WO2008022183A1 - Condensate glucose analyzer - Google Patents

Condensate glucose analyzer Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2008022183A1
WO2008022183A1 PCT/US2007/075985 US2007075985W WO2008022183A1 WO 2008022183 A1 WO2008022183 A1 WO 2008022183A1 US 2007075985 W US2007075985 W US 2007075985W WO 2008022183 A1 WO2008022183 A1 WO 2008022183A1
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Prior art keywords
glucose
ebc
sample
subject
sensor
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PCT/US2007/075985
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French (fr)
Inventor
Richard J. Melker
David G. Bjoraker
Donn Michael Dennis
Jon Dale Stewart
Christopher D. Batich
Matthew M. Booth
John Frederick Horn
Ronald Youngblood
Timothy E. Morey
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University Of Florida Research Foundation, Inc.
Xhale Diagnostics, Inc.
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B5/00Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnostic purposes; Identification of persons
    • A61B5/145Measuring characteristics of blood in vivo, e.g. gas concentration, pH value; Measuring characteristics of body fluids or tissues, e.g. interstitial fluid, cerebral tissue
    • A61B5/14532Measuring characteristics of blood in vivo, e.g. gas concentration, pH value; Measuring characteristics of body fluids or tissues, e.g. interstitial fluid, cerebral tissue for measuring glucose, e.g. by tissue impedance measurement
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B5/00Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnostic purposes; Identification of persons
    • A61B5/145Measuring characteristics of blood in vivo, e.g. gas concentration, pH value; Measuring characteristics of body fluids or tissues, e.g. interstitial fluid, cerebral tissue
    • A61B5/1486Measuring characteristics of blood in vivo, e.g. gas concentration, pH value; Measuring characteristics of body fluids or tissues, e.g. interstitial fluid, cerebral tissue using enzyme electrodes, e.g. with immobilised oxidase
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B5/00Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnostic purposes; Identification of persons
    • A61B5/08Detecting, measuring or recording devices for evaluating the respiratory organs
    • A61B5/083Measuring rate of metabolism by using breath test, e.g. measuring rate of oxygen consumption
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B5/00Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnostic purposes; Identification of persons
    • A61B5/41Detecting, measuring or recording for evaluating the immune or lymphatic systems
    • A61B5/413Monitoring transplanted tissue or organ, e.g. for possible rejection reactions after a transplant

Abstract

Systems and methods for analyzing glucose present in exhaled breath condensate (EBC). In certain embodiments, electrochemical- or coulometnc-based sensing technologies are used to analyze EBC for the presence and/or concentration of glucose. Based on the detected glucose m EBC, the subject invention provides systems and methods for non-mvasive, accurate assessment of blood glucose levels.

Description

DESCRIPTION

CONDENSATE GLUCOSE ANALYZER

Field of Invention

The present invention relates to non-invasive monitoring of glucose concentrations m blood; and more particularly, to a system and method utilizing a breath condensate detection system for the frequent monitoring of glucose concentrations in subjects who are at risk for hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia, and/or glucose level fluctuations that put the subject at medical risk.

Background Information

Abnormal levels of glucose m the blood of humans can have a number of consequences. For example, fluctuations of blood glucose levels outside of the physiological range can result m one of two states, hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia. Hypoglycemia is defined as plasma glucose levels below normal (70 mg/dL). Hypoglycemia can be symptomatic or asymptomatic. For example, subjects suffering from postprandial hypoglycemia generally have symptoms of adrenergic stimulation including diaphoresis, anxiety, irritability, palpitations, tremor, and hunger. Such symptoms typically occur from about 2 to 4 hours postprandially and tend to occur suddenly with symptoms generally subsiding m about 15 to 20 minutes. Postprandial hypoglycemia is often idiopathic, however, it can be caused by early diabetes, alcohol intake, renal failure, and drug treatments.

In addition, a category of hypoglycemia exists which is designated as fasting hypoglycemia. Clinically, this form of hypoglycemia may have symptoms of neuroglycopenia including headache, fatigue, and mental dullness. In more severe cases, hypoglycemia can progress to confusion, blurring of vision, seizure, and ultimately loss of consciousness or seizure. Fasting hypoglycemia can occur with a fast of greater than 4 hours, and further can be caused by an insulinoma (msulm producing tumor) or resulting from self-admmistered msulm or intake of other hypoglycemic agents, alcohol abuse, liver disease (e g , decreased gluconeogenesis), pituitary insufficiency, or adrenal insufficiency.

Hyperglycemia, on the other hand, refers to excessive levels of blood glucose in a subject. There are many forms of hyperglycemia, the primary form being diabetes, which is defined as hyperglycemia secondary to decreased msulm production or an increase in peripheral tissue resistance to the action of msulm. Insulin, m simple terms, is the hormone that unlocks the cells of the body, allowing glucose to enter those cells and feed them. In diabetic subjects, glucose cannot enter the cells and subsequently, glucose builds up in the blood and the body's cells literally starve to death. Although the cause of diabetes is not completely understood, genetics, environmental factors, and viral causes have been partially identified.

The American Diabetes Association reports that nearly 6% of the population m the United States, a group of 16 million people, has diabetes The Association further reports that diabetes is the seventh leading cause of death m the United States, contributing to nearly 200,000 deaths per year Diabetes is a chronic disease having no cure

There are two major types of diabetes: Type I and Type II Type I diabetes (formerly known as juvenile onset diabetes) is an autoimmune disease m which the body does not produce any insulin and most often occurs m young adults and children. People with Type I diabetes must take daily msulm injections to stay alive.

Type II diabetes is a metabolic disorder resulting from the body's inability to make enough, or properly to use, msulm. Type II diabetes accounts for 90-95% of diabetes. In the United States, Type II diabetes is nearmg epidemic proportions, principally due to an increased number of older Ameπcans and a greater prevalence of obesity and a sedentary lifestyle. Diabetics having Type I diabetes typically are required to self-admmister msulm using, e g , a syringe or a pen with needle and cartridge. Continuous subcutaneous msulm infusion via implanted pumps is also available. Insulin itself was formally obtained from pork pancreas but is now made chemically identical to human msulm by recombinant DNA technology or by chemical modification of pork msulm. Although there are a variety of different insulins for rapid-, short-, intermediate-, and long-acting forms that may be used variously, separately or mixed m the same syringe, use of msulm for treatment of diabetes is not to be ignored.

The general characteristics of the symptoms of diabetes include the following: polyuria (high urine volume); hyperglycemia (high blood glucose levels); glucosuπa (loss of glucose m urine); polydipsia (excessive thirst); polyphagia (excessive hunger); and sudden weight loss. It has been observed that complications resulting from diabetes are the third leading cause of death m most developed countries. Diabetes is a risk factor for a variety of conditions including coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular stroke, neuropathy (nerve damage), nephropathy (kidney damage), retinopathy

(eye damage), hyperhpidemia (excessive blood lipids), angiopathy (damage to blood vessels) and infection.

For example, diabetes is said to be the leading cause of new cases of blindness m individuals m the range of ages between 20 and 74, from 12,000-24,000 people per year lose their sight because of diabetes.

Diabetes is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease, accounting for nearly 40% of new cases. Nearly 60-70% of people with diabetes have mild to severe forms of diabetic nerve damage which, in severe forms, can lead to lower limb amputations People with diabetes are 2-4 times more likely to have heart disease and to suffer strokes.

The healthcare costs associated with the treatment of diabetes and diabetic complications are enormous and projected to increase with the number of American living to older ages and the increased incidence of obesity Much of the morbidity and mortality can be ameliorated by the use of insulin or oral medications (and m many cases weight loss), but the key to diabetes control is frequent measurement of blood glucose concentration. This is vital m determining the amount of msulm or oral medications that must be given.

Thus, it is highly recommended by the medical profession that subjects who are at risk or have been diagnosed with hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia (including diabetes), and/or glucose fluctuations practice self-momtormg of blood glucose (SMBG). For example, diabetic subjects may make msulm dosage adjustments before injection based upon the level of glucose m the blood. Adjustments are necessary since blood glucose levels vary day to day for a vaπety of reasons, e g , exercise, stress, rates of food absorption, types of food, hormonal changes (pregnancy, puberty, etc ) and the like. Present devices available for SMBG are complicated and difficult for many diabetics to use and often require them to obtain an adequate blood sample. Thus, despite the importance of SMBG, several studies have found that the proportion of individuals who self-monitor at least once a day significantly declines with age. This decrease is likely due simply to the fact that SMBG typically involves obtaining blood from a finger stick. Most diabetics, even those aware of the complications of hypo- and hyperglycemia, do not test frequently enough (for Type I [msulm dependent] diabetics this may be 6-8 times/D and for Type II diabetics controlled with oral agent testing should ideally be performed at least 2 times/D) because they consider obtaining blood to be significantly more painful than the self- admimstration of msulm and SMBG is far more time consuming and complicated. The FDA is fully aware of the many shortcomings of the devices used for SMBG, but newer technologies or matrices have not proven any more reliable.

There is a desire for a less invasive method of glucose measurement. Methods exist or are being developed for a minimally invasive glucose monitoring, which use body fluids other than blood (e g , sweat, tears, or saliva) or subcutaneous fluid. Sweat and saliva are relatively easy to obtain, but their glucose concentration appears to lag m time significantly behind that of blood glucose. Unfortunately, tears, saliva and sweat have failed as viable matiices for use as surrogates for blood in monitoring glucose levels

Billions of dollars have been spent on sensors that can be temporarily inserted into the subcutaneous tissues (usually of the abdomen) m order to measure glucose continuously The fluid present between cells in this space is referred to as "interstitial fluid." Continuous measurement of interstitial fluid could lead to the development of closed loop glucose control with insulin pumps The ultimate goal is a device that could be implanted and would continuously measure glucose and provide msulm to tightly regulate glucose concentration. This goal has remained elusive and present sensors function for only a few days and interstitial fluid has been shown to be an average of the glucose concentration over periods of time that exceed those acceptable to sense rapid changes in glucose concentration, especially when hypoglycemia occurs

Breath is a unique bodily fluid. Unlike blood, urine, feces, saliva, sweat and other bodily fluids, it is available on a breath to breath, and therefore continuous, basis. It is readily available for sampling non- invasive Iy and because the lung receives all of the blood flow from the right side of the heart, measurements of analytes/compounds m breath correlate strongly and reproducibly with blood concentration. It is less likely to be associated with the transfer of serious infections than other bodily fluids and collection of samples is straightforward and painless. More importantly, certain compounds that have been found to be present in condensates m exhaled breath that could be easily assessed as opposed to invasive testing of samples of blood, urine, and the like.

Exhaled breath, especially when exhaled through the mouth (m contrast to breath exhaled from the nose, which acts as a heat-moisture exchanger) is a complex fluid that contains 100% humidity at 370C (body temperature) and aerosol droplets that are deπved from airway lining fluid, predominantly from fluid lining the alveoli but may also include contributions from non-alveolar areas. If the temperature of the collected sample is maintained at 370C or higher it will remain in this state and can be treated as a gas for compounds that are insoluble m water or readily diffuse out of water.

Current technology available to obtain and analyze exhaled breath condensates have required cooling of the sample to about -20° C. Cooling is applied m order to draw the exhaled breath condensates (EBCs) from the sample into liquid form, which would subsequently be subjected to testing. Such technology has not been effective because they have not been able to derive sufficient concentrations of target compounds (such as glucose) m the liquid EBC sample to afford accurate detection and quantification. Further, such technology requires large sampling (roughly 75 breaths) to deπve a sufficient amount of liquid EBC sample for testing Finally, such technology does not take into account variable humidity m exhaled breath and m the air when samples are taken as well as the random microparticle density of the sample, which can significantly effect the accuracy of measured target analyte m the sample as well as the correlation between the concentration of the target analyte m EBC versus blood concentration. Thus, truly simple, non-mvasive methods of measunng target analytes, specifically glucose, are not commercially available Insofar as is known, glucose has not been previously reported as being detectable in EBC, let alone having any correlation with blood and condensate concentration Further, no successful system or method has been developed that can accurately correlate glucose found in exhaled breath with the concentration found in blood Accordingly, there is a need for a commercially available, non-mvasive

EBC sensing device that enables frequent monitoring of glucose levels in subjects

Summary of the Invention

The present invention solves the needs m the art by providing methods and systems for non- invasive monitoring of glucose concentration in blood, as well as systems and methods for non-mvasive monitoring of the effects of one or more therapeutic regimens on the concentration of glucose m a subject.

The systems and methods of the present invention utilize sensors that can analyze a subject's EBC to detect, quantify, and/or trend concentrations of glucose present m the EBC, which correlate to the glucose concentration in the subject's body, in particular in blood In one embodiment, the present invention provides systems and methods for monitoring glucose levels and/or concentration m a subject diagnosed with hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia (including diabetes), and/or fluctuations m glucose levels.

In a related embodiment, the present invention provides systems and methods for monitoring glucose levels and/or concentration m a subject having a disease state or condition that puts the subject at risk for hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia, or fluctuations toward hypoglycemia and/or hyperglycemia (for example, quickly dropping or increasing glucose levels). A wide variety of disease states or conditions benefit from frequent glucose monitoring; for example, such monitoring provides a tool for the subject and/or healthcare professional to develop a response or plan to assist with management of the disease state or condition. In other embodiments of the invention, systems and methods are provided for monitoring the efficacy of therapeutic regimens administered to a subject to treat hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia, and/or abnormal fluctuations m glucose levels.

As understood by the skilled artisan, exhaled breath samples maintained at 370C or higher can be manipulated to collect the aerosol droplets without the free water that accounts for the 100% humidity. In one embodiment of the invention, to collect just the aerosol droplets, a series of screens (referred to m the art as impactors) can be used to collect droplets of a particular size. These systems are frequently used to determine the size of drug particles delivered by devices such as meter dose inhalers In this instance, compounds that readily dissolve m water (such as glucose) can be collected from exhaled breath samples without being diluted by the free water (100% humidity) that is present Alternatively, in certain circumstances, compounds that are highly water soluble and likely to remain m solution, such as glucose, can be tested following collection of exhaled breath condensates (EBC) from exhaled breath samples that are cooled to at around room temperature (such as around 15-20° C) or cooled to temperatures at or below freezing (such as -20° C or -30° C) In certain embodiments, this condensate would include both aerosol droplets and free water condensed from the 100% humidity that is present in exhaled breath This liquid can then be analyzed with sensors that are designed for liquid-based analyses

In general, aerosol droplets will contain a higher concentration of an analyte such as glucose, but the quantity of liquid will be less than that collected from EBC, which will have a lower concentration of the analyte The decision on whether to collect just the aerosol droplets or EBC will depend on the size of sample needed for measurement of the concentration of the analyte and the simplicity of the various sensors In general, it is easier to collect EBC than aerosol droplets Unless otherwise indicated, EBC will be used to describe the total amount of condensate derived from a sample of exhaled breath, that is the aerosol droplets and the free evaporative water Exhaled breath measurements can be used to monitor glucose levels and to correlate them with blood concentrations By using breath to determine blood glucose concentrations, diabetics are freed from having to perform frequent blood sticks to determine their glucose concentrations or freed from the risk of developing tissue damage and infection from implantable monitoring devices Further, continuous monitoring of breath glucose can be used m the operating room duimg surgery and/or the intensive care units since tight glucose control has been shown to improve wound healing and reduce the incidence of post-operative infection

According to the present invention, it has been determined that glucose is present in exhaled breath, but almost exclusively in EBC In one embodiment of the invention, a non-mvasive system for monitoring the concentration of glucose m a subject having a disease state or condition is provided, said system comprising a means for collecting a sample of exhaled breath from a subject, a means for extracting the condensates from the sample of exhaled breath, and a sensor having sufficient sensitivity and selectivity to detect and/or quantify the glucose present m the condensates

A method of use according to the invention comprises collecting a sample of exhaled breath from a subject, extracting condensates from the sample of exhaled breath, and contacting the condensates with a sensor having the ability to detect and/or quantify the glucose Such systems and methods are helpful m assisting m the management of diabetic disease states (e g , gestational diabetes, fetal or premature-birth neonate (ι e , a neonate born before term) glucose management, Type I and II diabetes) In accordance with the subject invention, a sensor for detecting glucose m EBC can be selected from a variety of systems that have been developed for use m collecting and monitonng liquid components. For example, the sensor of the subject invention can be selected from those described in U S Patent Nos. 4,431,507: 5,288.636; 5,517,313; 5,762,770; 5,894,351; 5,910,661; 5,917,605; 5,997,817, 6,294,062; 6,558,528; 6,572.566; 6,780,651 ; 6,893,552; 6,913,668; and. 7,074,307, all of which are incorporated herein by reference m their entirety.

Further, sensor systems having computerized data analysis components can also be used m the subject invention (ι e., U.S. Patent No. 4,796,639). Sensors of the subject invention can also include commercial devices commonly known as "artificial" or "electronic" noses or tongues. Other sensors for use m accordance with the subject invention include, but are not limited to, metal-msulator-metal ensemble

(MIME) sensors, cross-reactive optical microsensor arrays, fluorescent polymer films, surface enhanced raman spectroscopy (SERS), diode lasers, selected ion flow tubes, metal oxide sensors (MOS), bulk acoustic wave (BAW) sensors, coloπmetπc tubes, infrared spectroscopy, semiconductive gas sensor technology; mass spectrometers, fluorescent spectrophotometers, conductive polymer gas sensor technology; aptamer sensor technology; amplifying fluorescent polymer (AFP) sensor technology; microcantilever technology; molecularly polymeric film technology; surface resonance arrays; microgravimetπc sensors; thickness sheer mode sensors; surface acoustic wave gas sensor technology; radio frequency phase shift reagent-free and other similar micromechanical sensors and high electron mobility transistors (HEMT). Preferred sensors of the invention are those that utilize immobilized glucose- binding molecules such as antibodies or parts of antibodies, enzymes, oligonucleotides (e.g., DNA or RNA aptamers), peptides, or proteins or parts of proteins (see, for example, U.S. Patent No. 6,475,750, which is incorporated herein ). More preferably, the sensors of the invention are those that utilize hydrogel immobilized glucose-bmdmg enzymes (see, for example, U.S. Patent Nos. 5,423,739; 5,540,828; 5,954,685; 5,989,409; 6,144,869; 6,356,776; 6,594,514; 6,850,790; 6,902,905; and 6,999,810, all of which are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety) or are based on lateral flow technology that utilize glucose-bmdmg enzymes (see, for example, U.S. Patent Nos. 6,818,180; 5,962,215; 5,846,438; 5,843,691; 5,620,863; 5,563,042; 5,563,031; 5,556,761; and the like, all ofwhich are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety).

In a preferred embodiment of the subject invention, a specific phase of the respiratory cycle, namely the end-tidal portion of exhaled breath, is sampled to collect condensates from which glucose amounts or concentrations are determined, wherein the glucose amounts or concentrations in EBC correlate to blood glucose concentrations. The systems and methods of the invention are particularly helpful to the subject and/or healthcare professional in monitoring subject response to theiapeutic regimens prescπbed to assist m the management of the subject's disease state and/or associated conditions Such therapeutic regimens include, but are not limited to. response to hypoglycemic agents including insulin and oral agents, weight management regimens, including ketogenic diets, diets for performance athletes, and evaluation of the effects of drugs on glucose and/or insulin homeostasis.

One aspect of the present invention comprises a system and method for monitoring an effect of at least one non-msulm-contammg and/or one msulm-contammg pharmaceutical composition on glucose levels m a subject receiving the pharmaceutical composition. In the method, glucose monitoring in the subject may be carried out by: administering a prescπbed pharmaceutical composition that affects glucose levels m a subject; obtaining a sample of the subject's exhaled breath; extracting condensates from the sample of exhaled breath; and assessing glucose amounts or concentrations in the condensates extracted from the subject's exhaled breath. In a related embodiment, a record is maintained of the treatments with the pharmaceutical composition as well as of corresponding glucose amounts or concentrations determined present m EBC after (and m certain instances before) each treatment. The records are compared to evaluate the effect of the pharmaceutical composition on glucose levels in the subject receiving the pharmaceutical composition (especially in diabetics, where other drugs interfere with glucose homeostasis).

According to the subject invention, the effect of any pharmaceutical composition known to be useful in modulating glucose levels can be monitored including, but not limited to, oral hypoglycemic agents, insulin, hormones, atypical antipsychotics, adrenergic medications such as pseudoephedrme, and the like. Oral hypoglycemic agents that can be monitored in accordance with the present invention include, but are not limited to, first-generation sulfonylurea compounds (e g., acetohexamide, chlorpropamide, tolazamide, and tolbutamide); second-generation sulfonylureas (e g , glipizide, glybunde, and glimepinde); biguamdes; alpha-glucosidase inhibitors; and troghtazone. In a further aspect, the present invention comprises a system and method for evaluating compliance with a weight management program m a subject, wherein momtoπng of glucose amount or concentration m the subject is accomplished by monitoring glucose m EBC. In this method a reference range of glucose amounts or concentrations is determined that correspond to achieving a weight management goal m the subject. Such range of glucose amounts or concentrations typically comprises a high threshold glucose value and a low threshold glucose value. Rates of change (or trends) of glucose amounts or concentrations m the subject may be determined.

Another aspect of the present invention relates to a method for improving prognosis and/or reduction of adverse side-effects associated with a disease state or condition in a subject with abnormal glucose levels In this aspect of the present invention, a reference range of glucose amounts or concentrations is determined that corresponds to achieving an improved prognosis or reduction of adverse side-effects associated with the disease state or condition in the subject The reference range comprises, for example, a high threshold glucose value, a low threshold glucose value, a predetermined rate of change (e g , glucose levels change at a rate faster than a predetermined rate of change), and/or a predicted glucose value for a later time point The glucose condensate monitoring device of the invention may provide an alert corresponding to threshold values, rate changes, a predicted glucose value that falls outside of the predetermined range, etc The series of glucose amounts or concentrations and the reference range are compared to evaluate compliance with the reference range of glucose amounts or concentrations to achieve an improved prognosis or reduction of adverse side-effects associated with the disease state or condition m the subject.

In one embodiment, a glucose condensate test kit is provided for monitoring glucose amounts or concentrations m a subject or for assessing the efficacy of a therapeutic regimen administered to a subject to address abnormal glucose levels. A kit of the invention contains the necessary mateπal for performing the methods described herein. This kit may contain any one or combination of the following, but is not limited to, a breath collection device, which includes a means for extracting condensates from the sample of exhaled breath and a sensor for determining glucose amounts or concentrations m the condensates; a set of subject instructions for its use; and a device for keeping track of, storing, displaying, and/or communicating monitored results. In certain related embodiments, the device can calculate and display the blood glucose concentration based on the EBC glucose concentration.

In a related embodiment, the subject glucose EBC test kit is provided m combination with other known methods for the diagnosis of hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia, diabetes, or insulin resistance. For example, m certain embodiments, the glucose EBC concentration test kit includes a means for detecting msulm resistance when blood glucose levels are still in the normal range and before jS-cell destruction leading to diabetes has occurred. To do so, the kits of the invention enable continuous monitoring of EBC msulm levels, where any change in levels of msulm in relation to blood/breath glucose or an delayed msulm response to a glucose load (such as a carbohydrate rich meal) would diagnose msulm resistance Early diagnosis of diabetes could be achieved with the kits of the invention by the continuous monitoring of EBC msulm levels (e g , through a ruthenium-oxide (RuC\)-type catalytic film sensor), where a measurement of inadequate msulm concentrations m response to a carbohydrate load would provide early diagnosis of diabetes.

In a related embodiment, the occasional or continuous measurement of glucose/insulm ratio is highly advantageous for use m early detection of msulm resistance, which will allow timely intervention to prevent the development of Type II diabetes and/or its complications In addition, the present invention can be used to monitor the progress of any intervention therapies, including diet and exercise In certain embodiments, the occasional or continuous measurement of glucagon/msulm ratio (where glucagon is a hormone that increases glucose concentration) may be used instead of the glucose/msulm ratio Advantages of the test kits of the invention include the following they are practical, sensitive and specific, the validity of the test kits is not influenced by stress, exercise, hormone imbalances, or some drugs and medications, the test kits provide a non-invasive method for monitoring glucose levels; the test kits are simple to perform and can be readily used m physicians' offices, medical laboratories, or at any location by the subject; and the test kits are safe for use by children and women In certain embodiments, the systems of the subject invention include a reporting system capable of tracking glucose concentrations that are present m EBC and/or tracking subject glucose levels (e g , blood glucose levels) determined from EBC analysis. In related embodiments, the reporting system is capable of tracking glucose levels or concentrations remotely or proximately as well as being capable of providing the necessary outputs, controls, and alerts to the user, be it a healthcare provider, the subject, and the like In one embodiment, glucose concentration in breath condensates can be monitored intermittently or continuously in a wide range of environments. Small handheld portable equipment could be used by subjects in the home, at work, m nuismg homes or while they are ambulatory, while other devices could be designed for continuous monitoring in the operating room, intensive care units and in other areas of hospitals or other healthcare facilities such as clinics, doctors offices where this capability would be valuable

In one example, the glucose condensate sensing device of the invention could be used in a clinical setting or subject-based location before, during, or after delivery of a therapeutic regimen (such as administration of an msulm-contaimng pharmaceutical composition) to monitor the efficacy of the theiapeutic regimen in addressing abnormal glucose levels m the subject. The preferred device of the present invention includes the following parts: 1) an exhaled breath sampling device, wherein the device samples end-tidal exhaled breath, 2) a condensate extracting system for extracting the condensates from the sample of end-tidal exhaled breath, 3) a sensor having the ability to detect and/or quantify glucose present m the condensates, and 4) a signaling means, coupled to the sensor, for producing an electrical signal indicative of the presence and/or amount of glucose m the breath condensate detected by the sensor The signaling means may be further operative to determine the approximate concentration of glucose present in the condensates and/or subject (such as blood glucose levels) In certain embodiments, the signaling means is coupled to a processor, which can store, track, trend, and interpret the signals to provide useful information regarding glucose amount or concentration for display to the user

In certain embodiments, the quantity of glucose detected can be evaluated by the processor and by a closed loop feedback system meter an appropriate dose of insulin. This would be desirable when a patient is taking inhaled insulin or insulin by continuous infusion (subcutaneous or intravenous). Alternatively, the processor can display on a screen the quantity of insulin the patient should self administer

The exhaled breath sampling device that samples end-tidal exhaled breath preferably includes, a device and/or method for obtaining a sample of exhaled breath from a subject (such as a conventional breath sampling apparatus that includes a flow channel through which exhalation air flows); and a means for determining end-tidal breath (such as end-tidal component monitors, for example, CO2 sensors, O2 sensors; and flow, pressure, humidity and temperature sensors)

The sensor can be any known sensor having the sensitivity to detect and/or quantify glucose in condensate samples. Preferably, the sensor includes a surface that is exposed to the subject's condensates and also comprises a material selectively absorptive of glucose and/or EBC. The condensate extracting system for extracting condensates present m end-tidal exhaled breath samples includes any one of many known devices for collecting condensates that are currently available to the skilled artisan. For example, one such device relies on gravity to form a condensate pool from which a sample for testing may be drawn. These types of devices require that condensate droplets become large enough to overcome water's naturally tendency to stick to the walls of a collection reservoir. Eventually, the amount of condensate m the collection area becomes large enough for analysis. In some cases, the collecting reservoir is inserted into an ice bucket or may even be separately cooled by refrigeration systems m order to increase the amount and speed of condensate formation. In a preferred embodiment, a Peltier device is placed m contact with one wall of the condensate collecting device and cooled so that EBC preferably condenses in the cooled area of the collecting device. In one related embodiment, samples of exhaled breath are cooled to temperatures at or around room temperature. In another related embodiment, samples of exhaled breath are cooled to temperatures at or below freezing. In some cases, a coating such as Teflon IM is applied to collecting reservoir to make the reservoir walls non-wettmg and non-reactive with glucose and to enhance the speed and amount of condensate collected

The invention will now be described, by way of example and not by way of limitation, with reference to the accompanying sheets of drawings and other objects; features and advantages of the invention will be apparent from the following detailed disclosure and from the appended claims. Brief Description of the Drawings

Figure 1 shows a capnogram of a single respiratory cycle, which includes indication of an end- tidal portion of a breath sample.

Figures 2A-2D show various methods for detecting glucose m EBC, which may be utilized m accordance with the present invention.

Figures 3 A and 3B illustrate the blood (8a) and breath (8b) concentrations of glucose over time after the ingestion of a 100 gm glucose solution.

Figure 4 is a graphical illustration of the volume of EBC collected based on temperature and the size of the collection device, where the sample of EBC is based on one full exhaled breath Figures 5A-5G show various representations of a portable device of the invention for detecting glucose m exhaled breath.

Figure 6 is an illustration of a glucose deπvatization reaction in accordance with the subject invention.

Figure 7 is a graphical illustration of the blood.EBC chloπde concentrations from exhaled breath samples that are cooled to -20° C and samples that are taken at 20° C.

Figure 8 is another graphical illustration of the blood.EBC chloπde concentrations from exhaled breath samples that are cooled to -20° C and samples that are taken at 20° C.

Figure 9 is a graphical illustration of the relationship between EBC volume collected and syringe sampling volume when breath samples are collected at room temperature (21° C). Figure 10 is a graphical illustration of glucose concentration collected at room temperature (21° C) using a 6 ml syringe for two individuals.

Figures HA and HB are graphical illustrations demonstrating the necessity for monitoring the concentration of a second target analyte as a dilutional indicator to accurately correlate glucose concentrations detected in breath EBC with blood glucose concentrations. Figure 12 is a graphical illustration demonstrating the ability of the subject invention to detect other target analytes, such as other sugars like fructose, m exhaled breath sampes, particularly EBC.

Detailed Description of the Invention

The present invention provides systems and methods for non-invasive monitoring of a subject's glucose levels (or glucose concentration m blood) by analyzing the subject's EBC (or condensed aerosol droplets). The systems and methods of the present invention utilize sensors that can analyze a subject's

EBC to detect, quantify, and/or trend concentrations of glucose present m the EBC. According to the subject invention, the concentiation of glucose m EBC is proportionate to the concentration of glucose in blood Thus, based on the condensate concentration of glucose, the corresponding blood glucose concentration m a patient can be non-mvasively, accurately, and rapidly assessed The disclosed ability to non-invasively monitor a subject's glucose levels using the systems and methods disclosed herein is particularly advantageous in diagnosing and monitoπng the status of the subject's disease state or condition as well as m monitoring the efficacy of therapeutic regimens administered to the subject to treat abnormal glucose levels, especially where the results of the measurements can be used m a closed loop system to administer appropriate doses of insulin

The practice of the present invention will employ, unless otherwise indicated, conventional methods and techniques of chemistry, biochemistry, electrochemistry and pharmacology, within the skill of the art. Such conventional methods and techniques are explained fully in the literature.

It is to be understood that the terminology used herein is for the purpose of describing particular embodiments only, and is not intended to be limiting. As used in this specification and the appended claims, the singular forms "a", "an" and "the" include plural referents unless the context clearly dictates otherwise. Thus, for example, reference to "a sensor" includes a single sensor or multiple sensors, and the like.

Unless defined otherwise, all technical and scientific terms used herein have the same meaning as commonly understood by one of ordinary skill in the art to which the invention pertains. Although other methods and materials similar, or equivalent, to those described herein can be used m the practice of the present invention, the preferred materials and methods are described herein.

In describing and claiming the present invention, the following terminology will be used m accordance with the definitions set out below.

The term "processor" refers to a computer processor contained on an integrated circuit chip, such a processor may be small in size (such as a microprocessor) and can also include memory and associated circuits. A processor of the invention may further comprise programmed instructions to execute or control selected functions, computational methods, switching, etc Processors and associated devices are commercially available from a number of sources, including, but not limited to, Cypress Semiconductor Corporation, San Jose, Calif; IBM Corporation, White Plains, N. Y.; Applied Microsystems Corporation, Redmond, Wash , Intel Corporation, Chandler, Ariz., and, National Semiconductor, Santa Clara, Calif. An "exhaled breath sampling device" or "exhaled breath sampling system" refers to any device and/or associated method for obtaining a sample of exhaled breath from a subject for the purpose of determining the concentration of glucose present m the sample, m particular the concentration of glucose present m the EBC In certain embodiments, the exhaled breath sampling device is in operative contact with a "reservoir" or "collection reservoir," wherein a sample of exhaled breath is taken from the subject and placed into the reservoir to extract the condensates (and thereby detect and/or quantify the amount of glucose) m the reservoir.

In a preferred embodiment, the exhaled breath sampling device comprises a hydrogel. The hydrogel is linked to or contains an enzyme which reacts with high specificity with glucose (e g , glucose oxidase, glucose dehydrogenase, glucose hexokmase) and a transduction mechanism that measures an electrical or other change that is related to the glucose binding event and/or concentration of glucose m the EBC. Other compounds or molecules that react with a high degree to specificity for glucose can also be used (e g , molecular recognition entities such as aptamers, antibodies, and the like). In certain embodiments, an enzyme or molecular recognition entity is physically trapped withm the hydrogel because the high molecular weight of the enzyme/entity prevents diffusion through the hydrogel Alternatively the enzyme/entity can be chemically bonded to the hydrogel through well known immobilization chemistry of functional groups such as the hydroxyl group on pHEMA.

The hydrogel is preferably provided in a freeze-dπed or dehydrated state and maybe macroporous. As such, when the hydrogel is exposed to EBC containing glucose, it swells and incorporates the EBC containing the glucose into the spaces between the hydrogel polymer. The amount of EBC incorporated into these spaces can be as high as 99% of the total weight of the hydrogel, but lower water contents are usually used to maintain the strength (durometer) of the hydrogel The glucose-specific enzyme or molecular recognition entity present m the hydrogel then reacts with the glucose contained m the EBC and produces a compound which causes or changes an electrical current which is sensed by the transduction mechanism. Such change in electrical current indicates the presence and concentration of glucose m EBC.

In certain embodiments, the amount of change m electrical current is proportional to the concentration of glucose in exhaled breath. According to the subject invention, the ratio of EBC glucose to blood glucose can be periodically determined for a specific individual m order to calibrate and ensure the accuracy of the device.

The term "analyte" is used herein to denote any physiological analyte that can be detected and/or measured m a biological, chemical, physical, enzymatic, or optical analysis.

A "condensate extracting system" or "means for extracting condensates" refers to any device and/or associated method for extracting condensates from exhaled breath, generally involving a cooling process and/or gravitational forces and/or specific flow characteristics (such as narrowing a portion of the device to produce high turbulent flow rates and thus cooling of the sample) to condense the condensates for aqueous phase glucose analyses For example, condensate can be collected from a subject's sample of exhaled breath using a device that relies on gravity to form a condensate pool or a device that exposes the sample of exhaled breath to cool temperatures to condense the EBC into liquid phase from the exhaled breath sample(s).

In a preferred embodiment, the exhaled breath sampling device includes a freeze -dried hydrogel, which contains a glucose-selective binding moiety such as an antibody, aptamer, enzyme, etc The freeze- dried hydrogel swells to a specific volume upon absorption of the glucose containing EBC. In certain embodiments of the invention, the condensate extracting system is an integral part of the exhaled breath sampling device. In other embodiments, the condensate extracting system is separate from the exhaled breath sampling system.

The term "condensates" or "exhaled breath condensate" (or EBC), refers to breath liquid phase, breath aqueous phase, respiratory droplet/aerosols, breath evaporate, water vapor, bronchial or alveolar aerosols, alveolar lining fluid, airway lining fluid, and the like found m exhaled breath.

A "glucose monitoring system" or "glucose monitoring device" refers to a system useful for obtaining frequent measurements of glucose present in EBC. Such a device is useful, for example, for momtoπng the amount or concentration of blood glucose m a subject. Such a system may comprise, but is not limited to, an exhaled breath sampling system, a condensate extracting system, a sensor, and a transduction method or signaling means in operative communication with the sensor. Such a device typically provides frequent measurement or determination of glucose amount or concentration m the subject and provides an alert or alerts when levels of the glucose being monitored fall outside of a predetermined range. Such devices may comprise durable and consumable (or disposable) elements. The term "subject" encompasses any warm-blooded animal, particularly including a member of the class Mammalia such as, without limitation, humans and nonhuman primates such as chimpanzees and other apes and monkey species; farm animals such as cattle, sheep, pigs, goats and horses; domestic mammals such as dogs and cats; laboratory animals including rodents such as mice, rats and guinea pigs, and the like. The term does not denote a particular age or sex and, thus, includes adult and newborn subjects, whether male or female.

The term "sensor," "sensing device," or "sensor system," encompasses any technology that can be used to detect and/or measure the concentration or amount of a target analyte present m EBC (such as glucose, msulm, glucagon, and the like). Sensing devices for detecting glucose in EBC can include electrochemical devices, optical and chemical devices and combinations thereof. A more detailed description of sensors that can be used in accordance with the present invention is provided below.

A "signaling means" includes, but is not limited to, a "sensor electrode" or "sensing electrode" or "working electrode," which refers to an electrode that is monitored to determine the amount of electrical signal at a point in time or over a given time period, where the signal is then correlated with the concentration of glucose The sensing electrode comprises a reactive surface which converts the detection of glucose by the sensor to an electrical signal The reactive surface can be comprised of any electrically conductive material such as, but not limited to, platinum-group metals (including, platinum, palladium, rhodium, ruthenium, osmium, and indium), nickel, copper, and silver, as well as, oxides, and dioxides, thereof, and combinations or alloys of the foregoing, which may include carbon as well Some catalytic materials, membranes, and fabπcation technologies suitable for the construction of amperometπc sensors are descπbed by Newman, J D , et al (1995) Analytical Chemistry 67 4594-4599

The "signaling means" can include components m addition to the sensing electrode, for example, it can include a "reference electrode" and a "counter electrode " The term "reference electrode" is used to mean an electrode that provides a reference potential, e g , a potential can be established between a reference electrode and a working electrode The term "counter electrode" is used to mean an electrode m an electrochemical circuit that acts as a current source or sink to complete the electrochemical circuit Although it is not essential that a counter electrode be employed where a ieference electrode is included m the circuit and the electrode is capable of performing the function of a counter electrode, it is preferred to have separate counter and reference electrodes because the reference potential provided by the reference electrode is most stable when it is at equilibrium If the reference electrode is required to act further as a counter electrode, the current flowing through the reference electrode may disturb this equilibrium Consequently, separate electrodes functioning as counter and reference electrodes are preferred

The term "reactive surface" refers to the surface of the sensing electrode that (1) is m contact with the surface of an ionically conductive material through which glucose flows from a source thereof, (2) is comprised of a catalytic material (e g , a platinum group metal, platinum, palladium, rhodium, ruthenium, or nickel and/or oxides, dioxides and combinations or alloys thereof) or a material that provides sites for electrochemical reaction, (3) converts a chemical signal (for example, hydrogen peroxide) into an electπcal signal (e g , an electπcal current), and (4) defines the electrode surface area that, when composed of a reactive material, is sufficient to drive the electrochemical reaction at a rate sufficient to generate a detectable, reproducibly measurable, electπcal signal that is correlatable with the amount of glucose present in the electrolyte

An "ionically conductive material" refers to any material that provides ionic conductivity, and through which electrochemically active species can diffuse The ionically conductive material can be, for example, a solid, liquid, or semi-solid (e g , m the form of a gel) mateπal that contains an electrolyte, which can be composed primarily of water and ions (e g , sodium chloride), and generally compπses 50% or more water by weight The material can be m the form of a hydrogel, a sponge or pad (e g , soaked with an electrolytic solution), or any other material that can contain an electrolyte and allow passage of electrochemically active species, especially glucose Some exemplary hydrogel formulations are descnbed in WO 97/0281 1 published Jan 30, 1997 The ionically conductive material may comprise a biocide Biocides of interest include but are not limited to, compounds such as chlorinated hydrocarbons, organometallics, hydrogen releasing compounds, metallic salts, organic sulfur compounds, phenolic compounds (including, but not limited to, a variety of Nipa Hardwicke Inc liquid preservatives registered under the hade names Nipastat®, Nipaguard©, Phenosept®, Phenomp®, Phenoxetol®, and Nipacide®), quaternary ammonium compounds, surfactants and other membrane-disrupting agents (including but not limited to, undecylemc acid and its salts), combinations thereof, and the like

The term "electrolyte" refers to a component of the ionically conductive medium which allows an ionic current to flow withm the medium This component of the ionically conductive medium can be one or more salts or buffer components, but is not limited to these matenals

The term "collection reservoir" is used to describe any suitable containment method or device for containing a sample of exhaled breath and/or condensates taken from a subject For example, the collection reservoir can be a receptacle containing a material which is ionically conductive (e g , liquid with ions therein), or alternatively it can be a material, such as a sponge-like mateπal or hydrophilic polymer used to keep the liquid m place Such collection reservoirs can be in the form of a hydrogel (for example, m the shape of a disk or pad) Hydrogels are typically referred to as "collection inserts " Other suitable collection reservoirs include, but are not limited to, tubes, vials, strips, capillary collection devices, cannulas, and miniaturized etched, ablated or molded flow paths The terms "disease state," "condition" and "medical condition" refer to any physiological or environmental state about which a subject has concern Exemplary disease states and conditions are described extensively herein, for example hypogylcemia, hyperglycemia, diabetes melhtus Types I and II, starvation, various genetic diseases that affect glucose homeostasis such as glycogen storage diseases, cardiovascular disease, cystic fibrosis, gestational diabetes, etc The term "aptamer," as used herein, refers to a non-naturally occurring oligonucleotide chain that has a specific affinity for glucose Aptamers include nucleic acids that are identified from a candidate mixture of nucleic acids In a preferred embodiment, aptamers include nucleic acid sequences that are substantially homologous to the nucleic acid ligands isolated by the SELEX method Substantially homologous is meant a degree of primary sequence homology m excess of 70%, most preferably m excess of 80%

The "SELEX™" methodology, as used herein, involves the combination of selected nucleic acid ligands, which interact with a target analyte m a desired action, for example binding to glucose, with amplification of those selected nucleic acids Optional iterative cycling of the selection/amplification steps allows selection of one or a small number of nucleic acids, which interact most strongly with the target analyte from a pool, which contains a very large number of nucleic acids Cycling of the selection/amplification procedure is continued until a selected goal is achieved The SFLEX methodology is descπbed m the following U S patents and patent applications U S patent application Serial No 07/536,428 and U S patent Nos 5,475,096 and 5,270,163

Correlation of EBC Glucose Levels with Blood Glucose Levels

According to the subject invention, glucose is present in the alveolus in a concentration very close to, if not equal to, that in the blood as only two cells, the capillary endothelial cell and the alveolar lining cell, separate the blood from the alveolar gas Unfortunately, the tmy aerosol droplets containing the glucose are diluted by alveolar lining fluid and water produced by evaporation By the time the glucose containing droplets are exhaled and condensed, the concentration has been substantially diluted This dilution is consistent with that predicted in the literature for compounds other than glucose Up until this invention, the true alveolar droplet glucose concentration was unknown and the presence of glucose m the lung, especially in exhaled breath and EBC, was unconfirmed Moreover, it was unknown prior to the subject invention whether there existed a reproducible and accurate ratio or correlation between glucose m EBC and blood glucose concentrations

Advantageously, the subject invention enables consistent and accurate detection and correlation of glucose m EBC and in blood One reason is due to the discovery that the concentration of glucose in EBC is greater when obtained from an exhaled breath sample subjected to temperatures warmer than when subjected to freezing temperatures to condense EBC into liquid phase Without being bound to any one theory, the ability to collect a greater concentration of glucose in EBC condensed from breath samples subjected to warmer temperatures (such as about room temperature) is due to decrements m the volume of water collected as a result of the warmer collection temperature That is, the total mass of the analyte (such as glucose) in the numerator of the concentration calculation is constant, but the volume of diluent in the denominator is decreased by EBC collection at or around room temperature Thus, with a lower volume of diluent, the concentration of target analytes (such as glucose or chloride) is greater m EBC derived from a breath sample cooled to room temperature as opposed to EBC derived from samples cooled to freezing temperatures Heretofore, devices available for detecting analytes m EBC have been limited by the volume of

EBC required for the assays Current devices have consistently subjected exhaled breath samples to very low temperatures at or below freezing, requiring a large sample volume necessary to collect a sufficient amount of EBC for analysis For example, ion spectroscopy for chloride detection in EBC derived from breath samples subjected to -20° to -30° C requires 5,000 microliters of sample volume In contrast, the subject inventors have discovered that by subjecting exhaled breath samples to warmer temperatures, such as around room temperature, ion spectroscopy for chloride detection m EBC requires only about 25 microliter of sample volume The present inventors have surprisingly discovered that the ratio of glucose in EBC to blood glucose concentration is 3 to 5 magnitudes lower and that this ratio is predictable and reproducible In accordance with the present invention, a more predictive method is provided to monitor glucose concentration in a subject by momtoπng breath (specifically EBC) rather than blood

According to the subject invention, certain vaπables need be considered when calculating blood glucose levels based upon detected concentrations of glucose m EBC One variable pertains to the concentration of glucose withm the microparticles m breath. In certain instances, the glucose detected in breath is present as a result of glucose transporters on the pulmonary epithelium. As such, the measured glucose present in EBC may not be m equilibrium with blood

Another variable is humidity. Exhaled breath is not 100% saturated with water. Evaporative water saturation (exhaled breath humidity) and ambient (relative) humidity vary widely (z c , depending on the individual and/or environment) For example, exhaled breath humidity can vary from breath to breath depending on how the subject breaths (/ e , through the nose, depth of ventilation, ambient conditions, state of hydration). Thus, whatever the sample of EBC taken from an individual, the dilution of glucose in the

EBC sample will vary, if not from breath to breath, but at least form sample collection interval to collection interval (ι e , different days, different times of day, etc ). Accordingly, small variations m exhaled breath humidity can lead to inaccurate assessment of glucose concentrations m EBC and reduce the correlation between EBC and blood glucose.

Another variable pertains to random microparticle density m breath that contains the target analyte (ι e , glucose mass). The density of random microparticles (microparticles/ml expired gas) is due to convective loss from the lower conducting airways. The density of random microparticles in breath vanes randomly around some mean that is based on a number of changing factors such as: velocity of breath exiting the airways, total volume of breath being exhaled, diameter of airways where the microparticles originate (ι e , affects chance of laminar vs. turbulent flow), several exhaled gas physical parameters (ι e , humidity, temperature, density), and otheis. As such, changes m concentration of glucose measured m EBC may be due to various factors such as changes m blood glucose level, changes m humidity, or changes in microparticle density. Yet another variable for consideration includes saliva contamination In certain instances, saliva will be present m EBC, where saliva contains a different concentration of a target analyte that what would normally be found m EBC For example, saliva contains a much higher concentration of glucose, which could adversely affect the accuracy of blood glucose calculated from measured EBC concentration if saliva were present.

In order to address these vaπables, one embodiment of the invention includes a dilutional indicator to assist in accurately correlating breath to blood glucose. A dilutional indicator is an analyte that is present m EBC whose concentration in blood is predictable and does not vary appreciably. Chlonde is abundant in EBC (it is the most abundant ion originating m the lower airway). Airway lining fluid has a chloride concentration very similar to blood chloride. Further, blood chlonde concentration is very tightly regulated endogenously. Accordingly, one dilutional indicator of the subject invention is chloride. By reliably measuring EBC chloride at the same time EBC glucose is measured, the ratio of glucose to chloride should consistently be the same for a given blood glucose level since the concentration of chlonde in the blood does not vary appreciably. According to one embodiment of the subject invention, the following equation is utilized to determine blood glucose level using detected concentration of glucose and chloride in EBC

„ , , m, ,,-, \{BloodChlorιde) * (EBCGIu cose)l

CalculateaBloodGlu cos e = — —

(EBCChlonde)

EBCGlucose is the measured amount of glucose present m EBC using a device of the invention. EBCChlonde is the measured amount of chloride present in EBC using a device of the invention. BloodChloride is the amount of chloride present m blood. CalculatedBloodGlucose is the blood glucose level calculated using measured EBCGlucose and EBCChlonde.

Because chloride is monovalent, the amount of chlonde in blood is fairly constant at approximately 105 mEq/L or 105 mM/L (with a possible variability of <l-2%, which is within acceptable range for Clark Error Grid Analysis). Thus, the above equation can be further simplified to make the Blood Chloride concentration a constant coefficient:

[105(EBCGIuCOS e)]

CalculatedBloodGlucose =

(EBCChlonde)

In the following Table 1, blood glucose, EBC glucose, and EBC chloride levels were measured and the EBC glucose to EBC chloride ratio was calculated The blood glucose was monitored using a conventional blυυd glucose monitor Noie thai even when the blood glucose was within a tight range (withm the accuracy of the glucose monitor) there was variation m the EBC glucose and EBC chloride levels from sample to sample However, the ratio of EBC glucose to EBC chloπde accurately tracks that of the measured blood glucose (as illustrated in column 5 of Table 1).

Table 1 — Measured Glucose Levels

Figure imgf000023_0001

The following Table 2 shows that the dilution of EBC glucose compared to blood glucose is around 1 : 1 ,000 when exhaled breath samples are collected at room temperature. The dilution was closer to 1 ;5,000 when the samples were collected at -2O0C, with significantly lower chloride concentrations at the lower -20° C temperature.

Table 2 — Glucose Dilution m EBC Relative to Blood Glucose

Figure imgf000023_0002

As illustrated in Figures 1 IA and 1 IB, the use of chloπde as a dilutional indicator is necessary to ensure accurate assessment of blood glucose levels based on detected and measured levels of glucose m EBC.

Another embodiment of the invention includes simultaneous detection and measurement of analytes associated with saliva when testing for glucose in EBC. In certain embodiments, amylase and/or sodium thiocyanate are tested simultaneously with EBC glucose testing to ascertain whether the EBC is contaminated with saliva. Breath Sampling and Condensate Extraction

The purpose of this invention is to condense exhaled sample(s) for aqueous phase glucose analyses This will assist m monitoring a subject's glucose levels, diagnosing and monitoring the status of a subject's disease state or condition, as well as monitoring the efficacy of therapeutic regimens administered to the subject to treat abnormal glucose levels, all of which are based on the detected amount of glucose m EBC that is correlated with blood glucose concentration.

The investigations that have resulted m the present invention indicate that measured glucose m liquid phase exhaled breath correlates to blood glucose concentration. Exhaled breath maintained at body temperature (about 37°C) is saturated with water. When a sample of exhaled breath is cooled below body temperature, the water condenses If an adequate sample of condensate is extracted from breath, the condensate can be analyzed for a wide variety of analytes

According to the subject invention, the physicochemical characteristics of a molecule will determine whether it is best captured and detected m the gaseous or liquid phase of breath. For example, compounds such as propofol, DMSO, and CO2 are readily detected m the gas phase of breath, whereas molecular entities such as glucose, msulm. glucagon, chloride, and electrolytes are best sampled and detected in the breath via analysis of the liquid phase (aerosol droplets, EBC)

Glucose is a polar molecule with numerous hydrogen bounds, which make it extremely hydrophihc; thus, glucose is essentially only present in the water droplets/aerosol from the airway lining fluid, predominantly deep within the lung from alveoli. Airway lmmg fluid has a chloride concentration very similar to blood chloride concentration.

Further, blood chloride concentration is very tightly regulated endogenously and does not vary appreciably. Thus, chloride is also present m the EBC.

According to the present invention, the preferred exhaled breath sample taken from a subject is gas that originates deep m the lung (alveolar gas), which is not further diluted by gas from the trachea and conducting airways (deadspace). Deadspace gas would not contain glucose. If the collected sample contains a varying amount of deadspace gas, the glucose concentration detected may vary independently of the blood glucose levels m the subject, which would require additional calculations to accurately assess the correlative blood glucose concentration For example, according to the subject invention, the deadspace, the ratio of dead space to tidal volume (VD/Vr), or alveolar ventilation (which is tidal volume less deadspace or VJ-VD) can be calculated for use m determining how much of the breath is due to deadspace ventilation and how much is alveolar ventilation With such information, the skilled artisan could calculate the exhaled breath glucose concentration. Generally, the exhalation gas stream comprises sequences or stages At the beginning of exhalation there is an initial stage, the gas representative theieof coming from an anatomically inactive (deadspace) part of the respiratory system, m other words, from the mouth and upper respiratory tracts (the conducting airways) In the next stage, the gas is a mixture of deadspace and metabolically active gases Duπng the final "plateau" phase, which comprises the last portion of the exhaled breath, nothing but deep lung gas, so-called alveolar gas is present This gas, which comes from the alveoli, is termed end-tidal gas According to the present invention, exhaled breath fiom any specific phase of the respiratory cycle can be sampled to detect for the presence of glucose and other target analytes (such as amylase or sodium thiocyanate or a dilutional indicator e g , chloπde) in the condensates from the subject More preferably, condensate from the end-tidal phase is sampled because it is most likely to correlate best with the blood glucose concentration For example, sensors as described herein can be applied to extracted condensates from exhalation samples drawn from the initial phase, or the end-tidal (late plateau) phase

Technology used for end-tidal component monitoring (such as CO2 sensors, Oo sensors, and NO sensors) can be used to determine when or at what stage the sample is collected Known methods for airway pressure measurements, humidity or temperature measurement or for monitoring gas flow afford other means of collecting samples at the appropriate phase of the respiratory cycle For example, airway gas flow, airway pressuie or gas temperature could be used to determine when alveolar gas is exhaled One method utilizes a flow sensor to detect starting and completion of exhalation A processor may be provided as a data processing/control unit for automatically detecting the signal from the flow sensor to control sampling of exhaled breath In a preferred embodiment, the exhaled breath sample is collected at end-tidal breathing

Single or multiple samples collected by the known in-line (or mainstream) sampling method are preferable, but if sensor acquisition time is reduced, side stream sampling may be used With m-line sampling, a sensor of the subject invention could be placed proximal to an endotracheal (ET) tube directly in the gas stream In the latter, samples are collected through an adapter at the proximal end of an ET tube and drawn through thin bore tubing to a condensate extracting system of the subject invention In certain embodiments that use in-line sampling, the condensate extracting system and sensor are placed in a sampling chamber positioned within the subject's gas stream for patients requiπng endotracheal intubation and frequent glucose monitoring Alternatively, to sample end-tidal gas, samples can be taken throughout the exhalation phase of respiration where with each sample, condensates are extracted and analyzed with a sensor (ι e , for the presence and concentration of glucose and other target analytes such as chloπde, amylase, or sodium thiocyanate) and an average glucose value determined and correlated with blood glucose concentration Depending on the sample size, extracting time, and sensor response time, exhaled gas may be collected on successive cycles

Referring now to Figure 1 , the upper frame demonstrates a capnogram of a single respiratory cycle

The initial gas that is exhaled is deadspace gas (Phase II of the capnogram), followed by gas that is a mixture of deadspace and alveolar gas Finally, only alveolar gas is exhaled (Phase III) When exhalation is terminated and inspiration begins (Phase IV) there is no long CO2 present in the sample For accurate blood level correlation, samples are taken at the point labeled "PetCO2" or Phase III, which reflects the CO2 concentration in the lung. As noted above, condensates extracted from an end-tidal sample will correlate best with blood concentration. In one embodiment, samples are collected at the distal end of an ET tube through a tube with a separate sampling port. This may improve sampling by allowing a "cleaner - (less deadspace)" sample during each respiratory cycle.

In certain embodiments, condensate is extracted from a subject's exhaled breath sample using any one of many known devices for extracting condensates. One such device relies on gravity to form a condensate pool from which a sample for testing may be drawn. These types of devices require that condensate droplets become large enough to overcome water's naturally tendency to stick to the walls of a collection reservoir Eventually, the amount of condensate in the collection reservoir becomes large enough for analysis In some cases, the collection reservoir is inserted into an ice bucket or may even be separately cooled by refrigeration systems m order to increase the amount and speed of condensate formation. In other cases, a Teflon™ or other hydrophobic polymer coating is applied to the collection reservoir to make the reservoir walls noon- wetting and non-reactive with glucose and to enhance the speed and amount of condensate collected.

According to the subject invention, a collection reservoir has an internal surface area sufficient to collect an analyzable volume of EBC Specifically, the larger the collection reservoir (including greater surface area for internal condensate formation) enables a greater volume of EBC, and thus level of glucose, to be collected Figure 9 illustrates how a greater volume of EBC is collected from the same number of breath samples, when treated to cooling at about room temperature (21° C), when subjected to larger collection reservoirs having greater internal condensate formation surface area Note that a ImL collecting tube of Figure 9 accumulated less volume of EBC than a 6mL collecting tube of Figure 9 Figure 10 illustrates the concentration of glucose m EBC collected at about room tempeiature versus low temperature

(-20° C) when using a 6mL collecting tube

A preferred method for increasing the amount and speed of condensate loimation compiises the use of a Peltier device, which can cool and/or heat a collection reservoir An advantage of the Peltier device is that it can be cooled to improve the rate and volume of condensation (such as at room temperature or less), and following cooling, if necessary, rapidly heat the resultant condensate to a temperature that is ideal for the sensor to function. This is particularly advantageous where the sensor is a glucose-binding molecule such as an enzyme. A condensate extracting system of the invention can be made with easily available materials. As understood by the skilled artisan, the amount of EBC that can be collected may be manipulated based on the size of the condensate extracting system and the temperature at which the system is exposed (see, Figure 4). In one embodiment, the invention provides a device for determination of the content of glucose m EBC, which comprises: a conduit having a condensing unit with an inlet and an outlet (the inlet can be configured to fit with a mechanical respirator or. for direct use by the patient, an mlet assembly providing one-way ingress of ambient atmosphere to the device can be associated with the mlet of the conduit condensing unit); a coolant substance completely or partially surrounding said condensing unit; and, m enclosed fluid communication with said conduit condensing unit outlet, a sensor. In a preferred embodiment, the device is disposable and inexpensive, and is used to collect human exhaled breath for assay of liquid phase glucose to assist in evaluation of blood glucose concentration.

In a related embodiment, the condensing unit consists of one tubmg unit that is partially or completely surrounded by a coolant substance. Preferably, the cooling substance is a coolant jacket that contains water, or a substance v, ith a high thermal capacity and is chemically inert. The device can also be made, as described above, without refrigerant or cooling substance, utilizing a gas/membrane or gas/aqueous reaction compartment.

In another embodiment, the condensate extracting system is compπsed of cold tolerant materials and consists of two tubing units, one inside the other. Surrounding the inner tube or set of tubes, and contained by the outer tube, is a cooling substance which has a high thermal capacity and is chemically inert, and therefore, once frozen, can maintain freezing temperatures for an extended period of time. The disposable unit can be frozen m a standard size home freezer and then connected together with an exhaled breath sampling system and sensor as a compact integral unit.

In certain embodiments, attached to the proximal portion of the unit is a port, to which a mouthpiece can be attached, through which the patient breathes. This consists of two one-way valves that direct atmospheric air or selected gases to the patient's lungs during inspiration, and channel exhaled gas down a condensing tube. Gas moves in only one direction through the condensing apparatus.

Certain embodiments of invention include, inserted between the breathing port's mouthpiece and the condensing chamber, a microporous filter which traps all small particles (such as saliva or sputum), is impermeable to liquids, but allows gas and vaporized fluids of less than 0 3 microns m diameter to pass This acts as a saliva tiap and may also act as a filter for the larger fluid particles which may be aerosolized in the larger airways.

The distal end of the condensing chamber tube(s) is attached to a collecting apparatus which utilizes gravity to trap condensed fluid At the bottom of this trap is a clear plastic collection reservoir m which the sample is sequentially warmed and contacted with sensor technology.

In certain embodiments an aerosol "impactor" system may be used to selectively collect aerosol droplets of a particular size Impactors work by passing a sample, such as exhaled breath, through a seπes of increasingly smaller openings (such as screens) to selectively trap and collect particles (or aerosol droplets) of a particular size. Ideally, for determinations of EBC glucose quantity, the aerosol droplets collected from an EBC sample should be in the 0 5-5.0 uM range For exhaled breath, the sample would be maintained at 370C or higher to prevent the condensation of breath and therefore the addition of the free water to the aerosol droplets. The aerosol droplets should have a higher glucose concentration than in EBC Preferably, the patient breathes comfortably in and out through the mouthpiece. More preferably, one or two breaths are sufficient to assess glucose concentration in accordance with the subject invention. Lung fluid vapor collects on the inner surface of the inner tube(s) of the condensing apparatus starting immediately. Gravity carries the larger droplets down the tube, these droplets recruiting other small droplets on their trip to the collecting vial distally. Alternatively, after a fixed period of tidal breathing, the condensed fluid can be expressed down the inner tube with a device similar to a syringe plunger (also referred to herein as a moveable valve). Aqueous phase glucose can be measured by standard assays or sensor technology (either simultaneously with EBC sampling or at a later time and place), and can be reasonably quantified by simple tests performed by patients m their homes.

In one method for employing the device, the condensate extracting system is a Peltier device that is able to cool samples of exhaled breath to room temperature. Air is inhaled by a patient user through the mouthpiece and exhaled through a movable valve into the collection reservoir of the Peltier device. In certain embodiments, after the passage of between about 30 seconds and five minutes of breathing

(preferably about between about 1 breath to 10 breath samples), the movable valve is advanced through the collection reservoir, thereby wiping away condensate formed on the interior walls of the reservoir causing that condensate to collect m a pool around the valve.

In another method for employing the device, the cooling substance is a cooling jacket that is cooled to a temperature lower than that of the collecting tube prior to use (such as, with the cooling jacket, prior to being slid over the tube) Air is inhaled by a patient user through the mouthpiece and exhaled through a movable valve into the collecting tube. In certain embodiments, after the passage of between about 30 seconds and five minutes of breathing, the cooling sleeve is removed from around the collecting tube, the movable valve is advanced through the tube thereby wiping away condensate formed on the interior walls of the tube causing that condensate to collect m a pool around the valve

In a related embodiment, an airtight cap may be placed over the end of the collecting tube nearest the condensate pool m order to seal the collecting tube prior to storage and/or shipment to a testing location. At the test location, the airtight cap is removed and one or more sensor technology is introduced to the condensate. Testing may be performed after removing samples of the condensate from the collecting tube or by means of a molecular recognition entity (i e , probe specific for a target analyte such as glucose oxidase) placed into contact with the condensate pool or by insertion of chemicals or chemically impregnated strips (such as those used for lateral flow assay technology). Alternatively, the collecting tube may include a sensor to which the condensate pool is exposed to provide immediate detection and/or quantification of glucose present m the condensate pool The device of the invention is intended to be used to condense the fluid normally exhaled in breath by a subject and to gather this fluid in such a manner and m such volume that tests may be performed on the condensate. These tests include measuring glucose concentration, as well as the concentration of other characteristics, chemicals and compounds of biologic interest.

The present invention includes several collection devices designed to allow rapid (e g , less than five minutes, preferably less than 30 seconds), noninvasive collection of EBC from a spontaneously breathing subject or a patient receiving mechanical ventilation, followed by one-step quantitative or semiquantitative analysis of the condensate for the concentration of glucose. In preferred embodiments, the collection device of the invention need obtain a sample of 1-75 breaths. In certain embodiments, the collection device of the invention need obtain a sample of 65-75 breaths. More preferably, the collection device of the invention need only obtain a sample of 1-20 breaths; even more preferably, the collection device of the invention need only obtain a sample of 1-10 breaths; even more preferably, the collection device of the invention need only obtain a sample 1 -5 breath.

In spontaneously breathing subjects, the exhaled condensate may generally be collected via a mouthpiece held by the lips, however, m patients with severe respiratory distress, the sample may be collected by fitting the patient with an airtight, snug-fittmg facemask that allows the delivery of oxygen, while allowing the diversion of exhaled gases and aerosol into a condensing chamber such as those described above Glucose could be monitored intermittently or continuously in a wide i ange of environments Small handheld portable equipment could be used by subjects in the home, at woik, m nursing homes or while they are ambulatory, while other devices could be designed for continuous monitoring in the operating room, intensive care units and m other areas of hospitals or other healthcare facilities such as clinics, doctors offices where this capability would be valuable

Such small handheld portable equipment may be used by an unskilled layperson, then sealed for transport to a laboratory where subsequent analysis may be performed. Alternatively, the device may also function as part of a home- or workplace-diagnostic device constructed to accept the device and perform the required measurements automatically. Additionally, it may be used in any setting without additional devices, by adding chemical reagents or test strips to detect chemical features and compounds of interest.

Accordingly, as illustrated m Figures 5A-5G, one embodiment of the invention compnses a simple self-contained and portable device 100 for efficiently collecting, storing, analyzing, and/or shipping condensate derived from the exhaled breath of a subject wherein the wettable components of such a device may be disposable. Another embodiment of the invention provides a method for collecting condensate derived from the exhaled breath of a subject that is fast, simple, efficient and performable by nonprofessional personnel.

A further embodiment of this invention provides a device and method m which condensate samples collected from the exhaled breath of a user may be both collected and subjected m situ to various laboratory tests, including ones for measunng glucose levels, without the nsk of contamination by exposure to influences external to a collecting tube.

Yet another embodiment of this invention provides a condensate collecting device that may be made available for use in a subject's home or workplace. In a related embodiment, a device is provided m which condensate may be collected, stored and transported m a single unit.

In a preferred embodiment, the subject glucose monitoring system includes a container with disposable breathing tubes 105, where the breathing tubes 105 each contain a sensor 110 (such as a glucose-bmding molecule) and transduction method/signaling means. The breathing tubes are m a collapsed state (flat or crescent shaped) to enable ease of storage of several tubes (such as 25-50 tubes) to a container. Alternatively, the disposable tubes are provided in individual wrappers (such as foil or plastic wrappers) In a preferred method of use, the subject removes a breathing tube from the container (or individual wrapper) and places the tube m an exhaled breath sampling device containing a cooling means 115 that is in close proximity to a portion of the breathing tube, such as the portion of the breathing tube that contains the sensor The exhaled breath sampling device is preferably portable and handheld In certain embodiments, the exhaled breath sampling device also includes a means to determine the phase of the exhaled breath sample (such as a CO2 sensor, pressure transducer, flow sensor, or temperature or humidity sensor) so that a specific portion of the exhaled breath sample is directed, collected, and condensed m the tube

If the breathing tube is m a collapsed state, it will open to form a circular 120 or oval cross-section as it is placed into the exhaled breath sampling device. The sensor and transduction means are preferably embedded to a wall of the breathing tube and have electrode contacts that transmit electπcal signals from the tube to the exhaled breath sampling device. These contacts are useful in improving the rate of cooling of a portion of the breathing tube (preferably the area on which the sensor and transduction means are located)

Once the breathing tube is placed m the exhaled breath sampling device, the cooling means (such as a Peltier device) is activated and, when a predetermined temperature is reached (such as 10-150C below body temperature), the device alerts the subject to take a deep breath and blow slowly through the breathing tube. A feedback means, such as a graphical display, can be provided in the exhaled breath sampling device to coach the subject to breath at an appropπate flow rate and to a predetermined tidal volume. Depending on what portion of the breath is preferred (such as the end-tidal breath), a two way valve can be provided with the exhaled breath sampling device to exhaust a portion of the breath to the atmosphere before directing the preferred portion of the breath into the breathing tube, where it is condensed by the cooling means to a portion of the tube. Preferably, the breath sample is condensed on the portion containing the sensor and transduction means.

According to one embodiment of the subject invention, the subject need only provide a single breath sample to the exhaled breath sampling device. However, if additional breaths are necessary to collect an adequate EBC sample, the device can include a means for notifying the subject to take additional breaths and continue to blow into the breathing tube. For example, a graphical display can be used to request additional breaths from the subject.

In certain embodiments, the sensor is embedded and freeze dried withm a hydrogel polymer 140 that is highly hydrophilic. In certain embodiments, a partial drying of the hydrogel is performed prior to freeze -drying to cause the hydrogel to lose volume and provide optimum swelling behavior for glucose detection In a related embodiment, pore formers are used during fabrication of the hydrogel polymer to speed hydration. Such pore formers are molecules similar to monomers or solvents but are non-reactive. They are removed during freeze drying of the hydrogel and can lead to pores of various sizes being formed through phase separation prior to solidification of the hydrogel These large pores help speed the rate of hydration of the hydrogel by increasing the association of the hydrogel with water.

When a portion of the tube containing the hydrogel with the sensor and transduction means is cooled and exposed to exhaled breath condensates, the hydrogel 140 will rapidly expand because it is highly hydrophihc Generally, the hydrogel will expand until it is fully hydrated with a precise volume of condensate. Once the hydrogel is fully hydrated, the cooling means is turned off

In certain embodiments, the device may further include a means for heating the breathing tube (after obtaining an appropriate amount of EBC sample) to a desired temperature. A heating means will prevent additional condensate from forming on the hydrogel as well as improve the rate of the sensing reaction, especially if an enzyme is used as a glucose-bmdmg molecule that is embedded m the hydrogel

In certain embodiments, impactors heated to 370C or higher are introduced into the path of the exhaled breath to separate aerosol particles of a particular size (ideally 0.5-2 OuM). Once these particles pass through the impactors, they can be absorbed into the hydrogel by cooling the surface with the Peltier device. In an alternative embodiment, the impactor screen that traps aerosol droplets of the preferred size is cooled with the Peltier, while screens for larger droplets are maintained at 370C or higher so that only the preferred sized droplets are collected for analysis.

In certain embodiments, an electrolyte sensor, such as a sodium or chloride electrode, is precisely positioned above the hydrogel. As the hydrogel swells, it will contact the electrode, creating a signal, at which time the subject will be signaled to stop breathing through the breathing tube or the breath will be diverted by the device. Since the hydrogel can only absorb a finite and reproducible volume of fluid, the volume of EBC collected will be consistent and known. However, it is desirable for the subject to stop breathing or for the flow to be diverted at this point since additional condensate could form above the hydrogel and potentially allow for the diffusion of additional glucose which would give a faulty high reading.

In another embodiment, a screen or miniature pressure transducer 135 can be placed above the hydrogel pad. When the hydrogel swells to maximum capacity, it will contact the screen, completing an electrical circuit and indicating that the subject should stop blowing into the device or for diversion of the remainder of the breath. Alternatively, the miniature pressure transducer can sense when the hydrogel is swelled and provide feedback to the subject to stop blowing

In addition to a means to detect when the hydrogel has swelled completely, a portion of the sensor can consist of an electrode that measures chloiide 130 or other electrolytes oi conducting compounds The chloride concentration in blood is tightly regulated and alveolar lining fluid will contain a chloride concentration virtually identical to blood. However, as aerosol droplets traverse the lung additional free water is added to the exhaled breath and the concentration of chloπde is diluted, especially if a condensate of aerosol droplets and humidity is formed. Despite this dilution, the concentration of chloride in EBC is also relatively constant and correlates with the blood chloride concentration Thus measurement of chloπde in the EBC can be used to determine whether the collected sample is diluted or concentrated. Low chloπde concentrations indicate that the sample has been diluted and the measured glucose concentration will be lower than if the condensate were more concentrated. The ratio of the measured chloride concentration to that normally found m EBC can be used to calculate the true glucose concentration m the condensate and then to calculate the blood glucose concentration. Similar calculations can be used if the condensate concentration of chloride is high

In another preferred embodiment, a second dehydrated hydrogel pad can be included as part of the sensor 110 for simultaneous calibration. This hydrogel pad will not only contain a glucose sensor (such as an enzyme) 145, but also a "standard/reference" or calibration sensor 150 The calibration sensor 150 will include a known quantity of glucose against which the accuracy and7or quantity of the glucose detected m

EBC can be confirmed. For example, where both the quantity of glucose and the volume of EBC absorbed by the hydrogel are known, the concentration of glucose can be calculated.

Alternatively, the glucose can be sprayed or otherwise applied above the dehydrated hydrogel during production and will be absorbed when EBC is condensed on it. It is known m the art of glucose test strip manufacturing that enzymes can be inactivated by temperature and humidity and that, especially when enzymes kinetics are used for glucose determinations, the glucose concentration can be artificially elevated at higher temperatures. In one recent study, (Adverse Impact of Temperature and Humidity on Blood Glucose Monitoring Reliability: A Pilot Study. MJ Haller, JJ Shuster, D Schatz, and Richard Melker, Diabetes Technology and Therapeutics, submitted) some test strips read lmg/dL higher for each I0C increase in temperature. Since the concentration on the calibration portion of the sensor is known, the total glucose measured on that sensor is the concentration in EBC plus the known concentration. The concentration measured on the glucose measuring hydrogel sensor is only the concentration in the EBC. The difference in the measured concentrations should always equal the known concentration applied to the calibration portion of the sensor. For example, if the concentration of glucose on the calibration sensor is lOOng/mL and the EBC concentration is lOOng/mL. then the glucose sensing electrode should read lOOng/mL and the calibration sensing electrode should read 200ng/mL (EBC plus control) If, however, the sensors are inadvertently exposed to high temperature (left m an automobile m the summertime) and the enzyme activity is decreased by 20%, the glucose sensing electrode will only read 80ng/mL and the calibration electrode 160ng/mL Since the difference between the glucose concentration from the glucose sensing electrode and the calibration electrode is only 80ng/mL instead of lOOng/mL. it is clear that the result is 20% too low and depending on the degree of enzyme inactivation, the device can indicate to the subject that the sensors are defective and should be discarded, or if the degree of inactivation is m an acceptable range, the correct glucose concentration can be calculated. This same embodiment could be incorporated into glucose test strips that measure glucose in blood.

In a related embodiment, the hydrogel sensor includes a glucose sensor 145 and calibration sensor 150 that contains a known concentration of glucose, where the calibration sensor is coated or covered with a membrane or compound that allows passage of water from EBC but does not allow glucose to cross. In this embodiment, the calibration sensor measures the known concentration of glucose, which can be used to determine the status of the glucose sensor (such as the status of a glucose binding molecule or enzyme) and to calculate the true glucose concentration m EBC if sensor/enzyme degradation has occurred Also, dilution of the glucose m the calibration sensor can be used as a dilutional indicator to calculate a correction factor and thus correct the measured EBC glucose for dilution. The calibration sensor also ensures that all components of the hydrogel sensor measuring system are working correctly

In other embodiments, the sensor is a lateral flow based sensor which utilizes glucose binding enzymes to detect and communicate the presence of target analytes (such as glucose) m EBC In one related embodiment, the lateral flow based sensor comprises a means for transporting a sample to a material that includes a conjugate release area where molecular recognition entities (MRE) specific for a target analyte are immobile when dry but mobilized when wet; and a reaction matrix where the labeled binding agents that are specific for the target analyte/MRE complex are immobilized. Preferably, the MRE used m the subject invention is glucose oxidase. Other lateral flow based sensors that can be utilized m accordance with the subject invention include those described in U.S. Patent Nos. 6,818,180; 5,962,215; 5,846,438; 5,843,691; 5,620,863; 5,563,042; 5,563,031, 5,556,761, and the like, all of which are incorporated herein by reference m their entirety.

According to the subject invention, when EBC is formed following cooling of the exhaled breath sample (such as cooling to room temperature or to at or below freezing temperature), the lateral flow based sensor is placed in contact with the EBC to detect the presence and/or concentration of a target analyte (such as glucose, chloride, amylase, sodium thiocyanate, and the like).

Preferably, it will take approximately 30 seconds from the time the subject breaths into the device until it displays the blood glucose concentration based on the concentration found m the exhaled breath sample. Detection and/or Monitoring of Glucose

According to the subject invention coloπmetπc techniques, ieflectance photometry, and/or electrochemistry (amperometry) are used in combination with molecular recognition entities (or MREs, such as aptamers, enzymes, antibodies, amplifying fluorescent polymers (AFPs), and the like) as descπbed herein to detect and/or quantify the glucose present in a sample of EBC The glucose must interact (e g , react with an enzyme or bmd to an aptamer or antibody) which creates some measuiable change (temperature, color, current, voltage, etc ) This change is then detected by a transduction mechanism The degree of change is proportional to the glucose concentration in the EBC sample A sensor includes both the detection and transduction mechanisms For instance, glucose oxidase combines with glucose and changes the current in a circuit The change m current is the transduction mechanism Aptamers are molecular recognition entities and AFPs can be either MREs, transduction molecules or both Coloπmetry, reflectance photometry and electrochemistry can be either transduction mechanisms or both

According to the subject invention, there are several ways to use enzymes for sensing glucose The most common strategy involves enzymatic oxidation of glucose to an oxidized by-product and an equivalent amount of hydrogen peroxide The electrochemistry involves measuπng the current involved m oxidizing (more common) or reducing the hydrogen peroxide The 1 1 stoichiometry allows back- calculation of the glucose level The other approach is to directly "wire" a redox enzyme to an electrode and measure the current required to reduce or oxidize glucose directly

When enzymes are used to catalyze reactions that convert glucose to a measurable substance preferred enzymes of the subject invention are those that are specific for glucose and produce substances that are readily measured by methods descπbed herein As a result, routine glucose measurements from exhaled breath sampling are rapid, accurate, and sensitive Contemplated enzymes for use m accordance with the subject invention include, but are not limited to, glucose oxidase, glucose dehydrogenase, glucose- 6-dehydrogenase, and hexokmase For example, with coloπmetπc techniques, an enzyme is used as a catalyst and glucose is reacted with a compound that is capable of generating a colored product or dye (See Figure 2A) The amount of colored product generated is directly proportional to the amount of glucose present m the sample Thus, the more glucose present m the sample, the more intense the color, whereas the less glucose present, the less intense the color Reflectance photometry quantifies the intensity of the colored product generated by the enzymatic reaction A light source, such as a light-emitting diode (LED) emits light of a specific wavelength onto a test strip that includes the colored product (generated as descπbed above) Since the colored product absorbs that wavelength of light, the more glucose in a sample (and thus the more colored product on the test strip), the less reflected light (see Figure 2B. A detector captures the reflected light, converts it into an electronic signal, and translates that signal to its corresponding glucose concentration.

With electrochemistry (amperometry), an enzyme is used as a catalyst to react glucose with a mediator to generate electrons (e ) (see Figuie 2C). The number of electrons captured by the mediator is directly proportional to the amount of glucose present in the sample Thus, the more glucose present m the sample, the more electrons, whereas, the less glucose, the fewer electrons

Electrochemistry quantifies the number of electrons generated by the oxidation of glucose. A mediator captures the electrons. When a voltage is applied, the electrons are transferred and counted at the electrodes. A detector converts the resulting current to an electronic signal and translates that signal to its corresponding glucose concentration (see Figure 2D).

In one embodiment, to detect glucose m a sample of EBC, one or more collection reservoirs are placed m contact with a sensor of the invention. Ionically conductive material is present withm the collection reservoir, which is also in contact with a sensing electrode of the sensor, which generates a current in proportion to the amount of glucose present in the reservoir The sensing electrode can be, for example, a Pt-compπsing electrode configured to provide a geometric surface area of about 0.1 to 3 cm", preferably about 0 5 to 2 cm2, and more preferably about 1 cm3 This particular configuration is scaled m proportion to the collection area of the collection reservoir used m the sampling system of the present invention, throughout which the extracted analyte and/or its reaction products will be present. The electrode composition is formulated using analytical- or electromc- grade reagents and solvents which ensure that electrochemical and/or other residual contaminants are avoided in the final composition, significantly reducing the background noise inherent in the resultant electrode. In particular, the reagents and solvents used m the formulation of the electrode are selected so as to be substantially free of electrochemically active contaminants (e g , anti -oxidants), and the solvents m particular are selected for high volatility in order to reduce washing and cure times. Some electrode embodiments are described m European Patent Publication 0 942 278 A2, published Sep. 15, 1999, herein incorporated by reference m its entirety.

The reactive surface of the sensing electrode can be comprised of any electrically conductive material such as, but not limited to, platinum-group metals (including, platinum, palladium, rhodium, ruthenium, osmium, and indium), nickel, copper, silver, and carbon, as well as, oxides, dioxides, combinations or alloys thereof. Some catalytic matenals, membranes, and fabncation technologies suitable for the construction of amperometπc biosensors were described by Newman, J D., et al (Analytical Chemistry 67(24), 4594-4599, 1995, herein incorporated by reference in its entirety). Any suitable electrode system can be employed, an exemplary system uses a silver or silver/silver chloride (Ag/AgCl) electrode system. Reference and counter electrodes are formulated typically using two performance criteria' (1) the electrodes are capable of operation for extended penods, preferably periods of up to 24 hours or longer in cases where repeated measurements are necessary, as might be the case in the operating room or ICU. ; and (2) the electrodes are formulated to have high electrochemical puπty m order to operate within the present system which requires extremely low background noise levels. The electrodes must also be capable of passing a large amount of charge over the life of the electrodes. With regard to operation for extended penods of time, Ag/AgCl electrodes are capable of repeatedly forming a reversible couple which operates without unwanted electrochemical side reactions (which could give rise to changes m pH, and liberation of hydrogen and oxygen due to water hydrolysis). The Ag/AgCl electrode is thus formulated to withstand repeated cycles of current passage m the range of about 0.01 to 1.0 mA per cm2 of electrode area. With regard to high electrochemical puπty, the Ag/ AgCl components are dispersed withm a suitable polymer binder to provide an electrode composition which is not susceptible to attack (e g , plasticization) by components in the collection reservoir, e g , the hydrogel composition. The electrode compositions are also typically formulated using analytical- or electronic -grade reagents and solvents, and the polymer binder composition is selected to be free of electrochemically active contaminants which could diffuse to the biosensor to produce a background current.

Preferably, a sensing electrode is used for detecting at nominal concentration levels glucose from the extracted EBC m the collection reservoir(s). Suitable exemplary sensing electrodes that can be used in accordance with the present invention are described m PCT Publication Nos. WO 97/10499, published 20

Mar. 1997 and WO 98/42252, published 1 Oct. 1998, both of which are incorporated by reference m their entirety.

To detect glucose, an enzyme (or enzymes) is disposed withm the one or more collection reservoirs. The selected enzyme is capable of catalyzing a reaction with the extracted glucose to the extent that a product of this reaction can be sensed, e.g., can be detected electrochemically from the generation of a current that is detectable and proportional to the amount of the glucose that is reacted. Examples of suitable enzymes include, but are not limited to, glucose oxidase, glucose dehydrogenase, glucose-6- phosphate, dehydrogenase, and hexokmase.

In one embodiment of the present invention, a suitable enzyme is glucose oxidase, which oxidizes glucose to gluconic acid and hydrogen peroxide. The subsequent detection of hydrogen peroxide on an appropriate sensing electrode generates two electrons per hydrogen peroxide molecule creating a current that can be detected and related to the amount of glucose present in the sample. Glucose oxidase (GOx) is readily available commercially and has well known catalytic characteristics. However, other enzymes can also be used singly or together, as long as they specifically catalyze a reaction with glucose to generate a detectable product m proportion to the amount of glucose so reacted For example, dehydrogenase-based sensors can be implemented m accordance with the enzyme glucose detections systems described above, where such enzyme systems operate on much the same general techniques and use working electrodes made of gold or carbon (via mediated chemistry)

Upon reaction of glucose with an enzyme, the detected current is then correlated with the subject's blood glucose concentration (e g , using a statistical technique or algorithm or combination of techniques as descπbed herein) so that a system controller may display the subject's actual blood glucose concentration as measured by the sampling system Such statistical techniques can be formulated as algoπthm(s) and incorporated m one or more rmcroprocessor(s) associated with the sampling system. Exemplary signal processing applications include, but are not limited to, those taught in the following U S Pat Nos. 6,144,869, 6,233,471, 6,180,416, herein incorporated by reference m their entirety

In a further aspect of the present invention, the sampling/sensing mechanism and user interface may be found on separate components. Thus, the monitoring system can comprise at least two components. m which a first component comprises a sensing mechanism that is used to detect glucose, and a second component that receives the glucose data from the first component, conducts data processing on the glucose data to determine glucose concentration and then displays the glucose concentration data.

Typically, microprocessor functions (e g , a sensing device, aspects of the measurement cycle, computational methods, different aspects of data manipulation or recording, etc ) are found m both components. Alternatively, microprocessing components may be located m one or the other of the at least two components. The second component of the monitoring system can assume many forms, including, but not limited to, the following: a watch, a credit card-shaped device (e g , a "smart card" or "universal card" having a built-in microprocessor as described for example m U.S. Pat. No. 5,892,661 , herein incorporated by reference in its entirety), a pager-like device, cell phone-like device, or other such device that communicates information to the user visually, audibly, or kmesthetically.

Further, additional components may be added to the system, for example, a third component comprising a display of glucose values or an alarm related to glucose concentration, may be employed. In certain embodiments, a delivery unit is included m the system. An exemplary delivery unit is an insulin delivery unit. Insulin delivery units, both implantable and external, are known m the art and descπbed, for example, in U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,995,860; 5,112,614 and 5,062,841, herein incorporated by reference in their entirety. Preferably, when included as a component of the present invention, the delivery unit is m communication (e g , wire -like or wireless communication) with the extracting and/or sensing mechanism such that the sensing mechanism can control the insulin pump and regulate delivery of a suitable amount of insulin to the subject.

Insulin is recently available m an inhaled form. In one embodiment, the subject EBC glucose measuring device could be incorporated into an inhaled insulin device. The subject could blow into the glucose measuring device and based on the glucose concentration, inhaled insulin could be metered to the subject.

The subject invention can utilize any known hydrogel to immobilize glucose-bmdmg molecules, including but not limited to, PHEMA, polyvinyl alcohol, and polyelectrolyte complexes like chitosan/algmate. Freeze drying involves freezing the solid and a applying a vacuum to remove water. The process for freeze-drying hydrogels is well-known in the art (see, for example, U.S. Patent No.

5,409,703. which is incorporated by reference in its entirety).

Different sensing devices and/or sensing systems can be employed as well to distinguish between signals. For example, a first gel containing glucose oxidase associated with a first platinum sensor can be used for the detection of glucose, while a second gel containing uncase associated with a second platinum sensor can be used for the detection of urea.

Chemical Deπvatization pnor to Glucose Detection

In many analytical applications (e g., GC/MS), the analyte must be m the gas phase before separation and/or detection can take place. If the analyte does not have a sufficiently high vapor pressure, and does not have the thermal stability to allow rapid heating to effect volatilization, the analyte can be chemically denvatized to a more volatile and/or stable structure. Chemical deπvatization can also be used to increase the detector response for an analyte by incorporating functional groups which lead to higher detector signals (such as the fluorescent labels fluorescein and rhodamme). The chemical deπvatization reaction or reactions can occur on the surface of the collection vessel or after the deπvatizing reagents are added to the vessel. Alternatively, glucose could be transferred from the collection vessel to the detection device, and deπvatization could occur while the glucose is m transfer or after it contacts the detection device.

In the case of glucose, methods involving the formation of fully and partially methylated methyl glycosides, acetates, acetals, tπmethylsilyl ethers, and alditol acetate derivatives of monosaccharides are typically used (Mclnnes et al., "Separation of carbohydrate derivatives by gas-liquid partition chromatography," Journal of Chromatography, 1 '556—57 (1958); Bishop and Cooper, "Separation of carbohydrate derivatives by gas-liquid partition chromatography," Canadian Journal oj Chemistry, 38:388-95 (1960), Bishop "Gas-liquid chromatography of carbohydrate deπvatives," Ad Carbohydr Chem, 19.95-147 (1964); Lehrfeld, "Differential gas-liquid chromatography method for determination of uronic acids m carbohydrate mixtures," Analytical Biochemistry, 1 15:410-18 (1981); and Blakeney et al, "A simple and rapid preparation of alditol acetates for monosaccharide analysis," Carbohydrate Research, 113:291-99 (1983), all of which are incorporated by reference m their entirety). An example of a tπmethylsilyl O-methyloxime derivative with MOX1 M Reagent (Methoxyamine HCL m Pyridine) and

BSTFA + 1% TMCS for glucose is shown m Figure 6.

Sensor Technology

A number of patents which describe analyte monitoring technology that can be used m the subject invention include, but are not limited to, the following: U.S. Patent Nos. 5,945,069; 5,918,257; 4,938,928;

4,992,244; 5,034,192; 5,071,770; 5,145,645; 5,252,292; 5,605,612; 5,756,879; 5,783,154; and 5,830,412. Other sensors suitable for the present invention include, but are not limited to, semiconductive sensors, metal-insulator-metal ensemble (MIME) sensors, cross-reactive optical microsensor arrays, fluorescent polymer films, surface enhanced raman spectroscopy (SERS), diode lasers, selected ion flow tubes, metal oxide sensors (MOS), non-dispersive infrared spectrometer, bulk acoustic wave sensors, surface acoustic wave sensors, coloπmetπc tubes, functionalized microcantilevers, infrared spectroscopy and high electron mobility transducers (HEMT). For example, with semiconductive sensors, detection of glucose using a glucose-bmdmg molecule can cause a change in the electrical properties of semiconductor(s) by making their electrical resistance vary, and the measurement of these variations allows one to determine the concentration of glucose present.

In accordance with the subject invention, glucose monitoring devices for detecting/quantifying glucose utilize a relatively brief detection time of around a few seconds. Other recent analyte sensing technologies contemplated by the present invention include apparatuses having conductive-polymer sensors ("polymeric"), aptamer biosensors, and amplifying fluorescent polymer (AFP) sensors. A conductive-polymer sensing device (also referred to as "chemoresistors") of the subject invention has a film made of a conductive polymer sensitive to the glucose molecules. Pπor to exposure of the conductive polymer to glucose, the polymer exhibits a specific electric resistance that is detectable by the sensing device. On contact with glucose molecules, the reaction of the polymer with glucose causes a change in the electric resistance, and the measurement of the variation of this resistance enables the concentration of the glucose to be determined. An advantage of this type of sensor is that it functions at temperatures close to room temperature

Responses of polymeric sensing devices to glucose can be fully characterized using a combination of conventional sensor characterization techniques. For example, the sensing device can be attached to a computer The results can be displayed on the computer screen, stored, transmitted, etc A data analyzer can compare a pattern of response to previously measured and characterized responses for glucose The matching of those patterns can be performed using a number of techniques, including neural networks By comparing the analog output from the polymer to a "blank" or control, for example, a neural network can establish a pattern that is unique to glucose and subsequently learns to recognize glucose. The particular resistor geometries are selected to optimize the desired response to glucose that is being sensed

Another sensor of the invention can be provided m the form of an aptamer. In one embodiment, the SELEX™ (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential enrichment) methodology is used to produce aptamers that recognize glucose with high affinity and specificity. Aptamers produced by the SELEX methodology have a unique sequence and the property of binding specifically to a desired analyte

The SELEX methodology is based on the insight that nucleic acids have sufficient capacity for forming a variety of two- and three-dimensional structures and sufficient chemical versatility available within their monomers to act as ligands (form specific binding pairs) with virtually any chemical compound, whether monomeπc or polymeric. According to the subject invention, glucose can thus serve as targets for aptamers. See also Jayasena, S , "Aptamers: An Emerging Class of Molecules That Rival Antibodies for

Diagnostics," Clinical Chemistry, 45:9, 1628-1650 (1999)

Aptamer biosensors can be utilized in the present invention for detecting the presence of glucose in EBC samples. In one embodiment, aptamer sensors are composed of resonant oscillating quartz sensors that can detect mmute changes in resonance frequencies due to modulations of mass of the oscillating system, which results from a binding or dissociation event (ι e , binding with glucose).

Molecular beacons (MB) and molecular beacon aptamers (MBA) employ fluorescence resonance energy transfer based methods to provide fluorescence signal increases m the presence of particular target sequences (such as glucose). See also, Stojanovic, Milan N , de Prada, Paloma, and Landry, Donald W., "Aptamer-Based Folding Fluorescent Sensor for Cocaine" J Am. Chem. Soc. 2001, 123, 4928-4931 (2001); Jayasena, Sumedha D., "Aptamers: An Emerging Class of Molecules That Rival Antibodies of

Diagnostics, Clinical Chemistry 45:9, 1628 - 1650 (1999).

Amplifying fluorescent polymer (AFP) sensors may be utilized in the present invention for detecting the presence of glucose in EBC samples AFP sensors are extremely sensitive and highly selective chemosensors that use amplifying fluorescent polymers. When glucose molecules bind to thin films of the polymers, the fluorescence of the film decreases A single molecule binding event quenches the fluorescence of many polymer repeat units, resulting in an amplification of the quenching The binding of glucose molecules to the film is reversible, therefore the films can be reused. Surface-acoustic-wave (S AW) sensors oscillate at high frequencies and generally have a substrate, which is covered by a chemoselective material In SAW sensors, the substrate is used to propagate a surface acoustic wave between sets of mterdigitated electrodes (ι e , to form a transducer). The chemoselective material is coated on the transducer. When glucose interacts with the chemoselective matenal coated on the substrate, the interaction results m a change in the SAW properties, such as the amplitude of velocity of the propagated wave The detectable change in the charactenstic wave is generally proportional to the mass load of glucose molecules present (ι e , concentration of glucose m EBC, which corresponds to the concentration of glucose m the blood stream).

Other types of chemical sensors known in the art that use chemoselective coating applicable to the operation of the present invention include bulk acoustic wave (BAW) devices, plate acoustic wave devices, mterdigitated microelectrode (IME) devices, optical waveguide (OW) devices, electrochemical sensors, and electrically conducting sensors.

In a related embodiment, the sensor of the invention is connected to a computer, wherein any detectable change m frequency can be detected and measured by the computer. In other embodiments, competitive binding immunoassays can be used to test an EBC sample for the presence of glucose. Immunoassay tests generally include an absorbent, fibrous strip having glucose- binding molecules incorporated at specific zones on the strip. The EBC sample is deposited on the strip and by capillary action the sample will migrate along the strip and contact the glucose-bmdmg molecules. Where glucose is present, at least one glucose-bmdmg molecule manifests a detectable response, for example a color change. Patents that describe immunoassay technology include the following: U.S. Patent

Nos. 5,262,333 and 5,573,955.

In another embodiment, the device of the present invention may be designed so that subjects can exhale via the mouth or nose directly onto a sensor of the invention, without needing a breath sampling apparatus. For example, a mouthpiece or nosepiece will be provided for interfacing a subject with the device to readily transmit the exhaled breath to the sensor (See, i e , U.S. Patent No. 5,042,501). In another embodiment, a subject's EBC sample can be captured m a container (vessel) for later analysis using a sensor of the subject invention (z e , mass spectrometer).

The results from the sensor technology analysis of the EBC samples are optionally provided to the user (or subject) via a reporting means. In one embodiment, the sensor technology includes the reporting means. Contemplated reporting means include a computer processor linked to the sensor technology m which electronic or printed results can be provided. Alternatively, the reporting means can include a digital display panel, transportable read/write magnetic media such as computer disks and tapes which can be transported to and read on another machine, and printers such as thermal, laser or ink-jet pπnters for the production of a printed report.

The reporting means can provide the results to the user (or subject) via facsimile, electronic mail, mail or courier service, or any other means of safely and securely sending the report to the subject Interactive reporting means are also contemplated by the present invention, such as an interactive voice response system, interactive computer-based reporting system, interactive telephone touch-tone system, or other similar system The report provided to the user (or subject) may take many forms, including a summary of analyses performed over a particular period of time or detailed information regarding a particular bodily fluid sample analysis. Results may also be used to populate a financial database for billing the subject, or for populating a laboratory database or a statistical database.

According to the subject invention, the sensor can include a computer that communicates therewith, which can also notify the medical staff and/or the subject as to any irregularities m glucose level, dosing of pharmaceuticals used to modulate glucose levels, dangerous drug interactions, and the like. This system will enable determination as to whether a subject has been administered a pharmacological!} effective amount of a therapeutic drug to modulate glucose levels. The device could also alert the subject

(or user) as to time intervals and/or dosage of therapeutic drug to be administered Accordingly, it is contemplated herein that a sensor of the subject invention can be portable.

Preferably, in operation, the sensor will be used to identify a baseline spectrum for the subject's glucose level prior to drug administration, if necessary. This will prove beneficial for the monitoring the efficacy of the drug m maintaining proper glucose levels m a subject.

Remote Communication System

A further embodiment of the invention includes a communications device in the home (or other remote location) that will be interfaced to the sensor. The home communications device will be able to transmit immediately or at prescribed intervals directly or over a standard telephone line (or other communication transmittal means) the data collected by the data monitor/analyzer device. The communication of the data will allow the user (ι e , physician) to be able to remotely verify if the appropriate dosage of a therapeutic drug is being administered to the subject. The data transmitted from the home can also be downloaded to a computer where the drug blood levels are stored m a database, and any deviations outside of pharmacological efficacy would be automatically flagged (ι e , alarm) so that a user (z e , subject, physician, nurse) could appi opπately adjust the drug dosage per suggestions provided by a computer processing unit connected to the sensor or per dosage suggestions provided by health care personnel (z e , physician). Correlation of Glucose in Exhaled Breath to Glucose m Blood

According to the subject invention, the ratio of exhaled breath to blood glucose concentration is a large ratio (e g , 3-5 orders of magnitude lower m breath than m blood) and that this ratio is predictable and reproducible once determined for a particular individual By analyzing glucose present in EBC. a more predictive, non-mvasive, and simpler method is provided to monitor glucose concentration in a subject by monitoring breath rather than blood

According to the subject invention, once the level of EBC glucose is measured, it is given a numerical value that corresponds to the blood glucose concentration m the subject (usually expressed in mg/dL) Should the concentration fall below that value, the new value would be indicative of a decrease in concentration Should the concentration increase beyond that value, the new value would be indicative of an increase m glucose concentration This numerical scale would allow for easier momtoπng of changes m concentration The numerical scale would also allow for easier translation into control signals for alarms (such as indication that the person is hypoglycemic, etc ), outputs, or charting The upper and lower limits could be set to indicate thresholds such as from normal to dangerous glucose levels

In one embodiment of the subject invention, the concentration of glucose m a sample of EBC is reproducibly measured when a constant sample size of exhaled breath and constant dilution of exhaled breath sample are taken Sample size can be controlled by several methods, which will be elucidated m more detail below The dilution factor is preferably controlled since changes m glucose concentration m EBC may be due to changes in blood glucose or due to varying dilution of the sample based on the amount of water in the collected EBC

The dilution of various solutes found m EBC has been studied A number of candidate analytes and/or physical properties of the EBC could be used to determine whether a target dilution or concentration of the sample has occurred As long as a reliable, standard marker is presented, then EBC glucose concentration can be corrected for any dilution or concentration

According to the subject invention, a number of analytes and properties of EBC can be studied including, but not limited to Na÷, K+, Cl , viscosity, conductivity, surface tension, osmolality, SGOT, SGPT, and sialic acid Effros and colleagues (Effros, et al , "Dilution of Respiratory Solutes m Exhaled Condensates," Am J Respir CrU Care Med, 165 663-339, (2002), incorporated herein by reference m its entirety) have studied the dilution of a wide range of "solutes" present m EBC According to Effros, most exhaled water is pioduced as gaseous water vapor and that the presence ot non-volatile solutes in EBC suggests that droplets of respiratory fluid (RF) are also collected (and significantly diluted) Using 20 normal subjects, the conductivity of EBC was found to be 497+/-68 uM. Na concentration averaged 242+/-43 uM. The vaπations m Na concentration correlated with those of K+ and Cl and were attπbuted to difference m respiratory droplet dilution.

Dividing the sum of the EBC Na' and K4 by the sum of the plasma concentrations indicates that RF represents between 0.01% and 2.00% of the condensate volume. Thus, the calculated concentration of

Na" m RF was 91+/-8 mM, Kl 60+/-l l mM and CF 102+/- 17 mJVl respectively. Assuming that the plasma concentration of the sum OfNa+ and K+ are 144 mM, the dilution of respiratory droplets by water vapor m

EBC can be calculated using the following formula: [Na+I plasma + [K^l plasma

D = [Na+] condensate + [K+] condensate

Thus, by measuring these electrolytes, or alternatively other electrolytes such as Cl , it is possible to compensate for varying dilution of the RF glucose under a variety of conditions. When this dilution factor is determined precisely, then EBC glucose can be correlated precisely with blood glucose! Likewise, Cope et. al. (Cope, et. al , "Effects of ventilation on the collection of exhaled breath in humans." J Appl Physiol, 96- 1371-1379 (2004), incorporated herein by reference in its entirety) have shown that ventilation can affect the concentration of compounds detected in exhaled breath (gas). However, they further showed that when patients breath at a normal rate and tidal volume (as opposed to hyper- or hypoventilation) the concentrations can be reliably measured. End-tidal CO2, pressure, temperature and/or flow tracings can be used to "coach" patients to breathe reproducibly with a simple display.

According to the subject invention, where the effects of dilution of RF droplets is corrected for and the patient is "coached" to deliver a reproducible breath sample, EBC glucose is reliably collected and correlated with blood glucose.

Applications of Frequent Glucose Monitoring

One aspect of the present invention comprises a system and method for monitoring an effect of at least one non-msulm-contaimng and/or one msulm-contammg pharmaceutical composition on glucose levels m a subject receiving the pharmaceutical composition. In the method, glucose monitoring in the subject may be carried out by administering a prescribed pharmaceutical composition that affects glucose levels in a subject; obtaining a sample of the subject's exhaled breath; extracting condensates fiom the sample of exhaled breath; and assessing glucose amounts or concentrations in the condensates extracted fiom the subject s exhaled breath In a related embodiment, a record is maintained of the treatments with the pharmaceutical composition as well as of corresponding glucose amounts or concentrations determined present m EBC after (and m certain instances before) each treatment The records are compared to evaluate the effect of the pharmaceutical composition on glucose levels m the subject receiving the pharmaceutical composition

A reference range of glucose amounts or concentrations is typically determined that corresponds to maintaining a desired range of glucose amounts or concentrations m the subject during a treatment course with the pharmaceutical composition The reference range comprises, for example, a high threshold glucose value, a low threshold glucose value, a predetermined rate of change (e g , glucose levels change at a rate faster than a predetermined rate of change), and/or a predicted glucose value for a later time point

The glucose monitoring device may provide an alert corresponding to threshold values, rate changes, a predicted glucose value that falls outside of the predetermined range, etc Such glucose monitoring is useful when any one or more of a number of pharmaceutical compositions are being used to treat a subject Exemplary pharmaceutical compositions are described herein and include, but are not limited to, pentamidine, quinine, saquinavir, and/or mdomethacm In addition, the subject may also be receiving msulm, or another pharmaceutical directly targeted to maintenance of glucose levels in the subject

In a related embodiment of the present invention, monitoring of glucose amount or concentration in the subject is accomplished by monitoring glucose m EBC using the systems and methods described herein Extraction is carried out, for example, frequently over a selected period of time The collection reservoir is analyzed, at least periodically and typically frequently, to measure glucose concentration therein The measured value correlates with the subject's blood glucose level

The glucose condensate monitoring device used m the present invention may have alert means, where an alert is provided to the subject (for example, an auditory alert) when glucose levels exceed the predetermined threshold values, when glucose levels change at a rate faster than a predetermined rate of change, or when a predicted glucose value for a later time point falls outside of the predetermined range

Many disease states and conditions will benefit from frequent monitoring of glucose and, optionally, one or more additional analytes Non-limiting examples of such disease states and conditions that will benefit from frequent monitoring of glucose levels, include hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia, cystic fibrosis, AIDS, organic and ammo acid disorders, cancer remission, as well as subjects with cardiovascular disease, stroke subjects, gestational diabetes, organ transplant recipients, those infected with Candida, HIV or malaria, elderly subjects, kidney subjects, young children, long-distance drivers, intense exerciseis, subjects on a weight loss program or other special diet, subjects receiving growth hormone, and alcoholics Furthermore, monitoring of glucose levels will also be beneficial m determining the effects of one or more pharmaceutical compositions on glucose levels or concenti ations m a biological subject In the present invention, at least one of the pharmaceutical compositions whose effect on glucose levels is monitored does not contain msulm

I Hyperglycemia

Hyperglycemia refers to excessive levels of blood glucose m a subject The primary form of hyperglycemia is diabetes melhtus (DM), which is hyperglycemia secondary to decreased insulin where either production of msulm is decreased or peripheral tissue resistance to msulm is increased Insulm- dependent DM (IDDM, or Type I DM) accounts for about 10% of DM cases and usually occurs m childhood or early adulthood. Type I DM can result in ketoacidosis when subjects are without msulm therapy Non-insulin dependent DM (NIDDM, or Type II DM) usually occurs m people >40 years of age, and about 60% of the subjects are obese. Type II DM can also occur m animals, for example, domestic cats. These subjects are not prone to ketosis but may develop it under conditions of stress. Gestational onset DM (GODM) occurs when diabetes onset is during pregnancy and resolves with delivery. These subjects are at a higher πsk for developing DM at a later date Secondary DM can be caused, for example, by steroid therapy, Cushmg's syndrome, pancreatectomy, pancreatic insufficiency secondary to pancreatitis or endocrine disorders. The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial Group reported that the long-term complications of DM appear to be directly related to control of blood glucose levels. Thus, the conclusion of the study was that intensive therapy delays the onset and slows the progression of diabetic retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy m subjects with IDDM. Other studies have shown the same conclusions in

NIDDM. Thus, frequent monitoring of blood glucose levels is an important tool for both diagnosing and determining appropriate therapy for many conditions associated with abnormal glucose levels.

II. Dysglycemia and Cardiovascular Disease Recent research has found a connection between dysglycemia, or abnormal glucose levels, and πsk factors (e g , atherosclerosis and hypertension) for cardiovascular disease (see, for example, Gerstem H C, Yusuf S (1996) Lancet 347(9006): 949-950; Gerstem H C, Yusuf S (1998) Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice 40 Suppl: S9-S14; Meigs J B, Nathan O M et al (1998) Ann Intern Med 128(7): 524- 533; Tsai S T, Li C L et a! (200O)JCIm Epidemiol 53(5)- 505-510, all of which are incorporated herein by reference m their entirety) For instance, atherosclerotic changes appear to develop m non-diabetic individuals with impaired glucose tolerance (see, e g , Kawamoπ, R (1998) Diabetes Res Clin Pract 40 Suppl- S35-S42, Yamasaki Y, Kawamoπ R et al (1995) Diabetologia 38(5)"585-591) Similarly, hypertension is also associated with impaired glucose tolerance (Vaccaro et al (1996) Diabetologia 39 70- 76, all of which are incorporated by herein by reference m their entirety)

At a molecular level, studies have shown a connection between a deletion polymorphism m the antigotensis-convertmg enzyme (ACE) gene (which is related to cardiovascular disease) and elevated plasma glucose levels after oral glucose load (Ohishi et al (2000) Clin Exp Pharmacol Physxoλ 27 483-

487, which is incorporated herein by reference m its entirety) Further, high blood glucose concentration (in both diabetic and non-diabetic subjects) increases the risk of death and poor outcome after acute myocardial infarction and significantly increases the mortality rate from cardiovascular disease (see, e g , Capes et al Lancet (2000) 355(9206) 773-778, Feskens E J & Kromhout D (1992) J Clin Epidemiol 45(11) 1327-34 and Bjornholt e? α/ (1999) Diabetes Care 22(1) 45-49, all of which are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety)

The πsk of heart disease associated with hyperglycemia increases continuously across the spectrum of glucose tolerance categories, from those that are just barely above normal to those m the diabetic range Generally speaking, as blood glucose levels increase, so does the likelihood that an individual will expeπence cardiovascular disease (see, e g , J emelkova-Kurktschiev et al (2000) Exp Clin Endocrinol

Diabetes 108 93-99, which is incorporated herein by reference m its entirety) This relationship is similar to the relationship between smoking and blood pressure to cardiovascular πsk

Thus, monitoring and controlling blood glucose levels in individuals with a family or personal history of heart disease allows these subjects to reduce the risk of cardiovascular problems Further, m certain embodiments, it will also be useful to monitor levels of glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides and/or therapeutic drugs used to treat high cholesterol, hypertension or the like

III Glucose Tolerance, Diabetes Onset and Cystic Fibrosis

It is estimated that approximately 50,000 individuals in the U S and Canada suffer from cystic fibrosis One well-known complication of this disease is cystic fibrosis-related diabetes (CFRD)

(Fmkelstem S M & Wielmski C L (1988) JPediatr 112(3) 373-377, Handwerger S, Roth J etal (1969) N EnglJ Med 281 (9) 451 -461 , both of which are incorporated herein by reference m their entirety) CFRD appears to be grossly underestimated m the U S , probably due to the lack of routine oral glucose tolerance tests (see, e g , Hardm D S & Moran A (1999) Endocrinol Metab CIm Not th Am 28(4) 787-800, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety) CFRD incidence has also increased as the life-spans of cystic fibrosis subjects increase In a 10 year study of CFRD, Cucmotta D, De Luca F et al ((1999) Acta Paediatr 88(4) 389-393, which is incorporated herein by reference m its entirety) found that impaired glucose tolerance was the sole predictor of whether subjects will develop CFRD Thus, frequent monitoring of blood glucose levels m cystic fibrosis subjects will allow clinicians to detect diabetes earlier than was previously possible. Moreover, monitonng of trends in blood glucose levels can help identify groups who are prone to develop diabetes. In addition to monitonng glucose, the levels of chloride, sodium, and/or therapeutic drugs used to treat CF may also be monitored.

IV Abnormal Blood Glucose Levels in Stroke, Ischemia, Bram Injury, Head Injury, and Spinal Cord Injury

Hyperglycemia following acute stroke is strongly associated with subsequent mortality, impaired neurological recovery and bram lesions in diabetic and non-diabetic subjects (SaIa et al (1999) Ann NY Acad Sci 890: 133-154; Weir C J, Murray G D e? al. (1997) BMJ 314(7090): 1303-1306; GrayC S, Taylor

R et al (1987) Diabet Med 4(3): 237-40; Guyot et al. (2000) Harm Metab Res. 32:6-9; Hayahi (2000) No To Hattatsu 32:122-131; Rovhas and Kotsou (2000) Neurosurgery 46:335-342, all of which are incorporated herein by reference m their entirety) Furthermore, between 20% and 50% of acute stroke subjects are hyperglycemic at presentation. As a result, it is of increasing interest to study the effects of modulating blood glucose levels in stroke subjects, for example by administering glucose potassium msulm

(GKI) to these subjects (Scott J F, Robinson G M et al (1999) Stroke 30(4): 793-799; Scott J F, Gray C S et al (1998) QJ Med 91(7): 511-515; Hermes et al (1999) Anaesthesist 48:858 -870; Schuπ et al. (1999) Ann NY Acad Sci 893:386-390, all of which are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety).

Thus, frequent monitoring blood glucose levels m stroke subjects can allow clinicians to detect abnormal glucose levels at an early time and early treatment may reduce mortality and improve neurological outcomes.

V. Hyperglycemia Associated with Organ Transplantation

Impaired glucose tolerance or DM are also frequent complications after organ transplantation, m both human leukocyte antigen (HLA) matched and mismatched subjects. For example, liver transplant recipients have been shown to have severe post-prandial hyperglycemia, which may be attributed to msulmpoenia and a late increased glucose turnover (Schneiter et al (2000) Diabetes Metab 26:51-56; Petruzzo et al. (2000) Diabetes Metab 26:215-218, all of which are incorporated herein by reference m their entirety). Similarly, m the context of grafts, Trick et al ((2000) J Thorac Cardwvasc Surg 119:108- 114, which is incorporated herein by reference m its entirety) report that appropriate control of preoperative blood glucose levels appears to help prevent deep sternal site infection after coronary artery bypass graft operations. Accordingly, frequent monitoring of blood glucose levels before and after transplant (e g., organ transplant and grafts) is part of the present invention. Furthermore, multiple analytes m these subjects (e g , glucose, an immunosuppressive drug, etc.) can also be measured.

VI. Hyperglycemia Associated with Candida Infection Chronic or repeated infection with Candida (e g , vulvovaginal candidiasis and congenital cutaneous candidiases m infants) is a widespread problem m both immunocompetent and immunosuppressed subjects. A known etiology of recurrent candidiasis is hyperglycemia, see, e g , Rmgdahl (2000) Am F am Physician 61 :3306-3312, which is incorporated herein by reference m its entirety. Further, because many subjects expeπence recurrent Candida infections once prophylaxis is discontinued, long-term therapy may still be warranted. Therefore, frequent monitoring of blood glucose level is useful in subjects suffering from chronic or repeated infection with Candida.

VII. Diet-mduced Hyperglycemia

Diet can also induce hyperglycemia m certain subjects. Diets high m carbohydrates and/or fat have been associated with development of insulin resistance and perturbed carbohydrate and lipid metabolism and leptm has been proposed as a treatment for diet induced hyperglycemia and insulin resistance (Buettner et al. (2000) Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 278:E563-9, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety). Thus, m addition to allowing a subject to quickly and easily monitor blood glucose levels, the present invention allows for the monitoring of additional analytes, for example, leptm.

VIII. HIV -related Hyperglycemia

The present invention will also find use m evaluating and determining treatment regimes for human immunodeficiency virus (HΙV)-mfected subjects, particularly those subjects currently receiving protease inhibitors. Although protease inhibitors have proven to be very useful m treating HIV infection in certain subjects, these drugs often exhibit glucose-related side effects, including, for example, hyperglycemia, new-onset diabetes melhtus, lipodystrophy syndrome, central obesity, peripheral fat loss, and hyperlipemia, Scevola et al. (2000) AIDS Read 10:365-369; 371-375; Mathe (1999) Biomed Pharmacother 53:449-451, which is incorporated herein by reference m its entirety. Accordingly, all subjects receiving protease inhibitors should be monitored for blood glucose levels.

IX. Geriatric Hyperglycemia

The prevalence of hyperglycemia m elderly persons (e.g. greater than 60 years of age) is high and is significantly associated with cardiovascular risk factors such as obesity, high systolic pressure and hypertriglyceridemia, see, above and Lai et al (2000) J Gerontol A BwI Sci Med 55.M255-256. Hyperglycemia is also more common elderly trauma subjects and m those elderly subjects exhibit hostility, Frankenfield et al (2000) J Trauma 48:49-56, all of which are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety. Thus, is useful to monitor glucose levels m these m elderly subjects.

X. Hyperglycemia in Neonates and Children

Transient hyperglycemia that occurs as a part of the stress response in acute illnesses can cause serious complications m infancy and childhood, Gupta et al (1997) Indian JPediatr 64:205-210, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. For example, non-ketotic hyperglycemia (NKH) in infancy and childhood can cause seπous complications, for example, hydrocephalus requiring shunting and subsequent brain damage, Van Hove et al. (2000) Neurol 54:754-756, which is incorporated herein by reference m its entirety. Thus, frequent monitoring of glucose (and, optionally, other analytes, such as ketones) is useful m young children.

Further, there are numerous reports of transient neonatal diabetes (Menon, P. S., et al., Indian J Pediatr 67(6):443-448, 2000; Shield, J. P., Horm Res 53(Suppl. 1):7-11 , 2000; Stanley, C A., Pediatr

Clin North Am 44(2):363-374, 1997; Wilson, S., Nurs Times 87(36):44-45, 1991 , which are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety). There are numerous causes that are thought to contribute to such transient neonatal diabetes, including, but not limited to, chromosomal abnormality, genotypic effects, and/or imprinting (Varrault, A., etal., J Biol Chem 276(22) 18653-18656, 2001; Marquis, E., etal , Tissue Antigens 56(3):217-222, 2000; Gardner, R. J., et al , Hum MoI Genet 9(4):589-596, 2000; Kamiya, M., et al. , Hum MoI Genet 9(3):453-460, 2000; Shield, J. P., et al., Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed76(l):F39- 42, 1997, which are incorporated herein by reference m their entirety), treatments (e g. , drug treatments to mother and/or neonate) (Momaci, V. K., et al , JPerinat Neonatal Nurs 11(4):60-64, 1998; Uhπg, J. D., et al, Can Med Assoc J 128(4):368-371, 1983; Bomba-Opon, D. A., et al., Ginekol Pol 71(8):887-892, 2000; Yums, K. A., et al , Am J Pennatol 16(1):17-21, 1999, which are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety), nutrition (Barker, D. J., Nutrition 13(9):807-813, 1997, which is incorporated herein by reference m its entirety), and disease states (e.g. , m the mother and/or neonate) (Ahlfors, K., et al. , ScandJ Infect Dis Δ \{5)-ΛA1>-A51, 1999; Lorenzi, P., etal , AIDS, Oec. 24, 12(18):F241-247, 1998; Cooper, L. Z., Rev Infect Dis 7(Suppl. l):S2-10, 1985, which are incorporated herein by reference m their entirety). In addition, babies bom before term may have glucose metabolism abnormalities (Gross, T. L , et al., Am J

Obstet Gynecol 146(3):236-241 , 1983; Lackman, F., Am JObstet Gynecol 184(5):946-953, 2001, which are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety) Thus, frequent monitoring of glucose (and, optionally, other analytes, such as drug levels) is useful in neonates and premature neonates to reduce possible short- and/or long-term damage caused by low, high, or fluctuating glucose levels, as well as to increase probability of survival

XI Hyperglycemia Associated with Intense Exercise

During intense exercise, fluctuations in the levels of various analytes, for example glucose, hormones, etc , has been shown to occur, Kreisman et al (2000) Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 278 E7860793, which is incorporated herein by reference m its entirety. Commonly, subjects who exercise intensely can become hyperglycemic. Marliss et al (2000) J Appl Physiol 88:457-66, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. Accordingly, monitoring the level of glucose and/or other analytes such as hormones aids in regulating exercise intensity and/or intake of food or fluids duπng exercise.

XII Hypoglycemia

Hypoglycemia refers to decreased levels of glucose m plasma, or below normal levels. Although hypoglycemic subjects may be asymptomatic, many exhibit adrenergic stimulation symptoms including diaphoresis, anxiety, irritability, palpitations, tremor, and hunger. Hypoglycemic events may also occur during the night-time (nocturnal hypoglycemia), for example, when a person is sleeping, thus vulnerable to continuing decreases m levels of glucose m plasma. Severe hypoglycemia may cause confusion, visual blurring, loss of consciousness and seizures. Typically, hypoglycemia occurs about 2 to 4 hours postprandially and generally subsides in 15 to 20 minutes. The etiology of hypoglycemia is often idiopathic, but may be caused by early diabetes, malignancies of the pancreas, benign tumors of the pancreas, general hypertrophy of the pancreas without evident disease, alcohol intake and liver disease (decreased gluconeogenesis), gastrectomy, renal failure, drugs such as salicylates, beta-blockers, pentamidine, acetylcholine esterase (ACE) inhibitors, excess msulm including insulinoma, self- administered msulm or oral hypoglycemic agents; pituitary or adrenal insufficiency.

Clinicians are generally most concerned with functional or idiopathic hypermsulinism, the most common type of which is caused by excessive intake of refined sugars, caffeine, emotional stress or a combination of these factors with sugar and caffeine compounded m their effects through a condition of stress. The Islets of Langerhans (msulm producing cells) in the pancreas are over-stimulated by constant bombardment of refined sugar and caffeine producing greater amounts of msulm than required to metabolize the circulating blood sugar, thus keeping blood sugar levels lower than normal except for a very short time after ingestion of food. Eventually any sugar, good, bad, or indifferent, will tπggei the pancieas to secrete excessive amounts of insulin. The liver is also heavily involved m this mechanism as it controls reconversion of stored glycogen mto glucose for distribution m the blood stream. In addition, all the endocrine glands are linked m a dynamic balance to compensate for any deviation of blood sugar levels so that the brain and nervous system are never for an instant deprived of necessary amounts of blood sugar needed for their normal activity. This balance is upset by stress and symptoms such as anxiety, irritability, fear, sweating, flushing or pallor, numbness, chills, headaches, dizziness, weakness and famtness are common. However, the most obvious symptoms are excessive hunger just about all the time and great fatigue and weakness. Thus, hypoglycemia is an important medical issue and frequent monitoring of glucose levels is useful to a wide variety of subjects.

XIII. Hypoglycemia and Eatmg Disorders

Hypoglycemia can occur in individuals with anorexia nervosa (Alvm et al. (1993) Arch FrPediatr 50(9): 755-762; Johnson et al. (1994) Int J Eat Disord 15(4): 331-341; Overdum J & Jansen A (1997) Physiol Behav 61(4): 569-575, which are incorporated herein by reference m their entirety). In bulimic subjects following purging of a meal, there is a dramatic reduction in insulin and glucose (Johnson et al , above). Because of the correlation between hypoglycemia and hunger, the hypoglycemia that results from purging may be partially responsible for continued bmging and purging. Thus, monitoring blood glucose levels in subjects with eating disorders can assist therapists in treating them, and can also help subjects understand physiological processes that contribute to their problems.

XIV. Hypoglycemia and Pentamidine Therapy

Pentamidine is an effective agent for treating Pneumocystis caπnn pneumonia m HIV-infected subjects, the hemolymphatic stage of Gambian trypanosomiasis, and antimony-resistant leishmaniasis. Iatrogenic hypoglycemia occurs m one-quarter to one-third of HIV-infected subjects treated with this drug, and it can become severe and even life-threatening, Andersen et al. (1986) Druglntell Clin Pharm 20(11): 862-868; Stahl-Bayhss etal. (1986) Clin Pharmacol Ther39(3): 271-5; Chan e. α/. (1996) Drug Sq/ 15(2):

135-157, which are incorporated herein by reference m their entirety. Thus, frequent monitoring of the levels of blood glucose and, optionally, other analytes (e g , pentadiene), in HIV-infected subjects receiving pentamidine therapy will reduce the risk of nosocomial infections in them, and will reduce the risk of HIV transmission to needle-stick performing hospital personnel.

XV. Hypoglycemia and Disease States

Many organic and ammo acid disorders are also correlated with hypoglycemia, for example acidemias that involve the oxidation of fatty acids (Ozand et al (2000) Semin Pennatol 24: 172- 193 , which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety) Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (DeBaun et al (2000) Semin Pennatol 24 164-171, which is incorporated herein by reference m its entirety), glycogen storage diseases (Wolfsdorf et al (1999) Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 28 801-823, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety), carbohydrate-deficient glycoprotein syndrome (Babovic-Vuksanovic et al (1999) J Pediatr 135 775-781, which is incorporated herein by reference m its entirety), hypopituitarism (Nanao et al ( 1999) Acta Paediatr 88 1173, which is incorporated herein by reference m its entirety), and mitochondrial respiratory chain disorders (Morris (1999) Liver 19 357-368, which is incorporated herein by reference m its entirety)

Glycogen storage diseases (glycogenoses) are a group of hereditary disorders that result from a lack of at least one enzyme involved in glycogen synthesis or breakdown The result is accumulation of glycogen in tissues According to the Merck Manual (16th edition), hypoglycemia can be a severe problem m some of these glycogen storage diseases, for example, Type 0 (enzyme system affected, glycogen synthetase), Type Ia (enzyme system affected, glucose-6-phosphatase), Type Ib (enzyme system affected, glucose-6-phosphatase translocase), Type III (enzyme system affected, debrancher enzyme system), Type VI (enzyme system affected, liver phosphorylase) Subjects with glycogen storage disorders must follow strict diets (m order to avoid hypoglycemia and other problems) and must monitor their blood glucose levels (see Wolfsdorf, et al , above)

Thus, frequent monitoring of glucose levels non-mvasively in these subjects will likely improve their clinical outcomes and simplify their lives significantly

XVI Hypoglycemia and Alcoholism

Hypoglycemia is a common adverse effect of alcoholism, and it occurs in up to 95% of alcoholics, Bunout (1999) Nutrition 15(7-8) 583-589, which is incorporated herein by reference m its entirety Hypoglycemia due to excessive alcohol ingestion can be severe, and alcoholics are usually glucose intolerant as well, Kearney et al (2000) JR Soc Med 93 15-17, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety This condition is most likely due to an inhibition of glucose-stimulated msulm secretion Frequent, non-mvasive monitoring of blood glucose levels and/or other analytes such as alcohol can treat alcoholics by allowing them to see clinical improvements in their blood sugar levels, or to allow them to see the extent to which alcohol abuse has damaged an important metabolic process

XVII Hypoglycemia and Long Distance Driving Performance

Long distance drivers often experience hypoglycemia Further, the fatigue associated with hypoglycemia and the resulting possibility that these drivers may fall asleep at the wheel is a potential hazard, Frier (2000) Diabetes Care 23: 148-150; Marrero et al (2000) Diabetes Care 23.146-147, which are incorporated herein by reference m their entirety. Long distance driving and associated risks are most frequently associated with long-haul trucker drivers (TV Engl J Med. 1997 Sep. 11 ;337(11):755-761, which is incorporated herein by reference m its entirety). Long distance driving is, for example, sustained driving with little or no rest for 5 to 10 hours or more. Typical "long-haul" trucker drivers may dπve from 10 to 15 hours at a time. The California Department of Motor Vehicles suggests a ten minute rest after even just two hours of driving. Frequent momtoπng of glucose levels will allow long distance dπvers to more adequately determine food and/or fluid intake. This in turn will decrease the risks posed by poor driving performance caused by hypoglycemia.

XVIII. Hypoglycemia and Renal Failure

Hypoglycemia and its accompanying complications occur frequently in both diabetic and non- diabetic end stage renal failure (ESRF) subjects, Haviv et al. (2000) Ren Fail 22:219-223, which is incorporated herein by reference m its entirety. Accordingly, using the methods described herein, ESRF subj ects can benefit from frequent, periodic momtoπng of glucose and/or other analyte levels (e g , glucose and liver enzymes).

XIX. Hypoglycemia. Neonates, and Children

Hypoglycemia can cause severe problems in infants or children, including for example mild to severe bram damage (Kinnala et al (2000) Semin Perinatal 24: 116-119; Frey et al. (2000) Scweiz Zmed

Wochenschr 130: 151-155; Hawdon (1999) Eur J Pediatr 158 Suppl 1 :S9-S12, which are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety). Because hypoglycemia can occur if feeding is postponed more than

12 to 24 hours post-partum, there remains a need for frequent and close clinical observation of neonates and other vulnerable children while avoiding excessively invasive management that may interfere with feeding. Thus, the present invention provides frequent monitoring of glucose levels and, optionally, the levels of other analytes which may signal neonatal distress, such as ketones.

XX. Hypoglycemia and Growth Hormone Therapy

Growth hormone (GH) therapy has been recommended for short stature children and for hypoglycemias due to growth hormone deficiency Increasingly, growth hormone therapy is also recommended for adults with growth hormone deficiency following pituitary tumor surgery or irradiation

(Dash, et al , J. A ssoc Physicians India 47:417-425 , 1999. which is incorporated herein by reference m its entirety). Further, the insulin tolerance test (ITT) is widely accepted as the method of choice to evaluate growth hormone secretion capacity m adults with hypothalamic-pituitary disorders, Hoeck, et al (2000) J Clin Endocrinol Metab 85: 1467-1472, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. Thus, the present invention can be used in both adults and children to monitor the levels of glucose and, m certain instances, various analytes (e.g., growth hormone).

XXI. Hypoglycemia and Cancer Remission

Under most circumstances, tumors growth rapidly when the blood glucose supply is high and grow slowly when blood glucose supply is low. In cases of spontaneous remissions, tumors appear to grow rapidly and steadily despite low blood glucose and, consequently, the tumor system collapses and is removed by the immune system. It has been suggested that remission may be induced if hypoglycemia is initiated just prior to reducing the tumor mass and then maintaining the hypoglycemic state, Niakan (1999) Cancer Biother Radiopharm 14:297-298, which is incorporated herein by reference m its entirety. In such regimes, the present invention can be used to monitor blood glucose levels to help the subject remain hypoglycemic during the critical period.

XXII. Hypoglycemia and Malaria

Severe malaria often presents with hypoglycemia, Agbenyega et al. (2000) J Clin Endorcrinol Metab 85:1569-1576, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. Furthermore, because hypoglycemia is a frequent complication of quinine therapy for malaria, frequent blood sugar estimations are required m treating malaria or quinine toxicity, Padmaja et al (1999) Indian J Med Sci 53: 153-157, which is incorporated herein by reference m its entirety. Thus, the ability to monitor glucose and/or quinine levels is useful m relation to diagnosis and treatment of malaria

XXIII. Drug Treatment Related Hypoglycemia As noted above, hypoglycemia is present in many diseases. One cause of hypoglycemia appears to be related to drug therapy, Virally et al. ( 1999) Diabetes Metab 25 :477-490, which is incorporated herein by reference m its entirety. For instance, saquinavir, a treatment for HIV, induces hypoglycemia m Type II diabetes (see, Zimhony and Stem (1999) Ann Intern Med 131 :980, which is incorporated herein by reference m its entirety), while indomethacin, a drug used to arteriosus m premature infants, also induces hypoglycemia. Consequently, frequent monitoring of glucose and, m certain instances, other analytes (e g , the therapeutic drug) m these individuals is part of the present invention. XXIV. Hypoglycemia, Bram Injury and Stroke

As noted above, bram injury can be a seπous complication of hypoglycemia de Courten-Meyers et al (2000) J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 20-82-92, Losek (2000) Ann Emerg Med 35:43-46, which are incorporated herein by reference m their entirety. There is also strong evidence that severe hypoglycemia can worsen the prognosis m acute stroke. Nagi et al. (1999) Nervenarzt 70:944-949, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. To determine appropriate treatment options, routine and rapid assessment of glucose is recommended.

XXV. Hypoglycemia and Endurance Exercise and Training Performance m endurance events requires an adequate supply of nutrients such as glucose. Thus, performance is optimized when training includes monitoring of glucose (and other analyte levels m certain instances) combined with nutritional supplementation to prevent hypoglycemia, Coyle (1999) J Sci Med Sport 2: 181-189, which is incorporated herein by reference m its entirety.

XXVI. Severe Hypoglycemia

Some individuals may experience recurrent bouts of severe hypoglycemia. Because such episodes of hypoglycemia may cause severe complications, it is recommended that individuals with a recent history of severe hypoglycemia better recognize the occurrence of low blood glucose. Cox et al. (1999) Diabetes Care 22:2018-2025, which is incorporated herein by reference m its entirety. The present invention provides a fast and efficient way for these individuals to monitor glucose levels.

XXVII. Pregnancy and Gestational Diabetes

Dysglycemia duπng pregnancy can cause severe problems for both mother and fetus, see, e g. ,

Schafer-Graft et al. (1999) Ther Umsch 56:572-576, which is incorporated herein by reference m its entirety. For diabetic mothers who become pregnant, close monitoring and tight control of blood glucose levels during the first 9 weeks of pregnancy helps reduce the incidence of birth defects, Schwartz et al.

(2000) Semin Perinatol 24: 120-135, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.

In approximately 4% of women, pregnancy will induce "gestational diabetes" or "insulin resistance" in women who have never had diabetes before but who have high blood sugar levels dunng pregnancy. Without enough insulin, the mother become hyperglycemic and is more likely to become hypertensive, Bartha et al (2000) Am J Obstet Gynecol 182'346-350, which is incorporated herein by reference m its entirety In addition to the problems this causes the mother, hyperglycemia and hypertension also place the fetus at risk for serious complications. The high maternal levels of glucose are able to cross the placenta, which causes the fetus's pancreas to make extra insulin to metabolize the blood sugar and can lead to macrosomia (alternately called a "fat" baby, or a "big bad baby" (BBB)). Babies with macrosomia face health problems of their own, including damage to their shoulders duπng birth; breathing problems and hypoglycemia after birth because of their own increased msulm production, Schwartz et al , above. Further, babies with excess msulm become children who are at risk for obesity and adults who are at risk for Type II diabetes.

Currently, treatment of diabetes during pregnancy is geared toward keeping blood sugar levels below hyperglycemic levels using special meal plans, scheduled physical activity and, if necessary, msulm injections. Monitoring of blood glucose levels after meals is also recommended Recently, however, it has been suggested that overzealous control of hyperglycemia in pregnancy may lead to hypoglycemic episodes for the mother, Rosenn et al (2000) J Matern Fetal Med 9:29-34, which is incorporated herein by reference m its entirety. As noted above, maternal hypoglycemia is associated with a variety of problems for the fetus including intrauterine growth retardation, high rates of gestational age-specific neonatal mortality, long term cognitive deficits, increased nsk of coronary artery disease, diabetes and hypertension as an adult, Rosenn et al , above Thus, ideally, blood sugar levels duπng pregnancy are controlled such that the mother is neither hypoglycemic nor hyperglycemic. Using the methods described herein, which allow for frequent monitoring of blood glucose levels, allows for frequent evaluation of blood glucose levels so that the mother can take appropriate action when either hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia are imminent.

XXVIII. Weight Management

Obesity is a major health problem m many countries and is associated with an increased risk for heart disease, certain cancers and development of Type II diabetes. According to the Centers for Disease Control's (CDCs) National Center for Health Statistics, 54% of adult Americans and between 11% and 14% of children were overweight m 1997, as determined using the Body Mass Index scale, which defines classes of non-obesity and obesity. According to guidelines proposed by the World Health Organization, individuals whose BMI is greater than 25 kg/m2 are Grade 1 overweight. Those whose BMI is greater than 30 kg/m2 are Grade 2 overweight, or obese, and individuals with a BMI greater than 40 kg/m2 are Grade 3 overweight, or morbidly obese (Kopelman (2000) Nature 404: 635-643, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety).

According to the CDC, the average American woman is 5' 3 3/4" tall, weighs 152 pounds, and has a BMI slightly greater than 26. A woman of the same height, but whose weight was 231 pounds, would have a BMI of 40 kg/m2 As a person's body mass index increases past 30 kg/m2, the risk of acquiπng Type II diabetes increases sharply The relative risk of developing Type II diabetes increases with increasing Body Mass Index (BMI) BMI is measured m kg/m2 Accordingly to Kopelman {Nature 404 635-643, 2000, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety), obesity is now so common withm the world's population that it is beginning to replace under-nutπtion and infectious diseases as the most significant contributor to ill health Obesity is associated with diabetes melhtus, coronary heart disease, certain forms of cancer, and sleep-breathmg disorders Obesity is generally defined by a body-mass index (weight divided by square of the height) of 30 kg m or greater This degree of obesity takes into account neither the morbidity/mortality associated with more modest degrees of a person (or animal) being overweight, nor the detrimental effect of mtra-abdommal fat Thus, impaired glucose tolerance is a clear risk factor for Type II diabetes A survey of American adults performed by the World Health Organization found impaired glucose tolerance m 10%- 15% of the study populations According to the Merck Manual (17th edition), weight loss and exercise are part of the recommended standard treatment for subjects with impaired glucose tolerance or Type II diabetes, and the condition can resolve following weight loss Furthermore, a recent study correlated weight loss m subjects with impaired glucose tolerance and determined that weight loss can also prevent Type II diabetes from developing m the first place (F πksson J et al (1999) Diabetologia 42(7) 793-801, which is incorporated herein by reference m its entirety)

One weight loss program involves eating meals that balance the amounts of protein, fat and carbohydrate See, e g , Dr Barry Sears, Enter the Zone (1995), Regan Books, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety This diet, which is similar to that suggested for diabetic subjects, seeks to maintain blood glucose levels within specified ranges by limiting the amount of carbohydrate and fat intake and "balancing" fats and carbohydrates with proteins Thus, frequent monitoring of blood glucose levels allows subjects following this diet to determine which foods (and what combinations of foods) to eat at what times so they maintain specified blood glucose levels that are neither hyperglycemic nor hypoglycemic

In sum, using the methods described herein provides an excellent means for (1 ) demonstrating the need to reduce weight, (2) providing instant evidence of the deleterious effects of obesity, and (3) aiding dieters to monitor blood glucose levels and maintain normal levels by eating appropriately Isolated finger stick procedures performed during occasional medical exams will most likely not have such an impact Frequent reminders-be they weekly, monthly, daily or more— of abnormal blood glucose levels, m addition to a thorough education on the potential complications of the condition, will stand a greater chance of inspiring change The methods described herein can be applied to weight gam or weight maintenance as well Accordingly, in one aspect of the present invention a range of glucose values can be established for a subject based on desired blood glucose levels directed to the desired goal, for example, weight management Alerts can be set m the glucose monitoring device to be activated when blood sugar levels falls below, or rise above, lower and upper limits (respectively) of the predetermined range Such alerts provide an on-going assessment of the subject's glucose consumption and production, as well as rates and amounts thereof Frequent and periodic monitoring of changes m the plasma or blood glucose in a subject provides information to the subject and/or health care profession (e g , physician, dietician, etc ) that allows optimization of a food plan to suit the particular needs of the subject (for example, weight loss or weight gam) An appropπate reference range of glucose values (ι e . a low and high threshold value) is typically determined by a trained, health-care professional Such a reference range may also include a preferred average glucose value, as well as a preferred range of variation around the average value Such a determination of reference glucose range is typically based on current physical charactenstics of the subject (including, but not limited to, body mass index, percentage body fat, hydration level, etc ) and the subject's goal for weight management (ι e , gam, loss, or maintenance) This reference range is then entered into the glucose monitoring device typically with alerts set at the high and low threshold values One or more microprocessor component of the glucose monitoring device typically includes an algorithm to maintain a record of all subject glucose values determined by the glucose monitoring device A memory component of the glucose monitoring device may also store related information entered by a subject, such as, times and amounts of exercise, amounts and types of food, etc Alternatively, such information may be entered into a system that interfaces with the glucose monitoring device, such as, a personal computer (PC), pocket PC, or personal digital assistant (PDA, e g , Palm Pilot ™ (Palm Inc , Santa Clara, Calif ))

Accordingly, a record of glucose levels obtained by frequent sampling (for example, the Gluco Watch biographer provides approximately 3 glucose readings per hour) is developed Typically, a subject enters the time of meals, snacks, or caloric intake and/or output, m order to keep track of glucose levels relative to such events Regardless of the subject's inputted information, however, the glucose monitoring device alerts the subject to glucose levels outside of the predetermined range One set of distinctive alerts may be associated with a low threshold glucose level m order to alert the subject to, for example, consume a snack, and another set of distinctive alerts may be associated with levels above the high threshold value to warn the subject of excessive caloric intake Further, because an ongoing record of glucose levels is maintained by the glucose monitoring device (and/or an associated device) the records developed over days, weeks, months, etc , can be reviewed by a subiect and/or a health-care professional m order to provide appropπate modifications to the food plan Accordingly, compaπng a series of glucose amounts or concentrations as determined by the glucose monitoring device, the record of caloric intake and/or output, and the predetermined reference range of glucose values allows the subject (and/or healthcare professional) to evaluate compliance with the reference range of glucose amounts or concentrations that is being used to achieve the weight management goal of the subject Further, glucose level fluctuations that put the subject at risk can be evaluated and solutions to avoid such fluctuations proposed.

XXIX Disease and/or Condition Management

A similar approach may be applied to numerous disease states or conditions, e g , those descπbed above For example, a subject may enter information (e g , time of dosing) about medications that are being taken (such as, HIV medications discussed above) and glucose levels can be evaluated relative to such events, i e , comparing the record of medication to glucose levels. By keeping track of such information it may be possible to avoid HIV drug-related hyperglycemia and its attendant health problems by modifying the subject's dietary intake, perhaps relative to drug dosmg times, in order to maintain glucose values within a predetermined reference range (ι e , between high and low threshold values). Accordingly, by comparing a series of glucose amounts or concentrations m a subject being treated with a pharmaceutical composition (typically comprising at least one non-insuhn-contammg pharmaceutical compound, further such pharmaceutical compounds typically do not comprise pharmaceuticals used for the treatment of diabetes, rather they are pharmaceutical compounds with associated side-effects on glucose levels) and a reference record of dates/times of treatment with the pharmaceutical, it is possible to evaluate the effect of the pharmaceutical composition on glucose levels m the subject receiving the pharmaceutical composition over time. Further, a reference range of glucose amounts or concentrations that correspond to maintaining a desired range of glucose amounts or concentrations in the subject during a treatment course can be determined by the subject typically m cooperation with a health-care professional. The reference range is typically defined by a high threshold glucose value and a low threshold glucose value. Alerts may be set m the glucose monitoring device to make the subject aware of fluctuations outside of the reference range.

In another aspect, the above-descπbed methods can be applied to a method for improving prognosis and/or reduction of adverse side-effects associated with a disease state or condition in a subject. In this aspect, a reference range of glucose amounts or concentrations is typically determined that corresponds to achieving an improved prognosis or reduction of adverse side -effects associated with said disease state or condition m the subject. The reference range of glucose amounts or concentrations typically comprises a high threshold glucose value and a low threshold glucose value, and further may include a desired average value with a preferred, associated range of variation The glucose amount or concentration in the subject is monitored using a glucose monitoring device, for example, as described above

A series of glucose values is obtained over a time course By comparing the series of glucose amounts or concentrations and the reference range compliance with the reference range of glucose amounts or concentrations to achieve an improved prognosis or reduction of adverse side-effects associated with said disease state or condition m the subject can be evaluated. Clearly such momtoπng of glucose levels is necessary and useful m diabetic disease, for example, Type I and Type II diabetes, however, the method is useful when applied to monitoring glucose m disease states or conditions where the primary effect of the disease state or condition is not directly on glucose levels m the subject, numerous such disease states and conditions are outlined above, including, but not limited to cancer remission, infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), infection with Candida, long distance driving, organ transplantation, growth hormone therapy, renal failure, infection with malaria, alcoholism, intense exercise, cardiovascular disease, cystic fibrosis, stroke, and ischemia.

XXX. Exercise

As another example, the above-described method of providing a functional range of glucose values can be extended to endurance exercise and training. Different ranges of glucose can be established by the subject and/or a health-care professional wherein a selected range of glucose values is put into effect m the glucose monitoring device depending on the activity. For example, three reference glucose ranges may be established for a person undertaking an exercise or training program: a resting range of glucose values, where the high and low glucose threshold values are determined to maintain a certain weight, an aerobic- exercise range of glucose values, where the high and low glucose threshold values are determined to maintain optimum performance duπng aerobic exertion, and a trammg-exercise range, where most of the activity is not aerobic m nature (e g , weight training) and the high and low glucose threshold values are determined to maintain optimum performance during the training activity.

A subject may activate a selected set of range values m the glucose monitoring device A default setting may be selected by the subject to which settings the glucose monitoring device returns after a specified amount of time, or another alert may be programmed to remind the subject to change the selected set of range values after a certain period of time. In this embodiment of the present invention, a record of glucose level variation correlated to activities gives the subject information to evaluate which may reveal particular issues that need to be addressed. For example, consistently low glucose levels during sustained aerobic events may indicate to the subject that such events should be preceded by an increased intake in carbohydrates/fats/protems. Further, review and evaluation of such a record (obtained over, for example, days, weeks, or months) may allow the subject to modify the intensity, duration, and/or type of exercise m order to maintain appropriate glucose levels throughout the subject's training program, thereby preventing over-exertion and/or reduction of muscle mass.

In an alternative embodiment, high and low glucose threshold values may be established for a reference glucose range. The glucose monitoring device may be worn by the subject m order to obtain frequent, periodic measurements of glucose amount or concentration m the subject. An independent record may be kept by the subject of caloric intake (e.g , meals and snacks) as well as caloric expenditure (e g. , exercise). This independent record can then be compared to the record of glucose values provided by the glucose monitoring device and the reference range of glucose values. Such comparison maybe earned out by hand or by a computerized algonthm. In this aspect of the invention, trends of glucose levels can be compared to caloric mtake/output and diet and exercise adjusted accordingly to achieve weight management goals. Accordingly, companng a series of glucose amounts or concentrations as determined by the glucose monitoring device, the record of caloric mtake/output, and the predetermined reference range of glucose values allows the subject (and/or health-care professional) to evaluate compliance with the reference range of glucose amounts or concentrations that 1 s being used to achieve the weight management goal of the subject. Such independent record keeping by the subject may be applied to other disease states or conditions described above (e g , medications, exercise training, long distance driving, etc.).

According to the subject invention, any of the systems and methods descπbed above regarding the detection and/or measurement of glucose in EBC can equally be applied to the detection and/or measurement of other target analytes in EBC such as chloride, amylase, and/or sodium thiocyanate. In addition, it is contemplated herein that other sugars and compounds can be detected m EBC in addition to glucose, such as fructose (see, for example, Figure 12).

Following are examples which illustrate procedures for practicing the invention. These examples should not be construed as limiting. All percentages are by weight and all solvent mixture proportions are by volume unless otherwise noted.

Example 1 — Selection of Sensors

The following are examples of various sensor technologies that may be utilized in practicing the method of the present invention- Microgravimetπc Sensors

Microgravimentπc sensois are based on the prepaiation of polymeric- or biomolecule-based sorbents that are selective for a particular analyte, such as glucose A direct measurement of mass changes induced by binding of a sorbent with glucose can be observed by the propagation of acoustic shear waves m the substrate of the sensor Phase and velocity of the acoustic wave are influenced by the specific adsorption of glucose onto the sensor surface Piezoelectric materials, such as quartz (SiO7) or zinc oxide (ZnO), resonate mechanically at a specific ultrasonic frequency when excited m an oscillating field Electromagnetic energy is converted into acoustic energy, whereby piezoelectricity is associated with the electrical polarization of materials with anisotropic crystal structure Generally, the oscillation method is used to monitor acoustic wave operation Specifically, the oscillation method measures the series resonant frequency of the resonating sensor Types of sensors deπved from microgravimetnc sensors include quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) devices that apply a thickness-shear mode (TSM) and devices that apply surface acoustic wave (SAW) detection principle Additional devices derived from microgravimetnc sensors include the flexural plate wave (FPW), the shear horizontal acoustic plate (SH-APM), the surface transverse wave (STW) and the thm-rod acoustic wave (1 RAW)

Conducting Polymers

Conducting polymei sensors promise fast response time, low cost, and good sensitivity and selectivity The technology is relatively simple in concept A conductive material, such as carbon, is homogeneously blended in a non-conductmg polymer that is specific for glucose and deposited as a thm film on an aluminum oxide substrate The films he across two electncal leads, creating a chemoresistor As the polymer is subjected to EBC, it expands, increasing the distance between carbon particles, and thereby increasing the resistance The polymer matrix swells because glucose absorbs into the film to an extent determined by the partition coefficient of the glucose The partition coefficient defines the equilibrium distribution of glucose between the vapor phase and the condensed phase at a specified temperature Each individual detector element requires a minimum absorbed amount of glucose to cause a response noticeable above the baseline noise Sensitivity concentrations are reportedly adequate for some applications (tens of ppm) The technology is very portable (small and low power consumption), relatively fast m response time (less than 1 mmute), low cost, and should be rugged and reliable Electrochemical Sensors

Electrochemical sensors measure a change m output voltage of a sensor caused by chemical mtei action of a target analyte (such as glucose) with the sensor. Certain electrochemical sensors are based on a transducer principle. For example, certain electrochemical sensors use ion-selective electrodes that include ion-selective membranes, which generate a charge separation between the sample and the sensor surface Other electrochemical sensors use a surface of the electrode as the complexation agent, where a change m the electrode potential relates to the concentration of the target analyte. Further examples of electrochemical sensors are based on semiconductor technology for momtoπng charges at the surface of an electrode that has been built up on a metal gate between the so-called source and dram electrodes. The surface potential vanes with the target analyte concentration.

Additional electrochemical sensor devices include amperometπc, conductometπc, and capacitive immunosensors. Amperometπc immunosensors are designed to measure a current flow generated by an electrochemical reaction at a constant voltage. Generally, electrochemically active labels directly, or as products of an enzymatic reaction, are needed for an electrochemical reaction of a target analyte (such as glucose) at a sensing electrode Any number of commonly available electrodes can be used m amperometπc immunosensors, including oxygen and H2O2 electrodes.

Capacitive immunosensors are sensor-based transducers that measure the alteration of the electrical conductivity m a solution at a constant voltage, where alterations in conductivity are caused by biochemical enzymatic reactions, which specifically generate or consume ions. Capacitance changes are measured using an electrochemical system, in which a bioactive element is immobilized onto a pair of metal electrodes, such as gold or platinum electrodes.

Conductometπc immunosensors are also sensor-based transducers that measure alteration of surface conductivity. As with capacitive immunosensors, bioactive elements are immobilized on the surface of electrodes. When the bioactive element interacts with a target analyte (such as glucose), it causes a decrease m the conductivity between the electrodes

Electrochemical sensors are excellent for detecting low parts-per-million concentrations. They are also rugged, draw little power, linear and do not require significant support electronics or vapor handling (pumps, valves, etc ) They are moderate m cost ($50 to $200 m low volumes) and small m size

Regardless of the specific electrochemical technique used to measure glucose concentrations m the EBC, glucose concentrations m EBC can be determined based either on its total mass m the sample or on its concent! ation If the sample volume can be conti oiled accuiately, foi example, by hydration υf a dehydrated hydiogel containing the glucose-binding molecule (such as an enzyme) and any necessary cofactors, then detecting the total quantity of glucose present allows one to calculate its concentration m the original EBC.

This can be accomplished, for example, by utilizing glucose oxidase to convert glucose to gluconolactone and an equivalent amount of hydrogen peroxide. Chronoamperometry can then be used to measure the total current required to oxidize the hydrogen peroxide by-product to O2, and this can be related to the number of moles of hydrogen peroxide present, which is equal to the mass of glucose m the

EBC. Complete consumption of the glucose and hydrogen peroxide makes it unnecessary to control the enzyme specific activity or quantity or the reaction time and temperature within narrow limits (provided that sufficient enzyme activity and time is present to allow complete conversion). This is particularly advantageous m sensors designed for use in a wide vanety of environmental conditions.

Gas Chromatography / Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS)

Gas Chromatograpby/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) is actually a combination of two technologies. One technology separates the chemical components (GC) while the other one detects them (MS). Technically, gas chromatography is the physical separation of two or more compounds based on their differential distribution between two phases, the mobile phase and stationary phase. The mobile phase is a carrier gas that moves a vaporized sample through a column coated with a stationary phase where separation takes place. When a separated sample component elutes from the column, a detector converts the column eluent to an electrical signal that is measured and recorded. The signal is recorded as a peak in the chromatogram plot. Chromatography peaks can be identified from their corresponding retention times.

The retention time is measured from the time of sample injection to the time of the peak maximum, and is unaffected by the presence of other sample components. Retention times can range from seconds to hours, depending on the column selected and the component. The height of the peak relates to the concentration of a component m the sample mixture. After separation, the chemical components need to be detected. Mass spectrometry is one such detection method, which bombards the separated sample component molecules with an electron beam as they elute from the column. This causes the molecules to lose an electron and form ions with a positive charge Some of the bonds holding the molecule together are broken in the process, and the resulting fragments may rearrange or break up further to form more stable fragments. A given compound will ionize, fragment, and rearrange reproducibly under a given set of conditions. This makes identification of the molecules possible. A mass spectrum is a plot showing the mass/chaige ratio versus abundance data for ions from the sample molecule and its fragments. This ratio is normally equal to the mass for that fragment. The largest peak in the spectrum is the base peak. The GC/MS is accurate, selective and sensitive.

Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR, NDIR) Infrared (IR) spectroscopy is one of the most common spectroscopic techniques used by organic and inorganic chemists. Simply, it is the absorption measurement of different IR frequencies by a sample positioned in the path of an IR beam. IR radiation spans a wide section of the electromagnetic spectrum having wavelengths from 0 78 to 1000 micrometers (microns). Generally, IR absorption is represented by its wave number, which is the inverse of its wavelength times 10,000. For a given sample to be detected using IR spectroscopy, the sample molecule must be active in the IR region, meaning that the molecule must vibrate when exposed to IR radiation. Several reference books are available which contain this data, including the Handbook of Chemistry and Physics from the CRC Press.

There are two general classes of IR spectrometers - dispersive and non-dispeisive. In a typical dispersive IR spectrometer, radiation from a broadband source passes through the sample and is dispersed by a monochromator into component frequencies The beams then fall on a detectoi , typically a thermal or photon detector, which generates an electrical signal for analysis. Founer Transform IR spectrometers (FTIR) have replaced the dispersive IR spectrometer due to their superior speed and sensitivity. FTIR eliminates the physical separation of optical component frequencies by using a moving mirror Michelson interferometer and taking the Fourier transform of the signal. Conversely, in the non-dispersive IR (NDIR) spectrometer, instead of sourcmg a broad IR spectrum for analyzing a range of sample gases, the NDIR sources a specific wavelength which corresponds to the absorption wavelength of the target sample. This is accomplished by utilizing a relatively broad IR source and using spectral filters to restrict the emission to the wavelength of interest. For example, NDIR is frequently used to measure carbon monoxide (CO), which absorbs IR energy at a wavelength of 4.67 microns. By carefully tuning the IR source and detector during design, a high volume production CO sensor is manufactured. This is particularly impressive, as carbon dioxide is a common mterferent and has an IR absorption wavelength of 4.26 microns, which is very close to that of CO.

NDIR sensors promise low cost (less than $200), no recurring costs, good sensitivity and selectivity, no calibration and high reliability They are small, draw little power and respond quickly (less than 1 minute). Warm up time is nominal (less than 5 minutes). Unfortunately, they only detect one target gas. To detect more gases additional spectral filters and detectors are required, as well as additional optics to direct the broadband IR source. Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS)

Ion Mobility Spectrometiy (IMS) separates ionized molecular samples on the basis of their transition times when subjected to an electric field m a tube. As the sample is drawn into the instrument, it is ionized by a weak radioactive source. The ionized molecules drift through the cell under the influence of an electric field. An electronic shutter grid allows peπodic introduction of the ions into the drift tube where they separate based on charge, mass, and shape. Smaller ions move faster than larger ions through the drift tube and arrive at the detector sooner. The amplified current from the detector is measured as a function of time and a spectrum is generated. A microprocessor evaluates the spectrum for the target compound, and determines the concentration based on the peak height. IMS is an extremely fast method and allows near real time analysis. It is also very sensitive, and should be able to measure all the analytes of interest. IMS is moderate in cost (several thousand dollars) and larger m size and power consumption.

Metal Oxide Semiconductor (MQS) Sensors Metal Oxide Semiconductor (MOS) sensors utilize a semiconducting metal-oxide crystal, typically tin-oxide, as the sensing material. The metal-oxide crystal is heated to approximately 400 0C, at which point the surface adsorbs oxygen. Donor electrons in the crystal transfer to the adsorbed oxygen, leaving a positive charge m the space charge region. Thus, a surface potential is formed, which increases the sensor's resistance. Exposing the sensor to deoxidizing, or reducing, gases removes the surface potential, which lowers the resistance. The end result is a sensor which changes its electπcal resistance with exposure to deoxidizing gases. The change m resistance is approximately logarithmic.

MOS sensors have the advantage of being extremely low cost (less than $8 in low volume) with a fast analysis time (milliseconds to seconds). They have long operating lifetimes (greater than five years) with no reported shelf life issues.

Thickness-Shear Mode Sensors (TSM)

TSM sensors consist of an AT-cut piezoelectric crystal disc, most commonly of quartz because of its chemical stability in biological fluids and resistance to extreme temperatures, and two electrodes

(preferably metal) attached to opposite sides of the disc. The electrodes apply the oscillating electnc field. Generally, TSM sensor devices are run m a range of 5-20 MHz. Advantages are, besides the chemical inertness, the low cost of the devices and the reliable quality of the mass-produced quartz discs. Photo-Iomzation Detectors (PID)

Photo-Iomzation Detectors rely on the fact that all elements and chemicals can be ionized. The energy required to displace an electron and 'ionize' a gas is called its Ionization Potential (IP), measured in electron volts (e V). A PID uses an ultraviolet (UV) light source to ionize the gas. The energy of the UV light source must be at least as great as the IP of the sample gas. For example, benzene has an IP of 9.24 eV, while carbon monoxide has an IP of 14.01 eV. For the PID to detect the benzene, the UV lamp must have at least 9.24 eV of energy. If the lamp has an energy of 15 eV, both the benzene and the carbon monoxide would be ionized. Once ionized, the detector measures the charge and converts the signal information into a displayed concentration. Unfortunately, the display does not differentiate between the two gases, and simply reads the total concentration of both summed together.

Three UV lamp energies are commonly available: 9.8, 10.6 and 11.7 eV. Some selectivity can be achieved by selecting the lowest energy lamp while still having enough energy to ionize the gases of interest. The largest group of compounds measured by a PID are the organics (compounds containing carbon), and they can typically be measured to parts per million (ppm) concentrations. PIDs do not measure any gases with an IP greater than 11.7 eV, such as nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide and water vapor. The CRC Press Handbook of Chemistry and Physics includes a table listing the IPs for vaπous gases.

PIDs are sensitive (low ppm), low cost, fast responding, portable detectors. They also consume little power.

Surface Acoustic Wave Sensors (SAW)

Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) sensors are constructed with mterdigitated metal electrodes fabricated on piezoelectric substrates both to generate and to detect surface acoustic waves. Surface acoustic waves are waves that have their maximum amplitude at the surface and whose energy is nearly all contained within 15 to 20 wavelengths of the surface. Because the amplitude is a maximum at the surface such devices are very surface sensitive. Normally, SAW devices are used as electronic bandpass filters m cell phones. They are hermetically packaged to insure that their performance will not change due to a substance contacting the surface of the SAW SAW chemical sensors take advantage of this surface sensitivity to function as sensors. To increase specificity for specific compounds, SAW devices are frequently coated with a thin polymer film that will affect the frequency and insertion loss of the device m a predictable and reproducible manner Each sensor m a sensor array is coated with a different polymer and the number and type of polymer coating are selected based on the number and type of chemicals to be detected If the device with the polymer coating is then subjected to chemical fluids that absorb into the polymer material, then the frequency and insertion loss of the device will further change It is this final change that allows the device to function as a chemical sensor

SAW sensors are reasonably priced (less than $200) and have good sensitivity (tens of ppm) with very good selectivity They are portable, robust and consume nominal power They warm up in less than two minutes and require less than one mmute for most analysis They are typically not used in high accuracy quantitative applications, and thus requne no calibration SAW sensors do not drift over time, have a long operating life (greater than five years) and have no known shelf life issues

Amplifying Fluorescent Polymer Technology

Sensors can use fluorescent polymers that react with volatile chemicals as sensitive target analyte

(such as glucose) detectors Conventional fluorescence detection normally measures an increase or decrease m fluorescence intensity or an emission wavelength shift that occurs when a single molecule of the target analyte interacts with an isolated chromophore, where the chromophore that interacts with the target analyte is quenched, the remaining chromophores continue to fluoresce

A variation of this approach is the "molecular wire" configuration, as described by Yang and Swager, J Am Chem Soc , 120 5321-5322 (1998) and Cummmg et al , IEEE Trans Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 39 1119-1128 (2001), both of which are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety

In the molecular wire configuration, the absorption of a single photon of light by any chromophore will result m a chain reaction, quenching the fluorescence of many chromophores and amplifying the sensory response by several orders of magnitude

Fiber Optic Microsphere Technology

Fiber optic microsphere technology is based upon an array of a plurality of microsphere sensors (beads), wherein the microspheres are associated with a target analyte (such as glucose) and are placed on an optical substrate containing a plurality of micrometer-scale wells (see, for example, Michael et al , Anal Chem, l\ 2192-2198 (1998), Dickinson etal , Anal Chem , 71 2192-2198 (1999), Albert and Walt, Anal Chem, 72 1947-1955 (2000), and Stitzel et al , Anal Chem, 73 5266-5271 (1001) all of which are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety) The beads can be encoded with unique signatures to identify the bead as well as its location Upon exposure to a target analyte (such as glucose) the beads respond to the target analyte and their intensity and wavelength shifts are used to generate fluorescence response patterns, which are, m turn, used to calculate the concentration of the analyte.

Interdigitated Microelectrode Arrays (IME) Interdigitated microelectrode arrays are based on the used of a transducer film that incorporates an ensemble of nanometer-sized metal particles, each coated by an organic monomolecular layer shell (see, for example, Wohltjen and Snow, Anal Chem, 70:2856-2859 (1998); and Jarvis et al , Proceedings of the 3>d Intl Aviation Security Tech Symposium, Atlantic City, NJ, 639-647 (2001), both of which are incorporated herein by reference m their entirety). Such sensor devices are also known as metal-msulator-metal ensembles (MIME) because of the combination of a large group of colloidal-sized, conducting metal cores separated by thm insulating layers.

Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS)

Sensor technology based on MEMS integrate mechanical elements, sensors, actuators, and electronics on a common silicon substrate for use in detecting target analytes (see, for example,

Pmnaduwage et al , Proceedings of 3"' Intl Aviation Security Tech Symposium, Atlantic City, NJ, b02-615

(2001 ); and Lareau et al , Proceedings of 3' Intl Aviation Security Tech Symposium, Atlantic City, NJ.

332-339 (2001), both of which are incorporated herein by reference m their entirety).

One example of sensor technology based on MEMS is microcantilever sensors. Microcantilever sensors are hairhke, silicon-based devices that are at least 1,000 times more sensitive and smaller than currently used sensors. The working principle for most microcantilever sensors is based on a measurement of displacement. Specifically, in biosensor applications, the displacement of a cantilever-probe is related to the binding of molecules on the (activated) surface of the cantilever beam, and is used to compute the strength of these bonds, as well as the presence of specific reagents m the solution under consideration (Fritz, J. et al , "Translating biomolecular recognition into nanomechamcs," Science, 288:316-318 (2000);

Raiteπ, R. et al , "Sensing of biological substances based on the bending of microfabπcated cantilevers," Sensors and Actuators B, 61 :213-217 (1999), both of which are incorporated herein by reference m their entirety). It is clear that the sensitivity of these devices strongly depends on the smallest detectable motion, which poses a constraint on the practically vs. theoretically achievable performance. One example of microcantilever technology uses silicon cantilever beams (preferably a few hundred micrometers long and lμm thick) that are coated with a different sensor'detector layer (such as antibodies or aptamers). When exposed to a target analyte (such as glucose), the cantilever surface absorbs the target analyte, which leads to mterfacial stress between the sensor and the absorbing layer that bends the cantilever.

Microcantilever sensors are highly advantageous m that they are rugged, reusable, and extremely sensitive, yet they cost little and consume little power

Molecularly Imprinted Polymeric Film

Molecular imprinting is a process of template-induced formation of specific molecular recognition sites (binding or catalytic) in a polymeric material where the template directs the positioning and orientation of the polymeric material's structural components by a self-assembling mechanism (see, for example, Olivier et al , Anal Bioanal Chem, 382:947-956 (2005); and Ersoz et al , Biosensors &

Bioelectronics, 20:2197-2202 (2005), both of which are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety).

The polymeric material can include organic polymers as well as inorganic silica gels. Molecularly impπnted polymers (MIPs) can be used m a vaπety of sensor platforms including, but not limited to, fluorescence spectroscopy; UV/Vis spectroscopy; infrared spectroscopy; surface plasmon resonance; chemilummescent adsorbent assay; and reflectometπc interference spectroscopy. Such approaches allow for the realization of highly efficient and sensitive target analyte recognition.

High Electron Mobility Transistor (HEMT) sensors An HEMT is a field effect transistor with a junction between two materials with different band gaps (i e., a heterojunction) that forms a channel. The combination of GaAs with AIGaAs is commonly used m HEMTs. The effect of this junction creates a very thin layer where the Fermi energy is above the conduction band, giving the channel very low resistivity (or high electron mobility). This layer is often referred to by those skilled in the art as a two dimensional electron-gas (2DEG). A gate electrode provides electronic control over the charge -transport properties of the layer. For example, when a voltage is applied to the gate, conductivity of the 2DEG layer is altered.

In sensor applications, environmental perturbations of the FIEMT surface layer (such as an AIGaN surface layer) results in a change in the electron density of the 2DEG. Source-dram currents m the HEMT can then be used to monitor changes m the environment's composition. A flux of anions reverses the polarization of the surface layer and depletes the 2DEG resulting m a decreased source-dram current. A cation flux reestablishes the spontaneous polarization and the source-dram current returns to its original value Minor variations m the electrostatic boundary conditions of the HEMT surface layer can also yield significant changes m source-dram currents. For example, polar organic liquids in contact with the HEMT surface layer (such as AIGaN) modulate the polarization enough to cause significant changes in the source- dram current on the dielectric properties of the solvent. As disclosed herein, such HEMT sensors can readily be applied to detecting glucose m exhaled breath condensates

Example 2 — Detection of glucose in exhaled breath

Persons with diabetes presently check their blood glucose levels between 1 and 6-8 times each day Knowledge of blood glucose levels is an absolute necessity for guiding proper administration and dosmg of insulin and other medications used to control hyperglycemia. Presently the person must draw blood samples, usually from a finger using a lancet device, and place the sample on a "test strip" which is inserted into a glucose monitor that gives the blood glucose concentration. This process requires considerable skill, time and subjects the person with diabetes to immediate recognition as a diabetic and thus results in the potential for embarrassment and even prejudice and/or discrimination when applying for employment

An attractive alternative is to use a sensor system that collects a sample of exhaled breath which for compounds such as glucose, which are extremely hydrophihc, condenses the sample into a "condensate" which is then placed m contact with the sensor by a pump or microfluidic system. Thus, persons with diabetes are far more likely to inconspicuously blow into a small hand-held device that provides a blood glucose concentration from an exhaled breath sample then to perform the multiple steps required for a blood sample, particularly m public places. This technology is likely to increase the acceptance of frequent blood glucose monitoring and reduce the embarrassment that many persons with diabetes feel when having to draw blood samples from their fingers. Further, because of the accuracy and non-invasive nature of the subject glucose monitoring system, it is a far more attractive system than the current blood sampling techniques, which have been shown to be only marginally reliable (as the blood-test strips are prone to error due to temperature, poor user technique and short shelf life and human factors related errors).

Example 3 — Correlation of Glucose m Exhaled Breath with Glucose m Blood

A non-diabetic subject ingested a 100 gm glucose solution Both exhaled breath and blood samples were taken from the subject at 40 and 20 minutes before ingestion of the glucose solution and for

10 minutes interval every 15 minutes, see Figures 3 A and 3B, after ingestion of the glucose solution

Glucose was readily detectable in the exhaled breath, which was condensed into a liquid The concentration of both the breath and blood glucose rose and fell at the same rates (see Figures 3 A and 3B) According to the subject invention, the ratio of exhaled breath to blood glucose concentration is 3 to 5 magnitudes lower and that this ratio is predictable and repioducible. By analyzing glucose present m EBC, a more predictive, non-invasive, and simpler method is provided to monitor glucose concentration in a subject by monitoring breath rather than blood

Example 4 — Measurement of Blood Glucose and Lactic Acid Concentrations m the Operating Room during Surgical Procedures Using Exhaled Breath

An elderly subject with a history of insulin dependent diabetes (Type I) requires a seπous operation m which significant blood loss is anticipated As part of the routine monitoring of the subject, the anesthesiologist continuously monitors exhaled breath glucose and lactic acid. Several recent medical research studies have shown that tight control of glucose in the normal range improves outcome, wound healing and rate of post-operative infection in persons with diabetes. Presently, the anesthesiologist can only monitor blood glucose intermittently by drawing blood samples. These results guide the administration of msuhn Excessive doses can lead to hypoglycemia, with disastrous consequences and inadequate doses can lead to hyperglycemia, which can result m intra- and post-operative complications

Exhaled breath affords the potential of continuous tight glucose control without the potential for either hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia. In fact, a "closed loop" system is possible where the exhaled breath glucose concentration is used to control and insulin infusion, thus freeing the anesthesiologist of having to give boluses of insulin. In addition to monitoring glucose continuously, the anesthesiologist monitors exhaled breath lactic acid to determine whether there is excessive blood loss or other reasons for decrease perfusion of vital organs. Presently, blood pressure, heart rate and, on occasions, central venous pressure are used to monitor subjects for blood loss with resulting hypovolemia and diminished perfusion. This m turn leads to lactic acidosis, an ominous complication, but presently lactic acid can only be measured intermittently from blood samples By continuously monitoring lactic acid levels in EBC, the anesthesiologist will have a much better means of determining if there is hypoperfusion of vital organs. Thus, measurement of compounds continuously m exhaled breath in either the gaseous or condensed state can lead to marked improvement m monitoring, and therefore, treatment of subjects m the operating room and the intensive care unit Continuous or frequent monitoring of EBC glucose and lactic acid has broad application for evaluating the status of world class athletes and war fighters, especially special forces personnel. Example 5 — Detection and Correlation of Glucose in EBC to Blood Concentrations

A sensor of the invention can include an appropriate hydrogel monomer (such as HEMA - hydroxyethylmethaerylate, or PVA - polyvinyl alcohol) that was polymerized in the presence of an appropriate enzyme specific for glucose (such as glucose hexokmase [GHK] or dehydrogenase [GDH]) and other compounds necessary for an amperometπc reading of glucose concentration (including pyrroloquinoline [PQQ] and ferπcyamde) Hydrogels are polymers that contain large voids that can be filled with water and other water soluble compounds Hydrogels can be made with a wide range of water to hydrogel ratios and the polymer can contain up to about 99% water, preferably up to about 80% water.

The subject amperometπc technique for detecting glucose in EBC allows for complete consumption of the glucose present in the sample to determine the glucose concentration. This is an advanced form of glucose measurements that measures total glucose consumption rather than enzymatic kinetics.

Glucose, in the presence of PQQ and GDH is catalyzed to gluconic acid and the reduced form of PQQ - PQQH2. The PQQH2 then reacts with the ferπcyamde in the GDH to ferrocyanide and PQQ. The ferrocyanide then gives off an electron and returns to ferπcyamde.

In a prefeπ ed embodiment, the enzyme and additional compounds are cross-linked m the hydrogel and are present in sufficient quantity to be m excess of any glucose concentration present in the EBC. The hydrogel-enzyme complex is freeze dried onto an appropriate surface, such as the mside of a collection reservoir or a tube that a patient could blow through. Appropriate circuitry is placed m the tube below the freeze dried hydrogel complex in order to measure the current generated when the glucose from the sample is introduced to the hydrogel complex. In certain embodiments, appropriate electrolyte sensing electrodes (i.e K", Na\ or Cl ) are placed above the hydiogel, which would contact the surface of the hydrogel when it has fully swelled. These electrodes would serve two purposes, to determine when the hydrogel was fully swelled and to determine appropπate electrolyte concentration. On the outside of the collection reservoir or tube (or withm the walls or surface of the collection reservoir or tube) is commercially available technology that is able to selectively cool or heat the collection reservoir or tube m the area where the hydrogel has been deposited. One such device is a Peltier device, which can be heated or cooled rapidly According to the subject invention, when the subject blows into the collection reservoir or tube, the Peltier is also cooling the collection reservoir or tube This increases the condensation of breath on the hydrogel, which if applied m a thm layer, will rapidly swell to maximum hydration Since the hydrogel can only swell to a known quantity based on its formulation, a precise amount of EBC containing glucose will be absorbed by the hydrogel. Complete absorption and swelling will be detected by the electrodes above the hydrogel.

At that point, a signal will alert the subject to stop blowing into the collection reservou or tube and the Peltier will warm to a temperature that will optimize the rate of the enzymatic reaction. Simultaneously the electrodes will measure the appropriate electrolyte to determine whether the sample has been diluted or concentrated and an appropπate "dilution factor" can be calculated.

The enzymatic reaction will be allowed to proceed to completion and the glucose concentration m the EBC will be calculated by integrating the "area under the curve" of the current generated during consumption of glucose by the enzyme and its conversion to H2O2. Such methods are well-known to the skilled artisan for calculating total concentration or other values. With compensation for any dilution, the

EBC glucose concentration will be used to calculate the blood glucose concentration. In certain embodiments, EBC glucose concentration can be used to calculate blood glucose concentration using a conveniently available table or other means of calculating blood glucose concentration (such as calculator, etc.).

Example 6 — Glucose:Chloπde Concentration m EBC Derived at Various Room versus Cool Temperatures

To obtain about l-5uM of glucose in EBC from exhaled breath samples cooled to -20° C, about 1.5mL of EBC was necessary. This resulted m a 5 minute collection of about 75 breaths to be cooled to - 20° C to collect an adequate volume for analysis. In contrast, when breath samples were cooled to around room temperature (such as about 68° F; 20° C), about 25-35 μL of EBC was necessary to obtain about 1-

5uM of glucose. Specifically, at about 20° C, about 7uL of EBC was obtained per breath, with 5 breaths total, and the concentration of glucose in the EBC measured about l-5uM.

As noted above, the higher observed concentration of glucose in the EBC is likely related to decrements m the volume of water collected due to greater collection temperatures. That is, the total concentration of glucose m the numerator of the concentration calculation is constant, but the volume of diluent in the denominator is decreased by EBC collection at room temperature. To that end, Figures 7 and 8 illustrate that the blood/EBC chloride concentration, another analyte of interest, is much lower due to a much greater (about 4-fold) concentration of chloride m the EBC collected at room temperature (blood glucose is constant) as opposed to EBC collected at -20° C. It should be understood that the examples and embodiments described herein are for illustrative purposes only and that various modifications or changes m light thereof will be suggested to persons skilled m the art and are to be included withm the spirit and purview of this application and the scope of the appended claims. Specifically, the glucose detection method of the present invention is intended to cover detection not only through the exhalation by a subject with a device utilizing enzyme -based sensor technology, but also other suitable technologies, such as gas chromatography, transcutaneous/transdermal detection, semiconductive gas sensors, mass spectrometers, IR or UV or visible or fluorescence spectrophotometers.

All patents, patent applications, provisional applications, and publications referred to or cited herein, or from which a claim for benefit of priority has been made, are incorporated by reference in their entirety to the extent they are not inconsistent with the explicit teachings of this specification.

Claims

Claims We claim.
1. A non-mvasive, portable glucose monitoring device comprising. a) at least one collection reservoir for at least one exhaled breath sample, wherein said collection reservoir comprises a sensor specific for glucose and a signaling means; and b) a means for extracting condensates from the exhaled breath sample.
2. The device of claim 1, wherein the collection reservoir comprises a breathing tube.
3. The device of claim 2, wherein the breathing tube is disposable.
4. The device of claim 2, wherein a plurality of breathing tubes are provided in a collapsed state.
5. The device of claim 1 , wherein the sensor comprises a hydrophilic hydrogel comprising at least one glucose-binding molecule.
6. The device of claim 1 , wherein the sensor comprises a lateral flow assay test strip comprising at least one glucose-bmdmg molecule.
7 The device of claims 5 and 6, wherein the glucose-bmdmg molecule is selected from the group consisting of: antibodies, enzymes, oligonucleotides, peptides, or proteins.
8. The device of claim 7, wherein the glucose-bmdmg molecule is glucose-oxidase.
9. The device of claim 5, further comprising a pressure transducer near the hydrogel.
10. The device of claim 1, wherein the means for extracting condensates comprises a Peltier device, which surrounds the collection reservoir.
1 1. The device of claim 10, wherein the Peltier device maintains the temperature of the collection reservoir at around room temperature
12. The device of claim 1 , wherein the sensor further compπses a means for measunng chloπde or other electrolytes.
13. The device of claim 1, wherein the sensor further compπses a calibration sensor.
14. A method for monitoring glucose levels in a patient comprising providing to the patient a non-mvasive, portable glucose monitoring device comprising: a) at least one collection reservoir for at least one exhaled breath sample, wherein said collection reservoir compπses a sensor specific for glucose and a signaling means; and b) a means for extracting condensates from the exhaled breath sample, obtaining a sample of the patient's gaseous exhaled breath in the portable glucose monitoring device; and analyzing the sample of the patient's breath to determine glucose concentration, wherein the glucose concentration correlates with blood glucose concentration.
15. The method of claim 14, further comprising the step of monitoring glucose levels m the patient.
16. The method of claim 14, further comprising the step of analyzing the condensates from the exhaled breath sample for a dilutional indicator.
17. The method of claim 16, wherein the dilutional indicator is chloride.
18. The method of claim 15-17, further comprising the step of determining blood glucose concentration.
19. The method of claim 18, wherein the step of determining blood glucose concentration includes the step of calculating the ratio of glucose m the condensates to chloπde m the condensates
20. The method of claim 14 wherein the sample of the patient's breath is analyzed to determine glucose concentration by sensor technology selected from microgravimetnc sensor technology, electrochemical sensor technology, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry sensor technology, infrared spectroscopy sensor technology, ion mobility spectrometry sensor technology, thickness-shear mode sensor technology, photo-iomzation sensor technology, amplifying fluorescent polymer sensor technology, fiber optic microsphere sensor technology, mterdigitated microelectrode array sensor technology, microelectromechanical sensor technology, semiconductor gas sensor technology, conductive polymer gas sensor technology, surface acoustic wave gas sensor technology, and high electron mobility transistor- based sensor technology.
21. The method of claim 14, further comprising the step of recording data resulting from analysis of the sample of the patient's breath.
22. The method of claim 14, further comprising the step of transmitting data resulting from the analysis of the sample of the patient's breath.
23. The method of claim 14, wherein the analysis of the sample of the patient's breath includes comparing the glucose concentration m the sample of the patient's breath with a predetermined standard glucose concentration.
24. The method of claim 23 wherein the predetermined standard glucose concentration is associated with a healthy patient.
25. The method of claim 24, further comprising the step of determining if the glucose concentration is abnormal
26 The method of claim 25. further comprising the step of communicating to the patient that the glucose concentration is abnormal.
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