WO2008095124A1 - Device and method for providing a readable mark - Google Patents

Device and method for providing a readable mark Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2008095124A1
WO2008095124A1 PCT/US2008/052696 US2008052696W WO2008095124A1 WO 2008095124 A1 WO2008095124 A1 WO 2008095124A1 US 2008052696 W US2008052696 W US 2008052696W WO 2008095124 A1 WO2008095124 A1 WO 2008095124A1
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WO
WIPO (PCT)
Prior art keywords
injector
cartridge
needle
plurality
reservoir
Prior art date
Application number
PCT/US2008/052696
Other languages
French (fr)
Inventor
Ramos Mays
Chris Justice
Original Assignee
Somark Innovations, Inc.
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
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Publication date
Priority to US88754507P priority Critical
Priority to US60/887,545 priority
Priority to US97511607P priority
Priority to US60/975,116 priority
Application filed by Somark Innovations, Inc. filed Critical Somark Innovations, Inc.
Publication of WO2008095124A1 publication Critical patent/WO2008095124A1/en

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Classifications

    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01KANIMAL HUSBANDRY; CARE OF BIRDS, FISHES, INSECTS; FISHING; REARING OR BREEDING ANIMALS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; NEW BREEDS OF ANIMALS
    • A01K11/00Marking of animals
    • A01K11/005Branding or tattooing devices for animals

Abstract

Presented are devices and methods for delivering dielectric materials within the substrate of an object. Also presented are uses of the dielectric materials, in particular as inks for applying within the substrate of an object, to provide a pattern which is then detectable by remote interrogation.

Description

DEVICE AND METHOD FOR PROVIDING A READABLE MARK

CROSS-REFERENCE

[0001] This application claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional Application No. 60/887,545, filed January 31, 2007 and U.S. Provisional Application No. 60/975,116, filed September 25, 2007, which are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety.

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

[0002] Described herein are devices that deliver a mark within a substrate of an object, and methods of using such devices to deliver a mark within the substrate of an object.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION [0003] Uniform product code (UPC) labels (also referred to as barcodes) are present on many products, their success being attributable to low production costs, device simplicity, cheap detection and high durability. Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) tags store and transmit identification information that is similar to the information stored in barcodes. A RFID system consists of an interrogation device that broadcasts a radio signal and a RFID tag which receives the radio signal. The radio waves used to interrogate RFID tags can pass through many materials.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

[0004] In an aspect, an injection device comprises: a plate having a plurality of protrusions; and a cartridge, wherein the cartridge comprises: at least one injector shaft having a proximal end and a distal end, wherein the injector shaft has at least one exit port; and a reservoir containing a liquid suspension, the liquid suspension comprising: at least one biocompatible liquid and at least one particulate oxide of formula ABO3 suspended in the biocompatible liquid, wherein the reservoir is in fluidic communication with the proximal end of the injector shaft, and wherein the protrusions of the plate interact with the reservoirs of the cartridge to move at least a portion of the liquid suspension through at least a portion of the at least one injector shaft, such that the liquid suspension exits the injector shaft at the at least one exit port.

[0005] In another aspect of the invention, an injection device is discloses that comprises: a plate; and a cartridge, wherein the cartridge comprises: at least one injector shaft having a proximal end and a distal end, wherein the injector shaft has at least one exit port; and a reservoir containing a liquid suspension, wherein the reservoir is in fluidic communication with the proximal end of the injector shaft, and wherein the plate interacts with the reservoirs of the cartridge to move at least a portion of the liquid suspension through at least a portion of the at least one injector shaft, such that the liquid suspension exits the injector shaft at the at least one exit port. [0006] In one aspect, an injection device comprises: a plate; at least one injector shaft having a proximal end and a distal end, wherein the injector shaft has at least one exit port; and a reservoir con aining a iqui suspension, w erein e reservoir is in ui ic communication witn tne proximal end of the injector shaft, and wherein the plate interacts with the reservoirs of the cartridge to move at least a portion of the liquid suspension through at least a portion of the at least one injector shaft, such that the liquid suspension exits the injector shaft at the at least one exit port.

[0007] In an embodiment, an injection device of the invention comprises a plurality of injector shafts, and each injector shaft is a needle. The needle can have a multiplicity of exit ports along the longitudinal axis of the needle shaft. In another embodiment, either the needles or the reservoir are arranged to produce a pattern within a surface when the liquid suspension exits the exit ports of the needle. Further, a pattern can be produced by controlling which needles are in fluidic communication with the reservoir.

[0008] In another aspect of the invention, an injection device comprises: a plate having a plurality of openings arranged in a pattern; a liquid suspension within a least one of the openings, the liquid suspension comprising: at least one biocompatible liquid; at least one particulate oxide of formula ABO3 suspended in the biocompatible liquid; and at least one needle, having a proximal end and a distal end, the proximal end placed within a least one of the openings of the plate, and the needle having at least one entrance port and at least one exit port; the injection device configured to allow at least a portion of the liquid suspension to move through at least a portion of the at least one needle, such that the liquid suspension enters the needle at the at least one entrance port and exits the needle at the at least one exit port. In an embodiment, the liquid suspension is in a compressible reservoir. In another embodiment, each opening in the plate has a needle fitted within the opening. In one embodiment, a needle hub is affixed to the plate. In an embodiment, a needle has multiple exit ports along the longitudinal axis of the needle. [0009] In an aspect of the invention, a cartridge is disclosed that comprises: a plate having a plurality of openings arranged in a pattern; a liquid suspension stored within at least one compressible container in proximity to the plate, the liquid suspension comprising: at least one biocompatible liquid; at least one particulate oxide of formula ABO3 suspended in the biocompatible liquid; and at least one needle, having a proximal end and a distal end, the proximal end placed within a least one of the openings of the plate, and the needle having at least one exit port; the cartridge configured to allow the liquid suspension to move through at least a portion of the at least one needle after the compressible container has been manipulated. [0010] In an embodiment, each opening in the plate has a needle fitted within the opening. The needle can be affixed to the plate. In another embodiment, the needle has multiple exit ports along the longitudinal axis of the needle. n an em o ment, a s ng e compress e conta ner s n prox m ty to the plate an configured so as to allow the liquid suspension to move through a plurality of needles after the compressible container has been compressed. In another embodiment, the liquid suspension does not move through all of the needles placed within the plate. The cartridge can further comprise a mask between the compressible container and the plate, the mask configured to allow the liquid suspension to move through a portion of the needles within the plate and prevent the liquid suspension from moving through the other portion of needles within the plate. [0012] In an embodiment of a cartridge of the invention, a plurality of compressible containers is in proximity to the plate and configured so as to allow the liquid suspension from one compressible container to move through only a single needle after the compressible container has been compressed. The cartridge can further comprise compressible containers that do not contain the liquid suspension.

[0013] In another embodiment, either the at least one needle or the at least one compressible container are arranged to produce a pattern within a surface when the liquid suspension exits the exit ports of the needle.

[0014] In another aspect, a cartridge comprises: at least one reservoir containing a liquid suspension, wherein the liquid suspension comprises at least one biocompatible liquid and at least one particulate oxide of formula ABO3 suspended in the biocompatible liquid; and at least one needle, having a proximal end and a distal end, wherein at least one needle is in fluidic communication at least one reservoir, wherein the cartridge is configured to allow the liquid suspension to move from the reservoir to the distal end of the needle.

[0015] In an aspect, a cartridge comprises: at least one injector shaft having a proximal end and a distal end, wherein the injector shaft has at least one exit port; and a reservoir containing a liquid suspension, wherein the reservoir is in fluidic communication with the proximal end of the injector shaft.

[0016] In an embodiment, the injector shaft is a needle. The needle can have multiple exit ports along the longitudinal axis of the needle.

[0017] In one embodiment, the reservoir is a compressible container.

[0018] In another embodiment, either the at least one needle or the reservoir is arranged to produce a pattern within a surface when the liquid suspension exits the exit ports of the needle. [0019] In an aspect of the invention, a method is disclosed for applying an identification pattern within the dermis of an animal, comprising: applying a force to a compressible container that contains a liquid suspension so as to compress the compressible container, the liquid suspension comprising: at least one biocompatible liquid; at least one particulate oxide of formula ABO3 suspended in the biocompatible liquid; and pushing the liquid suspension into a plurality of nee es, eac nee e aving a eas one en rance por an a eas one exit port, wherein t e plurality of needles are arranged in the identification pattern; pushing the plurality of needles into the dermis of the animal; and pushing the liquid suspension through the at least one exit port of the plurality of needles into the dermis of the animal. In an embodiment, the compressible container, the liquid suspension, and the plurality of needles are components of a marking device. The method can further comprise stabilizing the marking device on the animal so as to minimize lateral movement of the marking device over the surface of the animal. [0020] In another aspect, a method for producing a pattern within a surface comprises: inserting a removable cartridge into an injection device, wherein the removable cartridge comprises a readable ink and a plurality of needles; applying force to the removable cartridge so as to force at least some of the plurality of needles to inject the readable ink into the surface; and removing the removable cartridge from the injection device.

[0021] In an embodiment, the pattern is formed by controlling which needles enter the surface of the animal. The pattern can also formed by controlling which needles contain ink. [0022] In one embodiment, the surface is the dermis layer of an animal. [0023] In another embodiment, the readable ink is a dielectric ink.

[0024] In an aspect, a device is disclosed that comprises a multi-injector assembly and a liquid suspension in a reservoir, the liquid suspension comprising: at least one biocompatible liquid; and at least one particulate oxide of formula ABO3 suspended in the biocompatible liquid. [0025] In an embodiment, the device further comprises a template, such as a barcode template. In another embodiment, the multi-injector assembly is comprised of a plurality of injector shafts. Each of the injector shafts can be comprised of a base and a first end sufficient to penetrate a surface of an object. In an embodiment, a barcode template is between the reservoir and the multi-injector assembly. In one embodiment, a plurality of injector shafts are pre-filled with the readable ink.

[0026] In an embodiment, the object is an animal. The animal can be selected from, for example, the bovine family, the ovine family, the equine family, the canine family, the feline family, the porcine family, the lapine family, the caprine family, the murine family, or the avian order. [0027] In another embodiment, the plurality of injector shafts are solid. The plurality of injector shafts can be coated with the readable ink.

[0028] In one embodiment, the particulate oxide is sodium potassium niobate. The sodium potassium niobate can have a formula NaxK1-xNbθ3, wherein 0 < x < l or x = 0.5. [0029] In an aspect, a method of delivering a readable mark comprises applying a readable mark within a surface of an object by means of a multi-injector assembly and a readable ink. The rea a e n can comprise: at east one iocompati e iqui ; an at east one particulate ox e o formula ABO3 suspended in the biocompatible liquid.

[0030] In an embodiment of a method of the invention, applying a readable mark further comprises utilizing a template. [0031] The multi-injector assembly can also be comprised of a plurality of injector shafts. In an embodiment, the plurality of injector shafts comprises a base and a first end sufficient to penetrate the surface of the object. The plurality of injector shafts can be pre-filled with the readable ink. [0032] In another embodiment of a method, applying a readable mark further comprises utilizing a plurality of reservoirs containing the readable ink. The mark can be a pattern produced using the template, by the arrangement of the plurality of injector shafts, or by the arrangement of the plurality of reservoirs.

[0033] The object to be marked by a method, device, or cartridge of the invention can be an animal and the surface can be the dermis layer of the animal's skin. For example, the animal can be a cow.

[0034] In a further or alternative embodiment, the devices, applicators, cartridges and injection devices described herein are used with the ink disclosed in PCT Application No. PCT/US07/79446, filed September 25, 2007 or U.S. Patent No. 7,205,774. In a further or alternative embodiment are codes, patterns, marks, or designs that are injected within a surface by means of the devices, applicators, cartridges and injection devices described herein using the ink disclosed in PCT Application No. PCT/US07/79446, filed September 25, 2007 or U.S. Patent No. 7,205,774. In a further or alternative embodiment are animals (including livestock) having within the dermis layer of their skin, a code, pattern, mark or design, that has been injected by means of the devices, applicators, cartridges and injection devices described herein using the ink disclosed in PCT Application No. PCT/US07/79446, filed September 25, 2007 or U.S. Patent No. 7,205,774. In a further or alternative embodiment are devices designed to read codes, patterns, marks, or designs that have been injected within a surface by means of the devices, applicators, cartridges and injection devices described herein using the ink disclosed in PCT Application No. PCT/US07/79446, filed September 25, 2007 or U.S. Patent No. 7,205,774. Certain Definitions

[0035] As used in the present specification, the following words and phrases are generally intended to have the meanings as set forth below, except to the extent that the context in which they are used indicates otherwise. [0036] The term "template" as used herein, refers to an object used to replicate shapes or patterns. e erm ocompati e iqui as use erein, re ers to a composition t at is iqui at room temperature and pressure and which, in the amounts employed, is non-toxic, substantially biologically and chemically unreactive in a living system and does not elicit any substantial detrimental response in the living system. In particular, any biocompatible liquids contemplated in the present invention should be compatible with the skin of a mammal as evidenced by the lack of any moderate to severe skin irritation. One example of a biocompatible liquid is water. [0038] The terms "dispersing agent" and "dispersant" as used herein refer to surface-active agents added to a suspending medium to promote uniform and maximum suspension of fine solid particles. Dispersants for use in aqueous media are typically polymeric and include, but are not limited to, polyacrylates, polymethacrylates, lignosulfonic acids, polynaphthalene sulfonic acids and the like. Dispersing agents of particular interest for the present invention are sold as DAR V AN® derivatives, available from R.T. Vanderbilt Company, Inc., Norwalk, CT. [0039] The term "thickening agent" as used herein refers to additives that alter the viscosity of a liquid medium. Thickening agents are typically polymeric and comprise aqueous dispersions of acrylic polymers and cellulose derivatives, including water-soluble cellulose ethers such as methylcellulose and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose polymers. Other non-limiting examples include alginates, especially sodium alginate, xantham gums and monogalactam thickeners. Thickening agents of interest for the present invention are sold as METHOCEL® derivatives, available from The Dow Chemical Company, Midland, MI. The amount of the thickening agent required can vary within wide limits, and may depend on such variables as formulation properties (e.g. viscosity) and individual component concentrations. However, sufficient agent is preferred to give a viscosity from about 5 to about 5000 cP, alternatively from about 10 to about 1000 cP, alternatively from about 15 to about 500 cP, or alternatively from about 20 to about 200 cP. [0040] The term "binding agent" as used herein refers to agents with high affinity for one or more of the other components of the formulation. They are optionally used for fixing purposes, adjusting viscosity to improve the body and flow of the formulation, or for maintaining the solid particles of the formulation in suspension. Non-limiting examples of binders include gum arabic, chemically modified polypropylene, chemically modified low-chlorine polypropylene and/or low-chlorine polypropylene, chemically modified polyethylene, and acrylic polymers such as iso-butyl methacrylate, methyl methacrylate and ethylacrylate.

[0041] The term "disposable," as used herein, refers to an article designed for or capable of being thrown away after being used or used up. [0042] The term "reusable," as used herein, refers to an article capable of being used again. e erm par icu a e as use erein re ers o par ic es o e referenced dielectric material that are from about 1 nanometer to about 10 micrometer in diameter, provided that the average size of the dielectric material particles is between about 100 nm to about 5 micron, alternatively between about 300 nm to about 4 micron, alternatively between about 500 nm to about 3 micron in diameter. Preferably at least 50%, at least 60%, at least 70%, at least 80% or at least 90% of the particles have a diameter of from about 300 nm to about 10 μm. [0044] The term "deionized water" as used herein refers to water that substantially lacks ions, such as cations (e.g. sodium, calcium, iron, copper) and anions (e.g. chloride, bromide), except H3O+ and OH", though may still contain small amounts of other non-ionic types of impurities (e.g. organic compounds).

[0045] The term "suspension" as used herein refers to a colloidal dispersion in which a finely- divided solid is homogenously distributed in a liquid, such that the solid is so finely divided and mixed that it does not rapidly settle out. [0046] Thus, terms such as "solids remain in suspension" and the like refer to how quickly a solid settles out and sinks to the bottom of a particular suspension. Formulations of the present invention are optionally suspensions, which preferably remain homogenously distributed for at least 8 hours, at least 1 day, at least one week, at least one month and for more than 6 months. [0047] The term "ball milling" as used herein refers to the process of rapidly grinding materials to colloidal fineness (approximately lμm and below) by developing high grinding energy via centrifugal and/or planetary action. Ball milling apparatus is optionally purchased from suppliers such as Gilson Company, Inc., Lewis Center, OH; Dymatron, Inc., Cincinnati, OH or SPEX CertiPrep, Metuchen, NJ.

[0048] The term "animal" as used herein refers to any member of the animal kingdom, including humans, covered with a sufficient amount of skin, of appropriate texture to receive a mark of practical size and for which identification and or tracking purposes are desirable. The term includes both male and female animals of any age.

[0049] The term "farm animal" as used herein refers to any animal kept for profit or use such as, though not limited to consumption, indirect consumption (i.e. production of food materials such as dairy products), hide production, breeding, sport, show, competition, companionship, transportation, herding, or warfare. Also meant to be included by the term are those animals used for laboratory research purposes. Non-limiting examples of the types of animals intended to be covered by the term include horses, cows, pigs, sheep, goats, donkeys, mules, asses, buffalo, oxen, dogs, cats, rabbits, camels, llamas, bison, deer, yak, non-human primates including monkeys, baboons, chimpanzees and the like. e term equ ne as use ere n re ers to orses o any gen er or age, including ut not limited to foals (colts and fillies), mares and stallions.

[0051] The term "bovine" as used herein refers to cows of any gender or age, including but not limited to calves, heifers, bullocks, steer, oxen and bulls. [0052] The term "porcine" as used herein refers to pigs of any gender or age, including but not limited to boar, sows, piglets, shoats, gilts, barrows and hogs.

[0053] The term "ovine" as used herein refers to sheep of any gender or age, including but not limited to ewes, rams and lambs.

INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE [0054] All publications and patent applications described in this specification are herein incorporated by reference to the same extent as if each individual publication or patent application was specifically and individually indicated to be incorporated by reference.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0055] The novel features described herein are set forth with particularity in the appended claims. A better understanding of the features and advantages of the present disclosure will be obtained by reference to the following detailed description that sets forth illustrative embodiments, in which the principles of the invention are utilized, and the accompanying drawings of which:

[0056] FIG. 1 presents an illustrative, non-limiting example of a device which delivers a microwave scatterable and/or readable ink within the substrate of an object.

[0057] FIG. 2 presents an illustrative, non-limiting example of a multi-injector assembly used to deliver a microwave scatterable and/or readable ink within the substrate of an object.

[0058] FIG. 3 presents an illustrative, non-limiting example of a device which delivers a microwave scatterable and/or readable ink within the substrate of an object. [0059] FIG. 4 presents an illustrative, non-limiting example of a device having a multi-injector assembly and microwave scatterable and/or readable ink template.

[0060] FIG. 5(a-d) illustrates exemplary cartridges or modules of a cartridge of the invention comprising at least one reservoir and a multi-injector assembly.

[0061] FIG. 6 illustrates an exemplary embodiment of a cartridge comprising alternating layers of readable ink and a non-marking substance, such as wax or jelly.

[0062] FIG. 7 illustrates an exemplary cartridge or module of a cartridge comprising an injector shaft inside a pliable reservoir.

[0063] FIG. 8(a-f) illustrates exemplary embodiments of hollow injector shafts that have an exit port at the distal end of the shaft, along the side of the shaft, or through a detachable tip. I . a-c ustrates exemp ary em o iments o a cartri ge o the invention comprising reservoirs, injector shafts, and a readable ink for delivering a mark to a substrate.

[0065] FIG. lθ(a-c) illustrates exemplary embodiments of a cartridge wherein the reservoirs of the cartridge are part of a sheet, such as blister pack or a real. [0066] FIG. ll(a-c) illustrates exemplary embodiments of a cartridge comprising an array of reservoirs corresponding to individual injector shafts as part of a body or attached to a plate.

[0067] FIG. 12 illustrates an exemplary embodiment wherein a cartridge comprises an array of readable ink filled gel capsules in a chamber of a reservoir of the cartridge.

[0068] FIG. 13 demonstrates a pre-coded set of reservoirs on a sheet that can be brought into contact with an array of injector shafts as another exemplary embodiment of a cartridge.

[0069] FIG. 14 demonstrates an exemplary cartridge wherein the reservoirs of the cartridge are submerged in a readable ink well with valves connected to the reservoirs that can be opened selectively to allow ink to be delivered to the reservoirs and the injector shafts.

[0070] FIG. 15(a-b) illustrates some exemplary embodiments of configuration for some of the cartridges of the invention, wherein the reservoirs are in direct contact with a multi-injector assembly or wherein the reservoirs are not in direct contact with the injector shafts.

[0071] FIG. 16(a-b) illustrates an exemplary layout of a cartridge configuration of the invention wherein the reservoirs can vary in size depending on the mark to be delivered to an object or can be stacked. [0072] FIG. 17 illustrates an exemplary cartridge for use with an exemplary injection device of the invention.

[0073] FIG. 18(a-b) illustrates two different views of an exemplary injection device of the invention, wherein the device comprises an actuator plate for applying force to penetrate an object with the injector shafts of the device. [0074] FIG. 19 demonstrates an exemplary method of inserting a cartridge into an injection device.

[0075] FIG. 20 illustrates another exemplary embodiment of an injection device of the invention that comprises many of the features of the embodiment of FIG. 18 and also comprises a cartridge positioner and a depth adjuster. [0076] FIG. 21 displays alternative configurations of a contact plate of an exemplary injection device of the invention.

[0077] FIG. 22 illustrates a footprint of an exemplary injection device of the invention from the side of the contact plate.

[0078] FIG. 23 demonstrates an exemplary method of using the invention to mark a substrate by inserting a cartridge of the invention into a device. . ustrates an exemp ary injection evice o t e invention during use where t e motion of a mechanical device, such as a spring or a piston, at one end of the injection device presses down on an actuator plate.

[0080] FIG. 25 displays a method of using an exemplary injection device of the invention, with an exemplary cartridge of the invention.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

[0081] Though widely used, barcodes and visible ink markings have limitations, namely in the amount of data they can represent, and in the optical reading system which requires a direct, unobstructed path for light to be emitted onto the marking and reflected back to the sensor. [0082] Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) tags store and transmit identification information that is similar to the information stored in barcodes. An RFID system consists of an interrogation device that broadcasts a radio signal and a RFID tag which receives the signal. The radio waves used to interrogate RFID tags can pass through many materials, therefore solving the "line-of- sight" issue present in optically read barcodes. [0083] RFID technology does, however, have its own limitations. RFID tags can be divided into two major categories: active and passive. Active RFID tags contain their own power source which increases the distance over which it can provide information. Problems with this type of tag include cost of production due to their complexity as well as maintenance issues, physical size and weight constraints, and power consumption. Passive tags overcome cost and complexity issues, but in turn have greatly restricted operability and flexibility. Because a microchip is embedded in an RFID tag, along with radio frequency receivers, front ends, and transmitters, the device complexity and associated cost is much higher than that of optical barcodes. Another problem with RFID technology is the separation between an object and its identification information. An object is not directly identifiable as it was when a barcode was embedded directly on the object itself. Rather, a tag is affixed to the object, therefore causing all relevant data to be associated with not the object itself, but with a tag on the object. Thus, if a tag becomes separated from the object the identity of that object is lost.

[0084] One example of the problems associated with data separation caused by RFID technology can be seen in the field of livestock tracking. Since the advent of RFID solutions, the agricultural industry has been attempting to utilize this technology for means of animal identification in the form of a RFID tag affixed to an ear tag placed on the animal. (See U.S. Animal Identification Plan—National Identification Development Team, available on the Internet at the U.S. AIP website information page, hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety.) Studies have shown that approximately 10% of ear tags become separated from the animal throughout its life cycle either by accidental separation, or through human removal. If data relative to an animal is associa e wi a ag, an e ag ecomes separa e rom e animal all data associa e with that animal is also lost.

[0085] Published US patent application 2006/0125491, titled "Microwave readable dielectric barcode" which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety, describes microwave readable dielectric barcodes fabricated from a dielectric material, and a system for interrogating the dielectric barcode, which has increased commercial application with increased data representation and overcomes the limitations and problems of data separation, "line-of-sight" issues, production and costs of the systems described above. [0086] Livestock branding is a technique for marking livestock so as to identify the owner. In many countries livestock branding is strictly regulated; such regulation includes brand registration and mandatory brand inspections. Livestock branding such as hot-iron branding is somewhat problematic in that smudging may occur or depending on the location of the hot-iron brand discomfort to the animal may ensue. While freeze branding is considered more humane than hot-iron branding, it is not always successful and often requires more equipment and time to apply.

[0087] Therefore, there is a need for devices which deliver a dielectric material for use in such systems, including methods for their delivery. Described herein are devices for delivering dielectric material ("inks") and methods for their delivery that satisfy one or more of these and other needs. [0088] To this end, the present disclosure describes devices directed to an object marking device of the type which deposits fluids within a substrate of an object for identification. Cartridge

[0089] In one aspect is a cartridge having a multi-injector assembly and a readable ink. In one embodiment, the cartridge having a multi-injector assembly and a readable ink further comprises a template. In another embodiment, the template is a barcode template. In a different embodiment, the template is any pattern, such as a brand. In one embodiment, the multi-injector assembly is comprised of a plurality of injector shafts. In another embodiment, the plurality of injector shafts is comprised of a base and a first end sufficient to penetrate a surface of an object. The injector shafts can be needles that are either hollow or solid. In another embodiment, a device comprises a multi-injector assembly and a readable ink further comprising a reservoir having at least one chamber. In another embodiment, the template is between the reservoir and the multi-injector assembly.

[0090] Referring to FIG. 1, but not being limited to, a cartridge of the invention 1 includes a multi-injector assembly 14, a template 13, and a reservoir 12. In the example, the multi-injector assembly 14 includes a plurality of injector shafts 16. It is envisioned an injector shaft has an end su icien o pene ra e e sur ace or an o jec . e reservoir o e exemplary device in M . can contain an ink or liquid composition that can be delivered from the reservoir to the multi- injector assembly. As shown in FIG. 1, the template can be positioned between the multi- injector assembly and the reservoir. For example, the template can be a barcode, brand, or any other pattern through which ink is delivered to all or part of the multi-injector assembly. In another embodiment, a device is used to position or align the multi-injector assembly with an object of which the multi-injector assembly can penetrate. In another embodiment, the template 13 is in fluidic communication with the first end of the plurality of injector shafts. A pliable cover 15 can be in contact with the reservoir and is optionally engaged by an applicator or any manual or automatic device to deliver force or pressure to the cartridge. For example, the injector shafts can be placed into contact with the skin or hide of an animal and by applying force to the device, the shafts can enter the animal and deliver a liquid composition to the skin. Furthering the example, the liquid composition can be a readable or visible ink for marking the animal, such as branding livestock. [0091] Referring to FIG. 2, but not being limited to, the cartridge 2 includes a reservoir 21, a template 22, and a multi-injector assembly 23. The template 22 can be sufficiently shaped to overlay the multi-injector assembly 23. As an example, the template 22 can have a predetermined pattern, such as a barcode or a brand. By way of example only, the template 22 is superimposed on the base of the multi -injector assembly. Fluid from the reservoir 21 is allowed to traverse to the multi-injector assembly via the open spaces of the template. The solid portions of the template do not allow fluids, such as an ink by way of example only, to traverse into an individual injector shaft. In this way, some of the individual injector shafts can be filled with ink, while others are not filled with ink, allowing the pattern of the template to be transferred to an object that is penetrated by the multi-injector assembly. [0092] The template 22 is optionally formed from materials, including ceramic materials, polymers, pharmaceutical grade stainless steel, tin, copper, chromium, iron, and alloys of these metals. In another embodiment, a pliable cover 24 is optionally engaged by an applicator. Examples of materials comprising a pliable cover include, but are not limited to, polymers, plastics, aluminum foil, foils, rubber, and any other suitable pliable materials. [0093] FIG. 3 illustrates an exemplary cartridge 3 as assembled. The reservoir 31 is in fluidic communication with the multi-injector assembly 32. A template can be inserted between the reservoir 31 and multi-injector assembly 32 to provide a pattern through which fluid can be delivered from the reservoir 31 to the multi-injector assembly 32. The exemplary cartridge 3 in FIG. 3 can be inserted into a device that delivers force to a flexible diaphragm or pliable cover 33 on the surface of the reservoir 31, which in turn can deliver fluid from the reservoir 31 to the mu ti-in ector assem y . n an em o iment, t e exi e iap ragm 3 is in contact wit t e reservoir 31. In a different embodiment, the reservoir 31 is composed of a flexible material that can be compressed.

[0094] In FIG. 4, the cartridge 4, includes a multi-injector assembly 42 in fluidic communication with a reservoir 41. The multi-injector assembly 42 can be comprised of a plurality of injector shafts.

[0095] In an embodiment as demonstrated in FIG. 5(a), a cartridge 5 can comprise a reservoir 51 with a chamber that distributes ink to a plurality of injector shafts 52. FIG. 5(b) demonstrates injector shafts in fluidic communication with individual reservoirs 51 corresponding to individual injector shafts 52. In this example, the different reservoirs 51 can be filled with the same readable ink. In another embodiment, the different reservoirs 51 can be filled with different readable inks, such as different colors, or readable inks with different properties, for example microwave scatterable or dielectric ink. FIG. 5(c) and FIG. 5(d) illustrate embodiments of cartridges 5 comprising valves 53 to manage or control the delivery of readable ink into or out of a reservoir 51, or into or out of an injector shaft 52 for controlled delivery of a readable ink to an object.

[0096] FIG. 6 illustrates an exemplary embodiment of a cartridge 6 comprising alternating layers of readable ink 61 and a non-marking substance 62, such as wax or jelly. The cartridge 6 also comprises a side-feed 64for the entrance of the readable ink 61 into the reservoir 63 of the cartridge. The exemplary embodiment in FIG. 6 can allow for pre-coding, for example, injecting a readable ink 61 or a non-marking substance 62 to determine whether the module of the cartridge or cartridge itself 6 is active during different cycles of use with an applicator. [0097] In another embodiment, a cartridge 7 or a module of a cartridge can comprise a reservoir 71 with an injector shaft 72 inside the reservoir 71 as illustrated in FIG. 7. In this example, the reservoir 71 can be made of a pliable material 73 and when compressed, the injector shaft 72 as connected to one part 74 of the outer surface of the reservoir can puncture another surface 75 of the reservoir and penetrate an object to deliver a readable mark.

[0098] The plurality of injector shafts can be any object that can be injected into an object, such as a needle. In one embodiment, the plurality of injector shafts are optionally constructed from a variety of materials, including metals, ceramics, semiconductors, organics, polymers, and composites. By way of example only, materials of construction may include pharmaceutical grade stainless steel, gold, titanium, nickel, iron, gold, tin, chromium, copper, alloys of these metals, silicon, silicon dioxide, and polymers. By way of example only, polymers may include biodegradable polymers, such as, but not limited to, polymers of hydroxy acids, such as lactic acid and glycolic acid polylactide, polyglycolide, polylactide-co-glycolide, and copolymers with , po yan y r es, po y ort o esters, po yure anes, po y utyr c ac , po y va eπc ac , and poly(lactide-co-caprolactone). By way of example only, non-biological polymers may include polycarbonate, polymethacrylic acid, ethylenevinyl acetate, polytetrafluorethylene (TEFLON™), and polyesters. In another embodiment, the plurality of injector shafts are optionally comprised of between about 2 to about 2000 individual injector shafts. The injector shafts can be needles or any other item capable of penetrating an object, such as the epidermis and/or dermis of an animal.

[0099] As noted previously, a multi-injector assembly can comprise a plurality of injector shafts. An injector shaft can have the mechanical strength to remain intact for the delivery of a fluid, for example, a readable ink. The injector shaft can also be sterilizable to ensure uncompromised delivery of a fluid to an organism, such as a bovine. In one embodiment, injector shafts are sufficiently spaced to enable penetration of an object.

[00100] The stratum corneum is the outer layer of skin and typically is comprised of between about 10 to about 50 cells having a thickness of about 10 to about 30 microns. This barrier prevents molecules and various substances from entering the body and analytes from exiting the body. In one embodiment, injector shafts are of sufficient length to penetrate the stratum corneum. By way of example only, injector shafts have a length of between about 10 μm and about 20 mm. In another embodiment, the length of an injector shaft is between about 100 μm and about 1 mm. In another embodiment, the length of an injector shaft is between about 100 μm and about 500 μm.

[00101] In one embodiment, injector shafts are hollow. In another embodiment, hollow injector shafts extend upwardly from the first end to the base. In another embodiment, injector shafts may have tapered or straight shafts. In one embodiment, the diameter of an injector shaft is the greatest at the base and tapers to a point at the first end distal to the base. In another embodiment, hollow injector shafts are not tapered but are straight. In another embodiment, straight hollow injector shafts have a substantially uniform diameter and are tapered at the first end only. In another embodiment, injector shafts are oriented perpendicular so as to allow for maximum penetration of the object. In one embodiment, injector shafts have a diameter of between about 1 μm and about 1 mm. In another embodiment, injector shafts have a diameter of between about 1 mm and about 100 μm. In another embodiment, hollow injector shafts are optionally comprised of about 2 to about 2000 individual hollow injector shafts. The plurality of injector shafts can also be known herein as a multi-injector assembly.

[00102] In one embodiment, the plurality of injector shafts are optionally pre-filled with a predetermined amount of a fluid. By way of example only, a multi-injector assembly having a plurality of injector shafts is pre-filled with a readable ink. In another embodiment, a reservoir of a cartr ge s pre- e w t a pre eterm ne amount o u an n u c commun cat on w th a multi-injector assembly. The plurality of injector shafts having the pre-filled readable ink is predetermined by a pattern as determined by a user. In some embodiments, the pre-filled injector shafts do not require a corresponding reservoir chamber. In another embodiment, the plurality of hollow injector shafts are pre-filled or coated with a dry readable ink. In another embodiment, the dry coated pre-filled plurality of hollow injector shafts are in fluidic communication with a reservoir. It can be expected that a reservoir containing a fluid, such as by way of example only, water, may re-hydrate or solubilize readable ink inside the hollow injector shaft. The pre-filled volume of the injector shafts can be about 1 microliter to about 1 liter, including between 1 microliter and 100 milliliter, 1 microliter and 10 milliliter, 10 microliter and 1 milliliter.

[00103] In an embodiment, an exit port of a hollow injector shaft is a side-bore hole. An injector shaft can have a plurality of exit ports, such as 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 exit ports. The exit ports can be configured such that a predetermined pattern of liquid composition exits an injector shaft. In an embodiment, a cartridge comprises a plurality of hollow injector shafts with a plurality of side-bore holes or exit ports. FIG. 8(a) illustrates an exemplary hollow injector shaft 81 with a single exit port 82 at the bottom of the shaft to deliver a liquid composition 83, such as a standard hypodermic needle. FIG. 8(b) illustrates another exemplary hollow injector shaft 81 with a single side-bore hole 82 as an exit port. FIG. 8(c) illustrates a side and top view of a hollow injector shaft 81, for example, with a four side-bore holes 82 for four exit ports. FIG. 8(c) also shows a pattern of fluid 83 delivered from the exemplary injector shaft embodiment 81. FIG. 8(d) demonstrates a plurality of hollow injector shafts 81 with a single side exit port 82 as an embodiment of the invention, wherein the shafts 81 are arranged in a pattern that can be predetermined to deliver a liquid composition 83 to an area. FIG. 8(e) displays an exemplary method for rotating a hollow injector shaft 81 during delivery of a substance 83 to an object to create an even distribution or predetermined pattern. The injector shaft 81 can be rotated stepwise or continuously. FIG. 8(f) demonstrates an exemplary hollow injector shaft 81, wherein the tip 84 is detachable such that when the delivery of a liquid composition 83 occurs, the liquid composition 83 can exit the device between the tip 84 and the sidewalls of the shaft 81. [00104] In another embodiment, the plurality of injector shafts is solid. In one embodiment, the plurality of solid injector shafts is comprised of between about 2 and about

2000 individual solid injector shafts. In another embodiment, the plurality of solid injector shafts is coated with a readable ink. While not being limited to this one example, a plurality of solid injector shafts is coated with a readable ink that is dried. The first end of this plurality of solid injector shafts is in fluidic communication with a reservoir. The dry readable ink is expected to re-hydrate within the substrate of the object. In one embodiment, the plurality of solid injector snai s aving a ry coa e rea a e in an no irec y o s ruc e y a template penetrates e skin of an animal. In another embodiment, a plurality of solid injector shafts is pre-coated with a readable ink prior to assembly. In another embodiment, the plurality of solid injector shafts is coated with a readable ink that is wet. The wet readable ink adheres to the solid injector shaft by the requisite surface tension, hi one embodiment the first end of the plurality of solid injector shafts having a wet readable ink is in fluidic communication with a reservoir. By using a means of force or pressure, the plurality of solid injector shafts having a wet readable ink and not obstructed by a template is able to penetrate an object. In another embodiment, the plurality of solid injector shafts having a wet coated readable ink and not directly obstructed by a barcode template penetrates the skin of an animal.

[00105] In another embodiment, the plurality of injector shafts is biodegradable. In some embodiments, hollow injector shafts are biodegradable. In other embodiments, solid injector shafts are biodegradable. In one embodiment, the multi-injector assembly is a single-use assembly, a disposable assembly, or is a fully or partially reusable assembly. [00106] In one embodiment, an injector shaft can be a break-off needle, such that after injection of a liquid from the reservoir, the needle can break off of the cartridge. In another embodiment, the needle can break-off in the object to which it is injected. In an embodiment, the break-off needle can be replaced on the multi-injector assembly of the cartridge. A break-off needle can be at least one of disposable, biodegradable, removable, biocompatible. In another embodiment, the pattern of the broken needles in the object can determine the mark. For example, some of the needles of a multi-injector assembly can be break-off needles, while others do not break. In this example, the break-off needles determine the pattern of the mark and can deliver a readable ink when broken. Break-off needles and non-breakable needles in these examples may not have an exit port until broken. In one other embodiment, the break-off needles are made of a biodegradable material and are broken off inside the object. When the biodegradable material degrades, it can mark the object. Break-off needles can also be composed of readable ink in a solid form and can be broken off in an object, leaving the readable ink in the object to mark the object. Examples of other materials for break-off needles include, but are not limited to, glass, metal, polymers, and plastics. [00107] In an embodiment, a plurality of injector shafts enterrs an object in series. For example, one injector shaft enters an object, then a second, and so on. In another embodiment, pluralities of injector shafts enter an object in parallel, such as all at the same time. In yet another embodiment, an injector shaft enters an object while another injector shaft is still proceeding to enter an object. For example, a multi -injector assembly could be staggered to ease the entrance of the injector shafts into an object, such as an animal. A staggered multi-injector assembly mig re uce t e orce necessary o penetrate an o jec to e mar e . n another example, a staggered multi-injector assembly can determine the pattern of the mark delivered to an object. [00108] FIG. 9 illustrates some example embodiments of a cartridge 9 of the invention.

As shown in FIG. 9(a), a cartridge 9 can contain a plurality of reservoirs 91 in fluidic communication with a plurality of injector shafts 92. In an example, some of the reservoirs contain a readable ink and some of the reservoirs are empty. In an alternative embodiment, some of the reservoirs contain an ink and some of the reservoirs contain a benign solution, such as a saline solution or water. If only some of the reservoirs contain an ink, a pattern can be determined by a user or a consumer by filling only particular reservoirs of interest. In another embodiment, the pattern is ordered by a consumer and the reservoirs are pre-filled by a manufacturer. In yet another embodiment, the pattern is a common pattern as determined by a manufacturer of the cartridge. In this way, a barcode pattern or a brand pattern can be contained within reservoirs of a cartridge of the invention. As illustrated in FIG. 9(a) the reservoirs 91 can be ruptured or compressed by force, such as a mechanical force of a plunger or a piston 93. In an embodiment, the reservoirs are ruptured or compressed by an injection device of the invention. After force has been applied to the reservoir 91, fluid can move away from the reservoir 91 via the fluidic communication with the injector shaft 92, and if the shaft 92 is in contact with or inserted into an object, the cartridge 9 can deliver the pattern of the liquid composition to the object. [00109] FIG. 9(b) illustrates another exemplary embodiment of a cartridge 9 of the invention. Reservoirs 91 of a cartridge 9 can be filled or unfilled by a liquid composition, such as ink. The reservoirs 91, or as in FIG. 9(b), chambers 91, can be capped with a material 94 that moves with applied force, such as a plastic or a pliable polymer. Other suitable cap materials, such as aluminum foil, would be obvious to those skilled in the art. In FIG. 9(b), the chamber 91 is in fluidic communication with a needle 92. If force is applied to cap of the chamber 94, the ink contained within the chamber 91 can exit through the distal end of the needle 92. Examples of the force applied to the chamber include, but are not limited to, spring, air, compressed gas, and mechanical force. [00110] FIG. 9(c) demonstrates yet another exemplary embodiment of a cartridge 9 of the invention. An ink well 95 is in fluidic communication with reservoirs of the cartridge 91. In the exemplary embodiment, the reservoirs 91 can comprise a valve 96 at one end and be in fluidic communication with a needle 92 on the other end. In order to deliver a predetermined pattern of ink to a plurality of reservoirs, some valves may be open and some valves may be closed. In an embodiment, all valves are open, or all valves are closed. When a valve 96 is open, ink can travel rom t e in we nto t e reservoir an t roug t e nee e to e delivered to an o ject. When closed, the reservoir 91 remains empty and no ink is transferred to an object. [00111] FIG. 10(a) illustrates an exemplary embodiment of a cartridge 100 of the invention wherein the reservoirs 101 containing readable ink of the cartridge may be a blister pack 103. Also shown in FIG. 10(a) is an applicator 104 that can interact with the blister pack 103 to deliver the readable ink to injector shaft 102. FIG. 10(b) and FIG. 10(c) illustrates embodiments and methods of use of the reservoirs 101 in this format. FIG. 10(b) demonstrates a reel 103 of reservoirs being fed over an array of injector shafts 102, wherein an applicator 104 can deliver readable ink from the reservoir 101 through the injector shaft 102 to an object. The reel of reservoirs 103 can be pre-coded to determine a pattern for a mark delivered to an object. FIG. 10(c) illustrates a similar embodiment, wherein a roller applicator 104 interacts with the reel of reservoirs 103 to deliver fluid to an object.

[00112] FIG. 11 illustrates three more exemplary embodiments of a cartridge 110 of the invention. The cartridges can be removable from an injection device, and can be disposable. The cartridges can be manufactured and sold in bulk or can be customized for an individual consumer. FIG. ll(a) shows a cartridge 110 that comprises a seven by seven array of reservoirs 111 and a corresponding seven by seven array multi-injector assembly 112. In this embodiment, each injector shaft is associated with a reservoir. Also in the example embodiment of FIG. 11 (a) the reservoirs 111 are molded into a substrate 113 that comprises the cartridge 110. Example materials of a substrate include, but are not limited to, polymers, biodegradable polymers, plastics, metals, foils, and any other material that would be suitable to construct such cartridges. In FIG. 11 (a), the multi-injector assembly 112 and/or injector shafts may be part of the substrate 113, for example, created by the mold of the substrate, or separate from the substrate 113, for example, needles that are attached after molding a substrate. The injector shafts 112 can comprise the same material or different material than the reservoirs 111 and substrate 111 of the cartridge 110. FIG. ll(b) illustrates a five reservoir 111 and multi-injector assembly 112 for delivering smaller amounts of fluid to an object, or for use in a smaller injection device. [00113] FIG. ll(c) demonstrates an exemplary embodiment of a cartridge 110 that comprises a top plate 114 to which the reservoirs 111 and multi-injector assembly 112 are attached. In this example, the reservoirs 111 can be part of the multi-injector assembly 112 or part of an individual injector shaft. For example, the injector shaft can be a needle with a larger proximal end that serves as a reservoir for fluid to be delivered through the distal end of the shaft. The example embodiments of FIG. 11 can be covered by a pliable cover or can be uncovered. . i us ra es an exemp ary em o imen w erein a cartridge IZU comprises an array of readable ink filled gel capsules 123 in a chamber of a reservoir 121 of the cartridge. [00115] FIG. 13 demonstrates a pre-coded set of reservoirs 131 on a sheet 134 that can be brought into contact with an array of injector shafts 132 as another embodiment of a cartridge 130. The injector shafts 132 can puncture the sheet 134 of reservoirs 131 with a proximal end 133 and deliver the fluidic contents through the distal end 135.

[00116] FIG. 14 demonstrates an exemplary cartridge 140 wherein the reservoirs 141 of the cartridge are submerged in a readable ink well 143. Valves 144 connected to the reservoirs 141 can be opened selectively to allow ink to be delivered to the reservoirs 141 and the injector shafts 142.

[00117] FIG. 15 illustrates some exemplary embodiments of configuration for some of the cartridges 150 of the invention. FIG. 15(a) shows a cartridge 150 wherein the reservoirs 151 (or ink block in the figure) are in direct contact with a multi-injector assembly 152 (or needle block in the figure). FIG. 15(b) displays a cartridge 150 wherein the reservoirs 151 are not in direct contact with the injector shafts 152. In this exemplary embodiment, the reservoirs 151 can be brought into contact with the injector shafts 152 by a user or mechanical device to deliver a mark to an object. Also, this embodiment provides flexibility of either separate disposable reservoirs 151, injector shafts 152, or both. [00118] FIG. 16(a) illustrates an exemplary layout of a cartridge 160 configuration of the invention wherein the reservoirs 161 can vary in size depending on the mark to be delivered to an object. FIG. 16(b) illustrates a stack of reservoirs 161 to be loaded into a cartridge 160 of the invention. The order and layout of the reservoirs 161 in the stack can be predetermined based on the pattern to be delivered to an object. [00119] FIG. 17 illustrates a cartridge 170 for use with an exemplary injection device of the invention. The cartridge 170 has a housing 173 and a series of holes 174 that can be filled by reservoirs 171 and/or injector shafts 172. In FIG. 17, a hole 174 in the housing 173 contains a reservoir 171 that can contain a chamber of fluid, for example ink. The chamber 171 is in fluidic communication with an injector shaft 172 protruding from the bottom of the housing 173. The chamber 171 can have a plunger, chamber bung, or pliable cover 175 incorporated within or on top of the chamber 171. A module cover 176 can cover the area of the housing 173 comprising holes in order to protect and/or guide the cartridge 170 when inserted into an injection device of the invention. Injection Device [00120] A cartridge of the invention can be part of or inserted into an injection device of the invention. The injection device can provide a force, such as air pressure or mechanical force o pus on a p ia e cover or lexi e iap ragm o a car ri ge o e iver a tluid to an objec through a multi-injector assembly. The injection device can also puncture or rupture the cover of a cartridge to provide force that pushes fluid contained within a reservoir through a multi-injector assembly and into an object. [00121] As used herein, an applicator can be any applicator used to apply force or manipulation to a cartridge of the invention. The applicator can be simple device or can be an injection device of the invention.

[00122] By way of example only, an injection device of the invention can be powered manually or by battery, rechargeable battery, main power supply, solenoid, petrol engine, gas engine, butane engine, compressed gas or fluid, or mechanical means, such as a spring that is electronically fired. Also by way of example only, the power unit of the injection device can be separate from or part of the injection device. Examples of configurations of injection devices of the invention include, but are not limited to, top handle lift, two-handed press, pistol grip, long handled applicator, mechanical hand crank, two-handed yoke press, automatic press, or any other suitable mechanical configuration.

[00123] FIG. 18(a) illustrates an exemplary injection device 180 of the invention comprising an actuator plate 81, plungers 82, and contact plate 83. In the example, an actuator plate 81 is in contact with or can be brought into contact with a plurality of plungers 82. The plurality of plungers 82 can be aligned with a plurality of injector shafts 85 of a cartridge 84 of the invention. The cartridge can be a permanent feature of the injection device or can be removable. The plungers can also be part of the injector shafts, such as inside the injector shafts, or positioned above the injector shafts. The injector shafts can be positioned to travel through a contact plate 83 such that the plate maintains an alignment or pattern of the injector shafts 85. As shown in the example of FIG. 18(a), force can be applied to the actuator plate 81, which in turn transfers the force to the plungers 82. The force applied to the actuator plate can be applied by any mechanical device capable of delivering force. The force can also be manual force applied by a user of the injection device. Examples of devices capable of applying force to an actuator plate of the example include, but are not limited to, a piston and a pump. [00124] Force applied to the plungers 82 can be used move a liquid through the injector shafts 85. In an example, an injector shaft comprises a liquid composition, such as ink. A plunger can enter a hollow body of an injector shaft and push the liquid through the shaft to deliver the liquid to an object.

[00125] In another embodiment of the exemplary device in FIG. 18(b), force applied to the actuator plate causes the injector shafts 85 to penetrate an object, such as the skin of an animal. Also shown in FIG. 18(b), the injection device 180 can comprise a positioning componen o a ign e ac ua or p a e, p ungers , an in ec or s a s 85. lhe positioning component 86 can also be incorporated to prevent the device 180 from twisting or moving when force is applied. In an embodiment, the positioning component can be one or a plurality of rods along which other parts of the device are aligned. Further, other parts of the device may travel or translate along the positioning component. If the injector shafts contain a liquid composition, this can result in more accurate delivery of the liquid composition to an object that has been penetrated by the injector shafts.

[00126] In another embodiment, an actuator plate can deliver a mechanical force to a piston or a cam which in turn can transmit a force to a plunger. As before, the plunger can push a liquid composition or any other type of composition through an injector shaft into an object.

[00127] In an embodiment, a plunger is inserted into a hollow injector shaft. The plunger can seal tightly with the inside surface of the injector shaft, such as to prevent the flow of a liquid composition in the shaft in a direction toward the plunger. As the plunger moves through the injector shaft, a composition in the injector shaft exits the injector shaft away from the plunger.

[00128] An injector shaft of a device of the invention can comprise a reservoir containing a liquid composition, such as ink. An injector shaft can also be in fluidic communication with a reservoir containing a liquid composition. If pressure or mechanical force is applied to the reservoir, the liquid composition can travel from the reservoir to the injector shaft. If the injector shaft is hollow, liquid composition can travel within the injector shaft and exit the distal end of the shaft. For example, if the injector shaft is a needle, the needle can have a reservoir toward the proximal end of the needle and when force is applied to the proximal end of the needle, such as by a plunger, liquid composition in the reservoir is forced out through the distal end of the needle. If the needle has been inserted into an object, such as an animal, the liquid composition can be deposited within the animal. For example, when the liquid composition is a readable ink, using an injection device of the invention, the needles can deliver the ink to the dermis of the animal, thereby creating a mark, such as a tattoo. The injection device can also comprise a plate for aligning the injector shafts. The device can also comprise a positioning component used to align all the components of the device for more accurately transferring force from one component to another.

[00129] FIG. 18(a) illustrates an exemplary injection device 180 of the invention. A mechanical force device 187, such as a spring, is positioned above an actuator plate 181. In this example, four positioning components 186 are used align other components of the device and allow for the transfer of force from the device to the delivery of a composition to an object. FIG. 18(b) illustrates a closer view of the lower part of the device in FIG. 18(a). As illustrated, the . injec ion evice comprises a p unger oc , a eas one p unger i»z, a cartridge oc 188, a cartridge 184, at least one injector shaft 185, and a contact plate 183. The plunger block 189 provides a surface to which one or a plurality of plungers can be attached. A mechanical force device can transfer force to an actuator plate which can provide force to the surface of the plunger block. The actuator plate and plunger block are typically configured to move when under force along the positioning components of the device.

[00130] In the exemplary embodiment of FIG. 18(b), the device comprises a cartridge block 188 for positioning a cartridge 184 below the plungers 182 and plunger block 189. A cartridge can be a cartridge of the invention. The cartridge can be part of the device or separate from the device and insertable into the injection device. The cartridge can be disposable or non- disposable. In an embodiment, the cartridge comprises a plurality of injector shafts and is insertable into an injection device of the invention. Further, cartridge and the injector shafts are then disposable after use, as to not contaminate an object into which the injector shafts can be inserted. In FIG. 18(b), a contact plate 183 is shown to allow for precise delivery of the injector shafts 185 into an object. The contact plate 183 can have a plurality of holes to allow for a plurality of injector shafts 185 to travel through the contact plate 183 and into an object. When an injection device is in use, the contact plate can provide a flat or curved surface that is similar in shape to the surface of an object. By providing a proper surface and holes through which the injector shafts can travel, the contact plate may improve the accuracy of delivery of a liquid composition from the cartridge.

[00131] FIG. 19 demonstrates an exemplary method of inserting a cartridge 194 into an injection device 190. The cartridge 194 can be inserted into a cartridge block 198 which aligns the reservoirs 191 of the cartridge 194 with plungers 192 of the injection device. A stop or locking mechanism can hold the cartridge in place within the cartridge block (not shown). [00132] FIG. 20 illustrates another exemplary embodiment of an injection device 200 of the invention that comprises many of the features of the embodiment of FIG. 18 and also comprises a cartridge positioner 206 and a depth adjuster 207. The cartridge positioner 206 can be any means that can retain the cartridge 204 in place within the injection device 200 and/or position the cartridge within the device to allow the plungers of the injection device 202 to be aligned with the reservoirs or injector shafts 205 of the cartridge. In a non-limiting example, the cartridge positioner 206 can be a screw, a notch, a lock, a rod, a spring, or any other suitable mechanism for positioning an object. The injection device 200 may also comprise a depth adjuster 207 that can allow for the adjustment of the distance that the plungers 202 may travel towards or through the cartridge 204. In another embodiment the cartridge block 208 also moves wi orce, causing e injec or s a s o en er an o jec , suc as e sκin or an anima , through a contact plate 203.

[00133] FIG. 21 displays alternative configurations of a contact plate 213 of an injection device of the invention. The contact plate 213 may be fiat with holes in it to allow for the passage of an injector shaft. As shown in FIG. 21, the contact plate 213 may also comprise a plurality of protrusions 214 through which an injector shaft can travel to an object. The contact plate 213 can also comprise a plurality of sharp protrusions 214 for penetrating an object to stablilize the positioning of an injection device against an object. As shown in FIG. 21, the protrusions 214 may surround a hole through which a injector shaft travels. [00134] FIG. 22 illustrates a footprint of an injection device 220 of the invention from the side of the contact plate 223. The holes 222 in the contact plate 223 are shown, through which injector shafts can travel to create a readable mark on an object. Reservoir [00135] The cartridge or injection device for delivering a readable ink may include a reservoir. The reservoir can provide suitable storage of the fluid that is to be delivered to the multi-injector assembly. In an embodiment, the reservoir provides air-tight storage of a fluid. For example, the reservoir should keep the fluid composition free from contaminants and degradation-enhancing agents. In one embodiment, the reservoir having at least one chamber may be in fluidic communication with a template. In another embodiment, the template is a barcode template. In another embodiment, the reservoir contains a fluid. By way of example only, the fluid may be water. In another embodiment, the water from the reservoir may be used to re-hydrate a dry readable ink coated on or inside the plurality of injector shafts. In one embodiment, the reservoir contains a readable ink. In some embodiments, the reservoir may be attached to the template. The height of the reservoir is large enough to hold a sufficient volume of fluid for a particular application. In another embodiment, a gasket may be used to form an airtight seal as to prevent fluid in the reservoir from escaping. In another embodiment, the reservoir may be in fluidic communication with the multi-injector assembly. In another embodiment, a gasket may be used between the reservoir and the multi-injector assembly. [00136] In one embodiment, the reservoir may comprise at least two chambers. In another embodiment, a first chamber may comprise a readable ink. In another embodiment, a second chamber may comprise a fluid, such as, but not limited to, antibiotics, hormones, growth regulators, and anti-infectives. In another embodiment, the first and/or second chamber is in fluidic communication with a second multi-injector assembly. [00137] In another embodiment, the reservoir is connected to an applicator. By way of example only, the applicator may be driven by air-pressure. In another embodiment, the app ica or may e a s amp- i e app ica or. y way o examp e on y, a car ri ge may e a ac e to an applicator shaped like a stamp. A user of the applicator with a cartridge of the invention may mark an object in the manner analogous to imprinting a stamp on a paper. In another embodiment, the reservoir comprises a semi-permeable seal which may be pierced to enable flow of the fluid in the reservoir to traverse to the multi-injector assembly. In another embodiment, the applicator comprises a means for piercing the semi-permeable seal. In another embodiment, the applicator may comprise a second reservoir such that fluids stored in the second reservoir may traverse through the semi-permeable seal and through the multi-injector assembly. [00138] The reservoir may be formed by materials including, by way of example only, materials that are biocompatible with the fluid contained therein. In one embodiment, the reservoir may be formed by materials selected from the group consisting of: pharmaceutical grade stainless steel, tin, copper, iron, chromium, alloys of these metals, ceramics, and polymers, or combinations thereof. [00139] In another embodiment, the reservoir may be portable such that the reservoir is not in fluidic communication with cartridge or injection device and can be brought into communication. In another embodiment, the reservoir is attached to the multi-injector assembly by a biocompatible tube.

[00140] The cartridge described herein may also comprise a second multi-injector assembly. In one embodiment, the second multi-injector assembly is located adjacent to the multi-injector assembly described previously. In one embodiment, the second multi- injector assembly is comprised of a second plurality of injector shafts. The second injector shaft should have the mechanical strength to remain intact for the delivery of a fluid. The injector shaft should also be sterilizable and/or autoclaveable to ensure uncompromised delivery of a fluid. In one embodiment, the second plurality of injector shafts is sufficiently spaced to enable penetration within the substrate of an object.

[00141] In one embodiment, the second plurality of injector shafts are optionally pre-filled with a pre-determined amount of a fluid. By way of example only, a multi-injector assembly having a second plurality of injector shafts is pre-filled with a fluid selected from the group consisting of: an antibiotic, ink, a hormone, a growth regulator, and an anti-infective. The second plurality of injector shafts are optionally pre-filled fluid with pre-determined amount of fluid. In some embodiments, the second pre-filled injector shafts do not require a corresponding reservoir chamber. In other embodiments, the reservoir comprises two chambers. In one embodiment, the first chamber is in fluidic communication with the multi-injector assembly. In another embodiment, the second chamber is in fluidic communication with a multi-injector assembly. In other embodiments, the reservoir comprises one chamber housing a mixture of fluids. e reservo rs can conta n a u vo ume o etween a out m cro ter to a out

1 liter, including between 1 microliter and 100 milliliter, 1 microliter and 10 milliliter, 10 microliter and 1 milliliter. For example, the reservoirs can contain 50 microliters of readable ink to be delivered to an object. In another example, a reservoir contains a larger volume of readable ink, such as 100 milliliters and delivers the ink through a plurality of injector shafts. Sample Extractor

[00143] In one embodiment is a cartridge for delivering a readable ink further comprising a sample extractor. Embodiments disclosed herein are optionally used to remove material from the object. By way of example only, a sample extractor may include a plurality of extractor shafts of sufficient length to extract a sample from an object. In one embodiment, the sample extractor further comprises a plurality of extractor shafts of sufficient length to extract a sample from an object. The sample extracted from the object may be stored in the plurality of extractor shafts. In another embodiment, a cartridge comprises a reservoir having an extraction chamber. The extraction chamber can be the same or a different chamber than a chamber for holding a fluid to be delivered. This extraction chamber may store the extracted sample which is optionally analyzed at a later time. Thus, in one embodiment, the extraction chamber is sterilizable. In another embodiment is an external sample extractor holder. In some embodiments, the sample extractor holder is equipped to analyze the sample obtained. In a further embodiment, the reservoir having an extraction chamber is equipped to analyze the sample obtained. In a further embodiment, the plurality of extractor shafts are detachable. In another embodiment, the sample can be analyzed while in the extractor shaft. While not being limited to the examples described herein, the samples analyzed can be selected from the group consisting of: bodily tissues, bodily fluids, skin cells, DNA samples, and blood. In one embodiment, the plurality of extractor shafts is located at the center of a multi-injector assembly. In one embodiment, the devices described herein can deliver a mark to an object while simultaneously extracting a DNA sample. Sensors

[00144] In another embodiment is a cartridge or injection device for delivering a readable mark further comprising a sensor. Sensors may include, but are not limited to, for example, sensors for temperature, pressure and chemical. By way of example only, a sensor is optionally attached to a multi-injector assembly to monitor the flow of fluid leaving the injector shafts. In another embodiment, a sensor is optionally attached to the reservoir to monitor the flow of fluid leaving the reservoir and entering the multi-injector assembly. In another embodiment, a sensor is optionally attached to a multi-injector assembly to monitor the pressure derived from an applicator encased device. In another embodiment, a sensor is optionally attached to the sample extractor to monitor the flow of substrate being extracted from the object. n one em o ment s a cartr ge or n ection ev ce or e ver ng a rea a e mark further comprising a pump means. In another embodiment, the pump means is attached to a reservoir. It is expected that the pump means can be formed by a person having the relevant skill in the art. By way of example only, the pump means acts on the fluid in the reservoir compelling the fluid from the reservoir through the spaces created by a template and into the corresponding injector shafts of the multi-injector assembly. In another embodiment, the pump means compels the fluid within the plurality of injector shafts to within the substrate of the object. [00146] In a further embodiment, is a device for delivering a readable mark within a substrate of an object capable of being marked. While not being limited to, such objects can be selected from the following classes: industrial goods, agricultural goods, forestry derived goods, horticultural goods, pharmaceutical goods, medical goods, paper goods, and household goods. For example, in one embodiment, is a device for delivering a readable mark within a substrate of a paper good, such as, by way of example only, paper, cardboard, labels, photographic paper, and corrugated paper. In another embodiment, is device for delivering a readable mark within the surface of raw and processed meats, such as, but not limited to, processed venison, rabbit, prime cuts of meat, salami, salami casings, ham, pancetta, bologna, sausage, turkey, chicken, quail, duck, fish, preserved meat, and dried meat. In a further embodiment, the object can be selected from dairy products, such as, by way of example only, cheese casings, cheese, such as cheddar, camembert, brie, gouda, provolone, mozzarella, swiss, blue- veined, gruyere, havarti, parmesan, and romano. In yet a further embodiment, the object can be leather goods, such as, but not limited to, animal skins and hides. In other embodiments, the object can be selected from fruits and vegetables. By way of example only, in one embodiment, the object can be selected from the group consisting of kiwifruit, watermelon, oranges, bananas, apples, pears, mangos, avocados, corn, pumpkins, melon, cucumber, peppers, tomatoes, zucchinis, beans, leeks, potatoes, and taro. In another embodiment, the object can be selected from construction goods, such as, by way of example only, wood, lumber, semi-worked wood, such as beams, planks, panels, veneers, cork, reed, raw fibrous textiles, natural textile fibers, artificial textile fibers, cane, and wicker. [00147] In one embodiment is a device for delivering a readable mark within the surface of a human. By way of example only, in one embodiment is a device for delivering a readable mark to individuals who are at risk of wandering away from their care facilities. In another embodiment, is a device for delivering a readable mark to an individual suffering from Alzheimer's disease, dimentia, or other related disorders. In other embodiments, the individual is from a nursing facility and/or an assisted living facility. In yet another embodiment, is a device for delivering a readable mark to military personnel, such as for example, a soldier. In one embodiment, is a device for delivering a readable mark under the skin of a soldier to distinguish e so er rom e enemy. n ano er em o imen , is a evice or e ivering a readable mar under the skin of a soldier to determine the rank of the military personnel. [00148] In one embodiment is a device for delivering a readable mark within the surface of a farm or livestock animal. By way of example only, in one embodiment is a device for delivering a readable mark to livestock who are suitable for different types or levels of food production. For example, a mark from a device of the invention can be a tattoo or a brand. A brand specific to a specific farm or farmer could be ordered and obtained as a means for separating and maintaining information of a large number of animals. [00149] In another embodiment, is a device for delivering a readable mark under the skin of an individual to provide secure access control into restricted areas. By way of example only, in one embodiment, is a device for delivering a readable mark under the skin of an individual to provide secure access to high security facilities, government facilities, nuclear power plants, national research laboratories, and correction facilities. In one embodiment, is a device for delivering a readable mark under the skin of a sex offender and/or pedophile. In another embodiment, is a device for delivering a readable mark under the skin of a prison inmate or parolee.

[00150] In one embodiment, is a device for delivering an injection mark within the substrate of an object. By way of example only, in one embodiment, is a device for delivering a readable mark wherein the mark is selected from the group consisting of far-infrared, near- infrared, and infrared readable marks. In another embodiment, is a device for delivering a readable mark wherein the mark is selected from the group consisting of visible, far- infrared, near-infrared, and infrared readable inks.

[00151] Other techniques of delivering the readable mark can be employed. While not being bound by a particular theory, microporation describes the formation of micropores in the stratum corneum to enhance the delivery of fluids. In one aspect, is a device for delivering a readable mark by using a pulsed laser light of wavelength, pulse length, pulse energy, pulse number, and pulse repetition sufficient to ablate the stratum corneum without significantly damaging the underlying epidermis and then applying a readable ink to the region of ablation. In one embodiment, is a device for delivering a readable mark wherein the pulsed laser light of wavelength, pulse length, pulse energy, pulse number and pulse repetition are concentrated on a barcode template area. Following ablation of the exposed areas of the surface of the object by the barcode template, a readable ink is deposited to the region of ablation. In other embodiments, the microporation device further comprises a sample extractor. In other embodiments, the microporation device further comprises a second multi-injector assembly for delivery of fluids such as, antibiotics, hormones, growth regulators, and anti-infectives. xposure or ce s o in ense e ec ric e s or rie periods ot time temporari y destabilizes membranes. Such a de stabilization, due to an induced transmembrane potential, results in destabilization of cells in the order of minutes after electrical treatment ceases. In one aspect, a readable ink is delivered within a substrate by first exposing the substrate to the readable ink. The substrate is then exposed to electric fields by administering one or more direct current pulses. Electrical treatment is conducted in a manner that results in a temporary membrane destabilization with minimal cytotoxicity. The intensity of electrical treatment is described by the magnitude of the applied electric field. The field is typically defined as the voltage applied to the electrodes divided by the distance between the electrodes. Electric field strengths ranging from 1000 to 5000 V/cm have been used and are specific to the substrates described herein. Thus, in one embodiment, is a device for delivering a readable ink comprising a readable ink and an electroporation means wherein the electroporation means is capable of applying an electric field. In another embodiment, the readable ink is applied to the substrate using a barcode template. In another embodiment, the pulse shape applied is rectangular. In yet another embodiment, the pulse width ranges from about 1 microsecond to about 200 milliseconds. In another embodiment the electroporation device further comprises a second multi- injector mechanism. In a further embodiment, the electroporation device further comprises a sample extractor. In yet a further embodiment, the electroporation device further comprises a sensor. Readable Ink

[00153] Readable ink includes any substance that is injectable into the surface of an object or markable on the surface of an object to form a pattern, code, or design that is readable by either a human or a device. The readable ink includes solids (e.g., powders, nanoparticles), liquids (including solutions) and combinations thereof (e.g., suspensions). [00154] Using the methods and devices described herein the readable ink is made into a pattern, code, or design that is readable by either a human or a device. In one embodiment, the pattern, code, or design is placed (e.g., injected) into the surface of an object (including, the dermis of an animal), or placed onto the surface of an object. The resulting pattern, code, or design is optionally subsequently read by a human or a device. The pattern, code, or design is optionally permanent, semi-permanent, removable, or temporary.

[00155] In some embodiments, the readable ink is visible ink that is readable visually or through a microscope. Readable ink includes an ink or substance that is readable by a machine, such as a flourescent dye. In one embodiment, the readable ink is read with microwave and/or millimeter wave radiation. The readable ink is optionally a microwave scatterable ink that is optionally read by a microwave reading device. See, e.g., U.S. Patent No. 7,205,774, incorpora e y re erence m i s en ire y, or non- imi ing examp es o inks, reading devices, patterns/barcodes, and uses of such items. The readable ink described herein, as well as the devices and methods for providing readable patterns, codes or designs, are optionally used with the disclosed materials in U.S. Patent No. 7,205,774. [00156] As further examples, the readable ink is readable only in the infrared or ultraviolet spectrum. In further examples, the readable ink is an ink that is read by capacitance measurements. The readable ink is optionally a substance that is read by a magnet or magnetic resonance (MR). Readable ink also encompasses ink read by computed tomography (CT) or positron emission tomography (PET). The readable ink is optionally a substance that is read digitally.

[00157] In some embodiments, readable ink is readable because, when delivered, it forms a discernable pattern, such as a barcode, hologram, or brand. Compositions described herein are useful for encoding information in a pattern that is recognized remotely. An example of such a pattern is a barcode. However, there many other non-barcode patterns that are used to encode information, and all such patterns, codes and designs are within the ambit of the methods, compositions and devices disclosed herein.

[00158] Instant compositions are applied to an object in such a manner as to produce a variety of patterns, including images, holograms, two-dimensional representations, and codes, including barcode like patterns. Readable codes have many uses, such as, though not limited to product or product packaging labeling, document or sample identification and tracking, (e.g. tickets, biological samples, mail documents). Thus the compositions described herein are applied to the surface of an object for identification and/or tracking purposes.

[00159] In one embodiment, the instant compositions are applied as a readable code on, or in some embodiments, into to any suitable substrate. Examplary substrates are metal, glass, plastic, paper (including base paper, bond paper, construction paper, cover paper, envelope paper including woven envelope paper, craft paper, newsprint, offset paper, packaging papers, mechanical paper, thin papers, paperboard, boxboard and tissue) and paper containing or paper derived products such as though not limited to cardboard, containerboard, chipboard, corrugating medium, cotton fiber, form bond, insulating board, bleached board, wallboard and wet machine board, and paper derived packaging materials, wood, fabric including natural fabrics (e.g. silk, cotton, linen, wool) and non-natural fabrics (e.g. nylon, polyester) and blends thereof, animal skin, fruit, vegetables, cheese, etc. In further or alternative embodiments, the substrate is an animal and the readable code is placed within the dermis layer of the animal's skin. Any animal is optionally so marked, including livestock animals, pets, laboratory animals, zoo animals, wild animals, and humans. xamp es o rea a e n nc u e t ose sc ose n P Application No.

PCT/US07/79446, filed September 25, 2007, the disclosure of which (including all examples of ink and readable liquid suspensions) is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety. [00161] Described herein are new compositions that, when applied in a pattern (e.g. the "readable code"), deposit information that is capable of remote identification (i.e. "remotely reading the code"). Such compositions have liquid properties that make them adaptable to delivery (e.g. application) by means such as a jet or microneedle injector. Instant compositions comprise a particulate material, a suspending agent, and a dispersing agent. [00162] Readable ink includes colloidal suspensions (also referred herein as 'liquid suspensions') that are used to mark objects. In one embodiment, the readable mark is placed on the surface of the object or within the surface of the object or under the surface of the object. In one embodiment, the mark is read with microwave and/or millimeter wave radiation. In one embodiment, the mark on the object is used to provide information, including information about the object, such as the identification of the object. In one embodiment, the mark is in the form of a two-dimensional image or a three-dimensional image. In one embodiment, the mark is produced from a single type of colloidal suspension or from multiple types of colloidal suspension. In one embodiment, the mark is in the form of a barcode, another form of code, an image, or a hologram. In one embodiment, the mark on the object is a permanent mark, a semipermanent mark, a mark that wears off or washes off, or a readily removable mark. [00163] In an embodiment of the readable ink, the ink dries within one hour of application on at least a portion of a surface. In a further or alternative embodiment, the composition is used for intradermal application.

[00164] In some embodiments, readable ink is used to provide an information-containing pattern detectable by remote interrogation. In a further or alternative embodiment, the information-containing pattern is a barcode or brand. In a further or alternative embodiment, the information-containing pattern is a hologram.

[00165] The formulations described herein comprise solid particulate matter suspended in suitable liquids (i.e., organic or aqueous solvents that do not cause the decomposition of the dielectric material particles, and are useful for providing dielectric materials). In one embodiment, the formulations are directed to use on or within animals, and the suitable liquid is a biocompatible liquid. However, for uses not directed to the marking of animals, the liquid is optionally a non-biocompatible liquid. In some embodiments, at least one of the solid particulates within the formulation is a dielectric material. [00166] Dielectric materials are highly resistant to electric current, and as such tend to concentrate an applied electric field (e-field) within themselves. Dielectric materials include so i s, iqui s, or gases, oug so i s are e mos common y use ie ectrics, some non- limiting examples of dielectric materials include ceramics, porcelain, glass, mineral oil and most plastics, and their uses include though are not limited to industrial coatings, electrical transformers and high voltage capacitors. Many dielectrics also demonstrate piezoelectric properties (the ability to generate a potential difference when subjected to mechanical stress, or change physical shape when an external voltage is applied across the material) and/or ferroelectric properties (exhibit a spontaneous dipole moment reversible by an externally applied electric field). [00167] In some embodiments the dielectric material has a Perovskite structure. Perovskites are a large family of crystalline ceramics that derive their name from a specific mineral known as perovskite (CaTiO3) due to their crystalline structure. The mineral perovskite typically exhibits a crystal lattice that appears cubic, though it is actually orthorhombic in symmetry due to a slight distortion of the structure. Members of the class of ceramics dubbed perovskites all exhibit a structure that is similar to the mineral of the same name. The idealized structure is a primitive cube, with the A cation located in the middle of the cube, B on the corners, and the oxygens on the centers of the unit cell faces.

[00168] The characteristic chemical formula of a perovskite ceramic is ABO3, where A and B are different cations of different sizes, and typically A is mono- or divalent and B is tetra- or pentavalent. Simple examples include LaMnO3, BaTiO3, CaTiO3, MgSiO3, CaZrO3, YAlO3, SrTiO3, KNbO3, LiNbO3, LiTaO3, BiFeO3, SrCeO3 and ScAlO3.

[00169] Slightly more complex examples exist whereby the A cation is in fact composed of two different cations, so the formula becomes XnY1-nBO3, (i.e. X and Y together make A, e.g. Sr0 5Ca0 5RuO3, where x=0.5), such that the ratio A:B:O is still 1 : 1 :3 (or (X +Y):B:O = 1 :1 :3). Similarly, the B cation is optionally composed of two different cations, as in lead zirconate titanate (PZT) which has a formula PbZr1-XTixO3, and optionally exist in many forms (e.g. Zro.65Ti035PbO3).

[00170] Perovskites are useful, versatile compounds having many technological applications such as sensors, superconductors, catalysts and in particular ferroelectrics as advanced electronic materials useful in applications such as memory devices, resonators and filters, infrared sensors, microelectromechanical systems, and optical waveguides and modulators. Among the perovskite- structured ferroelectric materials, sodium potassium niobate, NaxKi-xNbO3 (NKN) is a useful material in radio frequency (rf) and microwave applications due to its high dielectric tenability and low dielectric loss. [00171] In some embodiments, the formulations described herein are for use as dielectric inks for tattooing onto live animals. Thus, the components of the formulations should be iocompa i e an non- egra a e or e en ire i e o e anima . iocompatible ferroelec ric ceramics (e.g., in the form of a suspension or powder) are optionally injected under the skin, so as to remain as a non-degradable tattoo for the entire life of the animal. US Patent 6,526,984, issued Mar. 4, 2003 and titled "Biocompatible Material for Implants" discloses the biocompatible ceramic NaxK1-xNbθ3, and is hereby incorporated by reference for its disclosure of biocompatible ceramics. Although not disclosed in the aforementioned patent, the biocompatible ceramic NaxK1-XNbO3 is optionally used as a component of the readable inks described herein. [00172] The formulations described herein therefore comprise solid particulate matter, as described above, suspended in suitable, biocompatible liquids. In order to maintain effective dispersion of the solid matter, dispersing agents or dispersants are added. Dispersing agents promote uniform and maximum suspension of fine solid particles within a suspending medium, preventing the solids from flocculating (bunching together) and settling out of the liquid. Typically, a dispersant has two components - a hydrophobic group and a hydrophilic group, and employs an electrosteric stabilizing mechanism in which the hydrophobic group acts as an anchor adsorbed onto the solid particle surface through an acid-base relation, electron donor/acceptor relation, Van der Waals forces, or physical absorption. The hydrophilic group is extended into the liquid to keep the dispersant soluble. This results in a competition in the dispersing process between the particle and the dispersant, the dispersant and the liquid, and the particle and the solvent. The interaction energies between the liquid, the solid particles, and the dispersant determine the stability of the dispersion. In order for the dispersion to be stable, the polymer must form a strong anchor with the pigment.

[00173] Dispersants for use in aqueous media are typically polymeric and include, but are not limited to, polyacrylates, polymethacrylates, lignosulfonic acids, polynaphthalene sulfonic acids and the like. Dispersing agents of particular interest for the present invention are sold as DAR V AN® derivatives, available from R.T. Vanderbilt Company, Inc., Norwalk, CT. [00174] Also, optionally present in the formulations described herein are one or more thickening agents, which are additives that alter the viscosity and/or rheological properties of the liquid medium. Viscosity is a measure of the resistance of a fluid to deform under shear stress, while rheology examines the deformation and flow of matter under the influence of an applied stress. Desirable rheological properties of the formulations described herein are given in the table below: pH G^ Xy (Pa) ^ (Pa»s") n

(kPa)

6.15 150 2Ϊ0 101 0.72

6.85 100 16.0 86 0.68

7.20 67 6.8 76 0.57

7.60 40 4.8 72 0.50

8.05 27 3.0 58 0.44

[00175] Thus, one or more thickening agents are optionally added in a sufficient amount to ensure the desired rheological properties of the formulation, including a viscosity of 10-1000 cP, preferably 10-200 cP, and most preferably 20-15OcP. Thus, the amount of the thickening agent required varies within wide limits, and will depend on the individual components present in the formulation as well as their respective concentrations.

[00176] Thickening agents are typically polymeric and comprise aqueous dispersions of acrylic polymers and cellulose derivatives, including water-soluble cellulose ethers such as alkyl celluloses (e.g. C1-C3 alkyl) including methylcellulose, hydroxycellulose, hydroxylalkyl celluloses (e.g. C2-C3 alkyl) including hydroxyethyl and hydroxypropyl cellulose, and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose polymers, including their salts, such as by way of example only the sodium salt of carboxymethyl cellulose. Other non-limiting examples include alginates, especially sodium alginate, ammonium polyacrylate, xantham gums, monogalactam thickeners, Vinol 205, supplied by Air Products & Chemical Co., Thickener L supplied by General Aniline and Film Co., 2-aminomethylpropanol, the carboxylvinyl polymers, sold as Carbopol resins by B. F. Goodrich Chemical Co., (e.g. Carbopols 934, 940, 941, 960 and 961), polyethylene oxides, 2-aminomethylpropanol and the like. Thickening agents of interest for the present invention are sold as METHOCEL® derivatives, available from The Dow Chemical Company, Midland, MI. Methods of Use [00177] In one aspect is a method of delivering a readable mark comprising applying a readable mark within a surface of an object by means of a cartridge of the invention comprising a readable ink. In one aspect is a method of delivering a readable mark comprising applying a readable mark within a surface of an object by means of a multi-injector assembly and a readable ink. In one embodiment, is a method of delivering a readable mark further comprising utilizing a template. In another embodiment, is a method of delivering a readable mark wherein the template is a barcode template. In a further embodiment, is a method of delivering a readable mark wherein the multi-injector assembly is comprised of a plurality of injector shafts. In yet another embodiment, is a method of delivering a readable mark wherein the plurality of injector s a s compr ses a ase an a rs en su cien o pene ra e e sur ace o e o jec . n one embodiment, is a method of delivering a readable mark wherein applying a readable mark further comprises utilizing a reservoir having at least one chamber. In some embodiments, is a method of delivering a readable mark wherein a template is between the reservoir and the multi-injector assembly. In another embodiment, is a method of delivering a readable mark wherein the plurality of injector shafts comprise between about 2 and about 2000 injector shafts. In one embodiment, is a method of delivering a readable mark wherein the plurality of injector shafts are hollow. In one embodiment, is a method of delivering a readable mark wherein the plurality of injector shafts are pre-filled with the readable ink. In one embodiment, is a method of delivering a readable mark, wherein the object is an animal. In another embodiment, is a method of delivering a readable mark wherein the animal is a cow. In another method, is a method of delivering a readable mark to an animal from the bovine family, the ovine family, the equine family, the canine family, the feline family, the porcine family, the lapine family, the caprine family, the murine family, or avian. In a further embodiment, is a method of delivering a readable mark to within a substrate of an object capable of being marked, such as, by way of example only, fruit, lumber, and cheese casings. In a further embodiment, is a method of delivering a readable mark wherein the plurality of injector shafts are solid. In a further embodiment, is a method of delivering a readable mark wherein the plurality of injector shafts are coated with the readable ink. In yet a further embodiment, is a method of delivering a readable mark wherein a template is in fluidic communication with the first end of the plurality of injector shafts.

[00178] In yet a further embodiment, is a method of delivering a readable mark wherein the readable ink comprises: at least one biocompatible liquid; at least one particulate oxide of formula ABO3 suspended with the biocompatible liquid; wherein A is a cation or combination of cations; B is a cation or combination of cations, differing in composition and size to A; the oxide has a Perovskite structure; and the oxide particles have an average diameter of from about 500 nm to about 10 μm; at least one dispersing agent; optionally, at least one thickening agent; and optionally, at least one binding agent. In one embodiment, is a method of delivering a readable mark wherein the particulate oxide is sodium potassium niobate. In a further embodiment, is a method of delivering a readable mark wherein the sodium potassium niobate has a formula NaxK1-xNbθ3, wherein 0 < x < 1. In yet a further embodiment, is a method of delivering a readable mark wherein the sodium potassium niobate has a formula NaxK1-xNbθ3 wherein x = 0.5. [00179] In one embodiment, is a method of delivering a readable mark further comprises utilizing an applicator. In one embodiment, is a method of delivering a readable mark further comprises u z ng an in ec ion evice o e inven ion. n one em o imen , is a me o o delivering a readable mark wherein the applicator or injection device is in direct communication with the reservoir. In one embodiment, is a method of delivering a readable mark further comprising utilizing a sample extractor. In one embodiment, is a method of delivering a readable mark wherein the sample extractor is comprised of a plurality of hollow extractor shafts of sufficient length to extract a sample from the object. In another embodiment, is a method of delivering a readable mark wherein the sample is selected from the group consisting of tissue, bodily fluids, DNA sample, and blood. In a further embodiment, is a method of delivering a readable mark wherein the plurality of injector shafts are sufficiently spaced to penetrate the surface of the object. In yet a further embodiment, is a method of delivering a readable mark wherein the injector shafts have a diameter of between about 1 μm and about 1 mm. In some embodiments, is a method of delivering a readable mark wherein the injector shafts have a diameter of between about 1 μm and about 100 μm. In yet another embodiment, is a method of delivering a readable mark wherein the injector shafts are manufactured from materials selected of the group consisting of: pharmaceutical grade stainless steel, tin, iron, copper, chromium, alloys, polymers, silicon, and silicon dioxide. In a further embodiment, is a method of delivering a readable mark further comprising utilizing a second multi- injector assembly. In one embodiment, is a method of delivering a readable mark wherein the reservoir has a first chamber and a second chamber. In another embodiment, is a method of delivering a readable mark wherein the second chamber is in fiuidic communication with a multi-injector assembly. In a further embodiment, is a method of delivering a readable mark wherein a second multi-injector assembly is comprised of a second plurality of injector shafts. In one embodiment, is a method of delivering a readable mark wherein the second plurality of injector shafts is comprised of between about 2 to about 2000 second injector shafts. In a further embodiment, is a method of delivering a readable mark wherein the second injector shafts are pre-filled with a fluid. In a further embodiment, is a method of delivering a readable mark wherein the fluid is selected from the group consisting of: antibiotics, hormones, growth regulators, and anti-infectives. In yet a further embodiment, is a method of delivering a readable mark wherein the fluid is a hormone. [00180] In one embodiment, is a method of delivering a readable mark further comprising utilizing a pump. In another embodiment, is a method of delivering a readable mark further comprising utilizing a sensor. In one embodiment, is a method of delivering a readable mark wherein the multi-injector assembly is disposable. In a further embodiment, is a method of delivering a readable mark wherein the plurality of injector shafts detach from the base. In yet another embodiment, is a method of delivering a readable mark wherein the multi-injector assembly is reusable. n one aspect is a met o o e ivering a rea a e mar comprising applying a readable mark within a surface of an object by means of an electroporation injection assembly and a readable ink. In one embodiment, is a method of delivering a readable mark comprising applying a readable mark by means of electroporation injection within a surface of an object wherein the readable ink comprises: at least one biocompatible liquid; at least one particulate oxide of formula ABO3 suspended with the biocompatible liquid; wherein A is a cation or combination of cations; B is a cation or combination of cations, differing in composition and size to A; the oxide has a Perovskite structure; and the oxide particles have an average diameter of from about 500 nm to about 10 μm; at least one dispersing agent; optionally, at least one thickening agent; and optionally, at least one binding agent. In one embodiment, is a method of delivering a readable mark comprising applying a readable mark within a surface of an object by means of electroporation injection wherein the particulate oxide is sodium potassium niobate. In another embodiment, is a method of delivering a readable mark comprising applying a readable mark within a surface of an object by means of an electroporation injection wherein the sodium potassium niobate has a formula NaxKi.xNbθ3, wherein 0 < x < 1. In a further embodiment, is a method of delivering a readable mark comprising applying a readable mark within a surface of an object by means of an electroporation injection wherein the sodium potassium niobate has a formula NaxK1-xNbO3 wherein x = 0.5. [00182] FIG. 23 demonstrates a method of using the invention to mark a substrate by inserting a cartridge 231 of the invention into a device. As an example, as shown in FIG. 23, the device can be an injection device of the invention 230. The cartridge 231 can be inserted into the middle of device 230 as shown or through the top or bottom of the device 230. After the cartridge 231 is in place within a device 230, a method of using the device 230 can be carried out by positioning the device holding the cartridge 230 above or in contact with a substrate. In an embodiment, an injection device comprising a cartridge is positioned on the surface of a substrate. The injection device 230 can be stabilized on the surface of the substrate by a mechanical means, such as a hook, needle, suture, tacks, hair grips, or adhesive. In an alternative embodiment, the injection device 230 is stabilized on a substrate by being frictionally adherent. When the injection device 230 comprises a contact plate 233, the contact plate 233 can have means for stabilizing the device on the substrate. The contact plate 233 can also be of a shape to conform to the substrate or can be flat. The contact plate 233 can be any surface that improves the stabilization of the device in respect to the substrate. In an embodiment, an injection device 230 is positioned in proximity of a substrate to be marked. n a me o o e inven ion, p ysica orce, ei er mec anical, pressurize , or manual, can be used to stabilize an injection device and/or cartridge in respect to the substrate to be marked.

[00184] FIG. 24 and FIG. 25 demonstrate a method of using an injection device of the invention. The injection device can comprise reservoirs containing a liquid suspension and injector shafts for injecting a mark into a substrate. In another embodiment, the injection device receives a cartridge, such as the cartridge of the invention, and interacts with the cartridge to deliver a mark to a substrate. FIG. 24 illustrates an injection device 240 of the invention during use where the motion of a mechanical device 241, such as a spring or a piston, at one end of the injection device 240 presses down on an actuator plate 242. In FIG. 24, the injector shafts 245 under force travel through holes in the contact plate 243 and can penetrate a substrate to deliver a mark.

[00185] FIG. 25 displays a method of using an exemplary injection device 250 of the invention, with an exemplary cartridge of the invention. A user inserts a cartridge 254 comprising a multi-injector assembly 255 and reservoirs into an injection device 250. The contact plate 253 of the injection device is placed on the surface of or in proximity to an object to be marked. Force may or may not be exerted to provide better contact of the contact plate 253 to the surface of an object. In FIG. 25, the exemplary injection device 250 has a contact plate 253 that has protrusions 257 to assist interaction of the device with object. For example, if the object is an animal, the protrusions 257 can protrude through hair to contact the epidermis of the animal. Once in place, either mechanical or manual force can be applied to the actuator plate 251, which in turn can transfer the force to a plunger block 259. In addition, the force from the actuator plate 251 can be transferred to the cartridge block 258 holding the cartridge, forcing injector shafts 255 of the cartridge into the object. In an embodiment, the injector shafts 255 have varying lengths to reduce the insertion force needed to enter the object. Optionally, the plunger block 259 can be connected to the cartridge block 258 by a depth adjuster 256 as shown in the example of FIG. 25. The depth adjuster 256 can be set to determine the depth that the cartridge block 258 is moved and, in turn, the depth of the injector shafts 255 that enter the object. Another option of the device 250 for use is that once the desired depth is achieved, the depth adjuster 256 can be released and frame holding the cartridge block 258 can move, so no more force from the actuator plate 251 is transferred to the cartridge block 258. [00186] In FIG. 25, as the plunger block 259 moves toward a cartridge 254, the plungers

252 attached to the block 259 can compress or penetrate the reservoirs of the cartridge. As the plungers 252 continue to move toward the object, they can compress the reservoirs or travel through the reservoirs. This action makes fluid contained within the reservoirs travel out into the o ect v a t e n ector s a s 255. For examp e, the lu s a rea a e nk, and the object is t en marked with the readable ink. When the object is the dermis or skin of an animal, the animal is marked, branded, or tattooed by the injection device 250 of the invention. [00187] In an embodiment of a method of the invention, an applicator or injection device can receive a reusable stainless steel multi-injector array. The applicator or injection device may also comprise a reusable stainless steel multi-injector array. For example, when marking an animal, a reusable stainless steel needle array can be used throughout multiple animals and can be cleaned or sterilized between uses. The device can also be designed such that a multi-use multi-injector head can be swapped out and replaced with a single-use or disposable multi- injector head, such as a biocompatible plastic multi-injector array.

[00188] In another embodiment, the multi-injector array can has injector shafts that have multiple side-bore holes so that readable ink exits out of 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5 holes arranged around the injector shaft. A benefit of this method and cartridge design can be that less injector shafts are dispersed into the dermis, which may lower cost. [00189] In an embodiment for marking an animal, the devices and cartridges of the invention can be used to inject only the dermis. Typically, many other types of injections are intended to go below the dermis. To accomplish injection into only the dermis, the injector shafts can have a collar around them that only allows the shafts to go a set distance into the skin. The collar can be adjustable and the injection device can have a mechanism to allow all needles to be adjusted at once. In another embodiment, intra-dermal injection can be achieved by using injector shafts with side-bore holes. Traditional cannula (hypodermic needles) have a hole at the tip. By changing the position of a hole of a needle during manufacture, the depth of readable ink injection can be predetermined. [00190] In an exemplary method of the invention, to achieve dermis delivery of a readable ink, a multi-injector array is used with each injector shaft corresponding to a possible position for injection. An array of reservoirs can correspond to a possible readable ink location. During manufacture, only reservoirs are filled that correspond to the desired readable ink location. This allows the ink injection pattern to be determined at the factory. It also allows for a low-cost per mark because the reservoir can be made using low cost materials and methods that can be easily scaled. When injecting an animal, the fewer injection points causes less pain to the animal. Pain can also be minimized by using the smallest practical injector shaft. However, smaller injector shafts may not be strong enough to penetrate a thick hide, and both pain and size need to factored into methods of use and methods of manufacture of the cartridges and devices of the invention. [00191] In another embodiment, the pattern of a mark delivered by a device or cartridge or the invention can be determined by the pattern of injector shafts. For example, if the injector s a s are a nee e, an t e mu t - n ector assem y compr ses nee es arranged in a circu ar pattern, the mark delivered is circular. In another embodiment, the injection device controls which injector shafts enter the object to be marked. In another embodiment, injector shafts can be injected into an object at vary depths to determine a pattern or mark by way of the invention. A mark can be delivered by a single injector shaft or by a plurality of injector shafts. The pattern of mark, in any manner, can be pre-determined during manufacture. In another embodiment, the pattern of the mark is determined by a user selectively delivering readable ink from cartridge or injection device of the invention. [00192] In one embodiment, is a method for delivering a readable mark within a substrate of an object comprising applying a readable mark within a substrate of an object capable of being marked by means of a multi-injector assembly and a readable ink. While not being limited to, such objects for which the method can be applied can be selected from the following classes: industrial goods, agricultural goods, forestry derived goods, horticultural goods, pharmaceutical goods, medical goods, paper goods, and household goods. For example, in one embodiment, is a method for delivering a readable mark within a substrate of a paper good, such as, by way of example only, paper, cardboard, labels, photographic paper, and corrugated paper. In another embodiment, is a method for delivering a readable mark within the surface of raw and processed meats, such as, but not limited to, processed venison, rabbit, prime cuts of meat, salami, salami casings, ham, pancetta, bologna, sausage, turkey, chicken, quail, duck, fish, preserved meat, and dried meat. In a further embodiment, the method can be applied to objects selected from dairy products, such as, by way of example only, cheese casings, cheese, such as cheddar, camembert, brie, gouda, provolone, mozzarella, swiss, blue-veined, gruyere, havarti, parmesan, and romano. In yet a further embodiment, the object can be leather goods, such as, but not limited to, animal skins and hides. In other embodiments, the object can be selected from fruits and vegetables. By way of example only, in one embodiment, the object can be selected from the group consisting of kiwifruit, watermelon, oranges, bananas, apples, pears, mangos, avocados, corn, pumpkins, melon, cucumber, peppers, tomatoes, zucchinis, beans, leeks, potatoes, and taro. In another embodiment, the object can be selected from construction goods, such as, by way of example only, wood, lumber, semi-worked wood, such as beams, planks, panels, veneers, cork, reed, raw fibrous textiles, natural textile fibers, artificial textile fibers, cane, and wicker.

[00193] In one embodiment is a method for delivering a readable mark within the surface of a human. By way of example only, in one embodiment is a method for delivering a readable mark to individuals who are at risk of wandering away from their care facilities. In another embodiment, is a method for delivering a readable mark to an individual suffering from Alzheimer's disease, dimentia, or other related disorders. In other embodiments, the individual is rom a nurs ng ac ty an or an ass ste v ng ac ty. n yet anot er embodiment, is a met o for delivering a readable mark to military personnel, such as for example, a soldier. In one embodiment, is a method for delivering a readable mark under the skin of a soldier to distinguish the soldier from the enemy. In another embodiment, is a method for delivering a readable mark under the skin of a soldier to determine the rank of the military personnel.

[00194] In another embodiment, is a method for delivering a readable mark under the skin of an individual to provide secure access control into restricted areas. By way of example only, in one embodiment, is a method for delivering a readable mark under the skin of an individual to provide secure access to high security facilities, government facilities, nuclear power plants, national research laboratories, and correction facilities. In one embodiment, is a method for delivering a readable mark under the skin of a sex offender and/or pedophile. In another embodiment, is a method for delivering a readable mark under the skin of a prison inmate or parolee. [00195] In another embodiment, is a method for delivering an injection mark within the substrate of an object comprising applying a readable mark wherein the mark is selected from the group consisting of far-infrared, near-infrared, and infrared readable marks. In another embodiment, is a method for delivering an injection mark within the substrate of an object comprising applying a readable mark wherein the mark is selected from the group consisting of far-infrared, near-infrared, and infrared readable inks. [00196] In one aspect is a method of delivering a readable mark comprising applying a readable mark within a surface of an object by means of a pneumatic injection assembly and a readable ink. In one embodiment, is a method of delivering a readable mark comprising applying a readable mark within a surface of an object by pneumatic injection means wherein the readable ink comprises: at least one biocompatible liquid; at least one particulate oxide of formula ABO3 suspended with the biocompatible liquid; wherein A is a cation or combination of cations; B is a cation or combination of cations, differing in composition and size to A; the oxide has a Perovskite structure; and the oxide particles have an average diameter of from about 500 nm to about 10 μm; at least one dispersing agent; optionally, at least one thickening agent; and optionally, at least one binding agent. In one embodiment, is a method of delivering a readable mark comprising applying a readable mark within a surface of an object by means of pneumatic injection wherein the particulate oxide is sodium potassium niobate. In another embodiment, is a method of delivering a readable mark comprising applying a readable mark within a surface of an object by means of pneumatic injection wherein the sodium potassium niobate has a formula NaxK1-xNbθ3, wherein 0 < x < 1. In a further embodiment, is a method of delivering a readable mar compr s ng app ying a rea a e mar wit in a sur ace o an o ject by means ot pneumatic injection wherein the sodium potassium niobate has a formula NaxK1-xNbθ3 wherein x = 0.5. Methods of Preparation

[00197] Methods for the preparation of the formulations are presented herein. Typically, the methodologies are straight forward and comprise the sequential addition of the solid components of the formulation to an agitated vessel containing the biocompatible liquid. [00198] One Perovskite of particular interest to the formulations described herein is sodium potassium niobate, NaxK1-xNbθ3 (NKN). Methods for the preparation of NKN have been disclosed previously. For example Li et al, (Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 2006, 89:2, 706) describe the preparation of highly dense Na0 5K0 5NbO3 using spark plasma sintering (SPS), and Reznichenko et al, {Inorganic Materials, 2002, 38:10, 1069-1084) describe the preparation of alkali niobates by solid-state reactions followed by hot pressing. Methods for preparing particulates of sodium potassium niobate (NKN) suitable for use in the formulations described herein are given below, and are summarized in Figure 2 which shows an illustrative, non-limiting example of the preparation of sodium potassium niobate particles, including preparation and analysis of samples. The starting materials, sodium carbonate (Na2CO3), potassium carbonate (K2CO3) and niobium (V) oxide (Nb2Os) are obtained as powders from Sigma Aldrich and Alfa Aesar and were >98% pure. STEP 1 : Preparation of starting materials [00199] The following procedures describe the production of one particular dielectric material that can be used in the ink formulations described herein. However, as noted throughout this disclosure, the ink formulations can be formulated with a variety of dielectric materials. The procedures described herein directed to NKN are provided for illustrative purposes, and not to limit the types of dielectric materials (including other forms of NKN) that can be used in the ink formulations described herein. Further, the particular methods for preparing NKN that are detailed herein are illustrative only; other methods that produce the disclosed particle sizes may also be used.

[00200] In a first step the starting materials are processed to produce fine particulate matter, suitable for calcining. Typically, this process involves milling the solids, followed by sieving. Many milling techniques and apparatus are available. Materials can be wet or dry milled, i.e. in the presence or absence of a suitable lubricating liquid. Non-limiting examples of milling apparatus include a pestle and mortar or ball mills. Ball mills, also known as centrifugal or planetary mills, are devices used to rapidly grind materials to colloidal fineness by developing high grinding energy via centrifugal and/or planetary action. Suitable materials for use as milling balls include but are not limited to stainless steel, chrome steel, ceramics (such as alumina oxide, sapp ire, z rcon a , rass, ronze, a oys, copper, co a , aga e, sin ere corundum, tungsten carbide, zirconium oxide, polyamide plastic and the like. The exact type of bowl and balls that are used depend on the type of material being ground. For example, very hard samples might require tungsten carbide balls in steel bowls. As with any method of grinding, cross contamination of the sample with the grinding unit material can be a complication. Many milling machines are available, such as those available from Paul O. Abbe (Bensenville, IL), or Dymatron Inc., (Cincinnati, OH)

[00201] Thus, in some embodiments of the invention, a suspension of sodium carbonate

(Na2COa), potassium carbonate (K2CO3) and niobium (V) oxide (Nb2O5 or niobium pentoxide) is prepared, by mixing the three solids, as powders, with a liquid in which they are insoluble.

Preferably, the molar ratios of the solid components are 1 :1 :2, respectively. The suspension of the solids should be in an unreactive liquid medium in which the solids are insoluble. Typically, the liquid used is an alcohol, most preferably ethanol. The weight ratio of solids to liquid should be in the range 0.5:2 to about 2:0.5. [00202] Grinding balls are then added to the suspension. As described above, many types of milling balls of various sizes are available. The properties of the balls should be that they are of sufficient hardness to efficiently mill the solids and be unreactive towards the solids, the liquid medium and the vessel containing them. Of particular interest are zirconia balls. For most efficient milling, balls of about 0.1 to about 0.5 inches in diameter should be used. The weight ratio of combined solid starting materials with liquid media to grinding media should be about 3:1, respectively.

[00203] The milling balls and suspension are placed into a suitable container which is then closed. Suitable containers would include plastic or metal containers with removable, tight fitting closures. The container is optionally specifically designed for use in milling or is optionally any container that withstands the chemical and physical requirements of the described system. The container is agitated (e.g. shaken, vibrated or rotated) until such time as the particles are considered to be of the desirable size. Typically, this process will be complete within about 8 hours. [00204] The milling balls are then removed and the suspension is dried. This is optionally achieved by any conventional drying procedure, such as though not limited to, leaving the suspension open to the air. Other drying means (e.g. mild heat, reduced pressure, pressurized gas) may also be used.

[00205] The remaining solid is then sieved through a mesh sieve, of at least 80 mesh size

(i.e. at least 80 wires in the mesh per linear inch), to produce the starting materials as fine solid particulates. : a c na ion

[00206] Calcination is the process of heating a substance to a high temperature, to bring about thermal decomposition or a phase transition in its physical or chemical constitution. The objects of calcination are usually: • to remove water, present as absorbed moisture, water of crystallization, or as "water of constitution" (e.g. conversion of ferric hydroxide to ferric oxide);

• to remove carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, or other volatile constituents;

• oxidation of a part or the whole of the substance;

• reduction of a part or the whole of the substance , e.g. of metals from their ores (smelting)

The calcination of the process currently described involves removal of carbon dioxide, according to the following equation:

Na2CO3 + K2CO3 + 2Nb2O5 → 4(Na0 5Ko 5)NbO3 + 2CO2

[00207] Many methods and apparatus are available to provide the high temperatures typically required for calcination, such as though not limited to kilns, ovens or crucibles, employing fire, electrical or gas heating. The heating may occur in the open air or under an inert atmosphere. The heating, should at a temperature and for a length of time determined to be required for full conversion of the starting materials into NKN, while making sure that no undesirable reactions (e.g. decomposition) of either the starting materials or the final product take place. In one embodiment, the powdered starting materials, prepared as described above, are placed into an oven and heated to at least 900°C for at least 30 minutes. STEP 3: Preparation of NKN particles

[00208] For the formulations described herein, the NKN particles should be of a particular size; in one embodiment the NKN particles have an average diameter of from about 500 nm to about 5μm. Thus the NKN produced by the procedure described above may require further processing to produce particles of the desired size. The solid prepared as described above, is optionally milled, dried and/or sieved, by any of the procedures described above, or by any equivalent means to produce NKN particles having an average diameter of from about 500 nm to about 5 μm. Dielectric Inks

[00209] The formulations described herein are dielectric materials, and in some embodiments are optionally used as dielectric inks. Surfaces onto which the dielectric inks are applied including, though not limited to living and non-living objects. By way of example only, dielectric inks are applied to human skin or animal skin. njec ion o in in o or wi in e s in o an anima is referred to as tattooing.

Permanent tattoos are optionally applied by hand or with the aid of specifically designed devices. Typically the ink is applied by injecting pigments into (or within) the skin using needles, though needleless systems have been described. Motorized instruments can hold up to 14 round-tip needles, attached to the pigments, which are injected into the middle layer of the skin at a rate of 15 to 3,000 times per minute. More sophisticated, electrically powered, vertical, vibrating instruments are also available to inject the tattoo pigment. The instrument injects pigment at 50 to 30,000 times per minute into the second layer of skin, at a depth of 1/64 to 1/16 of an inch. A single needle outlines the tattoo and the design is then filled in with five to seven needles in a needle bar. In other cases, the tattoo can be applied by hand dipping a needle into pigment, without the use of an electric instrument. Tattoos are made permanent by applying them to skin layers deeper than surface layers, such as into the dermis. For humans, only the top 5-7 layers of skin are sloughed off at any time. Thus application of inks at a depth deeper than this will result in permanent marking. The depth of the application to achieve permanent marking will vary according to the animal to which the mark is being applied.

[00211] The dielectric ink is optionally applied to an object in such a manner as to produce a variety of patterns, including images, holograms, two-dimensional representations, and codes, including barcode like patterns. Barcodes have many uses, such as, though not limited to product or product packaging labeling, document or sample identification and tracking, (e.g. tickets, biological samples, mail documents). Thus the formulations described herein can be applied to within the surface of an object for identification and/or tracking purposes. [00212] Also of interest is the application of a dielectric ink as a tattoo to a live animal, to provide a barcode or brand like pattern as a means of identifying and/or tracking the animal. For example, the tattoo can be applied to deposit the dielectric ink beneath the skin layer of the animal, to form the dielectric barcode.

[00213] At different operating bands, a particular dielectric material's perturbation to an electric field, may change. For example, a dielectric material that is transparent at one operating band may become very lossy at another operating band. Thus, the suspension of particles within the dielectric material forming the dielectric barcodes optimizes performance at the particular operating band of interest. The densities of these suspensions are enough to sufficiently alter the refractive and reflection properties of the dielectric material, but not dense enough to render the dielectric material conductive in the operating band.

[00214] Due to dielectric permittivity (ε), the electromagnetic length in a dielectric material is Vε shorter than in a vacuum. This phenomenon allows for dielectric barcodes to be significantly miniaturized. For example, a resonant barcode composed of a dielectric material wi a ie ec r c permi ivi y o a ou or z cm wave ength) operation nee s on y be I mm in size. Dielectric barcodes can be transparent/translucent in the visible light spectrum, though highly contrasting for microwaves.

For the ink formulations described herein, the frequency of interrogating light can be between about I GHz to about 100 THz; alternatively the range can be from about 2 GHz, from about 5 GHz, from about IO GHz, from about 20 GHz, from about 50 GHz, from about 100 GHz to about 50 THz, to about 40 THz, to about 30 THz, to about 20 THz, to about IO THz, to about 5 THz, to about I THz. Further, the interrogating light can be monochromatic or polychromatic, coherent radiation or non-coherent radiation, microwave radiation, millimeter wave radiation, or centimeter wave radiation.

EXAMPLES

[00215] The following examples are provided to further illustrate the formulations and methods described herein and are not provided to limit the scope of the current invention in any way. Example 1. Preparation of sodium potassium niobate

[00216] Potassium carbonate (20.4g; 0.15mol), sodium carbonate (15.6g; 0.15mol), niobium (V) oxide (77.3g; 0.3mol), purchased from Sigma Aldrich and Alfa Aesar, and ethanol (11 ImL) are placed in a Nalgene bottle. Zirconia balls (645g; 0.25 inch diameter) are added and the bottle agitated for 8 hours at room temperature, after which time the balls are removed and the mixture allowed to air dry.

[00217] The resulting solid is sieved through an 80 mesh sieve, and the isolated powder heated in an oven for 5 hours at 95O0C. The resulting solid, ethanol (11 ImL) and Zirconia balls (645g; 0.25 inch diameter) are then placed into in a Nalgene bottle and agitated for 8 hours at room temperature. The balls are then removed, the mixture allowed to air dry and the resulting solid sieved through an 80 mesh sieve. A small sample of the isolated sodium potassium niobate, Nao.5Ko.5Nbθ3 (NKN), powder is removed and further processed for analysis. Example 2. Preparation of sodium potassium niobate sample for analysis [00218] The sodium potassium niobate powder isolated in example 1 is pressed at lOOOpsi, cold iso-static pressed at 45,000psi and sintered in air at 10500C for one hour, to produce a pellet suitable for analysis. The sample presents the characteristics shown in the table below: Dry Weight 0.39g

Suspended Weight 0.23g

Wet Weight 0.42g

Liquid Density 0.817g/cc

Theoretical Density 4.51g/cc3

Volume Open Porosity 0.036

Apparent Volume 0.195

Bulk Volume 0.232

% Open Porosity 0.157

Bulk Density 1.677

Volume of closed porosity 0.109

% Closed Porosity 0.470

% Theoretical Density 0.371

Example 3. Particle size analysis of sodium potassium niobate

[00219] The sodium potassium niobate sample prepared in example 2 is analyzed in a

Beckman Coulter LS 230 Laser Diffraction Particle Size Analyzer, using standard operating procedures. Illustrative particle distributions are shown in Figure 6.

Example 5. X-Ray diffraction analysis of sodium potassium niobate

[00220] The sodium potassium niobate sample prepared in example 2 is analyzed by X- ray diffraction and the resulting spectrum is shown in Figure 5.

Example 6. Scanning electron microscopy of sodium potassium niobate [00221] Scanning electron images of the sample prepared in example 2 are recorded and are shown in Figure 3.

[00222] A second sample was prepared as described in example 2, except sintering was continued for 16 hours. Scanning electron images of this sample are recorded and are shown in

Figure 4. Example 7. Preparation of formulation I

[00223] Sodium potassium niobate as prepared in example 1, (55g) is added to deionized water (45mL). DARV AN® (0.3g) is added to give a thick viscous suspension. The formulation is placed into a container and examined after 8 and 24 hours. No settling out of the solid particulate is observed. Example 8. Preparation of formulation II

[00224] Sodium potassium niobate as prepared in example 1, (55g) is added to deionized water (45mL). DARV AN® (0.3g) is added to give a thick viscous suspension. The viscosity of the suspension is adjusted by addition of small amounts of ammonium hydroxide and nitric acid.

Example 9. Preparation of formulation III o ium po assium nio a e as prepare in examp e , g is a e o eionize water (45mL). DARV AN® (0.3g) and METHOCEL® (0.5g) are added to give a thick viscous suspension.

Example 10. Application of formulation I [00226] A portion of the suspension prepared in example 7 (formula I) is drawn into an 18 gauge needle and then applied to a sample of simulated skin. The suspension is easily drawn and dispensed and no solid residue remains in the syringe after emptying. The sample is dry after 15- 20 minutes. [00227] While preferred embodiments of what is presently disclosed have been shown and described herein, it will be obvious to those skilled in the art that such embodiments are provided by way of example only. Numerous variations, changes, and substitutions will now occur to those skilled in the art without departing from the invention. It should be understood that various alternatives to the embodiments of the invention described herein may be employed in practicing the invention. It is intended that the following claims define the scope of the invention and that methods and structures within the scope of these claims and their equivalents be covered thereby.

Claims

WHAT IS CLAIMED IS:
1. An injection device comprising: a plate having a plurality of protrusions; and a cartridge, wherein the cartridge comprises: at least one injector shaft having a proximal end and a distal end, wherein the injector shaft has at least one exit port; and a reservoir containing a liquid suspension, the liquid suspension comprising: at least one biocompatible liquid and at least one particulate oxide of formula ABO3 suspended in the biocompatible liquid, wherein the reservoir is in fluidic communication with the proximal end of the injector shaft, and wherein the protrusions of the plate interact with the reservoirs of the cartridge to move at least a portion of the liquid suspension through at least a portion of the at least one injector shaft, such that the liquid suspension exits the injector shaft at the at least one exit port.
2. An inj ection device compri sing : a plate; and a cartridge, wherein the cartridge comprises: at least one injector shaft having a proximal end and a distal end, wherein the injector shaft has at least one exit port; and a reservoir containing a liquid suspension, wherein the reservoir is in fluidic communication with the proximal end of the injector shaft, and wherein the plate interacts with the reservoirs of the cartridge to move at least a portion of the liquid suspension through at least a portion of the at least one injector shaft, such that the liquid suspension exits the injector shaft at the at least one exit port.
3. An injection device comprising: a plate; at least one injector shaft having a proximal end and a distal end, wherein the injector shaft has at least one exit port; and a reservoir containing a liquid suspension, wherein the reservoir is in fluidic communication with the proximal end of the injector shaft, and w ere n t e p ate nteracts wit t e reservoirs o e cartr ge to move at east a portion of the liquid suspension through at least a portion of the at least one injector shaft, such that the liquid suspension exits the injector shaft at the at least one exit port.
4. The injection device of any of claims 1, 2 or 3, wherein there are a plurality of injector shafts, and each injector shaft is a needle.
5. The injection device of claim 4, wherein the needle has a multiplicity of exit ports along the longitudinal axis of the needle shaft.
6. The injection device of claim 5, wherein either the needles or the reservoir are arranged to produce a pattern within a surface when the liquid suspension exits the exit ports of the needle.
7. The injection device of claim 6, wherein the pattern is produced by controlling which needles are in fluidic communication with the reservoir.
8. An injection device comprising: a plate having a plurality of openings arranged in a pattern; a liquid suspension within a least one of the openings, the liquid suspension comprising: at least one biocompatible liquid; at least one particulate oxide of formula ABO3 suspended in the biocompatible liquid; and at least one needle, having a proximal end and a distal end, the proximal end placed within a least one of the openings of the plate, and the needle having at least one entrance port and at least one exit port; the injection device configured to allow at least a portion of the liquid suspension to move through at least a portion of the at least one needle, such that the liquid suspension enters the needle at the at least one entrance port and exits the needle at the at least one exit port.
9. The injection device of claim 8 wherein the liquid suspension is in a compressible reservoir.
10. The injection device of claim 8 wherein each opening in the plate has a needle fitted within the opening.
11. The injection device of claim 10, wherein a needle hub is affixed to the plate
12. The injection device of claim 8, wherein the needle has multiple exit ports along the longitudinal axis of the needle.
13. A cartridge comprising: a plate having a plurality of openings arranged in a pattern; a qu suspens on store w t n at east one compress e conta ner n prox m ty to t e plate, the liquid suspension comprising: at least one biocompatible liquid; at least one particulate oxide of formula ABO3 suspended in the biocompatible liquid; and at least one needle, having a proximal end and a distal end, the proximal end placed within a least one of the openings of the plate, and the needle having at least one exit port; the cartridge configured to allow the liquid suspension to move through at least a portion of the at least one needle after the compressible container has been manipulated.
14. The cartridge of claim 13 wherein each opening in the plate has a needle fitted within the opening.
15. The cartridge of claim 14, wherein the needle is affixed to the plate.
16. The cartridge of claim 13, wherein the needle has multiple exit ports along the longitudinal axis of the needle.
17. The cartridge of claim 13, wherein a single compressible container is in proximity to the plate and configured so as to allow the liquid suspension to move through a plurality of needles after the compressible container has been compressed.
18. The cartridge of claim 17, wherein the liquid suspension does not move through all of the needles placed within the plate.
19. The cartridge of claim 18, further comprising a mask between the compressible container and the plate, the mask configured to allow the liquid suspension to move through a portion of the needles within the plate and prevent the liquid suspension from moving through the other portion of needles within the plate.
20. The cartridge of claim 13, wherein a plurality of compressible containers is in proximity to the plate and configured so as to allow the liquid suspension from one compressible container to move through only a single needle after the compressible container has been compressed.
21. The cartridge of claim 20, further comprising compressible containers that do not contain the liquid suspension.
22. The cartridge of claim 13, wherein either the at least one needle or the at least one compressible container are arranged to produce a pattern within a surface when the liquid suspension exits the exit ports of the needle.
23. A cartridge comprising: a eas one reservoir con aining a iqui suspension, w erein e iqui suspension comprises at least one biocompatible liquid and at least one particulate oxide of formula ABO3 suspended in the biocompatible liquid; and at least one needle, having a proximal end and a distal end, wherein at least one needle is in fluidic communication at least one reservoir, wherein the cartridge is configured to allow the liquid suspension to move from the reservoir to the distal end of the needle.
24. A cartridge comprising: at least one injector shaft having a proximal end and a distal end, wherein the injector shaft has at least one exit port; and a reservoir containing a liquid suspension, wherein the reservoir is in fluidic communication with the proximal end of the injector shaft.
25. The cartridge of claim 23, wherein the injector shaft is a needle.
26. The cartridge of any of claims 22 or 24, wherein the reservoir is a compressible container.
27. The cartridge of claim 26, wherein the needle has multiple exit ports along the longitudinal axis of the needle.
28. The cartridge of claim 26, wherein either the at least one needle or the reservoir is arranged to produce a pattern within a surface when the liquid suspension exits the exit ports of the needle.
29. A method for applying an identification pattern within the dermis of an animal, comprising: applying a force to a compressible container that contains a liquid suspension so as to compress the compressible container, the liquid suspension comprising: at least one biocompatible liquid; at least one particulate oxide of formula ABO3 suspended in the biocompatible liquid; and pushing the liquid suspension into a plurality of needles, each needle having at least one entrance port and at least one exit port, wherein the plurality of needles are arranged in the identification pattern; pushing the plurality of needles into the dermis of the animal; and pushing the liquid suspension through the at least one exit port of the plurality of needles into the dermis of the animal.
. e me o o c aim , in w ic e compressi e con ainer, e iqui suspension, an the plurality of needles are components of a marking device.
31. The method of claim 30, further comprising stabilizing the marking device on the animal so as to minimize lateral movement of the marking device over the surface of the animal.
32. A method for producing a pattern within a surface comprising: inserting a removable cartridge into an injection device, wherein the removable cartridge comprises a readable ink and a plurality of needles; applying force to the removable cartridge so as to force at least some of the plurality of needles to inject the readable ink into the surface; and removing the removable cartridge from the injection device.
33. The method of claim 32, wherein the pattern is formed by controlling which needles enter the surface of the animal.
34. The method of claim 32, wherein the pattern is formed by controlling which needles contain ink.
35. The method of claim 32, wherein the surface is the dermis layer of an animal.
36. The method of claim 32, wherein the readable ink is a dielectric ink.
37. A device comprising a multi-injector assembly and a liquid suspension in a reservoir, the liquid suspension comprising: at least one biocompatible liquid; and at least one particulate oxide of formula ABO3 suspended in the biocompatible liquid.
38. The device of claim 37 further comprising a template.
39. The device of claim 38 wherein the template is a barcode template.
40. The device of claim 37 wherein the multi-injector assembly is comprised of a plurality of injector shafts.
41. The device of claim 40 wherein the each of the injector shafts is comprised of a base and a first end sufficient to penetrate a surface of an object.
42. The device of claim 39 wherein the barcode template is between the reservoir and the multi- injector assembly.
43. The device of claim 40 wherein the plurality of injector shafts are pre-filled with the readable ink.
44. The device of claim 41 wherein the object is an animal.
45. The device of claim 44 wherein the animal is selected from the bovine family, the ovine family, the equine family, the canine family, the feline family, the porcine family, the lapine family, the caprine family, the murine family, or the avian order.
. e ev ce o c aim w erein e p ura i y o injector s a s are so .
47. The device of claim 46 wherein the plurality of injector shafts are coated with the readable ink.
48. The device of claim 37 wherein the particulate oxide is sodium potassium niobate.
49. The device of claim 48 wherein the sodium potassium niobate has a formula NaxK1- xNbO3, wherein 0 < x < 1.
50. The device of claim 49 wherein x = 0.5.
51. A method of delivering a readable mark comprising applying a readable mark within a surface of an object by means of a multi-injector assembly and a readable ink.
52. The method of claim 51 , wherein the readable ink comprises: at least one biocompatible liquid; and at least one particulate oxide of formula ABO3 suspended in the biocompatible liquid.
53. The method of claim 52 wherein applying a readable mark further comprises utilizing a template.
54. The method of claim 52 wherein the multi-injector assembly is comprised of a plurality of injector shafts.
55. The method of claim of 54 wherein the plurality of injector shafts comprises a base and a first end sufficient to penetrate the surface of the object.
56. The method of claim 55 wherein the plurality of injector shafts are pre-filled with the readable ink.
57. The method of claim 52 wherein applying a readable mark further comprises utilizing a plurality of reservoirs containing the readable ink.
58. The method of claim 53, wherein the mark is a pattern and the pattern is produced using the template.
59. The method of claim 54, wherein the mark is a pattern and the pattern is produced by the arrangement of the plurality of injector shafts.
60. The method of claim 57, wherein the mark is a pattern and the pattern is produced by the arrangement of the plurality of reservoirs.
61. The method of any of claims 58, 59 or 60, wherein the object is an animal and the surface is the dermis layer of the animal's skin.
62. The method of claim 61 wherein the animal is a cow.
63. The method of claim 54 wherein the plurality of injector shafts are solid.
64. The method of claim 63 wherein the plurality of injector shafts are coated with the readable ink.
. e me o o caim w erein e paricuae oxi e is so ium poassium nio ae.
66. The method of claim 65 wherein the sodium potassium niobate has a formula NaxK1- xNbθ3, wherein 0 < x < 1.
67. The method of claim 66 wherein x = 0.5.
PCT/US2008/052696 2007-01-31 2008-01-31 Device and method for providing a readable mark WO2008095124A1 (en)

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US88754507P true 2007-01-31 2007-01-31
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US8052645B2 (en) 2008-07-23 2011-11-08 Avant Medical Corp. System and method for an injection using a syringe needle
US8177749B2 (en) 2008-05-20 2012-05-15 Avant Medical Corp. Cassette for a hidden injection needle
US9974904B2 (en) 2008-05-20 2018-05-22 Avant Medical Corp. Autoinjector system
USD829890S1 (en) 2012-04-20 2018-10-02 Amgen Inc. Injection device
US10092703B2 (en) 2013-03-15 2018-10-09 Amgen Inc. Drug cassette, autoinjector, and autoinjector system
US10092706B2 (en) 2011-04-20 2018-10-09 Amgen Inc. Autoinjector apparatus

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US6211789B1 (en) * 1998-03-09 2001-04-03 Courtney A. Oldham Method and system for manual entry of data into integrated electronic database for livestock data collection
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US10092706B2 (en) 2011-04-20 2018-10-09 Amgen Inc. Autoinjector apparatus
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