WO2008015257A2 - Luminal implant with large expansion ratio - Google Patents

Luminal implant with large expansion ratio Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2008015257A2
WO2008015257A2 PCT/EP2007/058025 EP2007058025W WO2008015257A2 WO 2008015257 A2 WO2008015257 A2 WO 2008015257A2 EP 2007058025 W EP2007058025 W EP 2007058025W WO 2008015257 A2 WO2008015257 A2 WO 2008015257A2
Authority
WO
WIPO (PCT)
Prior art keywords
medical implant
ring element
zigzag
implant according
delivery
Prior art date
Application number
PCT/EP2007/058025
Other languages
French (fr)
Other versions
WO2008015257A3 (en
Inventor
Richard Cornelius
Alex Alden Peterson
Nathaniel Zenz-Olsen
Stevan Nielsen
Bodo Quint
Gerd Seibold
Ib Erling Joergensen
Original Assignee
Syntach Ag
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to US82122206P priority Critical
Priority to US60/821,222 priority
Application filed by Syntach Ag filed Critical Syntach Ag
Publication of WO2008015257A2 publication Critical patent/WO2008015257A2/en
Publication of WO2008015257A3 publication Critical patent/WO2008015257A3/en

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Classifications

    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, e.g. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2/00Filters implantable into blood vessels; Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body; Appliances for connecting them with the body; Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/82Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, e.g. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2/00Filters implantable into blood vessels; Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body; Appliances for connecting them with the body; Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/82Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/844Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents folded prior to deployment
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, e.g. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2/00Filters implantable into blood vessels; Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body; Appliances for connecting them with the body; Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/95Instruments specially adapted for placement or removal of stents or stent-grafts
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, e.g. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2/00Filters implantable into blood vessels; Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body; Appliances for connecting them with the body; Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/02Prostheses implantable into the body
    • A61F2/04Hollow or tubular parts of organs, e.g. bladders, tracheae, bronchi or bile ducts
    • A61F2/06Blood vessels
    • A61F2/07Stent-grafts
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, e.g. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2/00Filters implantable into blood vessels; Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body; Appliances for connecting them with the body; Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/95Instruments specially adapted for placement or removal of stents or stent-grafts
    • A61F2002/9505Instruments specially adapted for placement or removal of stents or stent-grafts having retaining means other than an outer sleeve, e.g. male-female connector between stent and instrument
    • A61F2002/9511Instruments specially adapted for placement or removal of stents or stent-grafts having retaining means other than an outer sleeve, e.g. male-female connector between stent and instrument the retaining means being filaments or wires
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, e.g. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2220/00Fixations or connections for prostheses classified in groups A61F2/00 - A61F2/26 or A61F2/82 or A61F9/00 or A61F11/00 or subgroups thereof
    • A61F2220/0008Fixation appliances for connecting prostheses to the body
    • A61F2220/0016Fixation appliances for connecting prostheses to the body with sharp anchoring protrusions, e.g. barbs, pins, spikes
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, e.g. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2230/00Geometry of prostheses classified in groups A61F2/00 - A61F2/26 or A61F2/82 or A61F9/00 or A61F11/00 or subgroups thereof
    • A61F2230/0002Two-dimensional shapes, e.g. cross-sections
    • A61F2230/0028Shapes in the form of latin or greek characters
    • A61F2230/0054V-shaped
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, e.g. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2250/00Special features of prostheses classified in groups A61F2/00 - A61F2/26 or A61F2/82 or A61F9/00 or A61F11/00 or subgroups thereof
    • A61F2250/0004Special features of prostheses classified in groups A61F2/00 - A61F2/26 or A61F2/82 or A61F9/00 or A61F11/00 or subgroups thereof adjustable
    • A61F2250/001Special features of prostheses classified in groups A61F2/00 - A61F2/26 or A61F2/82 or A61F9/00 or A61F11/00 or subgroups thereof adjustable for adjusting a diameter

Abstract

A luminal medical implants and delivery systems for such implants are disclosed. The implants have joint elements for improved expansion characteristics. In an embodiment, a tubular medical implant (4) collapsible for catheter based luminal delivery to a site in a body is provided. The medical implant (4) comprises a first ring element (400); a second ring element (401); and a plurality of pivot joints (410) connecting said first ring element to said second ring element. Moreover, a delivery system for said medical implant is disclosed.

Description

LUMINAL IMPLANT WITH LARGE EXPANSION RATIO

Field of the Invention

This invention pertains in general to the field of luminal medical implants and delivery systems for such implants. More particularly, the invention refers to tubular implants with variable diameter for transluminal delivery in a state with reduced diameter for deployment at a site in a body with enlarged diameter. Even more particularly, the invention refers to such implants having joint elements for improved expansion characteristics.

Background of the Invention

Implantable medical devices which are introduced percutaneously and deployed into lumens within the body typically have a reduced diameter for introduction through a sheath or other delivery conduit and a larger deployed diameter dictated by the diameter of the body lumen into which they are deployed. The ratio of the larger expanded diameter of the device and the smaller introduction diameter of the device is referred to as its expansion ratio .

Most current percutaneous implantable medical devices have expansion ratios in the range of about 3:1 to 5:1. This can be driven by maintaining a low strain in the metal of the implant, the desire for a certain surface coverage of the lumen wall, limitations of expansion mechanisms and other factors. Particularly for devices being implanted in relatively large body lumens (i.e. pulmonary veins, aorta, vena cava, and carotid arteries) , there is a need for a device which can be deployed with a very large expansion ratio. This would enable smaller delivery systems and consequently smaller access punctures for the percutaneous access . Current designs for luminal implants such as stents tend to require lengthening of the expanding cell of the implant to enable a higher expansion ratio without exceeding an unacceptable level of strain on the material of the implant. This is particularly true for self expanding implants made of materials such as Nitinol which are routinely used in the large diameter vessels of the body (i.e. carotid and peripheral vascular stents). This is due to the fact that while Nitinol has a very large range of elastic strain, it will be plastically deformed if overstrained. It is also due to the tendency that higher levels of strain in the implanted device can lead to lower fatigue life for the implant. Finally, it is also beneficial for current designs to lengthen the cells when expanding them to larger diameters to aid in the stability of the implant both during and after deployment.

The desired stability can also be accomplished by connecting multiple cells together lengthwise so that they act to stabilize each other and keep the implant axially stable in the desired deployed position.

Both of these options for stabilizing devices of current designs require lengthening of the device and this can be a serious limitation if the desired location for deployment has numerous side branches or other structural limitations. It also can be limiting in that the greater implant length results in reduced flexibility of the device for introduction through the percutaneous delivery system. Therefore it is also desirable to have a design which can have a large expansion ratio while retaining deployment stability with as short an axial length as possible.

Hence, an improved medical implant and/or delivery system would be advantageous.

Summary of the Invention

Accordingly, embodiments of the present invention preferably seeks to mitigate, alleviate or eliminate one or more deficiencies, disadvantages or issues in the art, such as the above-identified, singly or in any combination by providing a medical implant, and a method according to the appended patent claims.

According to a first aspect of the invention, a medical implant provided. The medical implant is a tubular medical implant collapsible for catheter based luminal delivery to a site in a body, said medical implant comprising a first ring element; a second ring element; and a plurality of pivot joints connecting said first ring element to said second ring element. According to a further aspect of the invention, a delivery and deployment system for a medical implant according to the first aspect of the invention is provided. The delivery and deployment system comprises a delivery catheter and a plurality of restricting wire loops which extend proximally from a proximal end of said delivery catheter to a distal end of said delivery catheter in a central tube in a shaft of said catheter, wherein each of said wire loops stretches radially out from said distal end of the central tube around one pivot joint and across an adjacent pivot point of said medical implant.

Further embodiments of the invention are defined in the dependent claims, wherein features for the second and subsequent aspects of the invention are as for the first aspect mutatis mutandis. Some embodiments provide for medical implants that have a large expansion ratio with a relatively short overall length and good stability of the implant.

Some embodiments provide for medical implants having a structure that has an expansion ratio capability of a simple zigzag structure but with the stability of a multi- cell structure for a given length of the cells. A conventional multicell structure is more stable than a simple zigzag structure but can achieve only about half the expansion ratio for the same axial length of the cells. Some embodiments provide for high expansion ratios with a short cell length. Expansion ratios of about 10:1 are achievable with medical implants having a length, where a multicell structure of the same length is only capable to expand 4:1 or 5:1, and where a zigzag structure of this length could also expand more but would only be stable for about 5:1 or 6:1 expansion and be plastically deformed at higher expansion ratios and loose stability.

Some embodiments of the invention provide for a very large expansion ratio for a medical implant at high stability thereof. Some embodiments of the invention also provide for stability comparable to that of a medical implant of a single or multiple cell design, obtained with a design that has a shorter length than these, comparable to that of a more advantageous single ring zigzag design. Some embodiments of the invention provide for easier deployment of the device into target locations close to or surrounding side branches or other features which might interfere with a successful deployment or outcome.

Some embodiments of the invention provide for medical implants that may be easier to maneuver when constrained, through bends when navigating the medical implant to a desired location for implant.

It should be emphasized that the term "comprises/comprising" when used in this specification is taken to specify the presence of stated features, integers, steps or components but does not preclude the presence or addition of one or more other features, integers, steps, components or groups thereof.

Brief Description of the Drawings

These and other aspects, features and advantages of which embodiments of the invention are capable of will be apparent and elucidated from the following description of embodiments of the present invention, reference being made to the accompanying drawings, in which Figure 1 is a perspective view illustrating a medical implant in the form of single ring prosthesis;

Figure 2 is a perspective view illustrating a medical implant in the form of a single cell prosthesis; Figure 3 is a perspective view illustrating a medical implant in the form of a multi-cell prosthesis;

Figure 4a is a lateral view illustrating a portion of a tubular medical implant in the form of a jointed prosthesis according to an embodiment of the present invention;

Figure 4b is a perspective view illustrating in detail a pivot joint of the prosthesis shown in Figure 4a;

Figure 4c is a perspective view illustrating a medical implant in the form of a jointed prosthesis according to an embodiment of the present invention;

Figure 4d is a perspective view illustrating a medical implant in the form of a jointed prosthesis in a compressed configuration according to an embodiment of the present invention; Figure 5 is a side view of a medical implant comprising barbs according to an embodiment of the present invention;

Figure 6 is a partial side view of a medical implant in the form of a double jointed prosthesis according to an embodiment of the present invention;

Figure 7 is a bottom view illustrating a delivery system according to an embodiment of the present invention;

Figure 8 is a side view of a laced jointed prosthesis according to an embodiment of the present invention; Figure 9a is a perspective view of a delivery system according to an embodiment of the present invention;

Figure 9b is a perspective view of a detail of the delivery system shown in Figure 9a;

Figure 10a is a schematic side view of a delivery system and prosthesis having an adjustable delivery angle therebetween, according to an embodiment of the present invention;

Figure 10b is a schematic sectional view of a delivery system illustrating deployment of prosthesis at various anatomical positions facilitated by the adjustable delivery angle;

Figure 11a is a perspective view of a delivery system according to an embodiment of the present invention; Figure lib is a cross sectional view through a delivery catheter of the delivery system of Figure 11a.

Figure 12 is a side view illustrating a jointed prosthesis having an enlarged curvature at turning points thereof;

Figure 13 is a perspective view showing a detail of a medical implant according to an embodiment having a pivot joint with integrated joint pin;

Figure 14 is a perspective view showing a detail of a medical implant according to an embodiment having an integrated pivot joint; Figure 15 is a planar view showing a detail of a medical implant according to an embodiment having a ring- like joint connecting two rings of the medical implant;

Figure 16 is a perspective view showing a part of a medical implant wherein according to an embodiment two zigzagged elements are bent at least 180° midways around each other forming joints coupling the two elements together;

Figure 17 is a perspective view showing a part of a medical implant wherein according to an embodiment one of two zigzagged elements is bent at least 360° midways around the other element forming joints coupling the two elements together;

Figure 18 is a planar view showing a part of a medical implant wherein according to an embodiment two zigzagged elements that are assembled midways around each other forming joints coupling the two elements together; Figure 19 is a planar view showing a part of a medical implant wherein according to an embodiment pivot joints are arranged at the turning points of each ring shaped zigzagged elements; and Figure 20 is a planar view showing a part of a medical implant wherein according to an embodiment pivot joints are arranged at the turning points of each ring shaped zigzagged elements and at the cross points pivotally connecting the two elements, wherein in addition expansion elements are provided.

Description of embodiments

Specific embodiments of the invention now will be described with reference to the accompanying drawings. This invention may, however, be embodied in many different forms and should not be construed as limited to the embodiments set forth herein; rather, these embodiments are provided so that this disclosure will be thorough and complete, and will fully convey the scope of the invention to those skilled in the art. The terminology used in the detailed description of the embodiments illustrated in the accompanying drawings is not intended to be limiting of the invention. In the drawings, like numbers refer to like elements . The following description focuses on embodiments of the present invention applicable to a collapsible jointed tubular medical implants. It will be appreciated that embodiments of the invention may be applied in a variety of applications, optimized for different clinical needs.

Figure 1 is a perspective view illustrating a medical implant in the form of a single ring prosthesis 1. The single ring prosthesis 1 has a zigzag structure 100. The prosthesis 1 may in addition comprise eyelets 101 and/or barbs 102, which will be explained in more detail below. The single ring prosthesis 1 is effectively a circular spring with the material zigzagging around a radius and tubular connecting to itself to form a cylinder. This has the advantage of maximizing the arm length "a" between the turn around regions "b" of the single ring prosthesis 1, as compared to a device of the same total tubular device length but which is made up of multiple zigzag segments joined together, as e.g. shown in Figure 3. The design of single ring prosthesis 1 includes one "longer" zigzag that provides the advantage that when the device expands with widening of the angle at region "b", the corresponding circumferential expansion is maximized. This means, the arm length "a" of the single ring prosthesis 1 is maximized for a given total length, i.e. longitudinal dimension in axial direction, of the single ring prosthesis 1, as compared to the arm lengths "a" of the arms in a typical multi-cell implant structure, as e.g. shown in Figure 3.

The structure 100 may be manufactured in different ways. It may for instance be produced of a wire or strand that is suitably bent, such as is shown in Figure 1. Alternatively, the structure 100 may also be laser cut from a tubular raw material. More precisely, in order to obtain a self expanding device, this may be accomplished by cutting the device from a section of elastic material, such as Nitinol tubing, and forming it to its larger diameter. This device then acts as a spring attempting to expand back to this formed diameter when released from a constrained diameter at delivery. For such a self expanding device, the acceptable angle of deflection at the turn around region between its constrained state and its expanded state is dictated by the percent of elastic strain that the material of the device allows before a plastic deformation, and thus a loss of the spring capability, of the material occurs. Unfortunately, this type of simple zigzag design tends to be relatively less stable in the ability to be deployed and remain in the desired anatomical location.

In order to avoid this drawback, luminal implant devices have gravitated to single cell or multiple cell designs. Two examples of such cell based device designs are shown in Figures 2 and 3. In their simplest forms these designs are just two or more of the single zigzag rings or tubular spring designs connected together. This results in diamond shaped "cells" defined by the connected zigzag rings .

Figure 2 is a perspective view illustrating a medical implant in the form of a single cell prosthesis 2. The single cell prosthesis 2 comprises in an implementation two zigzag rings. More precisely a first zigzag ring 200 and a second zigzag ring 210 are adjoining each other at their adjacent turning points or apexes, namely the lower apexes of the first zigzag ring 200 are adjoining the upper apexes of the second zigzag ring 210, as shown in Figure 2. Thus, diamond shaped cells 220 are formed, providing the single cell prosthesis 2. These single cells 220 are far more stable to axial or rotational deformation than the zigzag design of the single ring prosthesis 1, but are also significantly longer for the same level of strain in the turn around regions "b". The arm sections "a" may deviate from a straight form, but typically form the basic single cell structure described. The single cell prosthesis 2 has also typically been cut from a tube of the base material. Alternatively, the structure of the single cell prosthesis 2 may be cut from a flat sheet, which is then rolled and welded into a single tube. The single cell prosthesis 2 may also comprise eyelets and/or barbs 201, 211.

Figure 3 is a perspective view illustrating a medical implant in the form of a multi-cell prosthesis 3. The multi-cell prosthesis 3 is made of a multiple zigzagged ring structure 300. Multiple cells 301, 302, 303 are formed. Manufacturing of multi-cell prosthesis 3 may be made similar as single cell prosthesis 2.

For the more conventional multicell structures or simple zigzag structures explained above, the expansion ratio possible is a function of the strain limit of the material and the length of the cell struts between corners or junctions. These corners and junctions will typically be high strain regions as the structure expands. The longer the cell strut length gets the greater expansion ration that will be possible without exceeding a strain limit for the material. So it is possible to make very high expansion rations with conventional structures if the device can become long. However, this is not always desired. Therefore, there is a need for short medical implants having a high expansion ratio and good stability.

One aspect of the present invention seeks to gain the stability of a single or multiple cell design with the length of a simple zigzag design. This is for instance achieved by means of a design like the embodiments shown in Figures 4a-4d.

This structure enables higher expansion ratios with a short cell length. Practical implementations of these medical implants have expansion ratios of about 10:1 a t a given length, where a multicell structure of the same length may only be able to expand 4 or 5:1 and a zigzag structure of this length could expand more, but would only be stable for about 5 or 6:1 expansion. Hence, embodiments provide for higher expansion ratios with a stable structure at a given ratio of the diameter to length of cells of the medical implants, compared to conventional medical implants .

Several embodiments having these advantageous characteristics will now be described in detail. Figure 4a is a lateral view illustrating a portion of a tubular medical implant in the form of a jointed prosthesis 4 according to an embodiment of the present invention. Figure 4b is a perspective view illustrating in detail a pivot joint 410 of the prosthesis 4 shown in Figure 4a.

In more detail, this embodiment may be conceptualized as two of the zigzag ring designs, one within the other, with the arm sections "a" pinned together at the points where they cross in the middle, as seen in Figure 4a. A first zigzag ring element 400 is rotationally displaced in relation to a second zigzag ring element 401, such that the middle sections of the arms connecting the vertices of the zigzag ring elements, respectively, abut against each other. The first zigzag ring element 400 and the second zigzag ring element 401 are arranged around a common longitudinal axis. The middle sections are provided with a pivoting element 410 allowing a scissor like movement of the arms of the first and second zigzagged ring elements in relation to each other. The expansion upon deployment of the prosthesis 4 is illustrated by means of the two arrows in Figure 4a. As can be seen, the change of the length of the prosthesis, in the illustration of Figure 4 the height of the element, i.e. the distance between opposite vertices thereof, is very limited in relation to the expansion ratio, i.e. the increase of the circumference of the jointed prosthesis 4 when increasing the diameter thereof.

In order to provide the pivot joint, an embodiment of the arms has holes cut into them which allow pins 411 to fit through these holes when matingly arranged adjacent each other, as shown in Figure 4a and Figure 4b. The pins may then be deformed on their ends so they cannot slip out of the holes in the arms, e.g. during transport or use of the prosthesis 4. Both arms 400, 401 are thus able to rotate on the pins 411. In this manner, there is no deflection, and consequently also no corresponding strain, in the material of the mid section of the arms around the pin points. The avoidance of strain is provided both during use or storage of the prosthesis, which e.g. is restrained at a minimized diameter in a sheath. The arms 400, 401 of the prosthesis are shown as flat elements, which are e.g. laser cut out of a tube of an elastic material, thus providing a tubular spring effect for the radial expansion upon deployment of the prosthesis 4. Other embodiments may also be made of at least partly circular raw materials, such as plastic cords or metal strands. The pivot joint may be provided in various ways according to specific embodiments, which will be elucidated below.

In Figures 4c and 4d examples of a device of this type are shown. Figure 4c is a perspective view illustrating a medical implant in the form of a jointed prosthesis 40 in its expanded form according to an embodiment of the present invention. A first zigzagged ring element 420 is jointed with a second zigzagged ring element 421 at joints 424. Every second apex of the second zigzagged element 421 is provided with a barb 423, such that a first end of the prosthesis 40 is provided with barbs 423. The remaining apexes, oriented at the opposite, second end of the prosthesis 40, are provided with holes or eyelets 425, which e.g. may accommodate a release wire from a delivery catheter, which is withdrawn for removed a restraint upon delivery, or a wire along the entire circumference having a defined length, thus limiting outward radial movement to a defined diameter of the prosthesis 40.

Figure 4d is a perspective view illustrating a medical implant in the form of a jointed prosthesis 430 in a compressed configuration according to another embodiment of the present invention. Pivoted joints 434 comprising pins 433. A first end 431 of the structure 437 comprises rectangular holes 435 for receiving external elements, e.g. for attaching the structure 437 at the first end 431 to another medical implant, such as a graft, filter, or a valve body. At a second end 432 of the prosthesis 430, eyelets are provided for similar purposes, or for the purposes mentioned above with reference to Fig. 4c.

The prosthesis 430 is kept in the restrained configuration by means of restraining wires 436, which will be explained in more detail below with reference to delivery systems for medical implants.

By comparison, a one cell design requires significant strain of the material at the intersection points in the device to expand and contract the device diameter. In addition, this pivoted design actually yields a level of stability superior to that of a single cell design with the length of the simple zigzag design. This allows for very large diameter devices with very short lengths. Furthermore, this provides for devices having very large expansion ratios. Moreover, this allows for devices having very large expansion ratios while length expansion is very little.

In some embodiments, all ring components, e.g. in zigzag form, of the medical implant may be formed of Nitinol and pinned together with pins of Nitinol, titanium or a biodegradable polymer.

In some embodiments, one or both of the ring components may be formed of a biodegradable polymer, which may in addition be loaded with a therapeutic agent. The ring components may be pinned together with pins of Nitinol, titanium or a biodegradable polymer.

In some embodiments, as for instance, the embodiment illustrated in Figure 13, the joint pin may be integral with one of the zigzag components while passing through an aperture on the opposing zigzag structure. Similarly, other pivotal joints may be used to connect the opposing zigzag structures . Figure 5 is a side view of a medical implant 5 comprising barbs according to an embodiment of the present invention. The medical implant 5 comprises a first zigzagged ring element 501 and a second zigzagged ring element 502. Eyelets are provided on the second element

502. Release or constraining wires are also illustrated in Fig. 5.

Barb elements, such as barb elements 504, 505 shown in Figure 5, may be included on the device to aid in anchoring the device in the desired location when deployed. The barb elements may be integral with one of the zigzagged ring elements of embodiments of medical implant. Alternatively, or in addition, barb elements may be attached to the medical implant in a suitable way, e.g. by soldering, welding, or gluing.

Figure 6 is a partial side view of a medical implant in the form of a double jointed prosthesis 6 according to an embodiment of the present invention. Pivoting joints 610 are used to join three separate zigzag ring elements 601, 602, 603. The pivoting joints 610, which may be provided in pinning technique, provide a "double hinge" design to create a device with greater surface coverage of the tissue and possibly greater capacity to exert pressure against the surrounding tissue. Further embodiments of medical implants may comprise M ring elements that are pivotally connected to each other by joints, wherein M is a positive integer number larger than 2. An embodiment comprises a first ring element and a second ring element, and further N ring elements that are connected to each other and to said first ring element and said second ring element by a plurality of pivot joints, wherein N is a positive integer number.

It is evident that this basic concept with jointed tubular implant elements provides the possibility to use this basic concept for a variety of embodiments optimized for different clinical needs. Similarly, it is anticipated that it may be desirable to use the pivoted joint arrangement as part of a larger implant. One example of this design might be to use this type of pinned expandable structure as end elements for a synthetic graft such as a vascular graft or an Abdominal Aortic Aneurism (AAA) graft. The eyelets described above may facilitate fixation of the medical implants to each other .

For instance, embodiments of the invention may be implemented as a part of the following devices: an AAA device having connected bifurcated legs, such as disclosed in WO 2006/015032; a flexible graft stent, such as disclosed in US 2006/0149351; a stent graft assembly, even D-shaped, such as disclosed in US 2006/0259125; or a multi unit stent-graft, as disclosed in US 2006/0195172, which documents are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety.

In another embodiment coatings may be applied to the implant to create an additional therapeutic effect. These coatings may be applied directly or be applied within a matrix of a durable polymer coating from which these elute or within a biodegradable polymer coating. One possible desired clinical effect of such coatings could be creation of fibrosis in the wall of the body lumen at the implant site. This may be desirable for implants in the pulmonary veins to help electrically isolate the pulmonary veins. It may also be desirable with a AAA implant to stiffen the wall to minimize risk of leakage of blood around the implant into the aneurism. Some possible active materials to create this fibrosis are: Copper particles (as disclosed in co-pending U.S. application serial nos. 10/192,402; 11/246,412; 60/799,122; and PCT applications PCT/EP2007/054450, WO2006042246, each of which is incorporated by reference herein in their entirety) , Vinblastine, Floxuridine, or Digoxin. Figure 12 is a side view illustrating an embodiment of jointed prosthesis 12 having an enlarged curvature at the turning points (vertices) 1210 of the zigzagged rings 1200, 1201 thereof. In order to lower strain in the material of zigzag ring's vertices 1210, the turning points thereof may for instance be provided with a spring in the ends. The spring may be of helical or spiral shape. The spring is arranged such that it is in its relaxed state in the radially expanded state of the medical implant. Therefore, such a spring both contributes to larger expansion rates of the medical implant and to an expansion force during deployment to the expanded state. Alternatively other geometries may be used that provide a larger curvature at the turning points.

Figure 13 is a perspective view showing a detail of a medical implant 13 according to an embodiment having a pivot joint with an integrated joint pin 1320. The joint pin 1320 is integrally formed of a portion of a first arm 1300 of a first ring of a medical implant 13. The joint pint 1310 may be formed by cutting, punching and bending a flap into the desired form. The joint pin 1310 is positioned through an aperture in a second arm 1310 of a second ring of the medical implant 13. Furthermore, the joint pin 1320 is bent over, such that the second arm 1310 abuts the first arm 1310 and may rotate around the joint pin 1320. In this manner, the first arm does not need to be provided with a through hole, and an assembly of the two rings is facilitated as the joint pins are readily available. During manufacture, the joint pins may be provided as flaps bent perpendicular to the arm 1300, fitting the flap through the aperture in the opposite arm, and bending over the flap, as shown in Fig. 13. Alternatively, the joint pin 1320 may also be attached to the first arm 1300, e.g. by welding or gluing. Upon assembly of the two ring elements, the arms are arranged adjacent each other, the pins are guided through the apertures and bent, clinched, or secured in another suitable manner to provide the pivot joint of the two ring elements .

Figure 14 is a perspective view showing a detail of an embodiment of a medical implant 14 having an integrated pivot joint. The pivot joint is provided by an elongate or elliptical aperture 1420 in a first arm 1400 of the medical implant 14. A second arm 1410 of the medical implant is introduced into the aperture 1420, whereby the second arm 1410 is capable of rotating scissors-like in one plane around the first arm 1400. Embodiments of medical implants of this type may be manufactured from wires threaded through the apertures. A zigzag shape may be formed and set by a suitable manufacturing step, e.g. by heat setting Nitinol wires to expanded form of the medical implant 14.

Figure 18 is a perspective view showing a part of an embodiment of a medical implant 18, wherein two zigzagged elements 1800, 1810 are assembled midways around each other forming joints coupling the two elements 1800, 1810 together. The two zigzagged elements 1800, 1810 are formed matingly half curved. The two zigzagged elements 1800, 1810 are "braided" over each other to improve stability of the joint thus formed. Optionally the links may be provided with sutures additionally holding together the joint at the juxtaposed linked bends of two zigzagged elements 1800, 1810.

Figure 19 is a planar view showing a part of an embodiment of a medical implant 19, wherein pivot joints 1901, 1902 are arranged at each of the turning points of each ring shaped zigzagged elements 1900, 1910. The ring shaped zigzagged elements 1900, 1910 are adjoined midways. Upon collapsing the medical implant 19, deflection occurs at the crosspoints of the ring shaped zigzagged elements 1900, 1910. This deflection, as well as a radial compression force restrained by the delivery system, provides an expansion of the medical implant 19 upon release from the delivery system at the site of implantation. The pivot joints 1901, 1902 provide a large radial expansion ratio of the implant 19, while keeping the longitudinal expansion in the compressed state of the implant 19 low.

Figure 20 is a planar view showing a part of an embodiment of a medical implant 20, wherein pivot joints 2002 are arranged at the turning points of each ring shaped zigzagged element 2000, 2010. Moreover, pivot joints 2001 are provided at the crosspoints of the ring shaped zigzagged elements 2000, 2010. Thus the two ring shaped zigzagged element 2000, 2010 are pivotally connected to each other. Since this device will have no expansion energy in the circumferential direction, this energy may be added by other means, e.g. compression springs 2005 as shown in Figure 20. The compression springs may be implemented by bars struts extending between the turning points, wherein the struts are formed as springs, such as of helical or spiral shape, as discussed with the spring elements shown at the turning points of the zigzagged elements described with reference to Figure 12. However, as the pivot joints are arranged to only provide rotation in one plane, a radial compression may provide a radial expansion force and the spring elements may be omitted, depending on the specific application requirements.

Embodiments of medical implant described above comprise pivotal joints providing rotation of arms relative each other in one plane, i.e. the joints of the above embodiments are uniaxial joints that are freely moving joints in which movement is limited to rotation around a pivot center. In further embodiments, illustrated in Figures 15 to 17, medical implants are provided with joints that allow movement in more that one plane. Joints with more degrees of freedom may be of advantage when more flexibility is needed, or for further ease of production. However, the introduction of joints having more than one degree of freedom involves a tradeoff with regard to stability of the medical implant.

Figure 15 is a planar view showing a detail of a medical implant 15 according to an embodiment having a ring-like element 1521 connecting two rings 1500, 1510 of the medical implant 15 through an aperture 1520. The ring like element 1521 may be a wire or ring. Alternatively, the ring like element may be made of an elastic material. This would, amongst other things, make the medical implant 15 more flexible during delivery and provide for a large compression/expansion ratio.

Figure 16 is a perspective view showing a part of a medical implant 16 wherein at least one of two zigzagged elements 1600, 1610 is bent at least 180° around the other zigzagged element, such forming joints coupling the two elements 1600, 1610 together.

Figure 17 is a perspective view showing a part of a medical implant 17, wherein one of two zigzagged elements 1700, 1710 is bent at least 360° midways around the other element, forming joints coupling the two elements together.

Some embodiments of the medical implants are radially flexible during use. The radial flexibility is facilitated by the joints as described above. Furthermore, the joints provide an extended life of medical implant that are implanted at locations in the body where continuous or frequent radial movement of the implant occurs, e.g. in the heart or adjacent vasculature, in the oesophagus, etc. One application of this type is a medical implant in connection with a heart valve replacement. The arms of embodiments of the medical implant may have various cross sections, e.g. rectangular, flat - substantially circular, elliptical, etc., depending on the manufacturing method and raw materials used.

In addition, some embodiments may comprise cutting elements or formed as cutting elements. These embodiments may expand to a larger diameter than the inner diameter of the lumen into which they are deployed. In this manner the medical implant may migrate into the surrounding tissue and create scar tissue. Such scar tissue typically interrupts electrical propagation, which may be advantageous for instance when treating cardiac arrhythmia, such as atrial fibrillation. This may be desirable for implants in the pulmonary veins to help electrically isolate the pulmonary veins. These embodiments may be made of biodegradable material such that the medical implant is degraded in the body when scar tissue is formed. Alternatively, or in addition, these embodiments may be provided with fibrosis generating agents, e.g. as a coating on the implant or in the matrix material of the implant.

Cutting elements and related medical implants are described in the co-pending applications WO05048881,

WO2006122960, and WO2006122573 of the same applicant as the present application, which are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety.

The cross-sections of the wire constituting some embodiments of the medical implant may be devised for regulating and/or controlling cutting action. The cross- section may for instance be circular, disc shaped, triangular, or have sections with different cross-sections, such as some with circular, some with triangular, and/or some with disc shaped, the cutting action of the cutting device may be regulated and/or controlled. It is for example possible to provide the wires of the cutting device with disc shaped cross-sections in areas intended to penetrate deeper into the tissue, or even through one tissue into another, and some other cross-sections, such as on wires which not are intended to penetrate that far, as circular. In that way it will be possible to regulate the cutting action by altering the cross-section of the wires of the cutting device.

The ring formed elements of some embodiments may expand during transformation from a temporary delivery shape into a memory shape, perhaps providing cutting action during said transformation.

For instance, the medical implant may be a cutting device that is devised to be located in the left atrium (LA) , perhaps to be placed close to the inlet of pulmonary veins .

The medical device may also deviate from the circular ring shape and have for instance an elliptical ring shape or a D-formed, closed, ring shape. Expansion ratios of such ring shaped elements are also improved by pivot joints as described herein.

Suitable biodegradable materials are described in the co-pending application WO2006122961A1 of the same applicant as the present application, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.

Biodegradable materials, such as biodegradable polymers, have bonds which are fissionable under physiological conditions. Biodegradableness is the term used if a material decomposes from loss of mechanical properties due to, or within, a biological system. An implant's external form and dimensions may in fact remain intact during the decomposition. This means that a medical implant, such as a cutting device, which is biodegradalbe, may also be able to perform cutting action by transforming from a temporary shape to a memory shape. What is meant with respect to degradation time, provided no additional quantifying data is given, is the time it takes for the complete loss of mechanical properties. A particularly suitable biodegradable material provides for the polymer composite to exhibit a hydrolytically degradable polymer, in particular poly (hydroxy carboxylic acids) or the corresponding copolymers. Hydrolytic degradation has the advantage that the rate at which degradation occurs is independent of the site of implantation since water is present throughout the system.

However, making use of enzymatically degradable polymers is also conceivable. Feasible in particular is that the polymer composite exhibit a biodegradable thermoplastic amorphous polyurethane-copolyester polymer network. Likewise requisite for the chemical composition to the polymer composite for the inventive medicla implant is that the polymer composite exhibit a biodegradable elastic polymer network, obtained from crosslinking of oligomer diols with diisocyanate . Having polymer composites be formed as covalent networks based on oligo ( ε-caprolactone) dimethacrylate and butylacrylate is a conceivable alternative thereto. As stated above, hydrolytic degradation has the advantage that the rate at which degradation occurs is independent of implant location. In contrast, local enzyme concentrations vary greatly. Given biodegradable polymers or materials, degradation can thus occur through pure hydrolysis, enigmatically-induced reactions or through a combination thereof . Among the most important biodegradable synthetic classes of polymers from which, the medical implant, at least partly, may be synthesized are; polyesters, such as poly(lactic acid), poly(glycol acid), poly(3- hydroxybutyric acid), poly (4-hydroxyvalerate acid), or poly ( ε-caprolactone) , or the respective copolymers, polyanhydrides synthesized from dicarboxylic acids, such as, for example, glutar, amber, or sebacic acid, poly (amino acids), or polyamides, such as, for example, poly(serine ester) or poly (aspartic acid). The medical implant may be designed such that it will be degraded or absorbed by the body after it has performed its change of shape. For example, a polylactic acid polymer and/or a polyglycolic acid polymer, poly ( ε-caprolactone) or polydioxanone, according to above, may be used for forming a shape memory polymer that is biodegradable. A special feature of the resorbable shape memory polymers is that these will disappear from the tissue after having had its function, limiting potential negative effects of otherwise remaining polymer or Nitinol materials, such as perforations and damage to other adjacent tissues, like lungs, oesophagus and great vessels like the aorta.

As previously described, one of the advantages of the design of some embodiments is the relatively short length of the medical implant itself, as well as a relatively short length increase in the compressed state of the medical implant during delivery. This may allow for easier deployment of the device into target locations close to or surrounding side branches or other features which might interfere with a successful deployment or outcome. Another advantage of the shorter length is that it may be easier to maneuver the constrained device through bends when navigating the device to the desired location for implant. This is because the constrained device is typically quite stiff so minimizing its length may make it more practical to navigate through bends, such as: from a trans-septal sheath to the right pulmonary veins, through tortuous iliac arteries, over the aortic arch, or over the arch from one femoral artery to the other, to name a few examples . To retain this advantage in having a shorter implant length (and consequent shorter stiff length) it is desirable that the delivery and deployment mechanism also is very flexible. It is also desirable that the deployment mechanism allows the device to be deployed in a very controlled way allowing the physician to assess the deployed position before making the decision to release the device. In this way, if the deployed position is not as desired, the device may be either repositioned or removed altogether .

Embodiment of such a delivery and deployment system is shown in Figures 7-9.

As shown in Figure 7, a delivery and deployment system 7 for a medical implant having a first ring element 700 and a second ring element 701 joined by pivot joints 703 comprises a delivery catheter 720. The implant expansion and contraction is controlled by a series of restricting wire loops 704, 705, 706, 707, 708, 709, 710, 711 which extend proximally from the handle of the delivery catheter 720, as indicated by arrows 721. The wire loops extend distally down a central tube in the shaft of the catheter 720, and then each of the loops stretches radially out from a distal end of the central tube around one pin point 703 and across to the next pin point.

Applying tension to these loops acts to constrain the implant diameter, e.g. to a delivery form, such as illustrated in Fig. 4d. Releasing this tension from the restricting wire loops allows the spring force of the implant to expand its diameter towards its formed diameter, while the wires are proximally drawn into the central tube and distally out of the central tube of the delivery catheter 720.

A medical implant 8 having two zigzagged elements 800, 801 that are jointly arranged by means of pivot elements 810 is shown in Figure 8. A wiring scheme where sequential loops of restricting wires 804, 805, 806 are laced or sewn together, is releasably arranged around the circumference of the medical implant 8, such that if one of the restricting wires is cut and pulled out this acts to free the next one to be removed which then frees the next one. In this way the wires may allow control of the medical implant 8 up to delivery and full expansion and then they may be removed with little force or risk of changing the deployed position of the implant, by withdrawing the wires 804, 805, 806, e.g. into the delivery catheter, or together with the delivery catheter, away from the deployed and expanded implant.

In Figures 9a and 9b, a medical implant having two zigzagged ring elements 900, 901 is illustrated. The two zigzagged ring elements 900, 901 are amongst other things provided with barbs 902 and pivotally joined at joints 930 comprising pins 931. Figures 9a and 9b also shows a unit or assembly by which a piece of bendable but sturdy wire, such as a release pin 920, may in an embodiment of a delivery and deployment system 9 be used to hold the restraining wires 904, 905, 906, 907, 908, 909, 910, 911, 912 sewn or laced together and to initiate their release when the pin 920 is pulled back through the catheter shaft 921. After the pin 920 has been pulled back, the wires 903, 904, 905, 906, 907, 908, 909, 910, 911, 912 may be sequentially pulled back, starting with wire 903. As can be seen in more detail in Figure 9d, when pin 920 is withdrawn from the loop of wire 903, the latter may be withdrawn first, thus releasing the loop of the next wire 904, and thereafter sequentially wires 905, 906, 907, 908, 909, 910, 911, 912. Thereafter the medical implant is entirely released from the delivery catheter.

By controlling the device with wires, as opposed to rigid connections, the relative flexibility of the delivery system is maintained. This also provides another benefit shown in Figure 10a and Figure 10b. Figure 10a shows how the device can have a relatively large degree of freedom in its angular orientation 0 relative to the shaft of the delivery catheter.

In some anatomies, such as the sketch of the trans- septal catheter engaging a right pulmonary vein in Figure 10b, it may be difficult to align the delivery catheter down the center axis of the target body lumen location. If the device can only be deployed radially with respect to the axis of the delivery catheter causes frequent mis- deployments of the device. By having control over the angular orientation 0 relative to the delivery catheter, these problems are avoided.

In Figures 11a and lib, an embodiment of a delivery and deployment system 11 is shown providing such angular control of the deployment of a medical implant comprising two zigzagged elements 1100, 1101. The system 11 of Figure 11 comprises an angular deflection push rod 1130 with an eye on its distal end is provided for this angular control. By having one wire loop 1108 of the expansion control wire loops 1104, 1105, 1106, 1107, 1108, 1109, 1110, 1111 pass through the eye on the end of the push rod the angle of the device can be controlled. By means of a release pin 1120, the release of the wire loops may be initiated, here by first releasing loop 1105 and then the remaining wire loops sequentially, as explained above. When the wires of loops 1104, 1105, 1106, 1107, 1108, 1109, 1110, 1111 are released to deliver the medical implant, this loop 1108 will be drawn back through the eye allowing the push rod 1130 to be withdrawn .

Figure lib shows a cross section through a delivery catheter 1140 with dedicated lumens for some of the different control elements. A lumen 1150 is provided for the plurality of wires leading towards loops 1104, 1105, 1106, 1107, 1108, 1109, 1110, 1111. It is anticipated that other features such as a steering mechanism in the shaft or dedicated lumens for the individual pairs of release wires may be desirable.

Although the invention has been described in terms of particular embodiments and applications, one of ordinary skill in the art, in light of this teaching, can generate additional embodiments and modifications without departing from the spirit of or exceeding the scope of the claimed invention as only is limited by the appended patent claims

Claims

1. A tubular medical implant (4, 6) collapsible for catheter based luminal delivery to a site in a body, said medical implant comprising a first ring element (400, 601); a second ring element (401, 602); and a plurality of pivot joints (410, 610) connecting said first ring element to said second ring element .
2. The medical implant (4) according to claim 1, wherein said first ring element is a first zigzag ring element (400) and said second ring element is a second zigzag ring element (401), wherein said first zigzag ring element (400) and said a second zigzag ring element (401) are arranged one within the other, and wherein arm sections (a) of arms of said first zigzag ring element (400) and of said a second zigzag ring element (401) are pinned together at points (410) of said arm sections (a) where the arms cross in the middle, whereby a scissor like movement of the arms of said first zigzag ring element (400) and said a second zigzag ring element (401) is provided upon a radial movement of said medical implant (4) .
3. The medical implant (6) according to claim 1, further comprising a third ring element (603); a plurality of pivot joints (610) connecting said third ring element to said first ring element; and a plurality of pivot joints (610) connecting said third ring element to said second ring element.
4. The medical implant according to claim 3, wherein said first ring element is a first zigzag ring element (601), said second ring element is a second zigzag ring element (602), and said third ring element is a third zigzag ring element (603), arranged in a double hinge assembly connected by said pivot joints (610).
5. The medical implant according to claim 1, further comprising N ring elements, wherein said
N ring elements are connected to each other and to said first ring element and said second ring element by a plurality of pivot joints, wherein N is a positive integer number .
6. The medical implant according to any of the preceding claims, wherein said pivot joints comprise holes in arms of said first and second ring elements, said holes matingly arranged adjacent each other, and through which holes pins (411) are fit.
7. The medical implant according to claim 6, wherein said pins (411) are deformed on their ends to an extent larger than a diameter of said holes, such that said pins (411) cannot slip out of said holes.
8. The medical implant according to any of the preceding claims, wherein said medical implant comprises barbs (423) .
9. The medical implant according to any of the preceding claims, wherein said medical implant comprises eyelets (425) .
10. The medical implant according to any of the preceding claims, wherein a material of all said ring elements is Nitinol.
11. The medical implant according to any of the preceding claims, wherein a material of at least one of said ring elements is a biodegradable polymer.
12. The medical implant according to claim 11, wherein a matrix of said biodegradable polymer comprises a therapeutic agent.
13. The medical implant according to claim 10 or 12, wherein a material of pins of said pivot joints is comprised in Nitinol, titanium or a biodegradable polymer.
14. The medical implant according to any of claims 1 to 5, wherein a joint pin of said pivot joint is formed integral with one of said ring elements and a different of said ring elements comprises an aperture matingly arranged for said joint pin.
15. The medical implant according to claim 1, wherein said first ring element is a first zigzag ring element (1200) and said second ring element is a second zigzag ring element (1210), and wherein at least one of said zigzag ring elements has an enlarged curvature at the turning points thereof.
16. The medical implant according to claim 15, wherein said enlarged curvature is in form of a spring arranged such that it is in its relaxed state in a radially expanded state of the medical implant.
17. The medical implant according to claim 1, wherein said integrated pivot joint is integrated by an elongate or elliptical aperture (1420) in a first arm (1400) of the medical implant (14), and wherein a second arm (1410) of the medical implant is introduced into said aperture (1420), whereby the second arm (1410) is capable of rotating scissors-like in one plane around said first arm (1400) .
18. The medical implant according to claim 1, wherein said first ring element is a first zigzag ring element (1800) and said second ring element is a second zigzag ring element (1810), which are assembled midways around each other forming said pivotal joints coupling said first and second zigzag ring element (1800, 1810) together by juxtaposed matingly half curved bends thereof which are arranged crossing each other.
19. The medical implant according to claim 18, comprising sutures that hold together said pivot joint at said bends that are juxtaposed of said first and second zigzag ring element (1800, 1810).
20. The medical implant according to claim 1, wherein said first ring element is a first zigzag ring element (1900) and said second ring element is a second zigzag ring element (1910), wherein said pivot joints (1901, 1902) are arranged at each of the turning points of each of said first and second ring shaped zigzagged element (1900, 1910), and wherein said first and second ring shaped zigzagged element (1900, 1910) are adjoined midways.
21. The medical implant according to claim 1, wherein said first ring element is a first zigzag ring element
(2000) and said second ring element is a second zigzag ring element (2010), wherein said pivot joints (2001, 2002) are first pivot joints (2002) arranged at each of the turning points of said first zigzag ring element (2000) and said second zigzag ring element (2010) and second pivot joints arranged at crosspoints of said first zigzag ring element (2000) and said second zigzag ring element (2010).
22. The medical implant according to claim 21, comprising compression springs (2005) arranged between said first zigzag ring element (2000) and said second zigzag ring element (2010) .
23. The medical implant according to claim 1, comprising a ring-like element (1521) connecting said first ring element and said second ring element through an aperture (1520) .
24. The medical implant according to claim 23, wherein a material of said ring-like element (1521) is an elastic material.
25. The medical implant according to claim 1, wherein said first ring element is a first zigzag ring element (1600) and said second ring element is a second zigzag ring element (1610), wherein at least one of said first and second zigzag ring element (1600, 1610) is bent at least 180 degrees around the other zigzag ring element, such forming said pivot joints.
26. The medical implant according to claim 25, wherein said at least one of said first and second zigzag ring element (1600, 1610) is bent 360 degrees around the other zigzag ring element.
27. The medical implant according to any of the preceding claims, comprising a coating of a therapeutic agent .
28. The medical implant according to claim 27, wherein said therapeutic agent is a fibrotic agents, such as copper, Vinblastine, Floxuridine, or Digoxin.
29. The medical implant according to claim 1 or 28, wherein said medical implant is a stent, an aneurysm occluding or supporting device, or an arrhythmia treatment cutting device.
30. In combination, a first medical implant according to any of claims 1 to 29 and a second medical implant.
31. The combination of claim 30, wherein said second medical implant is a synthetic graft.
32. The combination of claim 30, wherein said second medical implant is medical implant according to any of claims 1 to 29.
33. The combination of any of claims 30 to 32, wherein said first medical implant and said second medical implant are connected to each other by means of pivotal j oints .
34. The combination of any of claims 30 to 32, wherein said first medical implant and said second medical implant are connected to each other by means of rigid connections .
35. A delivery and deployment system for a medical implant according to claim 1, comprising a delivery catheter (720) and a plurality of restricting wire loops (704, 705, 706, 707, 708, 709, 710, 711) which extend proximally from a proximal end of said delivery catheter to a distal end of said delivery catheter (720) in a central tube in a shaft of said catheter (720), wherein each of said wire loops (704, 705, 706, 707, 708, 709, 710, 711) stretches radially out from said distal end of the central tube around one pivot joint and across an adjacent pivot point of said medical implant.
36. The delivery and deployment system according to claim 35, wherein sequential loops of restricting wires are laced or sewn together and releasably arranged around the circumference of said medical implant, such that if one of said restricting wires is cut and pulled out of said proximal end of said catheter (720) the next of said wire loops is freed.
37. The delivery and deployment system according to claim 35 or 36, comprising a release pin (920) locking said release of said wire loops upon delivery of said medical implant, wherein said release pin is arranged movable in said catheter shaft (921) such that a release of said restraining wires is initiatable by withdrawing said release pin (920) through said catheter shaft (921) .
38. The delivery and deployment system according to claims 35 to 37, further comprising an angular deflection push rod (1130) .
39. The delivery and deployment system according to claim 38, wherein said angular deflection push rod (1130) has an eye on its distal end through which one of said wire loops is passed, such that a delivery angle of said medical implant in relation to said distal end of said catheter is controllable .
40. The delivery and deployment system according to claims 38 or 39, wherein said delivery catheter comprises a first lumen (1150) for said plurality of wires, a second lumen for said release pin (920), and a third lumen for said angular deflection push rod (1130).
41. A method of delivering a medical implant according to claim 1 to a body target site by means of a delivery and deployment system according to claim 35, comprising adjusting a delivery angle between a longitudinal axis of a delivery catheter and said medical implant by means of an angular deflection push rod.
PCT/EP2007/058025 2006-08-02 2007-08-02 Luminal implant with large expansion ratio WO2008015257A2 (en)

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