WO2008040410A1 - Microlithographic projection exposure apparatus - Google Patents

Microlithographic projection exposure apparatus Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2008040410A1
WO2008040410A1 PCT/EP2007/006823 EP2007006823W WO2008040410A1 WO 2008040410 A1 WO2008040410 A1 WO 2008040410A1 EP 2007006823 W EP2007006823 W EP 2007006823W WO 2008040410 A1 WO2008040410 A1 WO 2008040410A1
Authority
WO
WIPO (PCT)
Prior art keywords
projection exposure
exposure apparatus
correction
apparatus according
immersion objective
Prior art date
Application number
PCT/EP2007/006823
Other languages
German (de)
French (fr)
Inventor
Aksel GÖHNERMEIER
Reiner Garreis
Original Assignee
Carl Zeiss Smt Ag
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to US84811806P priority Critical
Priority to US60/848,118 priority
Priority to DE200610046675 priority patent/DE102006046675A1/en
Priority to DE102006046675.6 priority
Application filed by Carl Zeiss Smt Ag filed Critical Carl Zeiss Smt Ag
Publication of WO2008040410A1 publication Critical patent/WO2008040410A1/en

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Classifications

    • GPHYSICS
    • G03PHOTOGRAPHY; CINEMATOGRAPHY; ANALOGOUS TECHNIQUES USING WAVES OTHER THAN OPTICAL WAVES; ELECTROGRAPHY; HOLOGRAPHY
    • G03FPHOTOMECHANICAL PRODUCTION OF TEXTURED OR PATTERNED SURFACES, e.g. FOR PRINTING, FOR PROCESSING OF SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; MATERIALS THEREFOR; ORIGINALS THEREFOR; APPARATUS SPECIALLY ADAPTED THEREFOR
    • G03F7/00Photomechanical, e.g. photolithographic, production of textured or patterned surfaces, e.g. printing surfaces; Materials therefor, e.g. comprising photoresists; Apparatus specially adapted therefor
    • G03F7/70Exposure apparatus for microlithography
    • G03F7/70216Systems for imaging mask onto workpiece
    • G03F7/70341Immersion
    • GPHYSICS
    • G03PHOTOGRAPHY; CINEMATOGRAPHY; ANALOGOUS TECHNIQUES USING WAVES OTHER THAN OPTICAL WAVES; ELECTROGRAPHY; HOLOGRAPHY
    • G03FPHOTOMECHANICAL PRODUCTION OF TEXTURED OR PATTERNED SURFACES, e.g. FOR PRINTING, FOR PROCESSING OF SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; MATERIALS THEREFOR; ORIGINALS THEREFOR; APPARATUS SPECIALLY ADAPTED THEREFOR
    • G03F7/00Photomechanical, e.g. photolithographic, production of textured or patterned surfaces, e.g. printing surfaces; Materials therefor, e.g. comprising photoresists; Apparatus specially adapted therefor
    • G03F7/70Exposure apparatus for microlithography
    • G03F7/70216Systems for imaging mask onto workpiece
    • G03F7/70308Optical correction elements, filters and phase plates for manipulating, e.g. intensity, wavelength, polarization, phase, image shift
    • GPHYSICS
    • G03PHOTOGRAPHY; CINEMATOGRAPHY; ANALOGOUS TECHNIQUES USING WAVES OTHER THAN OPTICAL WAVES; ELECTROGRAPHY; HOLOGRAPHY
    • G03FPHOTOMECHANICAL PRODUCTION OF TEXTURED OR PATTERNED SURFACES, e.g. FOR PRINTING, FOR PROCESSING OF SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; MATERIALS THEREFOR; ORIGINALS THEREFOR; APPARATUS SPECIALLY ADAPTED THEREFOR
    • G03F7/00Photomechanical, e.g. photolithographic, production of textured or patterned surfaces, e.g. printing surfaces; Materials therefor, e.g. comprising photoresists; Apparatus specially adapted therefor
    • G03F7/70Exposure apparatus for microlithography
    • G03F7/70483Information management, control, testing, and wafer monitoring, e.g. pattern monitoring
    • G03F7/70591Testing optical components
    • G03F7/706Aberration measurement

Abstract

A microlithographic projection exposure apparatus comprises an immersion objective (20), by means of which a pattern (24) can be imaged onto a light-sensitive layer (26). The immersion objective (20) is designed for an immersion operation in which an immersion liquid (38) is situated between the immersion objective and the light-sensitive layer. The projection exposure apparatus furthermore has a correction device (34) for reducing imaging aberrations caused by applying a covering (36), which can be applied directly to the light-sensitive layer (26), such that the immersion liquid (38) does not touch the light-sensitive layer (26). The correction device has a correction element which can be incorporated into and demounted from the immersion objective (20) without the latter having to be dismantled.

Description

 MICROLITHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION EXPOSURE PLANT

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

1. Field of the invention

The invention relates to microlithographic projection exposure systems, as used for the production of highly integrated electrical circuits and other microstructured components. In particular, the invention relates to projection exposure apparatus designed for immersion operation.

2. Description of the Related Art

Integrated electrical circuits and other microstructured devices are typically fabricated by applying a plurality of patterned layers to a suitable substrate, which may be a silicon wafer, for example. To pattern the layers, they are first covered with a photoresist which is suitable for light of a certain wavelength range, e.g. Light in the deep ultraviolet spectral range (DUV, deep ultraviolet), is sensitive. Subsequently, the thus coated wafer is exposed in a projection exposure apparatus. This is a

Pattern of structures, which is on a mask, on the photoresist using a projection lens displayed. Since the magnification is generally less than 1, such projection lenses are often referred to as reduction lenses.

After developing the photoresist, the wafer is subjected to an etching process, whereby the layer is patterned according to the pattern on the mask. The remaining photoresist is then removed from the remaining parts of the layer. This process is repeated until all layers are applied to the wafer.

One of the key goals in the development of projection exposure equipment is to be able to lithographically produce structures of increasingly smaller dimensions on the wafer. Small structures lead to high integration densities, which generally has a favorable effect on the performance of the microstructured components produced by means of such systems.

The size of the structures that can be generated mainly depends on the resolution of the projection lens used. Since the resolution of the projection lenses is inversely proportional to the wavelength of the projection light, one approach to increasing the resolution is to use projection light with ever shorter wavelengths. The shortest wavelengths currently used are in the ultraviolet spectral range and are 248 nm, 193 nm or 157 nm. Another approach to increasing the resolution is based on the idea of introducing a high refractive index immersion liquid into an immersion space remaining between a last image lens of the projection lens and the photoresist or other photosensitive layer to be exposed. Projection objectives which are designed for immersion operation and are therefore also referred to as immersion objectives can achieve numerical apertures of more than 1, for example 1.3 or 1.4.

The implementation of an immersion company, however, involves numerous problems, of which only a few are satisfactorily resolved. One of these problems is that small bubbles of gas can form in the immersion liquid which interfere with the imaging of the mask. The formation of the gas bubbles is attributed to different causes. If, for example, the immersion liquid is saturated with gases, large gas bubbles can be formed at virtually any location within the immersion liquid. Furthermore, photoresists generally have the property to secrete gases which are unproblematic in a dry operation, but lead to bubble formation in the immersion liquid in an immersion operation. Bubbles can also be caused by the immersion liquid moving in supply systems and cavitation effects occurring. Since the immersion liquid and thus the bubbles contained in it are in the immediate vicinity of the image plane of the immersion objective, the effects of the bubbles on the optical image can be serious. The smaller the distance of the gas bubbles from the photosensitive layer, the more the gas bubbles generate spurious disturbances on the photosensitive layer.

To solve this problem, WO 2005/064409 A2 proposes applying a cover that can be removed again directly after the exposure on the light-sensitive layer. The thickness of the cover is chosen so that bubbles and other impurities in the immersion liquid are kept so far away from the image plane that they can no longer cause serious disturbances.

In an article by L. Marinier et al. entitled "Anti-bubble topcoat for immersion lithography", Proc. SPIE Vol. 5753, Advances in Resist Technology and Processing XXII, May 2005, notes in this approach that spherical aberrations are created by the additional coverage in the beam path. However, it would be possible to correct these aberrations with the projection exposure system. However, it is not explained in more detail how the correction should be carried out in detail. Presumably, the spherical aberrations are detected by means of known manipula- corrected. This may be, for example, a movable lens along the optical axis.

However, the spherical aberrations caused by a cover are so great that the previously known manipulators are no longer sufficient for correction - at least for thicker covers. In principle, it would be possible to consider the optical effect of the cover already during the development of the immersion objective. However, then all exposures would have to be made using a cover, as it was based on the development of the immersion objective or at least similar to such a cover. This would considerably restrict the flexibility in the use of the immersion objective, since it is unlikely that a uniform standard for the use of a specific cover will form, and there will probably be a desire to operate certain projection exposure systems without cover.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

Against this background, the object of the invention is to specify a projection exposure apparatus which increases the flexibility in the use of covers on photosensitive layers in connection with immersion operation. This object is achieved according to the invention by a projection exposure apparatus with an immersion objective with which a pattern can be imaged onto a photosensitive layer and which is designed for an immersion mode in which an immersion liquid is located between the immersion objective and the photosensitive element. The projection exposure apparatus further comprises optical correction means for reducing aberrations caused by applying a transparent cover which is directly applied to the photosensitive layer, so that the immersion liquid does not contact the photosensitive layer. The correction device has a correction element which can be installed and removed in the immersion objective without the immersion objective having to be disassembled.

The invention is based on the finding that it does not make sense to correct relatively strong aberrations, which are caused by thick covers, exclusively by the hitherto known, generally continuously adjustable manipulators. Instead, it is proposed to provide a correction device with a correction element, which is installed or removed depending on whether the exposure is to be performed with a cover on the photosensitive layer. This makes it possible for different operators of projection exposure equipment who want to perform the exposure with or without coverage, the in principle to offer the same immersion objective. If an operator wishes to carry out the exposure in his system with a cover on the photosensitive layer, the correction element will be the one after assembly and adjustment of the immersion objective, but before the start of operation and preferably even before the delivery of the immersion objective to the operator built into the immersion objective. For operators who do not want to use a cover, the correction element will not be installed.

The use of built-in and removable correction elements has the advantage that even stronger aberrations can be effectively compensated. For fine correction, the manipulators known per se can be used with which smaller spherical aberrations can be corrected.

Of course, it is also possible to design the immersion objective so that in a operation without cover, a "correction element" is required, which must be expanded for operation with cover. In this case, the effect of the cover is already taken into account in the design of the immersion objective; a correction is then only required for operation without cover. This variant is preferable if one can assume that the immersion objective usually operates without coverage. Furthermore, depending on the nature of the correction element, it may be necessary to install a kind of placeholder element instead of the correction element in the case of an immersion operation without cover. The placeholder element has the same effect as the correction element, apart from the desired correction effect as such. To facilitate the replacement, a replacement holder may be provided.

This is considered, for example, when the correction element is a spacer with which sockets of adjacent optical elements are held at a distance predetermined by the spacer. By installing different spacers, the distance between adjacent optical elements can be changed by a larger amount in an abrupt manner.

After changing the distance, a fine correction can be performed by means of known manipulators by slightly displacing one or both of the affected optical elements along the optical axis.

In a preferred embodiment, however, the correction element is an optical correction element that is exposed to the projection light during operation of the system.

In principle, a correction of the aberrations caused by the cover is also by means of mirrors possible. Preferably, however, as an optical correction element are refractive optical elements.

Even with an optical correction element, it will often be favorable to provide a replacement holder in order to exchange the optical correction element for a suitable placeholder element without corrective action.

Comparatively simple and yet efficient is a correction of the aberrations caused by the cover with the aid of a refractive-optical element having an aspherical optical surface. The optical element may be a lens, but also a (substantially) plane-parallel plate, of which one or both planar surfaces are suitably aspherized. The deviations of the aspheric optical surface from a plane surface may be less than 1000 nm or even less than 100 nm. For a 2 μm thick cover, the deviations may be e.g. between 30 nm and 50 nm. For curved lenses, the deviations of the optical surfaces of the correction element and a placeholder element without correction effect are preferably at all surface points with orthogonal coordinates (x, y) smaller than 1000 nm, preferably smaller than 100 nm, in the z-direction.

In order to achieve the most constant field correction effect, an aspherical correction element should be built state in or near a pupil plane of the immersion objective.

As a correction element is also a plane-parallel plate into consideration, which is arranged in the installed state in or near a field plane of the immersion objective. Suitable as a field level here is above all an intermediate image plane, but also the image plane.

If the operator of a projection exposure equipment wishes to use covers which differ considerably in terms of their refractive index and / or their thickness, it may be necessary to provide a plurality of different correction elements whose correction effects are adapted to the different covers. Depending on the selected cover then the correction element is installed, whose correction effect is best adapted to the selected cover. Otherwise, however, it will be more expedient to provide a correction element which is adapted to a cover of medium thickness and refractive index. A possible residual correction is then carried out with the aid of manipulators which are suitable for a fine adjustment of optical elements.

Since the replacement of an optical element in an immersion objective, even with the help of a replacement switch is a relatively complex process, you will not be as operators different covers in a frequent Insert change. By providing different correction elements, however, it is possible, for example, to follow the technical development if it turns out that with a certain coverage the best results can be achieved in the production of the microstructured components.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

Further features and advantages of the invention will become apparent from the following description of the exemplary embodiments with reference to the drawings. Show:

1 shows a meridional section through a projection exposure apparatus according to the invention in a highly schematic representation with an immersion objective and a correction device;

Figure 2 is an enlarged view of the image side

End of the projection exposure apparatus shown in FIG.

DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS

FIG. 1 shows a meridional section through a microlithographic projection exposure apparatus designated as a whole in a highly schematic representation. The projection exposure apparatus 10 has a lighting device 12 for generating projection light 13, which includes a light source 14, an illumination optics indicated at 16 and a diaphragm 18. The illumination optics 16 makes it possible to set different illumination angle distributions.

The projection exposure apparatus 10 further includes an immersion objective 20 which includes an aperture AS as well as a multiplicity of optical elements, of which only a few lenses are indicated by way of example in FIG. 1 and are designated Ll to L6 for the sake of clarity. The immersion objective 20 serves to image a mask 24, which can be arranged in an object plane 22 of the immersion objective 20, onto a photosensitive layer 26, which is arranged in an image plane 28 of the immersion objective 20. The photosensitive layer 26 may be e.g. to act a photoresist, which is applied to a wafer 30.

The lenses L 1 and L 2 are associated schematically with actuation systems A 1 and A 2, with which the lenses L 1 , L 2 can be moved along the Z-axis. The actuator systems A1, A2 preferably comprise individually actuatable actuators, eg piezoelectric elements, but may also or additionally offer the possibility of a manual adjustment. Since such actuator systems are well known in the prior art, the explanation of further details is omitted. In the vicinity of a pupil plane 32 there is arranged a correction device, designated as a whole by 34, which comprises a plate P and a replacement holder EH. The plate P is aspherized on its image-side optical surface 35, which is greatly exaggerated in FIG. 1 for reasons of recognizability. In fact, the deviations from a plane surface are less than 100 nm. With the aid of the replacement holder EH, it is possible to lead the plate P out of the beam path of the immersion objective 20 without the entire immersion objective 20 having to be dismounted for this purpose. Details of a possible mechanical structure of the correction device 34 can be found in US 2005/0134972 A1, the disclosure content of which is fully incorporated in the present application.

In the vicinity of the image-side end of the immersion objective 20, which is enlarged but not shown to scale in FIG. 2, there is a cover 36, which is applied directly to the photosensitive layer 26. The cover is formed by a layer of constant thickness consisting of a material transparent to the projection light. In the already mentioned WO 2005/064409 A2, further details of the cover 36 are described, so that to that extent additional explanations can be dispensed with.

Between the cover 36 and the image last lens L6 is an immersion liquid 38th The cover 36 ensures that gas bubbles 40 or other particles in the immersion liquid 38 of the light-sensitive layer 26 can not come so close that they lead to serious disturbances in the imaging of the mask 24 there. The thickness of the layer 36 is chosen so that the distance of the gas bubbles 40 from the photosensitive layer 26 is sufficiently large.

Of course, it is best if the refractive indices of the immersion liquid 38 and the cover 36 match exactly. However, with the available materials for the cover 36, which must meet high transparency and post release requirements, this is not feasible. Therefore, at the interface between the cover 36 and the immersion liquid 38 arranged above, a refractive index quotient of 1 differs. This has the consequence that the cover 36 acts against the immersion liquid 38 as a plane-parallel plate.

Compared with a state in which the entire space between the photosensitive layer 26 and the image-side last lens L6 is filled with immersion liquid 38, such a plane-parallel plate generates aberrations. Specifically, these are spherical aberrations, primarily defocused. In addition, there are also higher order errors that adversely affect the imaging properties. The aspherical surface 35 of the plate P is shaped so that the above-mentioned aberrations caused by the cover 36 are corrected as much as possible. Remaining errors can be corrected with the Al and A2 actuator systems. Thus, it becomes possible to lithographically produce even smaller structures on the wafer 30.

If an immersion mode is to be performed without the cover 36, the plate P would produce a kind of overcompensation and thus itself represent a cause of aberrations. Therefore, an adjustment is made by using the replacement holder EH an exchange plate is introduced into the beam path, which has no aspherical surface. The replacement plate has the property of compensating for the action of the plate P except for the effect of the aspherical surface 35.

If a cover 36 with a different thickness or different refractive index is to be used, remaining errors can be corrected with the actuator systems A1 and A2. If covers 36 with widely varying thicknesses are to be used, the use of a different correction plate may also be considered (if necessary in addition).

Claims

1. Microlithographic projection exposure apparatus, with:
a) an immersion objective (20) with which a
Pattern (24) is imaged on a photosensitive layer (26) and that for a
Immersionsbetrieb is designed, in which an immersion liquid (38) is located between the immersion objective and the photosensitive,
b) correcting means (34) for reducing aberrations caused by the application of a cover (36) directly attachable to the photosensitive layer (26) such that the immersion liquid (38) does not contact the photosensitive layer (26) .
wherein the correction means comprises a correction element that can be integrated into and removed from the immersion objective (20) without having to disassemble the immersion objective (20).
2. Projection exposure apparatus according to claim 1, wherein the correction element (P) is an optical element which is exposed to the projection light in the installed state.
A projection exposure apparatus according to claim 2, wherein said optical element (P) has an aspherical optical surface (35).
4. A projection exposure apparatus according to claim 3, wherein the deviations of the aspherical optical surface (35) from a plane surface are less than 1000 nm.
5. A projection exposure apparatus according to claim 4, wherein the deviations of the aspherical optical surface (35) from a plane surface are less than 100 nm.
6. A projection exposure apparatus according to one of claims 3 to 5, wherein the correction element (P) in the installed state in or near a pupil plane (32) of the immersion objective (20) is arranged.
7. A projection exposure apparatus according to claim 2, wherein the correction element is a plane-parallel plate, which is arranged in the installed state in or near a field plane of the Immersionsobjektivs (20).
8. Projection exposure apparatus according to one of claims 2 to 7, wherein the immersion objective has a replacement holder for replacement of the correction element against an optical element without correction effect.
9. Projection exposure system according to claim 3 and claim 8, wherein the deviations of the optical surfaces of the correction element and the optical element without correction effect at all surface points with orthogonal coordinates (x, y) less than 1000 nm, preferably less than 100 nm, in z Direction.
10. A projection exposure apparatus according to claim 1, wherein the correction element is a spacer with which sockets of adjacent optical elements are held at a predetermined distance by the spacer.
11. Projection exposure system according to one of the preceding claims, wherein the cover (34) in the region of the beam path has plane-parallel optical interfaces.
12. Projection exposure apparatus according to one of the preceding claims, comprising a set of different covers (34) and a plurality of different correction elements (P) whose correction effects adapted to the different covers and which can be inserted depending on the selected cover in the beam path.
13. The projection exposure apparatus according to claim 12, wherein the covers differ from one another with respect to their thickness and / or refractive index.
14. A method for the microlithographic production of a microstructured component with the following steps:
a) providing a projection exposure apparatus (10) according to claim 12 or 13;
b) selecting a cover (36) from the set of covers;
c) introducing or removing a correction element (P) in the beam path of the immersion objective (20);
d) projecting the pattern (24) onto the photosensitive layer (26).
PCT/EP2007/006823 2006-09-29 2007-08-02 Microlithographic projection exposure apparatus WO2008040410A1 (en)

Priority Applications (4)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US84811806P true 2006-09-29 2006-09-29
US60/848,118 2006-09-29
DE200610046675 DE102006046675A1 (en) 2006-09-29 2006-09-29 Micro-lithographic projection illumination system for manufacturing e.g. highly integrated electrical circuit, has correction device including correction unit that is attached and demounted in objective without dismantling objective
DE102006046675.6 2006-09-29

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
WO2008040410A1 true WO2008040410A1 (en) 2008-04-10

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Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
PCT/EP2007/006823 WO2008040410A1 (en) 2006-09-29 2007-08-02 Microlithographic projection exposure apparatus

Country Status (1)

Country Link
WO (1) WO2008040410A1 (en)

Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US5789734A (en) * 1993-05-14 1998-08-04 Canon Kabushiki Kaisha Exposure apparatus that compensates for spherical aberration of an image forming device
EP1431826A2 (en) * 2002-12-09 2004-06-23 Carl Zeiss SMT AG Projection lens, in particular for microlithography, and me thod for adjusting a projection lens
WO2004053596A2 (en) * 2002-12-10 2004-06-24 Carl Zeiss Smt Ag Method for adjusting a desired optical property of a positioning lens and microlithographic projection exposure system

Patent Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US5789734A (en) * 1993-05-14 1998-08-04 Canon Kabushiki Kaisha Exposure apparatus that compensates for spherical aberration of an image forming device
EP1431826A2 (en) * 2002-12-09 2004-06-23 Carl Zeiss SMT AG Projection lens, in particular for microlithography, and me thod for adjusting a projection lens
WO2004053596A2 (en) * 2002-12-10 2004-06-24 Carl Zeiss Smt Ag Method for adjusting a desired optical property of a positioning lens and microlithographic projection exposure system

Non-Patent Citations (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Title
LAURENT MARINIER, YURI AKSENOV, ROB MORTON, DAVID VAN STEENWINCKEL, PETER ZANDBERGEN: "Anti-bubble topcoat for immersion lithography" PROC. OF THE SPIE, Bd. 5753, Mai 2005 (2005-05), Seiten 527-536, XP002457991 in der Anmeldung erwähnt *

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