WO2008044842A1 - Method and apparatus for processing 3d graphic data - Google Patents

Method and apparatus for processing 3d graphic data Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2008044842A1
WO2008044842A1 PCT/KR2007/004876 KR2007004876W WO2008044842A1 WO 2008044842 A1 WO2008044842 A1 WO 2008044842A1 KR 2007004876 W KR2007004876 W KR 2007004876W WO 2008044842 A1 WO2008044842 A1 WO 2008044842A1
Authority
WO
WIPO (PCT)
Prior art keywords
visible range
volume
objects
volumes
geometric
Prior art date
Application number
PCT/KR2007/004876
Other languages
French (fr)
Inventor
Do Hyung Kim
Yong-Su Shin
Original Assignee
Virtualdigm, Inc.
Ex3D, Inc.
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to KR10-2006-0098038 priority Critical
Priority to KR1020060098038A priority patent/KR100691846B1/en
Application filed by Virtualdigm, Inc., Ex3D, Inc. filed Critical Virtualdigm, Inc.
Publication of WO2008044842A1 publication Critical patent/WO2008044842A1/en

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Classifications

    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06TIMAGE DATA PROCESSING OR GENERATION, IN GENERAL
    • G06T15/003D [Three Dimensional] image rendering
    • G06T15/10Geometric effects
    • G06T15/30Clipping
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06TIMAGE DATA PROCESSING OR GENERATION, IN GENERAL
    • G06T1/00General purpose image data processing
    • G06T1/20Processor architectures; Processor configuration, e.g. pipelining
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06TIMAGE DATA PROCESSING OR GENERATION, IN GENERAL
    • G06T15/003D [Three Dimensional] image rendering
    • G06T15/50Lighting effects
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06TIMAGE DATA PROCESSING OR GENERATION, IN GENERAL
    • G06T15/003D [Three Dimensional] image rendering
    • G06T15/50Lighting effects
    • G06T15/80Shading
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06TIMAGE DATA PROCESSING OR GENERATION, IN GENERAL
    • G06T7/00Image analysis
    • G06T7/60Analysis of geometric attributes
    • G06T7/62Analysis of geometric attributes of area, perimeter, diameter or volume

Abstract

A method and apparatus for processing 3D graphic data are provided. Accordingly, with regard to objects included in a scene to be displayed to a user, information on vertices of the objects and information on volumes of the objects is stored in a video memory. It is possible to considerably reducing a calculation amount performed so as to process the entire graphic data by omitting a geometric process and a rasterization process with respect to objects included in volumes that are not included in the visible range of the user by determining whether the volumes are included in the visible range of the user. Thus, it is possible to improve efficiency of processing the entire graphic data by reducing an execution time and power consumption for displaying the graphic data.

Description

Description
METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR PROCESSING 3D GRAPHIC
DATA
Technical Field
[1] The present invention relates to a method and apparatus for processing three- dimensional (3D) graphic data, and more particularly, to a method and apparatus for effectively processing 3D graphic data by reducing a processing amount of the 3D graphic data by determining visibility of a 3D object. Background Art
[2] In general, a 3D graphic process is an essential part for establishing multimedia environments. In order to support a realistic 3D image, an apparatus for processing 3D graphic data such as a dedicated 3D graphic accelerator with high performance is required. Recently, personal computers (PCs) and games have employed a 3D graphic accelerator with high performance for providing 3D images. The 3D graphic accelerator has been actively researched.
[3] FIG. 1 illustrates a 3D graphic process performed by a conventional 3D graphic accelerator. The 3D graphic process includes a process in which a 3D application software 10 accelerates hardware in real time by using a 3D graphic accelerator 30 through an application program interface 20 to be transmitted to a display 40.
[4] As shown in FIG. 1, a graphic process performed by the 3D graphic accelerator 30 is largely divided into a geometric process and a rasterization process.
[5] First, in the geometric process, an object in a 3D coordinate system is transformed based on a time, illumination and shading processes are performed, and the object is projected onto two-dimensional (2D) coordinate system. In the geometric process, considerable calculation loads are generated, since the geometry process includes a large calculation amount of matrices and trigonometric functions. In a conventional 3D graphic processing method, a central processing unit (CPU) performs the geometric process. Recently, the 3D graphic accelerator performs the geometric process, thereby reducing the calculation loads of the CPU. Accordingly the performance of the entire system is improved.
[6] In the rasterization process, color values are determined with respect to images in a
2D coordinate system and stored in a frame buffer. The raterization process includes sub-processes such as a triangle initialization process, an edge walk process, a span process, a Z-test process, and an alpha-blend process, a color blend process, a texture mapping process, and the like.
[7] On the other hand, one of known techniques for processing 3D graphic data is a pipeline technique. In the pipeline technique, individual processors are serially connected to one another. A processor performs a series of operations for data and transmits the processed data to another processor for performing other operations. Simultaneously, the first processor performs the series of operations for other data.
[8] However, a conventional apparatus for processing 3D graphic data performs a transformation process that requires a considerable calculation amount included in the aforementioned geometry process and performs completely the rasterization process regardless of existence of the visibility of an object (a case where the Z-test is positioned at the end of the rasterization process). Alternatively, the conventional apparatus partially performs the rasterization process and performs the remaining process based on the visibility of the object (a case where the Z-test is early performed). The conventional apparatus determines the aforementioned cases and outputs the determination result to the user through the display.
[9] Accordingly, as the number of objects is increased on a scene to be displayed for the user, and more particularly, as the number of objects included in the same scene but not included in the visibility range of the user is increased, the efficiency of processing graphic data is decreased. Disclosure of Invention Technical Problem
[10] The present invention provides a method and apparatus for processing 3D graphic data capable of considerably improving efficiency of processing graphic data by graphically processing only objects included in a visible range of a user by determining visibility of an object before performing a transformation process that requires a considerable calculation amount. Technical Solution
[11] According to an aspect of the present invention, there is provided an apparatus for processing 3D graphic data comprising: a volume processing unit receiving geometry information and geometric processing information on volumes generated by grouping objects included in a scene to be displayed to a user from a CPU (central processing unit) and examining with respect to all the volumes whether volume is included in a visible range of the user by using the geometry information and the geometric processing information on the volume; a geometric processing unit performing a geometric process with respect to an object included in volumes in the visible range based on the geometric processing information; and a rasterization unit performing a rasterization process with respect to the object to which the geometric process is performed and to output the result of the rasterization process to display device.
[12] In the above aspect of the present invention, the volume processing unit may classify objects included in a volume extending over the visible range into a predeterm ined number of sub-groups and examines with respect to all the volumes generated as the sub-groups whether the generated volume is included in the visible range.
[13] In addition, the volume processing unit may classify objects included in a volume extending over the visible range into a predetermined number of sub-groups and examines with respect to all the volumes generated as the sub-groups whether the generated volume is included in the visible range until it is determined with respect to all the objects in the scene whether the object is included in the visible range.
[14] According to another aspect of the present invention, there is provided a method of processing 3D graphic data which is performed by an apparatus for processing the 3D graphic data, the method comprising: (a) receiving geometry information and geometric processing information on volumes generated by grouping objects included in a scene to be displayed to a user from a CPU (central processing unit); (b) examining with respect to all the volumes whether volume is included in a visible range of the user by using the geometry information and the geometric processing information on the volumes; and (c) performing a geometric process with respect to an objects included in volumes in the visible range based on the geometric processing information and and performing a rasterization process to display the objects to the user.
[15] In the above aspect of the present invention, in (b), objects included in the volume which is extending over the visible range are classified into a predetermined number of sub-groups and it is determined with respect to volumes generated as the sub-groups whether the generated volumes are included in the visible range, and in (c), the geometric process is performed with the generated volumes included in visible range.
[16] In addition, (b) is repeatedly performed until it is determined with respect to all the objects whether the object is included in the visible range.
Advantageous Effects
[17] As described above, the present invention discloses a method and apparatus for processing 3D graphic data. In the present invention, with regard to objects included in a scene to be displayed to a user, information on vertices of the objects and information on volumes of the objects is stored in a video memory. It is possible to considerably reducing a calculation amount performed so as to process the entire graphic data by omitting a geometric process and a rasterization process with respect to objects included in volumes that are not included in the visible range of the user by determining whether the volumes are included in the visible range of the user. Accordingly, it is possible to improve efficiency of processing the entire graphic data by reducing an execution time and power consumption for displaying the graphic data.
[18] Even in a case where the present invention is applied to a desktop personal computer (PC) including a central processing unit (CPU) with high calculation capability, the present invention is available so as to improve efficiency of processing graphic data. In a case where 3D graphic is embodied in a mobile device including a
CPU with limited calculation capability, it is possible to improve efficiency of processing graphic data in the present invention as compared with existing mobile devices.
Brief Description of the Drawings
[19] FIG. 1 illustrates a three-dimensional (3D) graphic process performed by a conventional 3D graphic accelerator.
[20] FIGS. 2 to 5 illustrate a concept of a volume culling process according to an embodiment of the present invention.
[21] FIG. 6 is a schematic block diagram illustrating an entire graphic processing system according to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention.
[22] FIG. 7 is a detailed block diagram illustrating a 3D graphic processing unit (GPU) of FIG. 6.
[23] FIG. 8 is a detailed block diagram illustrating a geometric processing unit 320 of
FIG. 7.
[24] FIG. 9 is a flowchart of a method of processing 3D graphic data according to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention. Best Mode for Carrying Out the Invention
[25] Hereinafter, exemplary embodiments of the present invention will be described in detail with reference to an accompanying drawing.
[26] FIGS. 2 to 5 illustrate a concept of a volume culling process according to an embodiment of the present invention. In the present invention, efficiency of processing 3D graphic data is improved by briefly examining whether each object is included in a visible range of a user before performing a geometry process with respect to objects included in a scene to be displayed for the user and performing a geometry process and a rasterization process with respect to only objects included in the visible range and omitting a graphic process with respect to objects not included in the visible range (this process is referred to as a culling process).
[27] As shown in FIG. 2, the CPU classifies objects to be displayed on a scene 50 for a user into a predetermined numbers of groups. Volumes 50a to 50c with shapes of a sphere, an axis alien bounding box (AABB), or an oriented object box (OBB), which include objects belonging to the groups are generated.
[28] An apparatus for processing 3D graphic data according to the embodiment of the present invention receives information on a volume in addition to information on a vertices of an object from the CPU, preliminarily performs the geometry process with respect to each volume, and determines whether the volume is included in the visible range of the user.
[29] FIGS. 3 to 5 illustrate a procedure of determining whether a volume is included in the visible range. Referring to FIGS. 3 to 5, the geometry process and the rasterization process are performed with respect to all the objects belonging to groups that constitute a volume 50a in the visible range of the user and displayed to the user. It is possible to considerably reduce the geometry calculation amount by not performing the geometry process and the rasterization process with respect to objects constituting a volume 50b that is not included in the visible range of the user.
[30] In addition, as shown in FIG. 4, in a case of a volume 50c extending over a visible range and an invisible range of a user, that is, in a case where some objects belonging to a group included in the visible range of the user, and the other objects are not included in the visible range, the group is divided into a predetermined number of subgroups constituting the volume. As shown in FIG. 5, aforementioned processes are performed again with respect to volumes 50c-l and 50c-2 (50c-2a and 50c-2b) constructed with sub-groups. This process may be performed until visibility of all the objects is determined.
[31] FIG. 6 is a schematic block diagram illustrating an entire graphic processing system according to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention. Referring to FIG. 6, the entire system includes a CPU 100, a 3D graphics processing unit (GPU) 300, a memory unit 200, and a display 400.
[32] First, the CPU 100 classifies objects included in a scene to be displayed to a user into a predetermined number of groups and outputs geometry information on volumes for representing the groups to the 3D GPU 300. In addition, the CPU 100 outputs the geometry processing information such as information on each transformation matrix necessary for the geometric process together with geometry information on volumes.
[33] As described above, the 3D GPU 300 determines whether a volume is included in a visible range of the user by using the geometry information and the geometric processing information on each volume which is received from the CPU 100. The geometric process and the rasterization process are performed by reading the geometry information on objects included in a volume in the visible range of the user from the memory unit 200. The result of the geometric process and the rasterization process is output to the display 400. The 3D GPU 300 may be embodied as hardware by integrating the hardware for embodying following functions according to an embodiment of the present invention into a semiconductor integrated circuit.
[34] The display 400 displays signals received from the 3D GPU 300 to the user.
[35] FIG. 7 is a detailed block diagram illustrating the 3D GPU 300 of FIG. 6. FIG. 8 is a detailed block diagram illustrating a geometric processing unit 320 of FIG. 7. FIG. 9 is a flowchart of a method of processing 3D graphic data according to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention. Hereinafter, a method of processing 3D graphic data according to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention will be described with reference to FIGS. 7 to 9.
[36] Referring to FIG. 7, the 3D GPU includes a volume processing unit 310, a geometric processing unit 320, and a rasterization unit 330. First, the volume processing unit 310 receives geometry information and geometric processing information on each volume from the CPU 100 (operation S500).
[37] Then, the volume processing unit 310 determines visibility of each volume by using the geometry information and the geometric processing information on each volume (operation S510).
[38] Specifically, the volume processing unit 310 transforms the coordinate system of each volume into a world coordinate system. A view transformation process is performed with respect to each volume represented in the world coordinate system. A projection transformation process is performed with respect to the view-transformed volumes. It is examined for each volume whether the volume is included in the visible range of the user by checking whether thes volume is included in a view frustum (operation S512).
[39] The volume processing unit 310 outputs information on an address in which geometry information on each object included in volumes in the visible range of the user is stored to the geometric processing unit 320 (operation S514).
[40] On the other hand, with regard to the volume extending over the border of the visible range, as described with reference to FIGS. 2B to 5, the volume processing unit 310 classifies objects included in a volume into a predetermined number of sub-groups (S516), generates a volume including objects included in sub-group, and proceeds to the operation S512 (operation S518).
[41] In the operation S512, the volume processing unit 310 outputs information on an a ddress in which geometry information on objects included in each volume in the visible range is stored to the geometry processing unit 320 by determining whether the volume generated from a sub-group is included in the visible range, again. The aforementioned process is repeated with respect to a volume extending over the border of the visible range.
[42] At this time, this process may be repeatedly performed until it is determined with respect to all the objects whether the object is included in the visible range. Alternatively, this process may be repeated performed until a predetermined number of objects are included in a volume extending over the border of the visible range.
[43] On the other hand, the geometric processing unit 320 sequentially performs a geometric process including a model transformation process, an illumination process, a clipping process, and a screen mapping process with respect to objects included in the visible range of the user (operation S520). Returning to FIG. 8, the geometric processing unit 320 includes a world coordinate transformation unit 321, a view transformation unit 322, a projection transformation unit 323, an illumination effect processing unit 324, a clipping unit 325, a screen mapping unit 326. Since the structure and the function of the geometric processing unit 320 is the same as those of the 3D graphic accelerator, the structure and the function of the geometric processing unit 320 will be briefly described.
[44] First, the world coordinate transformation unit 321 transforms a coordinate system of each object into a world coordinate system including the entire scene to be displayed to the user by performing rotation, size transformation, and shift processes with respect to objects defined in local coordinate systems of their own.
[45] The view transformation unit 322 transforms the world coordinate system of objects into the view coordinate system with respect to a camera. When the world coordinate system is transformed into the view coordinate system, the camera is located at the origin of the view coordinate system.
[46] The projection transformation unit 323 transforms the view coordinate system of the object into the projection coordinate system. The object is positioned in the view frustum due to the projection transformation process is performed.
[47] The illumination effect processing unit 324 determines and outputs colors to be represented for the object by applying an illumination calculation equation based on texture of the object.
[48] The clipping unit 325 clips an area positioned out of the border of the screen of the objects to which the illumination process is performed and outputs to the screen mapping unit 326. The screen mapping unit 326 transforms the objects to which the clipping process is performed into a screen coordinate value.
[49] On the other hand, graphic data of the object to which the geometric process is performed is output to the rasterization unit 330. The rasterization unit performs a triangle setup process, removes shadows and a hiding surface of an object, fills triangles of the object to be displayed to the user with pixels, and outputs the triangles to the display 400 (operation S530).
[50] As described above, the display 400 constructs a screen based on graphic data and outputs the screen to the user (operation S540).
[51] The method for processing three-dimensional (3D) graphic data of the present invention can also be embodied as computer readable codes on a computer readable recording medium. The computer readable recording medium is any data storage device that can store data which can be thereafter read by a computer system. Examples of the computer readable recording medium include read-only memory (ROM), random- access memory (RAM), CD-ROMs, magnetic tapes, floppy disks, optical data storage devices, and carrier waves (such as data transmission through the Internet). The computer readable recording medium can also be distributed over network coupled computer systems so that the computer readable code is stored and executed in a distributed fashion. [52] While the present invention has been particularly shown and described with reference to exemplary embodiments thereof, it will be understood by those skilled in the art that various changes in form and details may be made therein without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention as defined by the appended claims. The exemplary embodiments should be considered in descriptive sense only and not for purposes of limitation. Therefore, the scope of the invention is defined not by the detailed description of the invention but by the appended claims, and all differences within the scope will be construed as being included in the present invention.

Claims

Claims
[1] A method of processing 3D graphic data which is performed by an apparatus for processing the 3D graphic data, the method comprising:
(a) receiving geometry information and geometric processing information on volumes generated by grouping objects included in a scene to be displayed to a user from a CPU (central processing unit);
(b) examining with respect to all the volumes whether volume is included in a visible range of the user by using the geometry information and the geometric processing information on the volumes; and
(c) performing a geometric process with respect to an objects included in volumes in the visible range based on the geometric processing information and and performing a rasterization process to display the objects to the user.
[2] The method of claim 1, wherein in step (b), objects included in the volume which is extending over the visible range are classified into a predetermined number of sub-groups and it is determined with respect to volumes generated as the subgroups whether the generated volumes are included in the visible range, and wherein in step (c), the geometric process is performed with the generated volumes included in visible range.
[3] The method of claim 2, wherein step (b) is repeatedly performed until it is determined with respect to all the objects whether the object is included in the visible range.
[4] A computer-readable recording medium having embodied thereon a computer program for executing the method of any one of claims 1 through 3.
[5] An apparatus for processing 3D graphic data comprising: a volume processing unit receiving geometry information and geometric processing information on volumes generated by grouping objects included in a scene to be displayed to a user from a CPU (central processing unit) and examining with respect to all the volumes whether volume is included in a visible range of the user by using the geometry information and the geometric processing information on the volume; a geometric processing unit performing a geometric process with respect to an object included in volumes in the visible range based on the geometric processing information; and a rasterization unit performing a rasterization process with respect to the object to which the geometric process is performed and to output the result of the rasterization process to display device.
[6] The apparatus of claim 5, wherein the volume processing unit classifies objects included in a volume extending over the visible range into a predetermined number of sub-groups and examines with respect to all the volumes generated as the sub-groups whether the generated volume is included in the visible range. [7] The apparatus of claim 6, wherein the volume processing unit classifies objects included in a volume extending over the visible range into a predetermined number of sub-groups and examines with respect to all the volumes generated as the sub-groups whether the generated volume is included in the visible range until it is determined with respect to all the objects in the scene whether the object is included in the visible range.
PCT/KR2007/004876 2006-10-09 2007-10-05 Method and apparatus for processing 3d graphic data WO2008044842A1 (en)

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KR10-2006-0098038 2006-10-09
KR1020060098038A KR100691846B1 (en) 2006-10-09 2006-10-09 Method and apparatus for processing 3d graphic data

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KR100818286B1 (en) 2006-11-23 2008-04-01 삼성전자주식회사 Method and apparatus for rendering 3 dimensional graphics data considering fog effect

Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
KR20020001072A (en) * 2000-06-24 2002-01-09 한탁돈 3D graphic accelerator and method for processing graphic acceleration using the same
KR20020006297A (en) * 2000-07-12 2002-01-19 한탁돈 3D graphic accelerator based on MPEG
KR20030020141A (en) * 2001-09-03 2003-03-08 한국과학기술원 System for Calculating 3D Computer Graphics on Portable Device
KR20050036722A (en) * 2003-10-14 2005-04-20 삼성전자주식회사 3 dimension object graphic processing apparatus and 3 dimension scene graph processing apparatus

Patent Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
KR20020001072A (en) * 2000-06-24 2002-01-09 한탁돈 3D graphic accelerator and method for processing graphic acceleration using the same
KR20020006297A (en) * 2000-07-12 2002-01-19 한탁돈 3D graphic accelerator based on MPEG
KR20030020141A (en) * 2001-09-03 2003-03-08 한국과학기술원 System for Calculating 3D Computer Graphics on Portable Device
KR20050036722A (en) * 2003-10-14 2005-04-20 삼성전자주식회사 3 dimension object graphic processing apparatus and 3 dimension scene graph processing apparatus

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