by the driver, and can protect the battery.
发电机电压电流调节器 VCAG主要由蓄电池充放电调节器 CDAB与用于 调节发电机输出电压的半导体断路 /继电器 SBR3组成; 调节器 CDAB的电源 输入端 J和电源输出端 A和 B也作为所述调节器 VCAG的同名电源输入输出 端; J端接发电机电源输出端、 B端接蓄电池正极, A端经点火开关 IG和 VCAG 的磁场电路接线端 F1接上述 SBR3的电源输入端, SBR3的电源输出端接发 电机励磁线圈电源输入端, 励磁线圈另一端接地; SBR3控制单元的主控信号 输入端 e3接调节器 VCAG的电源输入端 J、 接地端 h3连接上述蓄电池充放 电调节器 CDAB的接地端并作为调节器 VCAG的接地引出端 h接起动继电装 置 SSR的 H端, CDAB的引出端 f作为调节器 VCAG的过流控制引出端 f 接上述起动继电装置 SSR提供的蓄电池驱动电压端。调节器 VCAG或其包含 的 SBR3可置于发电机内, 调节器 CDAB可与蓄电池制成一体。 VCAG内包 含的三个 SBR, 其电压调节范围不同, SBR1约为: 12.8〜14.4V, SBR2不大 于 16V, SBR3为 14.5 ±0.25V。 由于 CDAB或 VCAG对蓄电池的充电方式采 用的是限制充电电压和充放结合的循环充电方式, 充电时间短、 长时间充电 不会出现过充现象, 始终使蓄电池处于化学平衡和热平衡状态, 适合家用车 也适合营运车。 The generator voltage current regulator VCAG is mainly composed of a battery charge and discharge regulator CDAB and a semiconductor open circuit/relay SBR3 for regulating the output voltage of the generator; the power input terminal J and the power output terminals A and B of the regulator CDAB are also described as Regulator VCAG has the same name power input and output terminal; J terminal is connected to generator power output terminal, B terminal is connected to battery positive pole, and A terminal is connected to the power input terminal of SBR3 via the ignition circuit IG and VCAG magnetic field circuit terminal F1, SBR3 power supply The output end is connected to the generator excitation coil power input end, and the other end of the excitation coil is grounded; the main control signal input end e3 of the SBR3 control unit is connected to the power input terminal J of the regulator VCAG, and the ground end h3 is connected to the ground of the battery charge and discharge regulator CDAB. The ground terminal of the regulator VCAG is connected to the H terminal of the starting relay device SSR, and the terminal end of the CDAB is used as the overcurrent control terminal f of the regulator VCAG to connect the battery driving voltage terminal provided by the starting relay device SSR. . The regulator VCAG or the SBR3 it contains can be placed in the generator, and the regulator CDAB can be made integral with the battery. VCAG package The three SBRs contain different voltage regulation ranges. SBR1 is about 12.8~14.4V, SBR2 is no more than 16V, and SBR3 is 14.5±0.25V. Because CDAB or VCAG uses the charging method of limiting the charging voltage and charging and discharging in combination with the charging method, the charging time is short, the charging is not overcharged for a long time, and the battery is always in a chemical equilibrium and thermal equilibrium state, suitable for household use. The car is also suitable for operating vehicles.
图 5给出了半导体断电延时起动继电装置 SSR电路简图, 如图所示, 包 括与上述半导体断路 /继电器 SBR 电路结构相同的第四半导体断路 /继电器 SBR4和与控制单元 SD08电路结构相同的半导体断路 /继电控制单元 SD08-5、 快充慢放控制器 CR、 N沟道 MOS场效应管 M5n以及根据需要设置的多个二 极管 Dl、 D2 和 D3等。  Figure 5 shows a schematic diagram of the SSR circuit of the semiconductor power-off delay start-up relay device, as shown in the figure, including the fourth semiconductor open circuit/relay SBR4 and the control unit SD08 circuit structure identical to the above-described semiconductor open/relay SBR circuit structure. The same semiconductor open/surpass control unit SD08-5, fast charge and slow release controller CR, N-channel MOS field effect transistor M5n, and a plurality of diodes D1, D2, and D3, which are provided as needed.
半导体断路 /继电器 SBR4用作起动继电器, 其电源输入端 A4接蓄电池 正极、 输出端 B4接起动机电磁离合器线圈, SBR的接地端 h4接地或通往汽 车防盗止动系统; 二极管 Dl、 D2、 D3等的阳极接 SBR4的输出端, 各二极 管的阴极作为起动继电装置 SSR的驱动端 fl、 f2、 β等, 分别接起动时不可 断电线路的半导体断路 /继电器的过流控制端, 并使其在起动发动机时保持导 通; SSR的电源输入端 Α4和输出端 Β4与其包含的半导体断路 /继电器 SBR4 的电源输入输出端相同; SBR4的控制单元主控信号输入端 e4, 作为 SSR的 控制信号输入端, 接点火开关 IG的起动端 st; 接地端 h4直接接地。  The semiconductor open circuit/relay SBR4 is used as a starter relay. Its power input terminal A4 is connected to the battery positive pole, the output terminal B4 is connected to the starter electromagnetic clutch coil, and the SBR ground terminal h4 is grounded or leads to the vehicle anti-theft stop system. Diodes Dl, D2, D3 The anode is connected to the output end of SBR4, and the cathode of each diode is used as the driving end fl, f2, β, etc. of the starting relay device SSR, respectively, and is connected to the overcurrent control terminal of the semiconductor disconnect/relay of the uninterruptible line at the time of starting, and It maintains conduction when starting the engine; the power input terminal Α4 and output terminal S4 of the SSR are identical to the power input and output terminals of the semiconductor open/relay SBR4 included therein; the control unit of the SBR4 is controlled by the signal input terminal e4 as the control signal of the SSR The input end is connected to the starting end st of the ignition switch IG; the grounding end h4 is directly grounded.
控制单元 SD08-5用于控制 N沟道 MOS场效应管 M5n, 并通过 M5n向 起动期间可断电线路, 包括发电机发电和 /或蓄电池充电控制电路的半导体断 路 /继电器提供统一接地端 H; H端作为起动继电装置 SSR的接地控制端, H 端经场效应管 M5n的源极和漏极与控制单元 SD08-5的接地端 h5连接并通往 位于接线盒或驾驶室内的接地开关 S; 控制单元 SD08-5的主控信号输入端 e5 作为其电源端, 接起动继电装置 SSR的电源输入端 A4; 控制单元 SD08-5的 过流控制端 f5, 作为断电延时控制信号端, 接上述快充慢放控制器 CR的输 出端; 控制单元 (SD08-5 ) 的接地端 h5经接地开关 S5接地; 控制器 CR由 电容电阻等元件组成, 并从点火开关 IG的起动端 st引入电源信号。通过选配 控制单元 SD08-5 内部和外围元件, 在起动发动机前及延时起动后使 SD08-5 内的晶闸管 Ti和 Tv均处于截止状态; 起动发动机前, SD08-5内的三极管 Τ3 和 T1均截止、场效应管 Μη导通;起动发动机时通过在 f5端施加的控制信号 使旁通稳压二极管 Di导通, 并使三极管 T1导通、 M5n截止; 起动后 f5端控 制信号延时解除, 三极管 T1延时截止, M5n延时导通, 进而延时接通相关半 导体断路 /继电器的接地线路, 并使其延时导通; 通过选配 SSR内部元件, 可 使 SSR不受蓄电池起动压降的影响。上述 SSR可用于汽车蓄电池起动延时充 电控制, 其涉及不含调压器的发电机、 驱动发电机的发动机、 蓄电池、 汽车 发电机电压电流调节器 VCAG、 半导体断电延时起动继电装置 SSR、 蓄电池 直接供电的用电设备 Lm及经过调节器 VCAG供电的用电设备 Le等。起动期 间发电机发电和蓄电池充电控制电路的半导体断路 /继电器控制单元的接地端 通过 N沟道 MOS场效应管 M5n接地; 场效应管 M5n由另一半导体断路 /继 电控制单元 SD08-5控制导通和截止。发动机起动后, 通过上述调节器 VCAG 和起动继电装置 SSR延时接通蓄电池充电电路和发电机励磁线圈电路, 以降 低发电机与蓄电池之间的压差、 减小蓄电池极板的电流冲击, 同时降低发动 机起动特别是冷起动期间的能量消耗、 减少起动时有害气体排放; 调节器 VCAG 同时可对蓄电池进行循环充电控制并保护用电设备 Le及其电路的安 全; 延时时间可根据蓄电池电压恢复和 /或汽车排放等情况确定。 具体的, 当 接通点火开关 IG起动端时, 汽车蓄电池为控制单元 SD08-5的过流控制端提 供驱动电压, 使控制单元 SD08-5输出低电位, 场效应管 M5n截止, 进而切 断蓄电池充电电路和 /或汽车发电机励磁线圈供电电路; 另外, 在接通点火开 关 IG起动端时, 蓄电池为延时控制器 CR充电, 当发动机起动后, 由延时控 制器为控制单元 SD08-5 过流控制端提供延时导通电压, 保持场效应管 M5n 截止; 当延时控制器完成延时控制动作, 控制单元 SD08-5因过流控制端电压 下降而输出高电位, 使得场效应管 M5n导通接地, 进而使得汽车发电机开始 发电, 并对蓄电池按循环充电方式进行充电。 The control unit SD08-5 is used to control the N-channel MOS field effect transistor M5n, and provides a unified ground terminal H through the M5n to the power-off line during startup, including the semiconductor circuit breaker/relay of the generator power generation and/or the battery charging control circuit; The H terminal serves as the grounding control terminal of the starting relay device SSR, and the H terminal is connected to the grounding terminal h5 of the control unit SD08-5 via the source and the drain of the FET M5n and leads to the grounding switch S located in the junction box or the cab. The main control signal input terminal e5 of the control unit SD08-5 is used as its power supply terminal, and is connected to the power input terminal A4 of the starting relay device SSR; the overcurrent control terminal f5 of the control unit SD08-5 is used as the power failure delay control signal terminal. Connect the output terminal of the above-mentioned fast charge and slow release controller CR; the ground terminal h5 of the control unit (SD08-5) is grounded via the grounding switch S5; the controller CR is composed of a capacitor resistor and other components, and from the starting end of the ignition switch IG Introduce a power signal. By selecting the internal and external components of the control unit SD08-5, the thyristors Ti and Tv in SD08-5 are turned off before starting the engine and after the delay start; the triodes 和3 and T1 in SD08-5 before starting the engine The cut-off, FET Μ conduction; when the engine is started, the bypass Zener diode Di is turned on by the control signal applied at the f5 terminal, and the transistor T1 is turned on, and M5n is turned off; The delay time of the signal is released, the transistor T1 is delayed, and the M5n delay is turned on, and then the grounding circuit of the related semiconductor circuit breaker/relay is turned on and the delay is turned on. By selecting the internal components of the SSR, the SSR can be made. Not affected by battery starting pressure drop. The above SSR can be used for automotive battery start delay charging control, which relates to a generator without a voltage regulator, an engine that drives a generator, a battery, a motor generator voltage current regulator VCAG, a semiconductor power failure delay starting relay device SSR The electric equipment Lm directly powered by the battery and the electric equipment Le powered by the regulator VCAG. The grounding end of the semiconductor breaking/relay control unit of the generator power generation and battery charging control circuit during startup is grounded through the N-channel MOS field effect transistor M5n; the field effect transistor M5n is controlled by another semiconductor breaking/relay control unit SD08-5 Pass and deadline. After the engine is started, the battery charging circuit and the generator excitation coil circuit are delayed by the regulator VCAG and the starting relay device SSR to reduce the voltage difference between the generator and the battery and reduce the current impact of the battery plate. At the same time, the energy consumption during engine starting, especially during cold start, is reduced, and the harmful gas emission during starting is reduced; the regulator VCAG can also perform cyclic charging control on the battery and protect the safety of the electric equipment Le and its circuit; the delay time can be based on the battery voltage Recovery and/or vehicle emissions are determined. Specifically, when the ignition switch IG start end is turned on, the vehicle battery provides a driving voltage for the overcurrent control terminal of the control unit SD08-5, so that the control unit SD08-5 outputs a low potential, and the FET M5n is turned off, thereby turning off the battery charging. Circuit and / or car generator excitation coil power supply circuit; In addition, when the ignition switch IG start end is turned on, the battery is charged by the delay controller CR, when the engine is started, the delay controller is the control unit SD08-5 The flow control terminal provides a delay turn-on voltage to keep the FET M5n off; when the delay controller completes the delay control action, the control unit SD08-5 outputs a high potential due to the voltage drop of the overcurrent control terminal, so that the FET M5n Conduction is grounded, which in turn causes the vehicle generator to start generating electricity and charge the battery in a cyclic charging mode.
图 6给出了具有保护并控制两条输出线路设备的半导体继电装置 SRII电 路简图, 如图所示, 继电装置 SRII的电源输入端分别经与上述半导体断路 / 继电器 SBR具有相同电路结构的半导体断路 /继电器 SBR6和 SBR7到负载 L1 和 L2; SBR6和 SBR7的主控信号输入端接 SRII的电源输入端、 其接地端均 通过开关 S7接地;开关 S7接通地线的半导体断路 /继电器,其负载线路通电, 另一线路同时断电; SBR6和 SBR7的控制单元 SD08-6和 SD08-7, 可采用集 成电路技术封装一起。 可用于取代传统 5脚继电器, 并对所控制的两路电器 电子设备进行有效保护。  Figure 6 shows a simplified circuit diagram of a semiconductor relay device SRII with protection and control of two output line devices. As shown, the power input terminals of the relay device SRII have the same circuit structure as the semiconductor circuit breaker/relay SBR, respectively. Semiconductor open circuit / relay SBR6 and SBR7 to load L1 and L2; SBR6 and SBR7 main control signal input terminal SRII power input terminal, its ground terminal is grounded through switch S7; switch S7 is connected to ground wire semiconductor circuit breaker / relay The load line is energized and the other line is powered off at the same time; the control units SD08-6 and SD08-7 of SBR6 and SBR7 can be packaged together using integrated circuit technology. It can be used to replace the traditional 5-pin relay and effectively protect the two electrical and electronic devices controlled.
图 7给出了半导体控制电磁断路器 SEB电路简图, 如图所示, 包括与上 述半导体断电 /继电控制单元 SD08具有相同电路结构的半导体断电 /继电控制 单元 SD08-8、 常闭触点电磁断电装置 Br、 发光二极管 LED、 N沟道 MOS场 效应管或 NPN三极管 M8n、 NTC热敏元件 Ri及其它外围阻容元件。 Figure 7 shows a schematic diagram of the semiconductor control electromagnetic circuit breaker SEB circuit, as shown, including and The semiconductor power-off/relay control unit SD08 has the same circuit structure of the semiconductor power-off/relay control unit SD08-8, the normally-closed contact electromagnetic power-off device Br, the light-emitting diode LED, the N-channel MOS field effect transistor or the NPN Transistor M8n, NTC thermal element Ri and other peripheral RC components.
电源经上述电磁断路器 SEB的电源输入端 A8和断电装置 Br的触点到 SEB的电源输出端 B8, 并通往用电设备; 电源输入端 A8接控制单元 SD08-8 的主控信号输入端 e8, 另经断电装置 Br的电磁线圈和发光二极管 LED及场 效应管 M8n的源极和漏极接控制单元 SD08-8的接地端 h8, 又经接地开关 S8 接地; 控制单元 SD08-8的信号输出端 c8接场效应管 M8n的栅极; NTC热敏 元件 Ri8黏结于断电装置 Br电源侧有一定接触电阻的触点背面金属片上, 其 接线端分别接控制单元 SD08-8的过流控制端 和接地端 h8。  The power supply passes through the power input terminal A8 of the electromagnetic circuit breaker SEB and the contact of the power-off device Br to the power output terminal B8 of the SEB, and leads to the power-consuming device; the power input terminal A8 is connected to the main control signal input of the control unit SD08-8. The end e8, the electromagnetic coil of the power-off device Br and the LED and the source and the drain of the FET M8n are connected to the ground terminal h8 of the control unit SD08-8, and grounded via the grounding switch S8; the control unit SD08-8 The signal output terminal c8 is connected to the gate of the FET M8n; the NTC thermal element Ri8 is bonded to the back metal piece of the contact having a certain contact resistance on the power supply side of the power-off device Br, and the terminals are respectively connected to the control unit SD08-8. Flow control terminal and ground terminal h8.
图 8给出了半导体控制电磁继电器 SER电路简图, 如图所示, 把图 7的 断电装置 Br换成常开触点继电器 Rl、 取消发光二极管 LED、 把 N沟道 MOS 场效应管 M8n换成 P沟道 MOS场效应管或 PNP三极管 M9p并置于继电器线 圈上游,就可得到由接地开关 S9控制的具备电路保护功能的电磁继电器 SER。  Figure 8 shows a schematic diagram of the SER circuit of the semiconductor controlled electromagnetic relay. As shown in the figure, the power-off device Br of Fig. 7 is replaced by a normally open contact relay R1, the light-emitting diode LED is cancelled, and the N-channel MOS field effect transistor M8n is used. By switching to a P-channel MOS field effect transistor or a PNP transistor M9p and placing it upstream of the relay coil, an electromagnetic relay SER with circuit protection function controlled by the grounding switch S9 can be obtained.
正如不能用半导体控制电磁断路器 SEB代替电磁继电器 SER—样, SER 也不能取代 SEB; 因为当 SER导通工作时, 其电磁线圈耗电量较大, 作为断 路器使用是不合适的, 而 SEB导通工作时, 其电磁线圈不通电, 仅控制单元 SD08-8消耗微量能量。  Just as the semiconductor control electromagnetic circuit breaker SEB can not be used instead of the electromagnetic relay SER, SER can not replace SEB; because when the SER is turned on, its electromagnetic coil consumes a large amount of electricity, it is not suitable for use as a circuit breaker, and SEB When the operation is turned on, the electromagnetic coil is not energized, and only the control unit SD08-8 consumes a small amount of energy.
图 9给出了半导体控制接线盒 JBSC内部结构和汽车电路半导体保护控制 系统 SPCS电路简图。 如图所示, 接线盒 JBSC的电源输入端有 C和 D两个 入口; D端经后备保险装置 (Fsl ) 接蓄电池正极, 其对应的输出端连接对电 压变化不敏感且有助于实现蓄电池循环充电控制的电器设备, 如燃油泵; C 端接汽车发电机电压电流调节器 VCAG的电源输出端 A, 其对应的输出端连 接其它电器设备; JBSC电源输出端接各用电设备和各控制开关;接线盒 JBSC 内部用做继电器使用的半导体断路 /继电器 SBR, 其所在线路上下游可不再设 置其它电路保护装置; 用做断路器使用的半导体断路 /继电器 SBR, 其所在线 路下游分支线路可根据需要设置小电流保险丝, 以降低成本; 起动继电装置 SSR的电源输入端 A接通往副接线盒 Sub- JBSC的一条电源线上, SSR的控 制信号输入端接点火开关 IG的起动端 st; SSR的驱动端分别接起动时不可断 电线路的半导体断路 /继电器的过流控制端,包括调节器 VCAG的过流控制引 出端 f; SSR的接地控制端 H接起动期间可断电线路的半导体断路 /继电器的 接地端, 包括调节器 VCAG的接地引出端 h。 保留分支线路保险丝用于降低 成本, 分支线路保险丝主要起到线路过载保护作用, 若分支线路发生短路, 其上游的半导体控制保护装置 SBR或电磁断路器 SEB将先于分支线路保险丝 切断电路。 后备保险装置 (Fsl和 Fs2) 可以是熔断器或其它断路器, 用于当 半导体保护控制装置失效时的备用保护。 Figure 9 shows a schematic diagram of the internal structure of the semiconductor control junction box JRSC and the SPCS circuit of the automotive circuit semiconductor protection control system. As shown in the figure, the power supply input terminal of the junction box JBSC has two inlets C and D; the D end is connected to the positive battery via the backup fuse (Fsl), and its corresponding output connection is insensitive to voltage changes and helps to realize the battery. Electrical equipment for cyclic charging control, such as fuel pump; C is connected to the power output terminal A of the motor generator voltage and current regulator VCAG, and its corresponding output terminal is connected to other electrical equipment; JBSC power output terminal is connected to each electrical equipment and each control Switch; junction box JBSC is used as a semiconductor circuit breaker/relay SBR used for relays, no other circuit protection device can be set up upstream and downstream of the line; semiconductor circuit breaker/relay SBR used as circuit breaker, the branch line downstream of the line can be A small current fuse is required to reduce the cost; the power input terminal A of the starting relay device SSR is connected to a power line of the sub-junction box Sub-JBSC, and the control signal input end of the SSR is connected to the starting end st of the ignition switch IG; The drive terminals of the SSR are respectively connected to the overcurrent control terminal of the semiconductor open circuit/relay of the unbreakable line at startup, including the regulator VCAG The overcurrent control terminal f; the grounding control terminal H of the SSR is connected to the semiconductor circuit/relay of the power-off line during startup The ground terminal includes the grounding terminal h of the regulator VCAG. The branch line fuse is reserved for cost reduction, and the branch line fuse mainly serves as line overload protection. If the branch line is short-circuited, the upstream semiconductor control protection device SBR or electromagnetic circuit breaker SEB will cut off the circuit before the branch line fuse. The backup fuses (Fsl and Fs2) can be fuses or other circuit breakers for backup protection when the semiconductor protection control device fails.
如图 9所示, 调节器 VCAG的电源输入端 J经后备保险装置(Fs2)接发 电机电源输出端、 VCAG的电源输出端 A接上述接线盒 JBSC的电源输入端 C、 VCAG的电源输出端 B接 JBSC的电源输入端 D并同时经后备保险装置 (Fsl ) 接蓄电池正极, 接线盒 JBSC的电源输出口接各用电设备或电器开关; 控制系 统 SPCS, 通过上述调节器 VCAG及接线盒 JBSC包含的起动继电装置 SSR, 实现汽车蓄电池起动延时充电控制, 包括蓄电池循环充电控制, 延长蓄电池 使用寿命、 降低发动机起动能量消耗和排放, 同时保护汽车电器系统; 控制 系统 SPCS, 通过接线盒 JBSC和副接线盒 Sub-JBSC包含的各个半导体断路 / 继电器 SBR及后备保险装置 (Fsl和 Fs2), 可使汽车电路及电器电子设备免 遭电路过压、 过载、 短路的损害, 消除因电路短路原因引起的汽车自燃现象。  As shown in Fig. 9, the power input terminal J of the regulator VCAG is connected to the generator power output terminal via the backup safety device (Fs2), and the power output terminal A of the VCAG is connected to the power input terminal C of the junction box JBSC and the power output terminal of the VCAG. B is connected to the power input terminal D of the JBSC and connected to the positive pole of the battery via the backup safety device (Fsl). The power output port of the junction box JBSC is connected to each electrical equipment or electrical switch. The control system SPCS, through the above regulator VCAG and the junction box JBSC The included starting relay device SSR realizes the vehicle battery start delay charging control, including battery cycle charging control, prolongs battery life, reduces engine starting energy consumption and emissions, and protects automotive electrical system; control system SPCS, through junction box JBSC And the sub-junction box Sub-JBSC includes various semiconductor disconnect / relay SBR and backup safety devices (Fsl and Fs2), which can protect the automotive circuit and electrical and electronic equipment from overvoltage, overload and short circuit, and eliminate the short circuit caused by the circuit. The phenomenon of spontaneous combustion of the car.
图 9是传统电路保护系统 (见图 1 ) 的电子化改进结构, 用 SEB或 SBR 取代图 1的保险丝 F1 , 保留小保险丝 F13; 用 SBR-1取代继电器 RL1和保险 丝 Fll、 SBR-2取代 RL2和 F12; 用 SRII取代五脚继电器 RL3、 F2和 F3 ; 用 SBR-3取代通往副接线盒的 60A熔断器;用 SBR-4取代保险丝 F4和 RL4, SBR-5取代 F5, 保留小电流(如 20A以下)保险丝 F51和 F52; 图 1中 100A 主熔断器用 VCAG取代; 用 SSR取代起动继电器 Rs, SSR同时向起动时不 可断电线路半导体保护装置 (如图示 SEB、 SBR-3, VCAG内的 SBR2) 的过 流控制端 f提供驱动电压, 并向起动时可断电线路的半导体保护装置(如图示 SBR-5、 VCAG内的 SBR1和 SBR3 ) 提供统一接地端 H; 增加蓄电池正极端 的后备保险装置 Fsl和发电机端的 Fs2。 副接线盒 Sub-JBSC内各电磁继电器 用 SBR取代, 小电流分支线路保护以保险丝为主。  Figure 9 is an electronically improved structure of a conventional circuit protection system (see Figure 1), replacing the fuse F1 of Figure 1 with SEB or SBR, retaining the small fuse F13; replacing the relay RL1 with the SBR-1 and replacing the RL2 with the fuses Fll and SBR-2 And F12; replace the five-leg relays RL3, F2 and F3 with SRII; replace the 60A fuses to the sub-junction box with SBR-3; replace fuses F4 and RL4 with SBR-4, replace F5 with SBR-5, retain small current ( For example, below 20A) fuses F51 and F52; in Figure 1, the 100A main fuse is replaced by VCAG; replace the starter relay Rs with SSR, SSR can also be turned off at the start of the circuit protection device (such as SEB, SBR-3, VCAG) The overcurrent control terminal f of the SBR2) supplies the driving voltage, and provides a unified grounding terminal H to the semiconductor protection device (such as SBR-5 and SBR1 in the VCAG) in the shutdown circuit when starting; The backup fuse Fsl and the generator end Fs2. Sub-junction box Each electromagnetic relay in Sub-JBSC is replaced by SBR, and the small current branch line protection is mainly based on fuse.
具体应用实例及说明:  Specific application examples and descriptions:
这里结合上述有关控制装置电路图, 针对 12V铅酸蓄电池的车辆, 给出 电路调试时, 用分立元件制作的部分控制装置的应用实例, 具体如下: MCR100-B、 稳压二极管 Di和 Dv均选用 BZX-83C (6.4V) ,稳压二极管 Dl、 D2选用 2CW103 (4.0〜5.8V); 二极管 D2、 D4选用肖特基二极管 1N5819; 稳压二极管 D5选用 2CW141 ;三极管 Tl、 Τ2、 Τ3均选用三极管 C1815; R3、 R4、 R6、 R7、 R8阻值均为 1000Ω; R5、 R9均为 2200Ω。 Here, in combination with the above-mentioned circuit diagram of the control device, for the vehicle of the 12V lead-acid battery, an application example of the partial control device made by the discrete component when the circuit is debugged is as follows: MCR100-B, Zener diodes Di and Dv are selected BZX-83C (6.4V), Zener diodes Dl, D2 select 2CW103 (4.0~5.8V); Diodes D2, D4 select Schottky diode 1N5819; Zener diode D5 2CW141 is used; triode T1, Τ2, Τ3 are all selected from transistor C1815; R3, R4, R6, R7, R8 are all 1000Ω; R5 and R9 are 2200Ω.
2、 半导体断路 /继电器 SBR (参考图 2)  2. Semiconductor circuit breaker / relay SBR (refer to Figure 2)
按图 2电路结构形式制作 SBR, 其中控制单元 SD08用上述元件制作, 温度感应型 P沟道 MOS场效应管均选用 SUB50P05-13LT (60A, lOmQ); 外 围元件 Rl、 R2 分别用 2000Ω可调电阻;。  The SBR is fabricated according to the circuit structure of Fig. 2, wherein the control unit SD08 is fabricated by the above components, the temperature sensing type P-channel MOS field effect transistor is selected SUB50P05-13LT (60A, lOmQ); the peripheral components Rl, R2 are respectively 2000Ω adjustable resistors ;
3、 半导体控制电磁断路器 SEB和继电器 SER (参考图 7、 8)  3. Semiconductor control electromagnetic circuit breaker SEB and relay SER (refer to Figures 7, 8)
按图 7、 8电路结构制作 SEB和 SER; 控制单元 SD08-8和 SD08-8用上 述元件制作,图中 M8n选用 NPN三极管 C9013,M9p选用 PNP三极管 C9012; 电磁断电装置 Br选用 CH41常闭触点继电器,继电装置 R1选用 961A-1C-12DM 5脚继电器;模拟过载实验时, NTC热敏元件 Ri8和 Ri9可用多个热敏二极管 MF58Z组合代替; 外围元件 Rl、 R2 分别用 2000Ω可调电阻。  According to the circuit structure of Figure 7, 8 to make SEB and SER; control unit SD08-8 and SD08-8 are made with the above components, M8n selects NPN transistor C9013, M9p selects PNP transistor C9012; electromagnetic power-off device Br selects CH41 normally closed Point relay, relay device R1 selects 961A-1C-12DM 5-pin relay; NTC thermal element Ri8 and Ri9 can be replaced by multiple thermal diodes MF58Z combination in analog overload test; peripheral components Rl, R2 use 2000Ω adjustable resistor respectively .
利用上述分立元件制作的控制单元 SD08、 半导体断路 /继电器 SBR、 半 导体控制电磁断路器 SEB和继电器 SER, 以及由 SD08和 SBR外加其它元件 制作的蓄电池充放电调节器 CDAB、 两路输出半导体继电装置 SRII很容易在 实验室或实车上实现 "电路保护与控制方法"和 "蓄电池循环充电控制方法" 提到的控制效果, 但因元件数量过多, 用分立元件制作发电机电压电流调节 器 VCAG、 起动继电装置 SSR和接线盒 JBSC及控制系统 SPCS并应用于实 际车辆是比较困难的, 需采用集成电路技术制作相关控制装置, 再根据具体 车型参考相应电路图制作各控制装置。  Control unit SD08, semiconductor circuit breaker/relay SBR, semiconductor control electromagnetic circuit breaker SEB and relay SER fabricated by using the above discrete components, and battery charge and discharge regulator CDAB, two-output semiconductor relay device made of SD08 and SBR plus other components SRII can easily realize the control effects mentioned in "Circuit Protection and Control Method" and "Battery Cycle Charge Control Method" in the laboratory or on the actual vehicle. However, due to the excessive number of components, the generator voltage and current regulator VCAG is fabricated with discrete components. It is difficult to start the relay device SSR and the junction box JBSC and the control system SPCS and apply it to the actual vehicle. It is necessary to use the integrated circuit technology to make the relevant control devices, and then make the respective control devices according to the specific model drawings with reference to the corresponding circuit diagrams.
另外, 上述采用分立元件制作的各控制装置的控制单元, 其静态工作电 流高达约 0.02A, 无法满足车辆实际工作需要。通过采用集成电路技术制作控 制单元 SD08, 可把其静态工作电流降低到 0.1mA以下, 这样就不会影响车辆 正常工作。  In addition, the control unit of each control device manufactured by using the discrete components described above has a static working current of up to about 0.02 A, which cannot meet the actual working needs of the vehicle. By using the integrated circuit technology to make the control unit SD08, the static working current can be reduced to less than 0.1mA, so that the normal operation of the vehicle will not be affected.
本发明包括的十种相关产品和三种具体控制方法, 除汽车电路外也适合 其它机动车辆或直流电路系统。 任何在本发明基础之上的改进、 变形或创新 均在本发明权利要求保护范围之内。  The ten related products and three specific control methods included in the present invention are suitable for other motor vehicles or DC circuit systems in addition to automotive circuits. Any improvement, modification or innovation based on the present invention is within the scope of the claims of the present invention.

Claims

权 利 要 求 Rights request
1、 一种电路保护与控制系统, 其特征在于, 至少包括一个控制模块, 所 述控制模块包括信号输出电路、 信号分解电路以及锁控电路; A circuit protection and control system, characterized in that it comprises at least one control module, the control module comprising a signal output circuit, a signal decomposition circuit and a lock control circuit;
所述信号分解电路和信号输出电路并联连接; 并且所述信号分解电路至 少包括第一信号分解元件和第二信号分解元件;  The signal decomposition circuit and the signal output circuit are connected in parallel; and the signal decomposition circuit includes at least a first signal decomposition component and a second signal decomposition component;
所述锁控电路从所述第一信号分解元件和第二信号分解元件之间连接至 所述信号输出电路, 并且所述锁控电路根据输入信号的变化按与门极电压固 定的单向晶闸管相同或相似的正向伏安特性输出信号;  The lock control circuit is connected between the first signal decomposition component and the second signal decomposition component to the signal output circuit, and the lock control circuit is unidirectional thyristor fixed to the gate voltage according to the change of the input signal The same or similar forward volt-ampere characteristic output signal;
所述信号输出电路根据其本身的输入和所述锁控电路的输出信号, 或根 据所述控制模块的接地输出的变化, 来输出控制信号。  The signal output circuit outputs a control signal based on its own input and an output signal of the lock control circuit, or based on a change in the ground output of the control module.
2、 根据权利要求 1所述的电路保护与控制系统, 其特征在于, 所述电路 保护与控制系统至少包括含有所述控制模块的过流控制单元 (CUi) 和 /或含 有所述控制模块的电压调节控制单元 (CUv) ;  2. The circuit protection and control system of claim 1 wherein said circuit protection and control system includes at least an overcurrent control unit (CUi) including said control module and/or includes said control module Voltage regulation control unit (CUv);
其中, 所述过流控制单元(CUi) 的控制模块的信号输出电路包括限流电 阻 R3和三极管 T1 ; 所述信号分解电路的第一信号分解元件和第二信号分解 元件分别为串联连接的信号分解电阻 R4和信号分解电阻 R5; 所述锁控电路 包括稳压二极管 D1、触发稳压二极管 Di、 以及晶闸管 Ti; 该过流控制单元的 信号输入端(1 )分别经所述电阻 R3和三极管 T1的集电极和发射极到接地端 (2) , 另经所述信号分解电阻 R4和 R5到接地端 (2) ; 所述锁控电路从所 述信号分解电阻 R4和 R5的中间经所述反偏连接的稳压二极管 D1接所述晶 闸管 Ti的阳极、 所述晶闸管 Ti的阴极接所述三极管 T1的基极, 稳压二极管 Di反偏连接在所述晶闸管 Ti的阳极与门极间; 在所述三极管 T1的集电极引 出信号输出端(4) ; 在所述信号分解电阻 R4和 R5的中间引出控制端(3 ) ; 在所述信号输入端 (1 ) 正常输入时, 所述晶闸管 Ti根据输入信号的变 化保持导通或截止状态; 针对正常工作时晶闸管 Ti保持导通的情况, 当输入 端 (1 ) 输入电压下降至不能维持所述晶闸管 Ti导通时, 所述晶闸管 Ti突然 截止, 此时所述信号输出端 (4) 输出高电位的控制信号; 针对所述信号输入 端 (1 ) 电压正常, 晶闸管 Ti保持截止的情况, 在所述控制端 (3 ) 施加不同 电位信号可以控制所述信号输出端 (4) 的输出;  The signal output circuit of the control module of the overcurrent control unit (CUi) includes a current limiting resistor R3 and a transistor T1; the first signal decomposition component and the second signal decomposition component of the signal decomposition circuit are respectively connected signals Decomposition resistor R4 and signal decomposition resistor R5; the lock control circuit includes a Zener diode D1, a trigger Zener diode Di, and a thyristor Ti; the signal input terminal (1) of the overcurrent control unit passes through the resistor R3 and the triode The collector and emitter of T1 are connected to ground (2), and the signal is decomposed by resistors R4 and R5 to ground (2); said latching circuit is from said intermediate of said signal decomposition resistors R4 and R5 The reverse biased Zener diode D1 is connected to the anode of the thyristor Ti, the cathode of the thyristor Ti is connected to the base of the transistor T1, and the Zener diode Di is reversely connected between the anode and the gate of the thyristor Ti; a collector output signal terminal (4) at the collector of the transistor T1; a control terminal (3) is drawn in the middle of the signal decomposition resistors R4 and R5; at the signal input terminal (1) During normal input, the thyristor Ti maintains an on or off state according to a change of the input signal; for the case where the thyristor Ti remains conductive during normal operation, when the input terminal (1) input voltage drops to fail to maintain the thyristor Ti conducting When the thyristor Ti is suddenly turned off, the signal output terminal (4) outputs a high potential control signal; for the signal input terminal (1) voltage is normal, the thyristor Ti remains off, at the control end (3) applying different potential signals to control the output of the signal output terminal (4);
所述电压调节控制单元 (CUv) 的控制模块的信号输出电路包括限流电 阻 R6、 R7和三极管 T2、 Τ3; 所述信号分解电路的第一信号分解元件和第二 信号分解元件分别为串联连接的信号分解电阻 R8、 R9; 所述锁控电路包括稳 压二极管 D3、 触发稳压二极管 Dv、 以及晶闸管 Tv; 所述电压调节控制电路 的信号输入端 (21 ) 分别经所述电阻 R6和三极管 Τ3的集电极和发射极到接 地端(22),另经所述电阻 R7和三极管 Τ2的集电极和发射极到接地端(22), 另经所述信号分解电阻 R8和 R9到接地端 (22) ; 所述锁控电路从所述信号 分解电阻 R8和 R9的中间经所述反偏连接的稳压二极管 D3接所述晶闸管 Tv 的阳极、所述晶闸管 Tv的阴极接所述三极管 T2的基极, 所述稳压二极管 Dv 反偏连接在所述晶闸管 Tv的阳极与门极间; 所述三极管 T2的集电极接所述 三极管 T3的基极, 并且在所述三极管 T3的集电极引出信号输出端 (24) , 在所述信号分解电阻 R8和 R9的中间引出控制端 (23 ) ; The signal output circuit of the control module of the voltage regulation control unit (CUv) includes current limiting Resisting R6, R7 and triode T2, Τ3; the first signal decomposition component and the second signal decomposing component of the signal decomposition circuit are respectively connected signal decomposing resistors R8, R9; the lock control circuit includes a Zener diode D3, Triggering the Zener diode Dv, and the thyristor Tv; the signal input terminal (21) of the voltage regulation control circuit passes through the resistor R6 and the collector and emitter of the transistor 3 to the ground terminal (22), respectively, and the resistor The collector and emitter of R7 and transistor Τ2 are connected to ground (22), and the signal is decomposed by resistors R8 and R9 to ground (22); said latching circuit is from the middle of said signal decomposition resistors R8 and R9 The Zener diode D3 connected via the reverse bias is connected to the anode of the thyristor Tv, the cathode of the thyristor Tv is connected to the base of the transistor T2, and the Zener diode Dv is reversely connected to the anode of the thyristor Tv Between the gate and the gate; the collector of the transistor T2 is connected to the base of the transistor T3, and the collector output signal terminal (24) of the transistor T3 is drawn in the middle of the signal decomposition resistors R8 and R9. control (twenty three ) ;
在所述信号输入端(21 )正常输入时, 所述晶闸管 Tv保持截止状态, 此 时所述信号输入端(21 )输入电压的变化可通过旁通稳压二极管 Dv控制所述 二极管 T2导通或截止, 进而通过后续元件, 进行电压调节控制; 当所述信号 输入端(21 ) 的输入电压突然增大至触发所述晶闸管 Tv导通时, 所述晶闸管 Tv导通, 二极管 T2导通而二极管 T3截止, 此时所述信号输出端 (24) 输出 高电位控制信号。  When the signal input terminal (21) is normally input, the thyristor Tv is kept in an off state, and the change of the input voltage of the signal input terminal (21) can be controlled by the bypass Zener diode Dv to control the diode T2 to be turned on. Or cut off, and then through the subsequent components, voltage regulation control; when the input voltage of the signal input terminal (21) suddenly increases to trigger the thyristor Tv to conduct, the thyristor Tv is turned on, and the diode T2 is turned on. The diode T3 is turned off, and the signal output terminal (24) outputs a high potential control signal.
3、 根据权利要求 2所述的电路保护与控制系统, 其特征在于, 所述电路 保护与控制系统包括半导体断路 /继电控制单元( SD08 ),所述控制单元( SD08 ) 同时包括所述过流控制单元 (CUi) 和电压调节控制单元 (CUv) 、 以及分别 与所述信号输入端 (1 )和信号输入端(21 ) 正向连接的二极管 D2和 D4; 所 述信号输入端(1 )和信号输入端(21 )相接形成所述控制单元(SD08) 的主 控信号输入端 e;所述二极管 D2和 D4的输出端相接形成所述控制单元 ( SD08 ) 的输出端 c; 所述接地端(2)和接地端(22)相接形成所述控制单元(SD08) 的接地端 h; 所述控制端 (3 ) 形成所述控制单元 (SD08) 的过流控制端 f; 所述控制端 (23 ) 形成所述控制单元 (SD08) 的电压调节端 g。  3. The circuit protection and control system according to claim 2, wherein said circuit protection and control system comprises a semiconductor open/relay control unit (SD08), said control unit (SD08) including said a flow control unit (CUi) and a voltage regulation control unit (CUv), and diodes D2 and D4 respectively connected in forward direction to the signal input terminal (1) and the signal input terminal (21); the signal input terminal (1) And a signal input end (21) is connected to form a main control signal input end e of the control unit (SD08); the output ends of the diodes D2 and D4 are connected to form an output end c of the control unit (SD08); The ground terminal (2) and the ground terminal (22) are connected to form a ground terminal h of the control unit (SD08); the control terminal (3) forms an overcurrent control terminal f of the control unit (SD08); The control terminal (23) forms a voltage regulating terminal g of the control unit (SD08).
4、 根据权利要求 3所述的电路保护与控制系统, 其特征在于, 所述电路 保护与控制系统包括含有所述半导体断路 /继电控制单元(SD08) 的半导体断 路 /继电器 (SBR) , 所述半导体断路 /继电器 (SBR) 还包括连接在所述控制 单元 (SD08 ) 的输出端 c、 并由该输出端 c的信号控制导通或截止的电子开 关, 还包括连接在所述控制单元 (SD08) 的过流控制端 f与接地端 h之间, 保护所述电子开关的过载保护单元; 所述电子开关的两端分别作为电源接入 端 a和负载接入端 b。 4. The circuit protection and control system of claim 3, wherein said circuit protection and control system comprises a semiconductor open circuit/relay (SBR) including said semiconductor open/relay control unit (SD08) The semiconductor circuit breaker/relay (SBR) further includes an electronic switch connected to the output terminal c of the control unit (SD08) and controlled to be turned on or off by a signal of the output terminal c, and further comprising a control unit connected to the control unit ( SD08) between the overcurrent control terminal f and the ground terminal h, An overload protection unit for protecting the electronic switch; two ends of the electronic switch respectively serve as a power access terminal a and a load access terminal b.
5、 根据权利要求 4所述的电路保护与控制系统, 其特征在于, 所述电子 开关为 P沟道 MOS场效应管, 其源极作为电源接入端^ 漏极作为负载接入 端 b, 其栅极接所述控制单元(SD08) 的输出端 、 并与所述接地端 h之间反 偏接入嵌位稳压二极管 D5; 所述过载保护单元为感应所述场效应管温度变化 的热敏二极管组 Ri; 所述控制单元 (SD08 ) 的接地端 h连接有接地开关 S, 用于控制所述半导体断路 /继电器 (SBR) 的导通或截止。  The circuit protection and control system according to claim 4, wherein the electronic switch is a P-channel MOS field effect transistor, and a source thereof serves as a power supply access terminal and a drain as a load access terminal b. The gate is connected to the output end of the control unit (SD08) and reversely biased to the grounding terminal h to be connected to the clamping voltage stabilizing diode D5; the overload protection unit is configured to sense the temperature change of the FET The thermal diode group Ri; the ground terminal h of the control unit (SD08) is connected with a grounding switch S for controlling the on or off of the semiconductor circuit breaker/relay (SBR).
6、 根据权利要求 5所述的电路保护与控制系统, 其特征在于, 所述电路 保护与控制系统包括发电机电压电流调节器(VCAG), 所述电压电流调节器 6. The circuit protection and control system of claim 5 wherein said circuit protection and control system comprises a generator voltage current regulator (VCAG), said voltage current regulator
(VCAG) 包括与所述半导体断路 /继电器 (SBR) 电路结构相同的第一半导 体断路 /继电器 (SBR1 ) 、 第二半导体断路 /继电器 (SBR2) 、 以及第三半导 体断路 /继电器 (SBR3 ) ; (VCAG) includes a first semiconductor open/relay (SBR1), a second semiconductor open/relay (SBR2), and a third semiconductor open/relay (SBR3) having the same structure as the semiconductor open circuit/relay (SBR) circuit;
所述第一半导体断路 /继电器(SBR1 )和第二半导体断路 /继电器(SBR2) 的电源接入端(al、 a2)连接并作为所述电压电流调节器(VCAG) 的电源输 入端 J; 所述第一半导体断路 /继电器 (SBR1 ) 的负载接入端 (bl ) 作为所述 电压电流调节器 (VCAG) 的电源输出端 B, 用于接蓄电池正极和用电设备 Lm; 所述第二半导体断路 /继电器 (SBR2) 的负载接入端 (b2) 作为所述电 压电流调节器 (VCAG) 的电源输出端 A, 用于接用电设备 Le; 所述第三半 导体断路 /继电器 (SBR3 ) 的电源接入端 a经点火开关 IG接所述第二半导体 断路 /继电器(SBR2) 的负载接入端 b, 所述第三半导体断路 /继电器(SBR3 ) 的负载接入端 b经发电机励磁线圈接地; The first semiconductor open circuit/relay (SBR1) and the second semiconductor open/relay (SBR2) power supply terminal (al, a2) are connected and serve as a power input terminal J of the voltage current regulator (VCAG); a load access terminal (bl) of the first semiconductor open circuit/relay (SBR1) as a power supply output terminal B of the voltage current regulator (VCAG) for connecting the battery positive electrode and the power device Lm ; the second semiconductor The load access terminal (b2) of the open circuit/relay (SBR2) serves as the power output terminal A of the voltage current regulator (VCAG) for the power device Le; the third semiconductor circuit breaker/relay (SBR3) The power supply terminal a is connected to the load access terminal b of the second semiconductor circuit breaker/relay (SBR2) via the ignition switch IG, and the load access terminal b of the third semiconductor circuit breaker/relay (SBR3) is excited by the generator coil Grounding
所述第一半导体断路 /继电器(SBR1 ) 的控制单元(SD08-1 ) 的主控信号 输入端 el接所述第一半导体断路 /继电器 (SBR1 ) 的负载接入端; 所述第二 半导体断路 /继电器 (SBR2) 的控制单元 (SD08-2) 的主控信号输入端 e2接 所述第二半导体断路 /继电器 (SBR2) 的电源接入端; 所述第三半导体断路 / 继电器 (SBR3 ) 的控制单元的主控信号输入端 e3 接所述电压电流调节器 a main control signal input terminal el of the control unit (SD08-1) of the first semiconductor circuit breaker/relay (SBR1) is connected to a load access terminal of the first semiconductor circuit breaker/relay (SBR1); the second semiconductor circuit breaker The main control signal input terminal e2 of the control unit (SD08-2) of the relay (SBR2) is connected to the power supply terminal of the second semiconductor open circuit/relay (SBR2); the third semiconductor open circuit/relay (SBR3) The main control signal input terminal e3 of the control unit is connected to the voltage current regulator
(VCAG) 的电源输入端 J; 所述控制单元 (SD08-1 ) 的主控信号输入端 el 和电压调节端 gl之间外接用于感应蓄电池温度的 NTC热敏元件 Rv的对应端 子、 gl和接地端 hi之间接用于调整充电脉冲频率的电容 Cv; 所述控制单元(VCAG) power input terminal J; the control unit (SD08-1) between the main control signal input terminal el and the voltage regulating terminal gl is externally connected to the corresponding terminal of the NTC thermal element Rv for sensing the battery temperature, gl and a grounding terminal hi is connected between the capacitor Cv for adjusting the charging pulse frequency; the control unit
( SD08-1 ) 的接地端 hi与所述第三半导体断路 /继电器 (SBR3 ) 的控制单元 的接地端连接并作为所述电压电流调节器(VCAG)的接地端 h引出、所述控 制单元 (SD08-2) 的过流控制端 G作为所述电压电流调节器 (VCAG) 的过 流控制端 f引出、 控制单元 (SD08-2) 的接地端 h2经接地开关 S2接地; 所述第一半导体断路 /继电器(SBR1 )用于蓄电池循环充电控制、 所述第 二半导体断路 /继电器 (SBR2) 用于保护用电设备 Le及其电路、 所述第三半 导体断路 /继电器(SBR3 )用于调节发电机输出电压并使该输出电压略高于蓄 电池充足电时的电压值; Ground terminal hi of (SD08-1) and control unit of said third semiconductor open circuit/relay (SBR3) The ground terminal is connected and taken out as the ground terminal h of the voltage current regulator (VCAG), and the overcurrent control terminal G of the control unit (SD08-2) is used as an overcurrent control of the voltage current regulator (VCAG) The ground terminal h2 of the control unit (SD08-2) is grounded via the grounding switch S2; the first semiconductor circuit breaker/relay (SBR1) is used for battery cycle charging control, the second semiconductor circuit breaker/relay (SBR2) For protecting the electrical equipment Le and its circuit, the third semiconductor circuit breaker/relay (SBR3) is used for adjusting the generator output voltage and making the output voltage slightly higher than the voltage value when the battery is fully charged;
正常工作期间, 当蓄电池充足电后会使所述第一半导体断路 /继电器 ( SBR1 )截止, 连接在蓄电池正极的电气设备(Lm)使蓄电池电压迅速下降 到接近其开路电压, 此时所述第一半导体断路 /继电器(SBR1 )又导通, 开始 循环充电。  During normal operation, when the battery is fully charged, the first semiconductor circuit breaker/relay (SBR1) is turned off, and the electrical device (Lm) connected to the battery positive electrode rapidly drops the battery voltage to near its open circuit voltage. A semiconductor open circuit/relay (SBR1) is turned on again, starting to cycle charge.
7、 权利要求 6所述的电路保护与控制系统, 其特征在于, 所述电路保护 与控制系统包括断电延时起动继电装置 (SSR) , 所述起动继电装置 (SSR) 包括与所述半导体断路 /继电器 (SBR) 电路结构相同的第四半导体断路 /继电 器 (SBR4) 和与所述控制单元 (SD08 ) 电路结构相同的半导体断路 /继电控 制单元 (SD08-5 ) 、 快充慢放控制器 (CR) 、 N沟道 MOS场效应管 M5n, 以及根据需要设置的多个二极管 Dl、 D2 和 D3;  7. The circuit protection and control system of claim 6 wherein said circuit protection and control system comprises a power down delay start relay (SSR), said start relay (SSR) comprising A semiconductor open circuit/relay (SBR) circuit having the same circuit structure and a semiconductor open circuit/relay control unit (SD08-5) having the same circuit structure as the control unit (SD08), fast charging slow a discharge controller (CR), an N-channel MOS FET M5n, and a plurality of diodes D1, D2 and D3 arranged as needed;
所述半导体断路 /继电器 (SBR4) 用作起动继电器, 其电源接入端 A4接 蓄电池正极、 负载接入端 B4接起动机电磁离合器线圈, 所述半导体断路 /继 电器 (SBR4) 的接地端 h4接地或通往汽车防盗止动系统; 所述二极管 Dl、 D2、 D3 的阳极接所述半导体断路 /继电器 (SBR4) 的负载接入端 B4上, 各 二极管的阴极作为所述起动继电装置 (SSR) 的驱动端 fl、 f2、 β, 分别接起 动时不可断电线路的各个半导体断路 /继电器的过流控制端, 并使其在起动发 动机时保持导通;  The semiconductor open circuit/relay (SBR4) is used as a starter relay, and the power supply access terminal A4 is connected to the battery positive pole, the load access terminal B4 is connected to the starter electromagnetic clutch coil, and the grounding terminal h4 of the semiconductor open circuit/relay (SBR4) is grounded. Or to the vehicle anti-theft stop system; the anodes of the diodes D1, D2, D3 are connected to the load access terminal B4 of the semiconductor circuit breaker/relay (SBR4), and the cathode of each diode is used as the starting relay device (SSR) The drive terminals fl, f2, and β are respectively connected to the overcurrent control terminals of the respective semiconductor disconnectors/relays of the uninterruptible line at the time of starting, and are kept turned on when starting the engine;
所述起动继电装置 (SSR) 的电源接入端 Α4和负载接入端 Β4与其包含 的所述第四半导体断路 /继电器(SBR4) 的电源和负载接入端相同; 所述第四 半导体断路 /继电器 (SBR4) 的主控信号输入端 e4, 作为所述起动继电装置 ( SSR) 的控制信号输入端, 接点火开关 (IG) 的起动端 st; SBR4控制单元 的接地端 h4直接接地;  The power supply terminal Α4 and the load access terminal Β4 of the starting relay device (SSR) are identical to the power and load access terminals of the fourth semiconductor circuit breaker/relay (SBR4) included therein; the fourth semiconductor circuit breaker The main control signal input terminal e4 of the relay (SBR4) is used as the control signal input end of the starting relay device (SSR), and is connected to the starting end st of the ignition switch (IG); the ground terminal h4 of the SBR4 control unit is directly grounded;
所述控制单元(SD08-5 )用于控制场效应管 M5n, 并通过 M5n向起动期 间可断电线路的半导体断路 /继电器提供统一接地端 H; 所述接地端 H作为所 述起动继电装置 (SSR) 的接地控制端, H端经场效应管 M5n的源极和漏极 到接地开关 S; 所述控制单元(SD08-5 )的主控信号输入端 e5作为其电源端, 接起动继电装置 (SSR) 的电源接入端 A4; 控制单元 (SD08-5 ) 的过流控制 端 f5, 作为断电延时控制信号端, 接所述控制器(CR) 的输出端; 控制单元 ( SD08-5 ) 的接地端 h5经接地开关 S5接地; 所述控制器 (CR) 包括并联的 电容和电阻, 并从点火开关 (IG) 的起动端(st) 引入电源信号; 通过选配所 述控制单元 (SD08-5 ) 内部和外围元件, 在起动发动机前及延时起动后使所 述控制单元(SD08-5 ) 内的晶闸管 Ti和 Tv均处于截止状态; 起动发动机前, 所述控制单元 (SD08-5 ) 内的三极管 Τ3和 T1均截止、 场效应管 Μ5η导通; 起动发动机时通过在过流控制端 f5施加的控制信号使旁通稳压二极管 Di导 通, 并使三极管 T1导通、 M5n截止; 起动后过流控制端 f5控制信号延时解 除, 三极管 T1延时截止, M5n延时导通, 进而延时接通相关半导体断路 /继 电器的接地线路, 并使其延时导通。 The control unit (SD08-5) is used to control the FET M5n, and provides a unified ground terminal H through the M5n to the semiconductor circuit breaker/relay of the power-off line during startup; the ground terminal H serves as a The grounding control terminal of the starting relay device (SSR), the H terminal passes through the source and the drain of the FET M5n to the grounding switch S; the main control signal input terminal e5 of the control unit (SD08-5) serves as its power source End, connected to the power supply terminal A4 of the starting relay device (SSR); the overcurrent control terminal f5 of the control unit (SD08-5) acts as the power-off delay control signal terminal, and is connected to the output of the controller (CR) The ground terminal h5 of the control unit (SD08-5) is grounded via the grounding switch S5; the controller (CR) includes a parallel capacitor and a resistor, and a power signal is introduced from the starting end (st) of the ignition switch (IG); By selecting the internal and peripheral components of the control unit (SD08-5), the thyristors Ti and Tv in the control unit (SD08-5) are both turned off before starting the engine and after the delay start; before starting the engine The triodes Τ3 and T1 in the control unit (SD08-5) are both turned off, and the FET 5n is turned on; when the engine is started, the bypass Zener diode Di is turned on by a control signal applied at the overcurrent control terminal f5. And turn on transistor T1 and cut off M5n; start Overcurrent control terminal of the control signal delay release f5, the transistor T1 is turned off delay, delay M5N turned ON and thus the delay associated ground line of the semiconductor breaker / relay, is turned on and allowed delay.
8、 根据权利要求 7所述的电路保护与控制系统, 其特征在于, 包括所述 电压电流调节器(VCAG)、半导体控制接线盒(JBSC)和副接线盒(Sub-JBSC), 以及后备保险装置 (Fsl和 Fs2) ;  8. The circuit protection and control system according to claim 7, comprising said voltage current regulator (VCAG), semiconductor control junction box (JBSC) and sub-junction box (Sub-JBSC), and backup insurance Device (Fsl and Fs2);
所述半导体控制接线盒 (JBSC) 包括多个安置在各条线路上的所述半导 体断路 /继电器 (SBR) , 和所述半导体断电延时起动继电装置 (SSR) , 以 及输入输出接口装置; 所述副接线盒 (Sub-JBSC) 内包括多个所述半导体断 路 /继电器 (SBR) 和部分分支线路保险丝;  The semiconductor control junction box (JBSC) includes a plurality of the semiconductor open circuit/relay (SBR) disposed on each line, and the semiconductor power-off delay start relay device (SSR), and an input/output interface device The sub-junction box (Sub-JBSC) includes a plurality of the semiconductor open circuit/relay (SBR) and a partial branch line fuse;
所述接线盒(JBSC) 的电源输入端有 C和 D两个入口; D端经后备保险 装置 (Fsl ) 接蓄电池正极, 其对应的输出端连接对电压变化不敏感且有助于 实现蓄电池循环充电控制的电器设备; C 端接所述的汽车发电机电压电流调 节器(VCAG) 的电源输出端 A, 其对应的输出端连接其它电器设备; 所述接 线盒 (JBSC) 的电源输出端接各用电设备和各控制开关;  The junction box (JBSC) has two inlets C and D; the D terminal is connected to the positive battery via the backup fuse (Fsl), and the corresponding output connection is insensitive to voltage changes and helps to achieve battery cycling. Charging control electrical equipment; C terminating the power output terminal A of the automobile generator voltage current regulator (VCAG), the corresponding output end is connected to other electrical equipment; the power output terminal of the junction box (JBSC) Each electrical device and each control switch;
所述接线盒 (JBSC) 内部设有多个所述半导体断路 /继电器 (SBR) , 部 分所述半导体断路 /继电器 (SBR) 用作继电器使用; 另一部分所述半导体断 路 /继电器 (SBR) 用做断路器使用, 且在其电源接入端和负载接入端之间可 加装带电阻的 LED警示灯, 其所在线路下游分支线路可根据需要设置小电流 保险丝;  The junction box (JBSC) is internally provided with a plurality of said semiconductor open circuit/relay (SBR), part of said semiconductor open circuit/relay (SBR) is used as a relay; and another part of said semiconductor open circuit/relay (SBR) is used The circuit breaker is used, and an LED warning light with a resistor can be installed between the power input end and the load access end, and the branch line downstream of the line can be set with a small current fuse as needed;
所述起动继电装置(SSR) 的电源输入端 A接通往副接线盒(Sub-JBSC) 的一条电源线上,所述起动继电装置(SSR)的控制信号输入端接点火开关 (IG) 的起动端 (st) ; 所述起动继电装置 (SSR) 的驱动端分别接起动时不可断电 线路的半导体断路 /继电器的过流控制端, 包括所述调节器 (VCAG) 的过流 控制引出端 f; 所述起动继电装置(SSR)的接地控制端 H接起动期间可断电 线路的半导体断路 /继电器的接地端, 包括所述调节器 (VCAG) 的接地引出 所述调节器 (VCAG) 的电源输入端 J后备保险装置 (Fs2) 接发电机电 源输出端、 电源输出端 A接所述接线盒 (JBSC) 的电源输入端 C、 电源输出 端 B接所述接线盒 (JBSC) 的电源输入端 D并同时经后备保险装置 (Fsl ) 接蓄电池正极。 The power input terminal A of the starting relay device (SSR) is connected to the sub-junction box (Sub-JBSC) On one power line, the control signal input terminal of the starting relay device (SSR) is connected to the starting end (st) of the ignition switch (IG); the driving end of the starting relay device (SSR) is not connected to the starting end respectively. The overcurrent control terminal of the semiconductor circuit breaker/relay of the power-off line includes an overcurrent control terminal f of the regulator (VCAG); the grounding terminal H of the starting relay device (SSR) can be powered off during the start-up period The grounding terminal of the semiconductor circuit/relay of the line, including the grounding of the regulator (VCAG), the power input terminal of the regulator (VCAG), the backup safety device (Fs2), the generator power output, and the power output A. Connect the power input terminal C and the power output terminal B of the junction box (JBSC) to the power input terminal D of the junction box (JBSC) and connect the battery positive terminal via the backup fuse (Fsl).
9、 根据权利要求 8所述的电路保护与控制系统, 其特征在于, 在所述接 线盒 (JBSC ) 或副接线盒 (Sub-JBSC ) 内还设有两路输出半导体继电装置 9. The circuit protection and control system according to claim 8, wherein two output semiconductor relay devices are further disposed in the junction box (JBSC) or the sub-junction box (Sub-JBSC).
( SRII ) ; ( SRII ) ;
所述两路输出半导体继电装置 (SRII )包括两个与所述半导体断路 /继电 器 (SBR) 具有相同电路结构的半导体断路 /继电器 (SBR6) 和 (SBR7 ) 和 一通一断双位接地开关 S7;  The two-output semiconductor relay device (SRII) includes two semiconductor open circuits/relays (SBR6) and (SBR7) and one-to-one-off double-position grounding switch S7 having the same circuit structure as the semiconductor open circuit/relay (SBR). ;
所述继电装置 (SRII ) 的电源输入端 A6分别经所述半导体断电 /继电器 ( SBR6) 和 (SBR7) 到负载 L1和 L2; 所述半导体断电 /继电器 (SBR6) 和 ( SBR7)控制单元的主控信号输入端接所述继电装置(SRII ) 的电源输入端 A6、 其接地端均通过所述双位接地开关 S7接地; 开关 S7接通地线的半导体 断电 /继电器, 其负载线路通电, 另一线路同时断电。  The power input terminal A6 of the relay device (SRII) passes through the semiconductor power-off/relay (SBR6) and (SBR7) to the loads L1 and L2, respectively; the semiconductor power-off/relay (SBR6) and (SBR7) control The main control signal input terminal of the unit is connected to the power input terminal A6 of the relay device (SRII), and the ground terminal thereof is grounded through the double-position grounding switch S7; the switch S7 is connected to the grounding semiconductor power-off/relay, The load line is energized and the other line is powered off at the same time.
10、 根据权利要求 9所述的电路保护与控制系统, 其特征在于, 在所述 接线盒 (JBSC ) 或副接线盒 (Sub-JBSC ) 内还设有半导体控制电磁断路器 10. The circuit protection and control system according to claim 9, wherein a semiconductor control electromagnetic circuit breaker is further disposed in the junction box (JBSC) or the sub-junction box (Sub-JBSC).
( SEB) ; ( SEB ) ;
所述半导体控制电磁断路器 (SEB) 包括与所述半导体断电 /继电控制单 元(SD08)具有相同电路结构的半导体断电 /继电控制单元(SD08-8) 、 常闭 触点电磁断电装置 (Br) 、 发光二极管 (LED) 、 N 沟道 MOS 场效应管或 NPN三极管 (M8n) 、 NTC热敏元件 Ri8及其它外围阻容元件;  The semiconductor control electromagnetic circuit breaker (SEB) includes a semiconductor power-off/relay control unit (SD08-8) having the same circuit structure as the semiconductor power-off/relay control unit (SD08), and a normally-closed contact electromagnetic break Electrical device (Br), light-emitting diode (LED), N-channel MOS field effect transistor or NPN transistor (M8n), NTC thermal element Ri8 and other peripheral RC components;
电源经所述电磁断路器 (SEB) 的电源输入端 A8和断电装置 Br的触点 到 SEB的电源输出端 B8, 并通往用电设备; 电源输入端 A8接所述控制单元 ( SD08-8) 的主控信号输入端 e8, 另经所述断电装置 (Br) 的电磁线圈和所 述发光二极管(LED)及所述场效应管(M8n) 的源极和漏极接所述控制单元 ( SD08-8) 的接地端 h8, 又经接地开关 S8接地; The power supply passes through the power input terminal A8 of the electromagnetic circuit breaker (SEB) and the contact of the power-off device Br to the power output terminal B8 of the SEB, and leads to the power-consuming device; the power input terminal A8 is connected to the control unit (SD08- 8) the main control signal input terminal e8, and the electromagnetic coil and the device of the power-off device (Br) The light source diode (LED) and the source and drain of the field effect transistor (M8n) are connected to the ground terminal h8 of the control unit (SD08-8), and are grounded via the grounding switch S8;
所述控制单元 (SD08-8) 的信号输出端 c8接所述场效应管 (M8n) 的栅 极; 所述 NTC热敏元件 (Ri8 ) 黏结于断电装置 (Br) 电源侧有一定接触电 阻的触点背面金属片上, 其接线端分别接控制单元 (SD08-8 ) 的过流控制端 f8和接地端 h8。  The signal output terminal c8 of the control unit (SD08-8) is connected to the gate of the FET (M8n); the NTC thermal element (Ri8) is bonded to the power-off device (Br), and the power supply side has a certain contact resistance. On the metal piece on the back side of the contact, the terminals are respectively connected to the overcurrent control terminal f8 and the ground terminal h8 of the control unit (SD08-8).
11、 根据权利要求 9所述的电路保护与控制系统, 其特征在于, 在所述 接线盒 (JBSC ) 或副接线盒 (Sub-JBSC ) 内还设有半导体控制电磁继电器 11. The circuit protection and control system according to claim 9, wherein a semiconductor control electromagnetic relay is further disposed in the junction box (JBSC) or the sub-junction box (Sub-JBSC)
( SER) ; ( SER) ;
所述半导体控制电磁继电器 (SER) 包括与所述半导体断电 /继电控制单 元(SD08)具有相同电路结构的半导体断电 /继电控制单元(SD08-9) 、 常开 触点电磁断电装置(Rl) 、 P沟道 MOS场效应管或 PNP三极管(M9p) 、 NTC 热敏元件 Ri9及其它外围阻容元件;  The semiconductor control electromagnetic relay (SER) includes a semiconductor power-off/relay control unit (SD08-9) having the same circuit structure as the semiconductor power-off/relay control unit (SD08), and a normally open contact electromagnetic power-off Device (Rl), P-channel MOS FET or PNP transistor (M9p), NTC thermal element Ri9 and other peripheral RC components;
电源经所述电磁继电器(SER) 的电源输入端 A9和继电装置(R1) 的触 点到 SER的电源输出端 B9, 并通往用电设备; 电源输入端 A9接所述控制单 元 (SD08-9) 的主控信号输入端 e9, 另经所述场效应管 (M9p) 的源极和漏 极接继电装置(R1)电磁线圈一端, 电磁线圈另一端接所述控制单元(SD08-8) 的接地端 h8, 又经接地开关 S9接地;  The power supply passes through the power input terminal A9 of the electromagnetic relay (SER) and the contact of the relay device (R1) to the power output terminal B9 of the SER, and leads to the power device; the power input terminal A9 is connected to the control unit (SD08) -9) The main control signal input terminal e9, and the source and drain of the FET (M9p) are connected to one end of the relay device (R1) electromagnetic coil, and the other end of the electromagnetic coil is connected to the control unit (SD08- 8) The grounding terminal h8 is grounded via the grounding switch S9;
所述控制单元 (SD08-9) 的信号输出端 c9接所述场效应管 (M9p) 的栅 极; 所述 NTC热敏元件(Ri9)黏结于继电装置(R1) 电源侧有一定接触电阻 的触点背面金属片上, 其接线端分别接控制单元 (SD08-9) 的过流控制端 f9 和接地端 h9。  The signal output terminal c9 of the control unit (SD08-9) is connected to the gate of the FET (M9p); the NTC thermal element (Ri9) is bonded to the power supply side of the relay device (R1) with a certain contact resistance. On the metal piece on the back side of the contact, the terminals are connected to the overcurrent control terminal f9 and the ground terminal h9 of the control unit (SD08-9).
12、一种采用如权利要求 1所述的电路保护与控制系统的保护控制方法, 其特征在于, 包括以下歩骤:  12. A method of protection control using the circuit protection and control system of claim 1 and including the following steps:
S1 : 在供电源与负载之间设置所述电路保护与控制系统, 并且所述供电 源的输出端连接到所述电路保护与控制系统的信号输出电路和信号分解电路 的输入端;  S1: setting the circuit protection and control system between a power supply and a load, and an output end of the power supply source is connected to an input end of a signal output circuit and a signal decomposition circuit of the circuit protection and control system;
S2: 通过设定所述信号输出电路和信号分解电路, 来选择所述锁控电路 的工作区间;  S2: selecting a working interval of the lock control circuit by setting the signal output circuit and the signal decomposition circuit;
S3: 根据所述供电源输出或所述负载的变化, 触发所述锁控电路改变其 工作状态并输出相应信号, 进而由所述信号输出电路根据其本身的输入和所 述锁控电路的输出信号, 或根据所述控制模块的接地输出的变化, 来输出控 制信号。 S3: triggering, according to the power supply output or the change of the load, the lock control circuit to change its working state and output a corresponding signal, and then the signal output circuit according to its own input and The output signal of the lock control circuit or the control signal is output according to the change of the ground output of the control module.
13、根据权利要求 12所述的方法,其特征在于,所述方法还包括歩骤 S4: 在所述供电源和负载之间设置电子开关, 根据来自所述信号输出电路的控制 信号来控制所述电子开关的导通或截止, 进而控制所述供电源和负载之间的 导通或截止。  The method according to claim 12, further comprising the step S4: providing an electronic switch between the power supply and the load, and controlling the control according to a control signal from the signal output circuit Turning on or off the electronic switch, thereby controlling the conduction or the cutoff between the power supply and the load.
14、 根据权利要求 13所述的方法, 其特征在于, 所述负载为蓄电池, 所 述供电源为直流充电源, 所述电路保护与控制系统包括半导体断路 /继电控制 单元 (SD08-1 ) , 所述电子开关为 P沟道 MOS场效应管 (Ml ) ;  14. The method according to claim 13, wherein the load is a battery, the power supply is a DC charging source, and the circuit protection and control system comprises a semiconductor open/relay control unit (SD08-1). The electronic switch is a P-channel MOS field effect transistor (M1);
该方法还包括蓄电池循环充电歩骤 S5:设定蓄电池充足电时的电压值 Vh 和开路静置对应的电压值 Vs;  The method further includes a battery cycle charging step S5: setting a voltage value Vh when the battery is fully charged and a voltage value Vs corresponding to the open circuit standing;
在所述歩骤 S3 中, 供电电源输出端通过所述场效应管 (Ml ) 的源极和 漏极连接至蓄电池的正极端, 并同时接所述控制单元 (SD08-1 ) 的主控信号 输入端; 当蓄电池的端电压被充电至接近所述足电电压值 Vh时, 所述控制单 元 (SD08-1 ) 输出高电位控制信号, 控制所述场效应管 (Ml ) 截止, 断开所 述充电源对所述蓄电池的充电, 同时通过直接加在蓄电池正极的用电设备使 所述蓄电池快速放电, 当所述蓄电池的端电压下降到接近开路电压 Vs时, 所 述控制单元(SD08-1 )输出低电位控制信号, 控制所述场效应管(Ml )导通, 接通所述充电源, 对所述蓄电池进行循环充电。  In the step S3, the power supply output terminal is connected to the positive terminal of the battery through the source and the drain of the FET (M1), and is simultaneously connected to the main control signal of the control unit (SD08-1). Input terminal; when the terminal voltage of the battery is charged to be close to the foot voltage value Vh, the control unit (SD08-1) outputs a high potential control signal to control the FET (M1) to be turned off, The charging source charges the battery while the battery is quickly discharged by the electric device directly applied to the positive electrode of the battery. When the terminal voltage of the battery drops to near the open circuit voltage Vs, the control unit (SD08- 1) outputting a low potential control signal, controlling the FET (M1) to be turned on, turning on the charging source, and cyclically charging the battery.
15、 根据权利要求 14所述的方法, 其特征在于, 所述蓄电池为汽车蓄电 池, 所述充电源为汽车发电机;  The method according to claim 14, wherein the battery is a car battery, and the charging source is an automobile generator;
该方法还包括蓄电池延时充电控制歩骤 S6: 将所述分别用于蓄电池循环 充电控制和 /或发电机电压调节的半导体断路 /继电器(SBR1和 SBR3 )的控制 单元的接地端通过 N沟道 MOS场效应管(M5n)的源极和漏极接地; 所述场 效应管(M5n)由另一半导体断路 /继电控制单元 ( SD08-5 )控制导通和截止; 当接通点火开关 IG起动端时, 所述汽车蓄电池为所述控制单元 ( SD08-5 ) 的过流控制端提供驱动电压, 使所述控制单元 (SD08-5 ) 输出低电位, 所述 场效应管 (M5n) 截止, 进而切断所述蓄电池充电电路和 /或所述汽车发电机 励磁线圈供电电路; 另外, 在接通点火开关 IG起动端时, 所述蓄电池为延时 控制器 (CR) 充电, 当发动机起动后, 由所述延时控制器为所述控制单元 ( SD08-5 ) 过流控制端提供延时导通电压, 保持所述场效应管 (M5n) 截止; 当所述延时控制器完成延时控制动作, 所述控制单元 (SD08-5 ) 因过流控制 端电压下降而输出高电位, 使得所述场效应管(M5n)导通接地, 进而使得所 述汽车发电机开始发电, 并通过所述半导体断路 /继电器(SBR1 )对所述蓄电 池按循环充电方式进行充电。 The method further includes a battery delay charging control step S6: passing the ground terminal of the control unit of the semiconductor circuit breaker/relay (SBR1 and SBR3) for battery cycle charge control and/or generator voltage regulation respectively through the N-channel The source and drain of the MOS FET (M5n) are grounded; the FET (M5n) is controlled to be turned on and off by another semiconductor open/surpass control unit (SD08-5); At the starting end, the vehicle battery provides a driving voltage for the overcurrent control terminal of the control unit (SD08-5), so that the control unit (SD08-5) outputs a low potential, and the FET (M5n) is cut off. And cutting off the battery charging circuit and/or the vehicle generator excitation coil power supply circuit; in addition, when the ignition switch IG starting end is turned on, the battery is charged by the delay controller (CR), when the engine is started Providing, by the delay controller, a delay turn-on voltage for the overcurrent control terminal of the control unit (SD08-5) to keep the FET (M5n) off; When the delay controller completes the delay control action, the control unit (SD08-5) outputs a high potential due to the voltage drop of the overcurrent control terminal, so that the FET (M5n) is grounded, thereby enabling the The vehicle generator begins to generate electricity, and the battery is charged in a cyclic charging mode by the semiconductor circuit breaker/relay (SBR1).
PCT/CN2008/070584 2007-03-30 2008-03-25 Circuit protection and control system, and protection and control method applying the system WO2008119293A1 (en)

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