WO2008102390A1 - Method and apparatus for temperature control of dental materials, particularly materials for dental impressions - Google Patents

Method and apparatus for temperature control of dental materials, particularly materials for dental impressions Download PDF

Info

Publication number
WO2008102390A1
WO2008102390A1 PCT/IT2007/000125 IT2007000125W WO2008102390A1 WO 2008102390 A1 WO2008102390 A1 WO 2008102390A1 IT 2007000125 W IT2007000125 W IT 2007000125W WO 2008102390 A1 WO2008102390 A1 WO 2008102390A1
Authority
WO
WIPO (PCT)
Prior art keywords
thermoregulation
environment
apparatus
dental
temperature
Prior art date
Application number
PCT/IT2007/000125
Other languages
French (fr)
Inventor
Tiziano Busin
Original Assignee
Zhermack S.P.A.
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by Zhermack S.P.A. filed Critical Zhermack S.P.A.
Priority to PCT/IT2007/000125 priority Critical patent/WO2008102390A1/en
Publication of WO2008102390A1 publication Critical patent/WO2008102390A1/en

Links

Classifications

    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25BREFRIGERATION MACHINES, PLANTS OR SYSTEMS; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT-PUMP SYSTEMS
    • F25B21/00Machines, plant, or systems, using electric or magnetic effects
    • F25B21/02Machines, plant, or systems, using electric or magnetic effects using Peltier effect; using Nernst-Ettinghausen effect
    • F25B21/04Machines, plant, or systems, using electric or magnetic effects using Peltier effect; using Nernst-Ettinghausen effect reversible
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61CDENTISTRY; APPARATUS OR METHODS FOR ORAL OR DENTAL HYGIENE
    • A61C2202/00Packaging for dental appliances
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25DREFRIGERATORS; COLD ROOMS; ICE-BOXES; COOLING OR FREEZING APPARATUS NOT COVERED BY ANY OTHER SUBCLASS
    • F25D17/00Arrangements for circulating cooling fluids; Arrangements for circulating gas, e.g. air, within refrigerated spaces
    • F25D17/04Arrangements for circulating cooling fluids; Arrangements for circulating gas, e.g. air, within refrigerated spaces for circulating air, e.g. by convection
    • F25D17/06Arrangements for circulating cooling fluids; Arrangements for circulating gas, e.g. air, within refrigerated spaces for circulating air, e.g. by convection by forced circulation
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25DREFRIGERATORS; COLD ROOMS; ICE-BOXES; COOLING OR FREEZING APPARATUS NOT COVERED BY ANY OTHER SUBCLASS
    • F25D2331/00Details or arrangements of other cooling or freezing apparatus not provided for in other groups of this subclass
    • F25D2331/80Type of cooled receptacles
    • F25D2331/804Boxes

Abstract

The present invention relates to a method and an apparatus (1) for temperature control of dental materials, particularly materials for dental impressions, in which provision is made for a step of heating or cooling a compartment inside which the materials that are brought to the desired use temperature are placed.

Description

METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR TEMPERATURE CONTROL OF DENTAL MATERIALS, PARTICULARLY MATERIALS FOR DENTAL IMPRESSIONS

D e s c r i p t i o n

The present invention relates to a method of controlling the temperature of dental materials, in particular materials for dental impressions.

The invention also relates to an apparatus for temperature control of dental materials capable of carrying into effect the above mentioned method.

The present invention applies to the dental-treatment and dental-technology sector, and in particular it is suitable for use in preparing materials designed to make imprint moulds or dental impressions, such as the thermochromic silicone two-component compositions, to be mixed together immediately before use.

It is known that dental impressions are usually taken by application of said two-component compositions into the patients' buccal cavity where they set, i.e. become hard, until taking a shape matching that of the corresponding dental arches.

Usually the setting process starts, by addition cross- linking or condensation, immediately after mixing of the two components, i.e. base and catalyst, constituting the material used.

The reaction rate and consequently the setting rate of the compositions greatly varies in connection with the temperature of the latter before mixing. In particular, it is known that even relatively moderate temperature variations greatly affect the setting rates (15°C more or 15°C less give rise to a reduction or an acceleration of 100%) , the working and setting times of the mixture.

In order to control the reaction rate during the working time and setting time of the two-component compositions to be prepared, although in an approximate and imprecise manner, the usual procedure involves heating or cooling of said compositions by disposing them either in hot or room temperature environments or in cold environments such as the refrigerators. Obviously, cooling or heating of the above mentioned compositions cause an unforeseeable slowing down or acceleration of the setting reaction because they strictly depend on imprecise adjustments that in turn are likely to suffer from unforeseeable variations.

The Applicant has found that, although dental impressions and moulds can be obtained through use of the present techniques, these techniques can be improved under different points of view, mainly in relation to control of the application rate or the work and setting rate of the materials used, as well as to regulation of the composition temperatures before preparation of said compositions.

In particular, the impossibility or difficulty in cooling or heating the required compositions in a precise manner for preparation of the material for dental impressions, as well as the difficulty in maintaining said temperatures constant (due to seasonal climatic or geographic conditions) , give rise, in terms of setting reaction, to unexpected setting rates that _ 2 —

are sometimes hardly foreseeable. Consequently, during these operations a continuous control of the setting state of the material inside the patients' buccal cavity is required in order to perceive achievement of the desired solid state.

Under this situation, the technical task underlying the present invention is to propose a method and an apparatus for the ideal and susceptible-of- personalisation temperature regulation of dental materials, in particular materials for dental impressions, capable of substantially eliminating the drawbacks of the known art.

Within the scope of this technical task, it is an important aim of the invention to propose a method and a device enabling selective heating or cooling of one or more dental materials necessary for taking dental impressions in relation to the desired reference temperature.

It is a further technical aim of the invention to ensure constant maintenance of the temperature imparted to the dental material during the thermoregulation step.

The technical task mentioned and the aims specified are substantially achieved by a method and an apparatus for temperature control of dental materials, particularly materials for dental impressions, as described and set out in one or more of the appended claims.

Description of a preferred but not exclusive embodiment of a method and an apparatus for temperature control of dental materials, particularly materials for dental impressions in accordance with the invention is given hereinafter by way of non-limiting example and illustrated in the accompanying drawings, in which:

- Fig. 1 is a perspective view of an apparatus for temperature control of dental materials, particularly materials for dental impressions, in accordance with the present invention;

- Fig. 2 is a diagrammatic view in section of the apparatus seen in the preceding figure; - Fig. 3 is an elevation view of the apparatus shown in the preceding figures.

With reference to the drawings, an apparatus for temperature control of dental materials, particularly materials for dental impressions in accordance with the invention has been generally identified with reference numeral 1.

As viewed from the accompanying figures, apparatus 1 on the whole comprises a structure 2 preferably having a box-shaped conformation made of plastic or similar material at least externally.

Just as a mere indication, structure 2 shall have a height of about 290 mm, a depth of about 260 mm and a width of about 265 mm so that it is of reduced bulkiness and can be easily carried.

In particular, structure 2 comprises a base portion 2a having at least one cavity 3 (Fig. 3) open at the top and a cover 2b having at least one corresponding seat 4 too (Fig. 3) . Cover 2b is hinged on the base portion 2a and is movable between a closed position at which it abuts against the base portion 2a (Figs. 1 and 3) to close the cavity 3 of the base portion 2a and prevent access thereto, and an open position (not shown) at which cover 2b is lifted and cavity 3 of the base portion 2a is accessible from the outside to enable introduction of at least one dental material for taking dental impressions.

Structure 2 internally defines, through cavity 3 of the base portion 2a and seat 4 of cover 2b, a thermoregulation environment 5 designed to house at least one container 6, 7, 8 or similar casing provided with the dental material, such as chromatic silicone two-component compositions or similar setting materials .

Advantageously, both the base portion 2a and cover 2b have walls provided with one layer of thermally insulating material 9 (Fig. 2) , such as foamed polyurethane or similar material for heat insulation, capable of insulating the thermoregulation environment 5 from the surrounding atmosphere when cover 2b is in its closed position. In other words, still with reference to Fig. 2, the thermally insulating material 9 is interposed between the thermoregulation environment 5 and an outer cap 10 defining the box- shaped conformation of structure 2.

By way of example only, cavity 3 will be able to simultaneously house two 50-ml cartridges 8 with related tip and two 380-ml cartridges 6, 7 with related tip.

As shown in Fig. 2, apparatus 1 comprises thermoregulation means 11 operatively associated with the base portion 2a of structure 2 for temperature regulation of the dental material placed inside the - Q -

thermoregulation environment 5.

Advantageously, the thermoregulation means 11 comprises at least one Peltier cell 12 that can be electrically connected by means of one or more conductors (not shown as known) to a power supply. The Peltier cell 12 (and generally a pack consisting of a plurality of said cells) can be activated between a first condition at which it heats the dental material present inside the thermoregulation environment 5, and a second condition at which it cools this dental material, so that the same device can selectively allow heating or cooling of the internal environment 5.

In particular, activation of the Peltier cell 12 between the first and second conditions is obtained by passage of a direct-current flow through one or more conductive elements (not shown in the figures) of the Peltier cell itself, in a predetermined sense or direction. Depending on the flow direction, at least one surface of the Peltier cell 12 is heated (first condition) and the opposed surface is cooled (second condition) . In this manner, the Peltier cell 12 heats or cools the thermoregulation environment 5 depending on the sense of passage of the current bringing said environment from a starting temperature corresponding to the room temperature, to a predetermined reference temperature, higher or lower than the starting temperature. Advantageously the reference temperature is determined in relation to the desired setting rate for the dental material during application of same into the buccal cavity of a patient.

In order to uniformly ensure the same temperature in all parts of the thermoregulation environment 5, apparatus 1 is provided with at least one ventilation device 13 operatively associated with a surface of the Peltier cell 12 facing environment 5, to cause circulation of a fluid (air) present inside the thermoregulation environment 5. In this case air heating or cooling takes place by means of the Peltier cell 12 by conduction in' such a manner that the thermoregulation environment 5 is in turn heated or cooled.

As shown in Fig. 2, the ventilation device 13 comprises at least one fan 13a positioned close to the Peltier cell 12. Fan 13a is drivable in rotation to determine circulation of air within the thermoregulation environment 5. In this manner the heated or cooled air travels within environment 5 thus surrounding and at least partly, but preferably fully, impinging on containers 6, 1 , 8 provided with the respective dental materials .

As shown in Fig. 2, apparatus 1 is further provided with a heat dispersion device 14 operatively associated with the Peltier cell 12 on the opposite side from the ventilation device 13.

In particular, the heat dispersion device 14 comprises at least one dispersion fan 15 disposed close to the Peltier cell 12 on the opposite side from fan 13a of the ventilation device 13.

As shown in Fig. 2, the dispersion fan 15 is operatively disposed in a communication channel 16 between the thermoregulation environment 5 and a vent chamber 17 formed inside the base portion 2a of ' structure 2. The dispersion fan 15 is drivable in rotation to generate a continuous air stream from the Peltier system 12 to the vent chamber 17, through the communication channel 16.

Advantageously, the heat dispersion device 14 comprises at least one heat sink 18, preferably of the close- blade type, disposed within the vent chamber 17 adjacent to the communication channel 16 and the dispersion fan 15, so that the air stream produced by the last-mentioned fan impinges on the heat sink 18 when it reaches the vent chamber 17.

Still with reference to Fig. 2, apparatus 1 is further provided with a vent fan 19 operatively placed within the vent chamber 17 to cause an air stream from the vent chamber 17 to the external atmosphere, in case of need.

Referring particularly to the preferential embodiment shown in Fig. 2, cavity 3 of the base portion 2a has at least two chambers 20, 21 in fluid communication by means of one or more connecting ducts 22 so that the air heated or cooled by the Peltier cell 12 and moved by fan 13a circulates "-'within the whole environment 5 without distinction. A first chamber 21 houses the Peltier system 12 and fan 13a, while" a second chamber 21, preferably bigger than the first chamber 20, is adapted to receive containers 6, 7 holding the dental material the temperature of which is to be regulated. Advantageously, the second chamber 21 has at least one auxiliary compartment 23 of reduced volume for housing further dental material ready for mixing. The auxiliary compartment 23 is separated from the rest of the second chamber 21 by a partition 24 provided with one or more communication ducts 25 to enable passage of the air circulating within the thermoregulation environment 5.

Advantageously, the thermoregulation environment 5 has a coating 26 made of a thermally conductive material such as aluminium or the like, so as to possibly enable heat exchange by conduction between the conductive element 12a and the dental material placed in the thermoregulation environment 5.

The invention further relates to a method of controlling the temperature or dental materials, in particular materials for dental impressions.

The method firstly comprises introduction of at least one container 6, 7, 8 provided with dental material for taking dental impressions, into a thermoregulation environment 5 defined at the inside of apparatus 1.

Once the dental material, the temperature of which is wished to be controlled, is introduced into apparatus 1 by a suitable electronic control unit, a reference temperature is inputted to bring the thermoregulation environment 5 and dental material placed therein from a starting temperature corresponding to the room temperature, to the inputted temperature. Input of the reference temperature is carried out by entering, through an interface 3θy a temperature that can be both higher and lower than the room temperature so that the thermoregulation environment 5 is selectively heated or cooled relative to the surrounding atmosphere, depending on requirements.

Preferably, the reference temperature is determined and inputted to a given value in the range of 15°-30°C, for instance to a value of 200C; obviously the temperature generated inside the environment will be included in a tolerance range centred on the inputted temperature (accuracy of temperature control +; 0.20C), in any case between a slightly higher and slightly lower value.

Advantageously, the heating or cooling steps are carried out inside the thermoregulation environment 5 itself. Heating or cooling of dental material is at least partly obtained by convection through heating or cooling of the air present in the thermoregulation environment 5.

In order to increase the heating or cooling action and carry out a uniform distribution of the desired temperature, air circulation is suitably caused. In this way said air impinges on the dental material and gives rise to heat exchange with the latter. Preferably, fluid circulation in the thermoregulation environment 5 is carried out continuously to keep the desired application temperature constant and uniform.

In detail, the dental-material heating or cooling step is performed using the Peltier system 12 that, depending on the direction of the electric current associated therewith heats or cools the thermoregulation environment 5.

The above mentioned temperature control has been conceived for use on chromatic silicone two-component materials, i.e. made up. of a base and a catalyst that, suitably mixed, react becoming conveniently set.

Initial introduction of the dental material into the thermoregulation environment 5 therefore consists in introducing both the bases and catalysts that are submitted to the required heating or cooling operations to cause the desired setting rate.

Obviously, the apparatus and related method can be also employed for other materials in use in the dentist/odontologist ' s surgery that benefit from being at a controlled temperature.

The invention solves the problems found in the known art and achieves important advantages.

First of all, the method and apparatus of the present invention enable a precise temperature regulation of the dental materials for dental impressions. In particular, the object of the present invention allows, within the same thermoregulation environment, heating or cooling of dental materials relative to a room temperature depending on the desired setting rate during the step of taking impressions. The possibility of both controlling the temperature of said materials and keeping them to th,e inputted temperature allows the setting rates of the materials themselves to be regulated in a precise manner in the patients ' buccal cavities without a continuous control of the setting state being required.

Claims

C L A I M S
1. A method of controlling the temperature of dental materials, particularly materials for dental impressions, comprising the steps of:
- providing an apparatus (1) internally having at least one thermoregulation environment (5) selectively accessible from the outside and susceptible of being thermally insulated from the surrounding atmosphere, said thermoregulation environment (5) being capable of receiving at least one dental material the temperature of which is to be controlled;
- inputting a reference temperature into said apparatus (1) to bring said thermoregulation environment (5) and dental material from a starting temperature corresponding to the room temperature to the predetermined reference temperature; characterised in that input of the reference temperature is carried out with the possibility of inputting both a higher and a lower temperature than the room temperature so that said thermoregulation environment (5) is selectively heated or cooled relative to the surrounding atmosphere.
2. A method as claimed in claim 1, wherein after inputting the reference temperature, the temperature reached in the thermoregulation environment (5) is included between a minimum tolerance limit and a maximum tolerance limit centred on the reference temperature, +; 0.30C for example.
3. A method as claimed in claim 1 or 2, wherein selective heating or cooling is carried out inside the same thermoregulation environment (5) .
4. A method as claimed in claim 1 or 2, wherein selective heating or cooling is carried out at least partly by convection, preferably through heating or cooling of at least one fluid, in particular air, present in the thermoregulation environment (5).
5. A method as claimed in claim 4, further comprising a step of activating a ventilation device (13) inside said thermoregulation environment (5) to determine circulation of said fluid in said thermoregulation environment (5) , said heated or cooled fluid impinging on said dental material at least partly, to determine heat exchange with the latter.
6. A method as claimed in claim 4, wherein the ventilation device is activated according to a predetermined time to keep temperature within the whole thermoregulation environment (5) constant and uniform.
7. A method as claimed in one or more of the preceding claims, wherein the selective heating or cooling step of said dental material comprises activation of at least one Peltier cell (12) between a first condition for heating, at which electric current passes through a conductive element of said Peltier cell in a predetermined direction, and a second condition for cooling, at which the electric current passes through said conductive element in a direction opposite to the current direction in the first condition.
8. An apparatus for temperature control of dental materials, particularly materials for dental impressions, comprising: a structure (2) defining at least one thermoregulation environment (5) susceptible of being thermally insulated relative to the surrounding atmosphere, said thermoregulation environment (5) being designed to receive at least one dental material; - thermoregulation means (11) operatively associated with said structure (2) to regulate the temperature of said dental material inside said thermoregulation environment (5) ; characterised in that said thermoregulation means (11) can be activated between a first condition at which said means heats said thermoregulation environment (5) and the dental material present therein, and a second condition at which said means cools said thermoregulation environment (5) .
9. An apparatus as claimed in claim 8, wherein said thermoregulation means (11) comprises at least one Peltier cell (12) that can be electrically connected to a power supply.
10. An apparatus as claimed in claim 9, further comprising at least one ventilation device (13) operatively acting on said thermoregulation means (11) to cause circulation within said thermoregulation environment (5), of at least one fluid selectively heated or cooled by said thermoregulation means (11) .
11. An apparatus as claimed in claim 10, wherein said ventilation device (13) comprises at least one fan
(13a) positioned close to said Peltier cell (12), said fan (13a) being drivable in rotation to determine circulation of said fluid inside said thermoregulation environment (5) .
12. An apparatus as claimed in claim 10 or 11, comprising a heat dispersion device (14) operatively associated with said Peltier cell (12) on the opposite side from said ventilation device (13) .
13. An apparatus as claimed in claim 12, wherein said heat dispersion device (14) comprises:
- at least one dispersion fan (15) disposed close to said Peltier cell (12) on the opposite side from the fan (13a) of said ventilation device (13), said dispersion fan (15) being operatively disposed in a communication channel (16) between said thermoregulation environment (5) and a vent chamber (17) formed inside said structure (2);
- at least one heat sink (18) disposed inside said vent chamber (17) adjacent to said dispersion fan (15) .
14. An apparatus as claimed in claim 13, wherein said structure (2) comprises a base portion (2a) defining a cavity (3) adapted to receive the dental material and a cover (2b) closing said cavity (3), said base portion (2a) and cover (2b) defining said thermoregulation environment (5) that is closed and insulated from the external environment when said cover (2b) is disposed in a closed position.
15. An apparatus as claimed in one or more of claims 10 to 14, wherein said thermoregulation environment (5) has two chambers (20, 21) in fluid communication with each other by one or more connecting ducts (22), a first chamber (20) housing said thermoregulation means (11) and said fan (13a) of the ventilation device (13), a second chamber being designed to house at least one dental material.
16. An apparatus as claimed in claim 15, wherein said second chamber (21) has at least one auxiliary compartment (22) for "'housing containers of reduced sizes, said auxiliary compartment (22) being in fluid communication with said second chamber (21) by one or more communication ducts (25) .
17. An apparatus as claimed in one or more of claims 9 to 16, wherein said thermoregulation environment (5) is circumscribed by a coating (26) made of a thermally conductive material, preferably aluminium.
PCT/IT2007/000125 2007-02-21 2007-02-21 Method and apparatus for temperature control of dental materials, particularly materials for dental impressions WO2008102390A1 (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
PCT/IT2007/000125 WO2008102390A1 (en) 2007-02-21 2007-02-21 Method and apparatus for temperature control of dental materials, particularly materials for dental impressions

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
PCT/IT2007/000125 WO2008102390A1 (en) 2007-02-21 2007-02-21 Method and apparatus for temperature control of dental materials, particularly materials for dental impressions

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
WO2008102390A1 true WO2008102390A1 (en) 2008-08-28

Family

ID=38625852

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
PCT/IT2007/000125 WO2008102390A1 (en) 2007-02-21 2007-02-21 Method and apparatus for temperature control of dental materials, particularly materials for dental impressions

Country Status (1)

Country Link
WO (1) WO2008102390A1 (en)

Citations (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US5572873A (en) * 1995-03-02 1996-11-12 Emertech Incorporated Carrier method and apparatus for maintaining pharmaceutical integrity
GB2331838A (en) * 1997-11-24 1999-06-02 Coolbox Portable,thermoelectric,temperature controlled receptacles.
DE10010718A1 (en) * 2000-03-04 2001-09-27 Biotechnologie Ges Mittelhesse Storage and transport container for perishables, e.g. preserved blood and plasma, has insulated chambers with separate temperature control
US6295820B1 (en) * 2000-03-14 2001-10-02 Delta T, Llc Fruit chiller
DE10101028A1 (en) * 2001-01-11 2002-07-25 Draexlmaier Lisa Gmbh Device to cool/heat food stuffs and drinks containers in motor vehicles has Peltier element with heated/cooled surface and blower to generate air flow past element and into food/drinks container
US6625991B1 (en) * 2002-07-10 2003-09-30 Delta T, Llc Space saving food chiller

Patent Citations (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US5572873A (en) * 1995-03-02 1996-11-12 Emertech Incorporated Carrier method and apparatus for maintaining pharmaceutical integrity
GB2331838A (en) * 1997-11-24 1999-06-02 Coolbox Portable,thermoelectric,temperature controlled receptacles.
DE10010718A1 (en) * 2000-03-04 2001-09-27 Biotechnologie Ges Mittelhesse Storage and transport container for perishables, e.g. preserved blood and plasma, has insulated chambers with separate temperature control
US6295820B1 (en) * 2000-03-14 2001-10-02 Delta T, Llc Fruit chiller
DE10101028A1 (en) * 2001-01-11 2002-07-25 Draexlmaier Lisa Gmbh Device to cool/heat food stuffs and drinks containers in motor vehicles has Peltier element with heated/cooled surface and blower to generate air flow past element and into food/drinks container
US6625991B1 (en) * 2002-07-10 2003-09-30 Delta T, Llc Space saving food chiller

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
CN100400109C (en) Electricallyheated vapour dispensing apparatus
DE69133376T2 (en) Automated polymerase chain reaction
US3607134A (en) Sample holder for maintaining blood samples at a preselected temperature
US9826780B2 (en) Convection vaporizers
RU2334446C2 (en) Electrical device and method of cooking therein
ES2351518T3 (en) Heated shaving machines.
US4935604A (en) Method and apparatus for hot air sterilization of medical instruments
EP1542085B8 (en) Heating device with power supplies, fixing device using the heating device and image forming apparatus using the fixing device
US3825723A (en) Temperature and humidity test apparatus
EP0687457B1 (en) Heated humidifier for incubator
EP1061838B1 (en) Conductive warmer for foam packaging bags
WO2004006814A3 (en) Apparatus for altering the body temperature of a patient
CA2459585A1 (en) Food warming apparatus and method
MX2007003442A (en) Apparatus for altering the body temperature of a patient.
CN101337517B (en) Reduced power heat mat
EP0881950A1 (en) Temperature-regulating block with temperature-regulating devices
US6334735B1 (en) Controller for a paving screed heating system
JP2005537126A (en) Modular ceramic oxygen system
US3850559A (en) Apparatus for vulcanizing rubber molds
TW466166B (en) Synthetic resin molding mold, apparatus for and method of adjusting a temperature of the mold
GB1509159A (en) Hot plastic injection bushing
KR100861412B1 (en) Manufacturing equipment for poly silicon ingot
FR2143468B1 (en)
US5665302A (en) Method and equipment for bringing metal alloy ingots, billets and the like to the semisolid or semiliquid state in readiness for thixotropic forming
KR101090570B1 (en) Incubator

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
121 Ep: the epo has been informed by wipo that ep was designated in this application

Ref document number: 07736645

Country of ref document: EP

Kind code of ref document: A1

NENP Non-entry into the national phase in:

Ref country code: DE

122 Ep: pct app. not ent. europ. phase

Ref document number: 07736645

Country of ref document: EP

Kind code of ref document: A1