WO2008022850A1 - Method and arrangement for the optical measurement of surface profiles of objects - Google Patents

Method and arrangement for the optical measurement of surface profiles of objects Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2008022850A1
WO2008022850A1 PCT/EP2007/057243 EP2007057243W WO2008022850A1 WO 2008022850 A1 WO2008022850 A1 WO 2008022850A1 EP 2007057243 W EP2007057243 W EP 2007057243W WO 2008022850 A1 WO2008022850 A1 WO 2008022850A1
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WO
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Application
Patent type
Prior art keywords
characterized
method according
object
particles
camera
Prior art date
Application number
PCT/EP2007/057243
Other languages
German (de)
French (fr)
Inventor
Lucius Remer
Volker Seyfried
Original Assignee
Leica Microsystems Cms Gmbh
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date

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Classifications

    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01BMEASURING LENGTH, THICKNESS OR SIMILAR LINEAR DIMENSIONS; MEASURING ANGLES; MEASURING AREAS; MEASURING IRREGULARITIES OF SURFACES OR CONTOURS
    • G01B11/00Measuring arrangements characterised by the use of optical means
    • G01B11/24Measuring arrangements characterised by the use of optical means for measuring contours or curvatures
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B5/00Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnostic purposes; Identification of persons
    • A61B5/103Detecting, measuring or recording devices for testing the shape, pattern, colour, size or movement of the body or parts thereof, for diagnostic purposes
    • A61B5/107Measuring physical dimensions, e.g. size of the entire body or parts thereof
    • A61B5/1077Measuring of profiles
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B5/00Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnostic purposes; Identification of persons
    • A61B5/45For evaluating or diagnosing the musculoskeletal system or teeth
    • A61B5/4538Evaluating a particular part of the muscoloskeletal system or a particular medical condition
    • A61B5/4542Evaluating the mouth, e.g. the jaw
    • A61B5/4547Evaluating teeth
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61CDENTISTRY; APPARATUS OR METHODS FOR ORAL OR DENTAL HYGIENE
    • A61C9/00Impression cups, i.e. impression trays; Impression methods
    • A61C9/004Means or methods for taking digitized impressions
    • A61C9/0046Data acquisition means or methods
    • A61C9/0053Optical means or methods, e.g. scanning the teeth by a laser or light beam

Abstract

A method and an arrangement for the optical measurement of surface profiles of objects, particularly of teeth, rows of teeth, or tooth stumps, are characterized, with respect to achieving a high level of measurement accuracy with simple means, in that a structure is applied to the surface of the object (1), wherein the structure comprises individual measuring points distributed on the surface of the object (1), that the object (1) is illuminated by means of a light source (4) and that the detection light emitted from the applied structure is detected at various observation angles by means of a camera and the surface profile of the object (1) is calculated from the image data of the camera.

Description

Method and arrangement for the optical measurement of the surface profile of objects

The invention relates to a method and an arrangement for the optical measurement of the surface profile of objects, particularly teeth, teeth rows or tooth stumps.

Methods and arrangements of this kind under discussion are known in various embodiments for some time and are used in particular in order to achieve a high degree of accuracy and marginal accuracy of dental crowns. Some of the known processes operate on the fringe projection method in which a stripe pattern or a grid structure is optically projected onto the surface to be measured of the three-dimensional object. the strips appear from a tilted to a triangulation viewing direction bent by the topography, that is, the height information is translated into the phase of the detected and deformed stripe pattern. By known from interferometry static or dynamic algorithm of the recovery phase, the phase map may be determined first, which is then converted by the so-called. Phase unwrapping in the topography. This is essential if the pixel coordinates of a fringe pattern can convert on a CCD camera chip in the corresponding object coordinates.

In the known methods, which operate on the fringe projection method, the fact is disadvantageous that the tooth material is translucent. Due to the translucency of the image projected onto the surface of the tooth stripe pattern partially penetrates into the tooth. Here, the depth of penetration in addition also depend on the surface condition of the tooth material. By the invasion of the zebra in the tooth inside the image of the surface structure of the tooth is distorted, resulting in a significant deterioration of the measurement result result. To circumvent this problem it has been proposed to apply to the surface a layer of contrast powder for matting or a layer of a fluorescent liquid. Although the problem is solved that the projected fringe pattern partially penetrates into the tooth by these measures. However, the provision of an additional layer brings a disadvantage with it is that it can not be avoided even at a high skill of the user, that the layer has different thicknesses. However, different layer thicknesses result in the subsequent projecting the stripe structure in turn to measurement inaccuracies.

As an alternative to the strip projection method, the use of confocal laser scanning microscopes for dental measurement is known. The use of a confocal microscope is, however, not only extremely expensive but also has serious disadvantages in terms of the recording speed to be achieved and in view of the complexity of the system.

The present invention is now the object of a

A method and an arrangement for the optical measurement of the surface profile of objects, particularly teeth, teeth rows or tooth stumps to configure in such a manner and further that using simple means a high measuring accuracy is achieved.

According to the invention, the foregoing object is achieved in terms of a method having the features of claim 1. After that the inventive method is characterized in that a structure is applied to the surface of the object, wherein the structure is composed of individual, distributed on the surface of the object measuring points, that the object is illuminated by a light source and that light emanating from the coated structure detection light is detected by a camera at different observation angles and calculated the surface profile of the object from the camera image data.

Furthermore, the above object in view, an arrangement for the optical measurement of the surface profile of objects by the features of claim 28 is solved. Thereafter, the inventive arrangement is characterized by means for applying a structure of individual, distributed on the surface of the object measurement points, a light source for illuminating the object, a camera for detection of the end of the applied structure detection light under different angles of observation and an evaluation unit for calculating the surface profile of the object from the camera image data.

In the present invention, it has been recognized that measuring inaccuracies due to non-uniform layer thicknesses are unavoidable in both a matting for generating a subsurface for a to be projected fringe pattern, as well as a fluorescent layer covering the surface of the object to be measured completely. In further accordance with the invention, it has been recognized then that no surface of the object completely or at least partially covering layer is for 3D measurement of an object necessary, but rather that the individual, representing the surface of the object markings suffice. According to the invention, therefore, a structure is applied to the surface of the object, make up the structure of individual, distributed on the surface of the object measuring points. In other words are generated by applying the structure randomly distributed points on the surface of the object. These points define the measuring points in such a way that the outgoing light at the object from the structured light is detected as a detection light by a camera. Specifically, the light emanating from the applied structure detection light is detected at different observation angles and calculated the surface profile of the object from the camera image data.

The inventive method and the inventive arrangement operate with high accuracy, since the surface of the object can be measured directly on the basis of the applied in physical form to the object structure.

In an advantageous embodiment, a dot pattern is used as the structure which is produced by applying discrete particles on the surface of the object. As detection light can do that from - A -

Structure reflected and / or scattered and / or polarized light to be detected. The deposited particles act this quasi each as individual light-scattering centers. In case of using a luminescent structure, the result of the light emanating from the structure of the fluorescence spectrum and / or phosphorescent light is detected as a detection light.

In view of a smooth distribution of the particles on the surface of the object to an application of the particles serves as a solution. Preferably, the particles are dissolved in alcohol, as this evaporates quickly after application. Alternatively, an application of the particles of an emulsion or suspension is possible.

A particularly pleasant for a patient application can be achieved in that the particles, for example. By (oral) rinsing or

Spray applied. Next is a conceivable application of the particles as

Tincture or by means of a film or sheet. Particularly in the

Surveying of teeth, the particles preferably by means of a

Chewing gum applied. In view of easy removability after completion of the measurement, the particles are applied in an advantageous manner in a washable, flushable and / or removable form.

With regard to the specific design of the particle can be provided that it is nanoparticles, whose size is in a range of less than equal to 1 .mu.m. Nanoparticles turn out to be particularly advantageous in so far as their size is smaller than the optical resolution. A disadvantage, however, that nanoparticles penetrate into cells and may be toxic. advantageously using particles having a size in a range between 1 micron and preferably from 200 microns to avoid this problem. Particles in this size combine several advantages: Firstly, they are not toxic, on the other hand they provide, in view of their greater surface more detection light as nanoparticles, wherein the diameter is still smaller than the optical resolution.

With regard to the specific nature of the particles can be provided that they are made of metal, whereby a particularly good reflection of the illumination light would result from the particles. Alternatively, "quantum dots" labeled particles can be so-called. "Beads" or so-called. Be used. "Quantum dots" (quantum dots) are nanoscopic structures of semiconductor materials whose optical properties can be tailored by controlling their shape, their size or the number of their electrons.

With regard to easy identification of the individual particles can be provided that multi-colored particles are used.

Alternatively, or in addition to particles which reflect the illumination light substantially and / or scatter and active particles may be used which emit as a result of irradiation itself detection light. Specifically, it can involve labeled with fluorophores particles to fluorescent proteins, eg. In the form of bacteria with GFP (green fluorescence protein) and / or auto-fluorescent particles, such as occur in foods act.

In a particularly preferred embodiment it is provided that the surface profile of the object is calculated using a triangulation method. It is advantageous if the camera two spatially spaced apart photo-sensitive sensors or detectors comprising. Each particle on the surface of the object that is double mapped to each of the two sensors. The distance between the two sensors can thereby be incorporated as a base length in the calculations in the framework of triangulation. As photosensitive sensors / detectors may, for example, CCD chips, EMCCDs, CMOS sensors, avalanche photodiodes (APDs), MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical System) -based detectors and / or PSDs (Position Sensitive Devices) are used.

Instead of a camera with two mutually separated photosensitive sensors, the use of a camera with only one sensor is possible. In this case, the light emanating from a point of the structure detection light is imaged in equal parts to one half of the sensor.

Advantageously, the camera or the two halves of a sensor of the camera, a cross correlation performed between the two sensors. In this way, a unique identification of the items shown on the sensors of the camera is possible. As an additional aid to uniquely identify the mapped points to an evaluation of the focus size of the pixels of the particles to the sensors proves advantageous. When using multi-color particles, the color information for the identification of the particles can be used in addition.

In a particularly preferred embodiment, multiple images of the object are recorded under respective different detection angles, the individual images in quick succession, preferably at a video rate (eg. 24 frames per second) are recorded. These measures allowed a tracking or a

Tracking of individual points of the structure of the individual images of time, so that the different digital images can be correctly assembled into a three dimensional image of the object.

In a further advantageous manner, the light source for illuminating the object is operated pulsed. This opens up the possibility to synchronize image capture and detection, the sensors of the camera can be operated in this case Shuttem. In the case of the use of CCD chips as sensors preferred frame transfer CCDs are used.

In the event that a pattern of fluorescent or phosphorescent particles is applied to the object to be measured, the luminescent light can be detected in an advantageous manner with two colors. By linear unmixing a glare correction can be achieved in this way, by being separated from the actual fluorescent light from the particle detection light originating from a possible autofluorescence of the object.

With regard to a particularly efficient evaluation that for image acquisition, an artificial blurring is generated can be provided. This uncertainty may, for example, be realized that the sensors and / or an upstream imaging optical system which for example can be designed as a micro lens array., An oscillation motion is imparted with a small amplitude. This procedure is particularly employed when it turns out that the images of the particles are too small on the sensor. By the oscillation movement, the pixel increases and priority areas its exact position can be determined.

The surface structure of the object can also be determined by means of a holographic process. For this purpose, the illumination light is split by a beam splitter into a reference beam and an object beam in. Because the spatial and temporal stability of a formed by the superposition of the wave fields of the interference pattern is a crucial prerequisite for the preparation of holograms, a spatial fixing of the object and the camera is advantageous. In that regard, this method offers particular for measuring teeth outside the oral cavity.

In principle, the measurement of the surface profile of objects in any kind of body cavity, for example. In the ear, possible. Also a measurement of objects within the body with the use of endoscopic procedures is also possible. The illuminating light can then be fed into a conventional manner via optical fibers.

With regard to a particularly simple application of the structure of the object to be measured, the means for applying may be designed as a spray nozzle. In a particularly advantageous manner, the spray nozzle is disposed on a probe which is fed from the illuminating light source.

A probe-like arrangement could be inserted into any type of body cavity.

There are various possibilities for embodying and developing the teaching of the present invention advantageously. For this purpose, on the one hand to the other hand to the independent claims 1 and 29 subordinate claims and the following explanation of preferred embodiments of the invention with reference to the drawing. In connection with the explanation of the preferred embodiments of the invention with reference to the drawing, generally preferred embodiments and further developments of the teaching will also be explained in general. In the drawings Fig. 1 shows a schematic view of a first embodiment of an inventive arrangement with a camera with two photosensitive sensors,

Fig. 2 is a schematic view of a second embodiment of an inventive arrangement with a camera with a single photo-sensitive sensor,

Fig. 3 is a schematic view of an image picked up with the sensor of FIG. 2 and image

Fig. 4 is a schematic view of a third embodiment of an inventive arrangement for carrying out a holographic method.

Fig. 1 shows - schematically - a first embodiment of an inventive arrangement for the optical measurement of the surface profile of an object 1, wherein it is in the concrete to the measurement of a tooth 2. At first, the tooth has been prepared 2 by a point-like structure has been applied to the surface. The dot-shaped structure consists of individual particles 3 which are adhered to the surface of the tooth. 2 Against the background of the translucent

Dental material 3 form the particles have an optical contrast and act in the illumination of the tooth 2 by means of an illumination light source 4 as individual light-scattering centers.

The light source 4 is preferably carried out as a laser, a LED or a cold light source. Also, the light of a normal lamp or sunlight can be used to illuminate the object. 1 Preferably, a light in the visible wavelength range between 400 and 800 nm is used.

In the illustrated embodiment, the passes light reflected from the individual particles 3 or scattered light detection first of a color filter 5 and is then imaged with two lenses 6 is designed as a CCD chip 7 sensors 8 illustrated an unspecified camera. The lenses 6 and the CCDs 7 are matched to one another that the resolution of the optics and of the CCD 7 to the detection of the individual particles 3 is sufficient. Specifically, the vote is chosen so that the detection light of each individual particle three encounters few pixels of a CCD. 7

After image acquisition, the viewing angle is changed and added the dot pattern again. In other words, a video sequence is created by successively several images of the object 1 are taken from different directions. In this way concealed portions of the object 1 is recognized even in an image pickup from a particular angle of observation. From the available images, the three-dimensional image of the tooth to be measured 2 is calculated by a triangulation. the distance between the two CCD chip of the camera 7 serving as a base length for the calculations in the framework of the triangulation method.

Figs. 2 and 3 show a second embodiment of an arrangement according to the invention, where - in contrast to the arrangement according to Fig. 1 - the detection light of the individual particles is detected only 3 with a CCD. 7 Like reference numerals denote the same parts as in FIG. 1.

As already explained in connection with FIG. 1, a plurality of images of the object 1 from different positions, that is taken at different viewing angles. The recordings are preferably provided with a video rate, that is for example accommodated. At 24 frames per second. Taking advantage of overdetermination or redundancy of the system can from all the shots either the relative camera position or - similar to the GPS principle - directly to 3-D

Position of the individual particles are calculated. 3

In the described method one obtains a further

Information gain by the fact that - as indicated schematically in Fig. 2 - is evaluated, the focus size of the pixels of the individual particles 3 on the CCD. 7 The results from this evaluation, additional information can be used to uniquely identify the mapped points in the individual shots.

Fig. 4 shows - also schematically - a third embodiment of an arrangement according to the invention, wherein the three-dimensional structure of the tooth to be measured 2 is determined there by means of a holographic process. Here, the light emitted from a laser 9 is designed as a illumination light source 4 illumination light beam first passes through a lens 10 and is then split by a beam splitter 1 1 into two sub-beams. One of the beams - the reference beam 12 - is directed via a first deflecting mirror 13 directly onto a photo-sensitive sensor 8 of a camera. The second partial beam - object beam 14 - is directed via a second deflecting mirror 15 to the object to be measured 1 and serves to illuminate the coating applied to the surface of the object 1 dot-shaped structure.

As indicated schematically in Fig. 4, each particle generated Fresnel zone plates on the 3 configured as CCD sensor 8. 7 whose phase is saved by overlapping with the reference beam 12 on the CCD 7.

Finally, it should be noted that the exemplary embodiments discussed above serve as a showcase to explain the claimed teaching, but do not limit it to the embodiments.

LIST OF REFERENCE

1 property

2 tooth

3 particles

4 illumination light source

5 color filter

10 6 lens

7 CCD chip

8 photo-sensitive sensor

9 laser

10 lens

15 11 beam splitter

12 reference beam

13 deflecting

14 object beam

15 deflecting

Claims

P atentanspr ü che
1. A method for optical measurement of the surface profile of objects, particularly teeth, teeth rows or tooth stumps, characterized in that a structure on the surface of the object (1) is applied, where the structure of individual, on the surface of the object (1) composed distributed measuring points, that the object (1) is illuminated by a light source (4) and is calculated that detects from the applied structure outgoing detection light by a camera at different observation angles and from the camera image data, the surface profile of the object (1).
2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that a dot pattern is used as the structure which is produced by application of individual particles (3) onto the surface of the object (1).
3. The method of claim 1 or 2, characterized in that as the detection light reflected from the structure and / or scattered and / or polarized light is detected.
4. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 3, characterized in that is detected as a detection light due to the illumination of the structure outgoing fluorescent and / or phosphorescent.
5. The method according to any one of claims 2 to 4, characterized in that the particles (3) as a solution, preferably in alcohol, can be applied.
6. The method according to any one of claims 2 to 4, characterized in that the particles (3) are applied as an emulsion or as a suspension.
7. The method according to claim 5 or 6, characterized in that the particles (3) are applied by irrigation or as a spray.
8. The method according to any one of claims 2 to 4, characterized in that the particles (3) as a tincture, by means of a film or sheet, or by means of a chewing gum to be applied.
9. The method according to any one of claims 2 to 8, characterized in that the particles (3) are applied in a washable, flushable and / or removable form.
10. A method according to any one of claims 2 to 9, characterized in that it concerns with the particles (3) to nanoparticles having a size in the range less than 1 micron.
1. 1 Method according to one of claims 2 to 9, characterized in that it is in the particles (3) by particles having a
Size in the range between 1 micron and 200 microns preferably is.
12. The method according to any one of claims 2 to 1 1, characterized in that it is in the particles (3) are metal particles to beads and / or dealing with quantum dots.
13. The method according to any one of claims 2 to 12, characterized in that multi-colored particles (3) are used.
14. The method according to any one of claims 2 to 13, characterized in that it is labeled with fluorophores particles to dealing with auto-fluorescent particles in the particles (3) fluorescent proteins and / or.
15. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 14, characterized in that the surface profile of the object (1) is calculated using a triangulation method.
16. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 15, characterized in that a camera with at least two mutually separated photosensitive sensors (8) is used as a camera.
17. The method according to claim 16, characterized in that the triangulation, the distance between the two sensors (8) is used as a base length.
18. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 15, wherein the camera comprises only one sensor (8), characterized in that the light emanating from a point of the structure detection light is imaged in equal parts to one half of the sensor (8).
19. A method according to any one of claims 1 to 18, characterized in that a cross-correlation between the two sensors (8) of the camera or is performed between the two halves of the one sensor (8) of the camera.
20. The method according to any one of claims 16 to 19, characterized in that the focus size of the pixels is evaluated on the sensors (8).
21st Method according to one of claims 1 to 20, characterized in that the individual images are recorded at short time intervals one behind the other, preferably with video rate.
22. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 21, characterized in that the light source (4) for illuminating the object (1) is operated pulsed.
23. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 22, characterized in that the image capture and the detection are synchronized.
24. The method according to any one of claims 4 to 23, characterized in that the fluorescent light is detected with two colors.
25. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 24, characterized in that a glare correction by linear unmixing is performed.
26. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 25, characterized in that when recording an artificial blurring is generated and the focus of the image points are calculated.
27. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 26, characterized in that the surface profile of the object (1) is determined using a holographic method.
28. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 27, characterized in that the objects (1) are in body cavities or endoscopically measured.
29. An arrangement for optical measurement of the surface profile of objects, particularly teeth, teeth rows or tooth stumps, (characterized by means for applying a structure of individual, on the surface of the object (1) distributed measuring points, a light source (4) for illuminating the object 1), a camera for detection of the end of the applied structure detection light at different observation angles, and an evaluation unit for calculation of the surface profile of the object (1) from the camera image data.
30. An arrangement according to claim 29, characterized in that is carried out, the means for applying the structure as a spray nozzle.
31st Arrangement according to claim 30, characterized in that the spray nozzle can be introduced in one or in a in a body cavity from the light source (4) fed probe is arranged.
32. Arrangement according to one of claims 29 to 31, characterized in that the camera one or more CCD chips (7), EMCCDs, CMOS sensors, avalanche photodiodes (APDs), MEMS (Micro Electro-Mechanical System) -based detectors and / or comprises PSDs (position Sensitive Devices).
33. An arrangement according to any one of claims 29 to 32, characterized by a suitable optical system for imaging the detection light to the camera.
34. An arrangement according to any one of claims 29 to 33, characterized by a camera upstream microlens array.
PCT/EP2007/057243 2006-08-25 2007-07-13 Method and arrangement for the optical measurement of surface profiles of objects WO2008022850A1 (en)

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Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
DE102006039803.3 2006-08-25
DE200610039803 DE102006039803A1 (en) 2006-08-25 2006-08-25 Method and arrangement for the optical measurement of the surface profile of ojects

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EP20070787511 EP2073751A1 (en) 2006-08-25 2007-07-13 Method and arrangement for the optical measurement of surface profiles of objects

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO2011056574A1 (en) * 2009-10-26 2011-05-12 Olaf Andrew Hall-Holt Dental imaging system and method
US8999371B2 (en) 2012-03-19 2015-04-07 Arges Imaging, Inc. Contrast pattern application for three-dimensional imaging

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE3541891A1 (en) * 1985-11-27 1987-06-04 Kambiz Kachanian Method for detecting, storing and reproducing geometrical data of objects, in particular of jaw models, and a device for carrying out the method
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* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO2011056574A1 (en) * 2009-10-26 2011-05-12 Olaf Andrew Hall-Holt Dental imaging system and method
US20110207074A1 (en) * 2009-10-26 2011-08-25 Olaf Andrew Hall-Holt Dental imaging system and method
US8999371B2 (en) 2012-03-19 2015-04-07 Arges Imaging, Inc. Contrast pattern application for three-dimensional imaging
US9561281B2 (en) 2012-03-19 2017-02-07 Arges Imaging, Inc. Contrast pattern application for three-dimensional imaging
US9968524B2 (en) 2012-03-19 2018-05-15 Arges Imaging, Inc. Contrast pattern application for three-dimensional imaging

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DE102006039803A1 (en) 2008-03-20 application
EP2073751A1 (en) 2009-07-01 application

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