WO2008013313A1 - Automatic lathe having a plurality of tool rests - Google Patents

Automatic lathe having a plurality of tool rests Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2008013313A1
WO2008013313A1 PCT/JP2007/065110 JP2007065110W WO2008013313A1 WO 2008013313 A1 WO2008013313 A1 WO 2008013313A1 JP 2007065110 W JP2007065110 W JP 2007065110W WO 2008013313 A1 WO2008013313 A1 WO 2008013313A1
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WO
WIPO (PCT)
Prior art keywords
axis
tool
base
automatic lathe
swivel
Prior art date
Application number
PCT/JP2007/065110
Other languages
French (fr)
Japanese (ja)
Inventor
Masahiko Watanabe
Atsushi Aoyagi
Original Assignee
Citizen Holdings Co., Ltd.
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by Citizen Holdings Co., Ltd. filed Critical Citizen Holdings Co., Ltd.
Priority to JP2008526851A priority Critical patent/JP4997240B2/en
Publication of WO2008013313A1 publication Critical patent/WO2008013313A1/en

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Classifications

    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23BTURNING; BORING
    • B23B3/00General-purpose turning-machines or devices, e.g. centre lathes with feed rod and lead screw; Sets of turning-machines
    • B23B3/06Turning-machines or devices characterised only by the special arrangement of constructional units
    • B23B3/065Arrangements for performing other machining operations, e.g. milling, drilling
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23BTURNING; BORING
    • B23B7/00Automatic or semi-automatic turning-machines with a single working-spindle, e.g. controlled by cams; Equipment therefor; Features common to automatic and semi-automatic turning-machines with one or more working-spindles
    • B23B7/02Automatic or semi-automatic machines for turning of stock
    • B23B7/06Automatic or semi-automatic machines for turning of stock with sliding headstock
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23QDETAILS, COMPONENTS, OR ACCESSORIES FOR MACHINE TOOLS, e.g. ARRANGEMENTS FOR COPYING OR CONTROLLING; MACHINE TOOLS IN GENERAL CHARACTERISED BY THE CONSTRUCTION OF PARTICULAR DETAILS OR COMPONENTS; COMBINATIONS OR ASSOCIATIONS OF METAL-WORKING MACHINES, NOT DIRECTED TO A PARTICULAR RESULT
    • B23Q1/00Members which are comprised in the general build-up of a form of machine, particularly relatively large fixed members
    • B23Q1/25Movable or adjustable work or tool supports
    • B23Q1/44Movable or adjustable work or tool supports using particular mechanisms
    • B23Q1/48Movable or adjustable work or tool supports using particular mechanisms with sliding pairs and rotating pairs
    • B23Q1/4804Movable or adjustable work or tool supports using particular mechanisms with sliding pairs and rotating pairs a single rotating pair followed perpendicularly by a single sliding pair
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23QDETAILS, COMPONENTS, OR ACCESSORIES FOR MACHINE TOOLS, e.g. ARRANGEMENTS FOR COPYING OR CONTROLLING; MACHINE TOOLS IN GENERAL CHARACTERISED BY THE CONSTRUCTION OF PARTICULAR DETAILS OR COMPONENTS; COMBINATIONS OR ASSOCIATIONS OF METAL-WORKING MACHINES, NOT DIRECTED TO A PARTICULAR RESULT
    • B23Q39/00Metal-working machines incorporating a plurality of sub-assemblies, each capable of performing a metal-working operation
    • B23Q39/02Metal-working machines incorporating a plurality of sub-assemblies, each capable of performing a metal-working operation the sub-assemblies being capable of being brought to act at a single operating station
    • B23Q39/021Metal-working machines incorporating a plurality of sub-assemblies, each capable of performing a metal-working operation the sub-assemblies being capable of being brought to act at a single operating station with a plurality of toolheads per workholder, whereby the toolhead is a main spindle, a multispindle, a revolver or the like
    • B23Q39/025Metal-working machines incorporating a plurality of sub-assemblies, each capable of performing a metal-working operation the sub-assemblies being capable of being brought to act at a single operating station with a plurality of toolheads per workholder, whereby the toolhead is a main spindle, a multispindle, a revolver or the like with different working directions of toolheads on same workholder
    • B23Q39/026Metal-working machines incorporating a plurality of sub-assemblies, each capable of performing a metal-working operation the sub-assemblies being capable of being brought to act at a single operating station with a plurality of toolheads per workholder, whereby the toolhead is a main spindle, a multispindle, a revolver or the like with different working directions of toolheads on same workholder simultaneous working of toolheads
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23QDETAILS, COMPONENTS, OR ACCESSORIES FOR MACHINE TOOLS, e.g. ARRANGEMENTS FOR COPYING OR CONTROLLING; MACHINE TOOLS IN GENERAL CHARACTERISED BY THE CONSTRUCTION OF PARTICULAR DETAILS OR COMPONENTS; COMBINATIONS OR ASSOCIATIONS OF METAL-WORKING MACHINES, NOT DIRECTED TO A PARTICULAR RESULT
    • B23Q39/00Metal-working machines incorporating a plurality of sub-assemblies, each capable of performing a metal-working operation
    • B23Q39/04Metal-working machines incorporating a plurality of sub-assemblies, each capable of performing a metal-working operation the sub-assemblies being arranged to operate simultaneously at different stations, e.g. with an annular work-table moved in steps
    • B23Q39/048Metal-working machines incorporating a plurality of sub-assemblies, each capable of performing a metal-working operation the sub-assemblies being arranged to operate simultaneously at different stations, e.g. with an annular work-table moved in steps the work holder of a work station transfers directly its workpiece to the work holder of a following work station
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23QDETAILS, COMPONENTS, OR ACCESSORIES FOR MACHINE TOOLS, e.g. ARRANGEMENTS FOR COPYING OR CONTROLLING; MACHINE TOOLS IN GENERAL CHARACTERISED BY THE CONSTRUCTION OF PARTICULAR DETAILS OR COMPONENTS; COMBINATIONS OR ASSOCIATIONS OF METAL-WORKING MACHINES, NOT DIRECTED TO A PARTICULAR RESULT
    • B23Q39/00Metal-working machines incorporating a plurality of sub-assemblies, each capable of performing a metal-working operation
    • B23Q2039/008Machines of the lathe type

Definitions

  • the present invention relates to a multi-function automatic lathe provided with a plurality of turrets that can be individually moved with respect to a spindle.
  • an automatic lathe represented by a numerical control (NC) lathe
  • a plurality of turrets are centrally mounted on a lathe, and the operations of these turrets are individually controlled to produce the same workpiece (ie, workpiece)
  • Multi-function automatic lathes that can perform different types of automatic machining (for example, external rounding and boring) simultaneously or in any order are known.
  • multi-function automatic lathe multiple types of tools such as bi-rods, drills, and mills are interchangeably mounted on multiple turrets, and turning, drilling, and milling are performed on workpieces held on the spindle.
  • Various proposals have been made to enable various machining processes such as cutting to be performed automatically and to process workpieces with complex and diverse shapes.
  • European Patent Application Publication No. 1 2 7 0 1 4 5 is a multi-function automatic lathe, in which a plurality of tools are arranged in parallel in addition to a general turret turret.
  • a tool post that can be mounted in an arrangement is provided, and this tool post can be swiveled around an axis parallel to a feed control axis (for example, referred to as the Y axis) that allows the tool selection operation to be performed by itself.
  • a feed control axis for example, referred to as the Y axis
  • the swivelable turret has a radial arrangement in which a plurality of tools are directed radially outwards around an axis parallel to a swivel control axis (for example, referred to as the B axis), and are arranged at a plurality of swivel index positions. Each can be installed.
  • the pivot axis of the swivelable tool post is located at the approximate center of the radial arrangement of the tool group with the cutting edges facing outwards.
  • the distance from the machining point to the turning center of the turret is relatively long, and as a result, there is a tendency that the moment torque applied to the turret drive unit by the cutting force during machining is increased. Therefore, in order to position and hold the tool post (that is, the tool) that improves machining accuracy with high accuracy, it is necessary to increase the output of the drive unit or equip the accessory such as a reducer or brake. As a result, there is concern that it will be difficult to reduce the overall dimensions of the automatic lathe.
  • the tool tips of the individual tools mounted on the turret that can be turned are located radially outward as viewed from the swivel axis of the turret.
  • the positional relationship between the feed table that supports the tool and the workpiece machining points of the individual tools on the tool post changes greatly according to the turning angle of the tool post. Therefore, each time the turret is turned as the machining process progresses, the feed operation stroke of the turret (that is, the feed table) for moving the tool to be used to the workpiece machining point becomes relatively large. There is concern that it will be difficult to reduce the overall dimensions of the lathe.
  • a turnable tool post is combined with a control axis (for example, Z axis) parallel to the rotation axis of the main axis and a control axis (for example, X axis) orthogonal to the rotation axis.
  • a control axis for example, Z axis
  • a control axis for example, X axis
  • An object of the present invention is to provide a multi-function automatic lathe equipped with a plurality of turrets that can be individually moved with respect to the main spindle, without reducing the versatile machining ability using various types of tools.
  • the aim is to provide a high-performance automatic lathe capable of reducing dimensions and ensuring a high level of tool positioning accuracy.
  • the present invention provides a lathe machine base, a main spindle, a plurality of tool rests mounted on the lathe base so as to be individually movable with respect to the main spindle, and the plurality of tool rests. And a swivel that supports a linear motion independently of each other under the control of different feed control axes, and the swivel is centered on an axis that intersects each linear motion direction of the plurality of tool rests.
  • Provide an automatic lathe installed on the lathe base so that it can turn under the control of a turning control axis.
  • the swivel base is specified with respect to the axis under the control of the turning control axis.
  • a specified slanted hole can be formed by simply moving the tool post with the specified tool in a linear feed operation under the control of its own feed control axis in an angled state. Therefore, during this type of machining operation, it is easy to control the feed operation of multiple tool rests, and only the feed mechanism deployed on one of the control axes needs to be operated. Positioning accuracy can be easily secured. Also, multiple turrets can be arranged with respect to the axis of the swivel.
  • the feed torque of each tool post on the swivel to reduce the moment torque applied to the swivel drive mechanism during machining or to move the tool used to the workpiece machining point stroke
  • the overall dimensions of the automatic lathe can be reduced without degrading the versatility of machining using various types of tools.
  • the axis of the swivel can be arranged substantially in front of the cutting edges of a plurality of tools mounted on the plurality of tool rests.
  • the workpiece machining point by each tool can be set as close as possible to the swivel axis of the swivel common to the plurality of tool rests. Therefore, the moment torque that is applied to the drive mechanism of the swivel base is reduced by the cutting resistance during the machining operation, and it is not necessary to increase the output of the drive mechanism and additional equipment such as speed reducers and brakes. Machining accuracy can be improved by positioning and holding the tool post (ie tool) with high accuracy.
  • the positional relationship between the reference point on the lathe machine that supports a plurality of turrets so as to be able to turn via the swivel and the workpiece machining point by each tool on each turret is that the swivel is swiveled. Therefore, when the swivel is swung as the machining process progresses, the feed stroke of each turret on the swivel to move the tool used to the workpiece machining point is It is possible to make the minimum amount of movement necessary to move forward from the retracted position. As a result, the overall dimensions of the automatic lathe can be effectively reduced.
  • the automatic lathe may be configured such that the axis of the swivel base is perpendicular to the rotation axis of the main shaft.
  • the plurality of tool rests can be supported on the swivel base so as to be linearly movable in different directions radially about the axis.
  • the plurality of turrets can include comb tooth turrets in which a plurality of tools are mounted in a parallel arrangement. This mouth, each of those turrets
  • the line motion direction can be perpendicular to the axis of the swivel and to the parallel direction of multiple tools.
  • the automatic lathe may further include a feed base that supports the swivel base so as to be turnable on the lathe base.
  • the feed base can be installed on the lathe machine base in a direction parallel to the axis of the swivel base and capable of linear operation under the control of a feed control axis different from the feed control axes of the plurality of tool rests.
  • the spindle is installed on the lathe machine base so that it can operate linearly under the control of a feed control axis that is different from the feed control axes of the plurality of turrets in a direction parallel to the axis of rotation of the spindle and perpendicular to the axis of the swivel base. be able to.
  • the automatic lathe may further include a guide bush positioned between the spindle and the plurality of tool rests.
  • the axis of the swivel base can be arranged close to the workpiece delivery end face of the guide bush.
  • the swivel base is installed on the lathe machine base so that it can operate in a straight line under the control of a feed control axis that is different from the feed control axes of multiple tool posts in a direction parallel to the axis of rotation of the spindle and perpendicular to the axis of the swivel base. Can be done.
  • the automatic lathe may further include a back spindle that can be disposed opposite the spindle.
  • the plurality of tool rests supported by the swivel base may include a back tool post that performs a machining operation on the back spindle.
  • FIG. 1 is a perspective view schematically showing the overall configuration of an automatic lathe according to an embodiment of the present invention.
  • Figure 2 is a schematic front view of the automatic lathe of Figure 1,
  • Fig. 3 is a schematic plan view of the automatic lathe of Fig. 1.
  • Fig. 4 is an enlarged perspective view of the main part of the automatic lathe of Fig. 1.
  • Fig. 5 is a diagram schematically showing an example of machining operations that can be performed by the automatic lathe of Fig. 1.
  • Fig. 6 is a diagram schematically showing another example of machining operations that can be performed by the automatic lathe of Fig. 1.
  • FIG. 7 is a diagram schematically showing still another example of machining operations that can be performed by the automatic lathe of FIG.
  • FIG. 8 is a diagram schematically showing still another example of machining operations that can be performed by the automatic lathe of FIG.
  • FIG. 9 is a diagram schematically showing still another example of machining operations that can be performed by the automatic lathe of FIG.
  • FIG. 10 is a diagram schematically showing still another example of machining operations that can be performed by the automatic lathe of FIG.
  • FIG. 11 is a perspective view schematically showing the overall configuration of an automatic lathe according to another embodiment of the present invention.
  • FIG. 12 is a perspective view schematically showing the overall configuration of an automatic lathe according to still another embodiment of the present invention.
  • FIGS. 1 to 4 are diagrams showing an automatic lathe 10 according to an embodiment of the present invention
  • FIGS. 5 to 10 are examples of various machining operations that can be performed by an automatic lathe 10.
  • FIG. Automatic lathe 1 0, 1 lathe machine Multiple turrets are centrally mounted on the platform, and different types of automatic machining (for example, external rounding and medium machining) are performed on workpieces held on the spindle by various tools such as pipes, drills, and millers mounted on each turret. It has a multi-functional structure that can be performed simultaneously or in any order.
  • Such a multifunctional automatic lathe 10 can have a control configuration as a numerical control (NC) lathe, for example.
  • NC numerical control
  • the number, arrangement, type, and the like of the spindle and the tool post included in the automatic lathe according to the present invention are not limited to the configuration of the illustrated embodiment.
  • the automatic lathe 10 is mounted on a lathe machine base 1 2, a lathe machine base 1 2, and a main spindle 14 having a rotation axis 1 4 a and a main spindle 14.
  • the first and second tool rests 1 8 and 2 0 are mounted on a lathe machine base 12 so as to be individually movable, and a plurality of tools 16 are mounted on each of them.
  • the automatic lathe 10 also has an optional additional mechanism with a rotation axis 2 2 a parallel to the rotation axis 14 of the spindle 14 and mounted on the lathe machine base 1 2 so that it can be placed opposite to the spindle 14 And a back tool post 2 4 which is mounted on a lathe machine base 1 2 so as to be movable with respect to the back spindle 2 2 and on which a plurality of tools 16 are mounted.
  • a lathe machine base 1 2 includes a main spindle 14, first and second tool rests 18, 20, a rear main spindle 2 2, and a rear tool rest 2 4, which are controlled by a plurality of control axes in a predetermined orthogonal three-axis coordinate system. It is movably supported under the control of
  • the main spindle 14 is the main (or front side) main spindle that grips and rotates the rod-shaped workpiece W supplied from the outside of the lathe, and its rotation axis 1 4 a is drawn from the installation floor of the lathe machine base 1 2 It is arranged horizontally as seen, and is rotatably incorporated in the headstock 26 via a bearing device (not shown).
  • the main shaft 14 has a hollow cylindrical structure, and a chuck (for example, a collet chuck) (not shown) capable of firmly gripping the workpiece W fed from the rear end side in the front end (right end in the figure) region. Is installed.
  • the headstock 26 is mounted on a spindle mounting portion 28 provided in one end region of the lathe machine base 12 in the longitudinal direction.
  • the spindle stock 26 is controlled under a feed control axis (referred to as Z1 axis) parallel to the rotation axis 14a of the spindle 14 in a predetermined orthogonal three-axis coordinate system.
  • a spindle drive mechanism (not shown) is installed.
  • the main shaft drive mechanism includes a Z 1 axis drive source (for example, an AC servo motor), a Z 1 axis guide member (for example, a slide guide), a feed screw device (for example, a pole screw), and the like. Therefore, the main spindle 14 reciprocates linearly with the headstock 2 6 over a predetermined feed stroke by the operation of the main spindle drive mechanism under the control of the Z 1 axis parallel to its own rotation axis 14 a. To do.
  • the headstock 26 further includes a rotation drive source (for example, a built-in AC servo motor) (not shown) that drives the spindle 14 to rotate.
  • the main shaft 14 can have a rotation control axis (referred to as C axis) around the rotation axis 14 a.
  • C axis rotation control axis
  • the desired turrets 1 8 and 2 0 are equipped at the desired positions on the end face and outer peripheral surface of the workpiece W gripped by the chuck by the C-axis positioning and indexing operation obtained by controlling the spindle rotation drive source. It is possible to perform various processes using the rotating tool.
  • a column 30 is erected in the center of the lathe machine table 12 in the longitudinal direction, adjacent to the spindle mounting portion 2 8, at a position shifted laterally from the rotation axis 14 a of the spindle 14.
  • the column 30 carries the feed base 3 2 so that it can move linearly in the vertical direction perpendicular to the spindle rotation axis 14 a on the front face (vertical face) 30 a close to the spindle 14.
  • the feed base 3 2 is a feed base drive mechanism installed in the column 30 under the control of a feed control axis (referred to as Y 1 axis) perpendicular to the Z 1 axis in a predetermined orthogonal three-axis coordinate system.
  • the feed base drive mechanism consists of a Y 1 axis drive source (eg, AC servo motor), a Y 1 axis guide member (eg, slide guide), and a feed screw assembly. (For example, a pole screw).
  • a Y 1 axis drive source eg, AC servo motor
  • a Y 1 axis guide member eg, slide guide
  • a feed screw assembly e.g, a pole screw
  • the feed base 32 includes a pair of arms 3 4 that extend horizontally from the front surface 30 a of the column 30 in a direction approaching the spindle rotation axis 14 a. These arms 3 4 are fixedly arranged on the feed base 32 so as to be sufficiently separated from each other in the vertical direction.
  • the swivel base 36 is a swivel base drive mechanism installed on the feed base 32 under the control of a swivel control axis (referred to as the B axis) parallel to the Y 1 axis in a predetermined orthogonal three-axis coordinate system. (Not shown), the reciprocating motion is performed over a predetermined angle range.
  • the swivel base drive mechanism includes a B-axis drive source (for example, an AC servo motor), a power transmission device (for example, a gear train), and the like.
  • the swivel base 36 is a prismatic member having a cross section of a substantially right triangle, and substantially flat tool rest support surfaces 3 8 and 40 are formed on each of a pair of side surfaces orthogonal to each other.
  • the swivel base 36 has a pair of turret support surfaces 3 8, 4 0 via a pair of arms 4 2 that are fixedly extended in a direction beyond the intersecting line of the turret support surfaces 3 8, 40. In a state where it is arranged in a vertical posture parallel to the turning axis 3 6 a, it is rotatably supported by the pair of arms 3 4 of the feed base 3 2.
  • the first tool post 18 8 force S is supported on one tool post supporting surface 3 8 of the swivel base 36 so that it can move linearly in the horizontal direction perpendicular to the swivel axis 3 6 a.
  • the first tool post 18 is a first tool post installed on the swivel base 3 6 under the control of the feed control axis (referred to as the XI axis) orthogonal to the Y 1 axis in a predetermined orthogonal three-axis coordinate system. Actuation of a drive mechanism (not shown) causes linear reciprocation over a predetermined feed stroke.
  • the first tool post The drive mechanism is configured to include an XI axis drive source (for example, AC surfamo), an XI axis plan member (for example, a slide guide), a feed screw device (for example, a ball screw), and the like.
  • the first tool post 18 is fixedly installed on a tool post table 44 that is movably supported by the swivel base 36 via the first tool post drive mechanism.
  • the first turret 18 has a comb-tooth turret configuration in which a plurality of tools 16 are mounted in a parallel arrangement.
  • various tools 16 such as a byte, a drill, and a miller are arranged in parallel in a vertical direction parallel to the swivel axis 3 6 a of the swivel base 3 6.
  • Each blade edge is fixedly held in a horizontal posture in which it faces the swivel axis 36a.
  • the first tool post 18 includes a first holding portion 1 8 A capable of holding a plurality of turning tools 1 6 A such as a byte in parallel arrangement, and a plurality of rotating tools 1 such as a milling cutter 1.
  • 6 B has a second holding section 18 B that can hold B in a parallel arrangement (see Figs. 2 and 4).
  • the second tool rest 20 is supported on the other tool rest supporting surface 40 of the swivel base 36 so as to be linearly movable in the horizontal direction perpendicular to the swivel axis 36 a.
  • the second tool post 20 is a swivel base 3 6 under the control of a feed control axis (referred to as X2 axis) orthogonal to both the Y1 axis and the X1 axis in a predetermined orthogonal three-axis coordinate system.
  • a second turret drive mechanism (not shown) installed on the machine moves back and forth linearly over a predetermined feed stroke.
  • the second turret drive mechanism includes an X 2 axis drive source (for example, AC surfamo), an X 2 axis guide member (for example, a slide guide), a feed screw device (for example, a pole screw), and the like.
  • the second tool post 20 is fixedly installed on a tool post table 46 that is movably supported by the swivel base 36 via a second tool post drive mechanism.
  • the second tool post 20 has a comb tooth post configuration in which a plurality of tools 16 are mounted in a parallel arrangement.
  • Comb tooth structure 2nd tool post 20 Various tools such as drills, drills, and millers 1 6 are arranged in parallel in the vertical direction parallel to the swivel axis 3 6 a of the swivel base 3 6, and the respective cutting edges are arranged in the swivel axis.
  • the second tool post 20 is, like the first tool post 18, a first holding unit that can hold a plurality of turning tools 16 A such as a byte in a parallel arrangement.
  • FIGS. 2 and 4 a second holding part 20 B capable of holding a plurality of rotary tools 16 B such as a milling cutter in parallel arrangement (see FIGS. 2 and 4).
  • the first and second tool rests 18, 20 are independent on the swivel base 36 under the control of different feed control axes (XI axis and X 2 axis).
  • the swivel base 3 6 swivels on the feed base 3 2 about the axis 3 6 a that intersects the linear movement directions of the first and second tool rests 1 8 and 20. It can be swiveled under the control of the control axis (B axis).
  • the feed base 3 2 is on the lathe machine base 1 2 in the direction parallel to the axis 3 6 a of the swivel base 3 6.
  • the linear movement can be performed under the control of the feed control axis (Y 1 axis) different from the feed control axes (XI axis and X 2 axis) of the bases 18 and 20.
  • the first turret 1 8 is fed with the desired tool 16 selected and indexed on the first turret 1 8 by the Y 1 axis feed operation of the feed base 3 2.
  • the swivel base 3 2 With the swivel base 3 2 on the B axis swivel movement of 6 6, it is placed at the desired facing angle with respect to the work W gripped by the main spindle 1 4, and in this state, the cutting edge of the tool 1 6 is placed on the swivel base 3 6
  • the workpiece W can be machined by the cooperation of the XI axis feed operation of the first tool post 1 8 and the Z 1 axis feed operation of the spindle 14 described above.
  • the second tool post 20 is the swivel base on the feed base 32 with the desired tool 16 selected and indexed on the second tool post 20 by the Y 1 axis feed operation of the feed base 32.
  • the workpiece W can be machined by the cooperation of the X 2 axis feed operation of the tool post 20 itself and the Z 1 axis feed operation of the spindle 14 described above. In this way, the workpiece W gripped by the spindle 14 can be simultaneously or selectively used by the desired tool 16 on the first tool post 18 and the desired tool 16 on the second tool post 20 ( (Alternatively) By using it, it can be processed into a desired shape.
  • Second turrets 18 and 20 are installed.
  • the swivel base 3 6 is moved to the axis 3 6 under the B axis control.
  • the first or second tool post 1 8, 2 0 fitted with the specified tool 16 is placed under the control of its own feed control axis (XI axis or X 2 axis) in a state of being arranged at the specified angle with respect to a.
  • the specified diagonal hole can be formed simply by moving it linearly. Therefore, during this type of machining operation, the feed operation control of the first and second tool rests 18 and 20 becomes easy, and only the feed mechanism (turret drive mechanism) provided on one of the control axes operates. Therefore, a high level positioning accuracy of the tool 16 can be easily secured.
  • the swivel axis 3 6 a of the swivel base 36 is connected to the cutting edges of a plurality of tools 16 mounted on the first and second tool rests 18, 20.
  • a machine configuration that is arranged substantially forward can be easily realized. According to such a configuration, the workpiece machining point by each tool 16 is set as close as possible to the common pivot axis 3 6 a of the first and second tool rests 18, 20. be able to. Therefore, the moment torque applied to the drive mechanism of the swivel base 36 is reduced by the cutting resistance during the machining operation, and the output of the drive mechanism is increased and accessories such as reducers and brakes are added. Without the need for additional equipment, the first and second tool rests 18 and 20 (that is, the tool 16) can be positioned and held with high accuracy to improve the machining accuracy. As a result, the overall dimensions of the automatic lathe 10 can be effectively reduced.
  • the swivel base 3 on the lathe machine base 1 2 The positional relationship between the workpiece machining point by the feed table 3 2 that supports the two turrets 1 8 and 20 through the 6 and the individual tools 1 6 on the turrets 1 8 and 20 is Even if the swivel base 3 6 turns, there will be no substantial change. Therefore, when the swivel base 3 6 is swung as the machining process progresses, each tool post 1 8, 20 on the swivel base 3 6 is moved to move the tool 16 to the workpiece machining point.
  • the motion stroke can be the minimum amount of movement required to advance from the retracted position. As a result, the overall dimensions of the automatic lathe 10 can be effectively reduced.
  • the automatic lathe 10 is configured so that the first and second tool rests 18 and 20 that can be individually moved with respect to the spindle 14 are used to work the workpiece W. It is possible to effectively reduce the overall dimensions of the automatic lathe 10 while maintaining the versatility of applying various machining to the tool. .
  • the automatic lathe 10 employs a configuration in which the swivel axis 36 a of the swivel base 36 is orthogonal to the rotation axis 14 a of the main shaft 14. Therefore, in at least one of the first and second tool rests 18, 20, the rotary tool 16 B has its own rotation axis (ie, tool.axis) as the swivel axis 3 6 of the swivel base 3 6.
  • the rotary tool 16 B has its own rotation axis (ie, tool.axis) as the swivel axis 3 6 of the swivel base 3 6.
  • the first tool rest 18 and the second tool rest 20 are radially different from each other on the swivel base 36 and the swivel axis 36a.
  • a configuration that supports linear movement in the direction (XI axis and X 2 axis) is adopted.
  • each of the first and second tool rests 1 8 and 2 0 can be replaced with a plurality of tools 1 6 Are configured as comb tooth turrets mounted in parallel, and the linear motion direction of each turret 18 and 20 on the swivel base 36 is perpendicular to the swivel axis 3 6 a and a plurality of tools 1 The direction perpendicular to the 6 parallel directions is set.
  • various types of tools 16 required by the machining program are mounted on the first and second tool rests 1 8 and 20 in advance, and each tool rest 1 8 and 2 0 according to the machining program can be used as desired. Since the tool 16 can be selected quickly and the machining operation can be performed, the cycle time can be effectively reduced.
  • the automatic lathe 10 is configured so that the feed base 3 2 that supports the swivel base 3 6 so as to be capable of swiveling on the lathe machine base 1 2 is arranged in a direction parallel to the swivel axis 3 6 a.
  • the second tool post 1 8 and 20 are installed on a lathe table 1 2 so that they can move linearly under the control of the feed control axis (Y 1 axis) different from the feed control axes (X 1 axis, X 2 axis). ing. Therefore, the desired tool 16 can be easily selected from the first and second tool rests 18 and 20 by the Y 1 axis feed operation of the feed base 3 2.
  • the main spindle 14 is parallel to the main spindle rotational axis 14 a in a direction perpendicular to the pivot axis 3 6 a of the swivel base 36 and the first and second tool rests 1 8 , 20 feed control axes (XI axis, X 2 axes) and Adopts a configuration that is installed on a lathe table 1 2 so that it can operate linearly under the control of different feed control axes (Z 1 axis). Therefore, the workpiece W can be processed in various ways by cooperating with the Z 1 axis feed operation of the main spindle 14 and the XI axis or X 2 axis feed operations of the first or second tool post 18 8, 20. it can.
  • a guide bush 48 located between the main shaft 14 and the first and second tool rests 18, 20.
  • the guide bush 48 is supported by a second column 50 extending so as to intervene between both arms 3 4 of the feed base 3 2 from the spindle mounting portion 28 that carries the spindle base 26.
  • the main shaft 14 is arranged coaxially with the rotation axis 14 a.
  • the guide bush 48 supports the work area at the tip of the workpiece W gripped by the main spindle 14 so as to center and support it so that no vibration occurs during the machining operation.
  • the guide bush 48 can have a known structure of either a fixed guide bush or a rotary guide bush. In this case, the swivel axis 36 a of the swivel base 36 is disposed close to the workpiece sending end face 48 a (FIG. 3) of the guide bush 48.
  • the automatic lathe 10 includes the back spindle 2 2 that can be disposed opposite to the spindle 14 and the back tool post 24 that moves with respect to the back spindle 2 2.
  • the rear spindle 2 2 is an auxiliary spindle that rotates by gripping a partly processed workpiece (not shown) passed from the front spindle 14 and turning the rotary axis 2 2 a. It is arranged horizontally when viewed from the installation floor of the machine base 12 and is rotatably incorporated in the rear headstock 52 via a bearing device (not shown).
  • the back main shaft 2 2 has a hollow cylindrical structure, and a chuck (for example, a collet chuck) that can firmly hold a workpiece fed from the main shaft 14 (or the guide bush 48) opposed to the front end region of the rear main shaft 2 2. (Not shown) is installed
  • the rear spindle stock 5 2 is mounted on the rear spindle mounting portion 5 4 provided on the opposite side of the spindle mounting portion 28 on the lathe machine base 12.
  • the rear spindle mounting portion 5 4 carries a feed base 5 6 that can move linearly in the vertical direction perpendicular to the rotation axis 2 2 a of the rear spindle 2 2, and the rear spindle base 5 2 It is supported so that it can move linearly in the horizontal direction parallel to the back spindle rotation axis 2 2 a.
  • the back spindle mounting part 5 4 and the feed base 5 6 include a back spindle base 5 2, a feed control axis (referred to as Y 2 axis) that is orthogonal to the back spindle rotation axis 2 2 a in a predetermined orthogonal three-axis coordinate system.
  • the back spindle drive mechanism (not shown) that moves linearly under control along the feed control axis (referred to as Z 2 axis) parallel to back spindle rotation axis 2 2 a ) Is installed.
  • the back spindle drive mechanism consists of a Y 2 axis drive source (eg, AC support motor), a Z 2 axis drive source (eg, AC servo motor), a Y 2 axis guide member (eg, slide guide), a Z 2 axis guide member ( For example, a slide guide), a feed screw device (for example, a pole screw) and the like are included.
  • the back spindle 22 is controlled over the predetermined feed stroke by the operation of the back spindle drive mechanism under the control of the Y 2 axis orthogonal to its own rotation axis 2 2 a and the parallel Z 2 axis. , Back It moves linearly with the headstock 5 2.
  • the rear tool post 24 is fixed together with the first tool post 1 8 to the tool post table 4 4 movably supported by one of the tool post support surfaces 3 8 of the swivel base 36 and the first tool post 1 8. Installed on the back side. Therefore, the back tool post 24 is synchronized with the feed operation of the first tool post 18 under the control of the X1 axis in a predetermined orthogonal three-axis coordinate system, and passes over a predetermined feed operation stroke. Reciprocates linearly.
  • the back tool post 24 has a comb-tooth tool post configuration in which a plurality of tools 16 are mounted in a parallel arrangement. In the illustrated embodiment, the back tool post 24 has various rotary tools such as milling cutters.
  • the blades 36 are fixedly held in a horizontal posture in parallel with the pivot axis 36a of the base 36 in a horizontal direction in which each blade edge is separated from the pivot axis 36a (see FIGS. 2 and 4).
  • the rear turret 2 4 is connected to the rear turret 2 4 by at least one of the Y 1 axis feed operation of the feed base 3 2 and the feed base for the rear spindle 2 2 5 6 Y 2 axis feed operation 2 4.
  • the desired tool 16 selected and indexed in step 1 is placed at an opposing angle parallel to the workpiece axis with respect to the workpiece gripped by the back spindle 2 2 by the B-axis turning operation of the turning table 3 6 on the feed table 3 2.
  • the tool tip of the tool 16 is moved in cooperation with the XI axis feed operation of the back tool post 2 4 itself on the swivel base 3 6 and the Y 2 axis and Z 2 axis feed operations of the back spindle 2 2.
  • By machining it is possible to perform machining operations on the workpiece.
  • the workpiece gripped by the back spindle 22 can be machined into a desired shape by a desired tool 16 on the back tool post 24.
  • This back surface machining can be performed simultaneously with the desired tool 16 on the first and second tool rests 18, 20 while machining the workpiece W gripped on the spindle 14.
  • the rear tool post 24 may be fixedly installed together with the second tool post 20 on the tool post table 46 that is movably supported on the other tool post support surface 40 of the swivel base 36. it can.
  • the swivel base 3 6 is placed at a position that is 90 ° different from the swivel position in Fig. 5, and the turning tool 1 6 A on the first tool post 1 8 with respect to the workpiece W Can be performed simultaneously with external turning (external rounding, etc.) using, and end face secondary machining (end face drilling, etc.) using the rotary tool 16 B on the second tool post 20.
  • Side turning (rotary drilling etc.) using rotary tool 1 6 B on the first tool post 18 at the same turning position, and internal turning using the turning tool 1 6 A on the second tool post 20 Processing (boring, etc.) can be performed simultaneously.
  • the swivel base 3 6 is arranged at the same position as the swivel position of FIG. 6, and the rotary tool 1 6 B on the first tool post 18 is used against the workpiece W.
  • the secondary side machining (cross drilling, etc.) and the secondary end face machining (end drilling, etc.) using the rotary tool 16 B on the second tool post 20 can be performed simultaneously.
  • the turning table 3 6 is arranged at an intermediate position between the respective turning positions in FIGS. 5 and 6, and the turning tool on the first tool post 18 with respect to the workpiece W.
  • External turning (external rounding, etc.) using 16 A and external turning (external rounding, etc.) using the turning tool 16 A on the second tool post 20 can be performed simultaneously.
  • the workpiece machining point of the two turning tools 16 A is slightly shifted in the workpiece axis direction, so that the outer peripheral surface of the workpiece is roughly machined by one turning tool 16 A and the other turning tool 1 6 Finishing the outer peripheral surface of the workpiece with A (for example, called a balance cut), which is effective for shortening the cycle time.
  • the swivel base 3 6 is set to the specified turning angle.
  • the workpiece W can be subjected to oblique hole machining using the rotating tool 16 B on the first or second tool post 18, 20.
  • the swivel base 3 6 is swung and fed under the B-axis control.
  • the workpiece W can be chamfered or rounded using the rotary tool 16 B on the first or second tool post 18, 20.
  • the first and second tool rests 18 and 20 are fed independently of each other on the swivel base 36 so that the machining operations of the two tools 16 can be performed. It can be carried out smoothly without affecting each other. Further, as described above, at the swivel position of the swivel base 3 6 as shown in FIGS. 5 to 7, the tool 16 on the back tool post 2 4 is used in parallel with the above-described machining operation on the work W. The desired back machining can be performed on the work gripped by the back spindle 22.
  • a machine configuration can be adopted in which a headstock 26 containing a main spindle 14 is fixedly installed on a lathe machine base 12 and the guide bush 48 is omitted.
  • the swivel base 3 6 supporting the first and second tool rests 18, 20 is provided for each of the feed base 3 2 and the column 30.
  • a feed control axis for example, Z 3 axis
  • a swivel base having tool post support surfaces that intersect at various angles is adopted, It is also possible to configure the tool post so that it can be fed in directions intersecting at various angles on the tool support surface.
  • the number of turrets installed on the swivel, tool holding type, etc. Is optional.
  • the lathe machine base 12 can be equipped with other tool rests such as an evening tool post, a control device such as an NC device, an operation panel, a tool magazine, an automatic tool changer, and the like.

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  • Engineering & Computer Science (AREA)
  • Mechanical Engineering (AREA)
  • Turning (AREA)
  • Cutting Tools, Boring Holders, And Turrets (AREA)

Abstract

Provided is an automatic lathe (10) comprising a lathe base (12), a spindle (14), a plurality of tool rests (18, 20) mounted on the lath base such that they may become individually movable with respect to the spindle, and a swivel slide (36) for supporting the tool rests such that the tool rests may linearly move independently of each other while being controlled by feed control axes different from each other. The swivel slide is mounted on the lathe base that it may swivel on an axis (36a) intersecting in the individual linear working directions of the tool rests while being controlled on a swivel control axis (B).

Description

明 細 書 複数の刃物台を備える自動旋盤 技術分野  Description Automatic lathe with multiple turrets Technical Field
本発明は、 主軸に対して個々に移動可能な複数の刃物台を備える 多機能型の自動旋盤に関する。 背景技術  The present invention relates to a multi-function automatic lathe provided with a plurality of turrets that can be individually moved with respect to a spindle. Background art
数値制御 (N C) 旋盤に代表される自動旋盤において、 旋盤機台 に複数の刃物台を集約的に搭載し、 それら刃物台の動作を個々に制 御して、 同一の被加工素材 (すなわちワーク) に対し異なる種類の 自動加工 (例えば外丸削り と中ぐり) を同時に又は任意順序で遂行 できるようにした、 多機能型の自動旋盤が知られている。 この種の 多機能型自動旋盤では、 複数の刃物台に、 バイ 卜、 ドリル、 フライ ス等の多種類の工具を交換可能に装着し、 主軸に把持したワークに 対して、 旋削、 穴あけ、 フライス削り等の多様な加工工程を遂行可 能として、 複雑かつ多彩な形状の工作品を自動加工できるようにし たものが、 種々提案されている。  In an automatic lathe represented by a numerical control (NC) lathe, a plurality of turrets are centrally mounted on a lathe, and the operations of these turrets are individually controlled to produce the same workpiece (ie, workpiece) Multi-function automatic lathes that can perform different types of automatic machining (for example, external rounding and boring) simultaneously or in any order are known. In this type of multi-function automatic lathe, multiple types of tools such as bi-rods, drills, and mills are interchangeably mounted on multiple turrets, and turning, drilling, and milling are performed on workpieces held on the spindle. Various proposals have been made to enable various machining processes such as cutting to be performed automatically and to process workpieces with complex and diverse shapes.
例えば欧州特許出願公開第 1 2 7 0 1 4 5号 (E P 1 2 7 0 1 4 5 ) は、 多機能型自動旋盤において、 一般的な夕レツ 卜刃物台に加 えて、 複数の工具を並列配置で装着可能な刃物台を備え、 この刃物 台を、 それ自体に工具選択動作を遂行させるための送り制御軸 (例 えば Y軸と称する) に平行な軸線を中心として、 旋回動作可能に旋 盤機台に搭載した機械構成を開示する。 この自動旋盤では、 旋回可 能な刃物台の旋回角度を適宜選択することにより、 刃物台に装着し た回転工具を用いて、 主軸に把持したワークに対し、 その軸線方向 端面や外周面への切削だけでなく、 ワーク軸線に斜交する方向への 穴あけを遂行することができる。 なお、 旋回可能な刃物台は、 複数 の工具を、 旋回制御軸 (例えば B軸と称する) に平行な軸線を中心 として外方へ刃先を向ける放射状配置で、 複数の旋回割出位置にそ れぞれ装着できるようになつている。 For example, European Patent Application Publication No. 1 2 7 0 1 4 5 (EP 1 2 7 0 1 4 5) is a multi-function automatic lathe, in which a plurality of tools are arranged in parallel in addition to a general turret turret. A tool post that can be mounted in an arrangement is provided, and this tool post can be swiveled around an axis parallel to a feed control axis (for example, referred to as the Y axis) that allows the tool selection operation to be performed by itself. Disclose the machine configuration mounted on the board base. In this automatic lathe, by selecting the turning angle of the turret that can be turned as appropriate, using the rotary tool mounted on the turret, the axis direction of the work gripped on the spindle In addition to cutting to the end face and outer peripheral surface, drilling in the direction oblique to the workpiece axis can be performed. The swivelable turret has a radial arrangement in which a plurality of tools are directed radially outwards around an axis parallel to a swivel control axis (for example, referred to as the B axis), and are arranged at a plurality of swivel index positions. Each can be installed.
E P 1 2 7 0 1 4 5に記載される自動旋盤では、 旋回可能な刃物 台の旋回軸線が、 刃先を外向きにした工具群の放射状配置の略中心 に位置するので、 個々の工具によるワーク加工点から刃物台の旋回 中心までの距離が比較的長く、 結果として、 加工作業中の切削抵抗 により刃物台駆動部へ負荷されるモーメント トルクが大きくなる傾 向がある。 したがって、 加工精度を向上させるベく刃物台 (すなわ ち工具) を高精度に位置決め保持するためには、 駆動部の出力を増 強したり減速機やブレーキ等の付属機器を装備したりする必要があ り、 その結果、 自動旋盤の全体寸法の削減が困難になることが懸念 される。  In the automatic lathe described in EP 1 2 7 0 1 4 5, the pivot axis of the swivelable tool post is located at the approximate center of the radial arrangement of the tool group with the cutting edges facing outwards. The distance from the machining point to the turning center of the turret is relatively long, and as a result, there is a tendency that the moment torque applied to the turret drive unit by the cutting force during machining is increased. Therefore, in order to position and hold the tool post (that is, the tool) that improves machining accuracy with high accuracy, it is necessary to increase the output of the drive unit or equip the accessory such as a reducer or brake. As a result, there is concern that it will be difficult to reduce the overall dimensions of the automatic lathe.
また、 上記自動旋盤では、 旋回可能な刃物台に装着した個々のェ 具の刃先が、 刃物台の旋回軸線から見て径方向外方へ離れて位置す るので、 旋盤機台上で刃物台を旋回可能に担持する送り台と、 刃物 台上の個々の工具によるワーク加工点との位置関係が、 刃物台の旋 回角度に対応して大きく変化することになる。 したがって、 加工ェ 程の進行に伴い刃物台を旋回させる都度、 使用工具をワーク加工点 に移動させるための刃物台 (すなわち送り台) の送り動作ス トロー クが比較的大きくなり、 結果として、 自動旋盤の全体寸法の削減が 困難になることが懸念される。  In the above automatic lathe, the tool tips of the individual tools mounted on the turret that can be turned are located radially outward as viewed from the swivel axis of the turret. The positional relationship between the feed table that supports the tool and the workpiece machining points of the individual tools on the tool post changes greatly according to the turning angle of the tool post. Therefore, each time the turret is turned as the machining process progresses, the feed operation stroke of the turret (that is, the feed table) for moving the tool to be used to the workpiece machining point becomes relatively large. There is concern that it will be difficult to reduce the overall dimensions of the lathe.
さらに、 上記自動旋盤では、 旋回可能な刃物台が、 主軸の回転軸 線に平行な制御軸 (例えば Z軸と称する) と同回転軸線に直交する 制御軸 (例えば X軸と称する) との合成制御の下で、 ワークに斜め 穴加工を遂行する構成となっている。 したがって、 刃物台の送り動 作制御が比較的複雑になり、 異なる 2つの制御軸に配備した送り機 構を個々に動作させることから、 工具の高水準の位置決め精度を確 保することが困難になる危惧がある。 発明の開示 Further, in the above automatic lathe, a turnable tool post is combined with a control axis (for example, Z axis) parallel to the rotation axis of the main axis and a control axis (for example, X axis) orthogonal to the rotation axis. Under control, diagonal to workpiece It is configured to perform drilling. Therefore, the feed operation control of the tool post becomes relatively complicated, and it is difficult to ensure a high level of tool positioning accuracy because the feed mechanisms deployed on two different control axes are individually operated. There is a risk of becoming. Disclosure of the invention
本発明の目的は、 主軸に対して個々に移動可能な複数の刃物台を 備える多機能型の自動旋盤において、 多種類の工具を用いた多彩な 加工能力を低下させることなく、 自動旋盤の全体寸法を削減でき、 しかも工具の高水準の位置決め精度を確保できる、 高性能の自動旋 盤を提供することにある。  An object of the present invention is to provide a multi-function automatic lathe equipped with a plurality of turrets that can be individually moved with respect to the main spindle, without reducing the versatile machining ability using various types of tools. The aim is to provide a high-performance automatic lathe capable of reducing dimensions and ensuring a high level of tool positioning accuracy.
上記目的を達成するために、 本発明は、 旋盤機台と、 主軸と、 前 記主軸に対して個々に移動可能に前記旋盤機台に搭載される複数の 刃物台と、 前記複数の刃物台を、 互いに異なる送り制御軸の制御下 で独立して直線動作可能に支持する旋回台とを具備し、 前記旋回台 は、 前記複数の刃物台のそれぞれの直線動作方向に交差する軸線を 中心として、 旋回制御軸の制御下で旋回可能に前記旋盤機台に設置 される、 自動旋盤を提供する。  To achieve the above object, the present invention provides a lathe machine base, a main spindle, a plurality of tool rests mounted on the lathe base so as to be individually movable with respect to the main spindle, and the plurality of tool rests. And a swivel that supports a linear motion independently of each other under the control of different feed control axes, and the swivel is centered on an axis that intersects each linear motion direction of the plurality of tool rests. Provide an automatic lathe installed on the lathe base so that it can turn under the control of a turning control axis.
上記構成を有する自動旋盤によれば、 主軸に把持したワークに対 し、 主軸回転軸線に斜交する方向への穴あけ加工を施す場合に、 旋 回制御軸の制御下で旋回台を軸線に関して指定角度に配置した状態 で、 指定工具を装着した刃物台を、 それ自体の送り制御軸の制御下 で直線送り動作させるだけで、 指定の斜め穴を形成できる。 したが つて、 この種の加工作業に際し、 複数の刃物台の送り動作制御が容 易になり、 いずれか 1つの制御軸に配備した送り機構のみを動作さ せればよいので、 工具の高水準の位置決め精度を容易に確保するこ とができる。 また、 旋回台の軸線に対する複数の刃物台の配置を適 宜選択することで、 加工中に旋回台の駆動機構へ負荷されるモーメ ント トルクを減少させたり、 使用工具をワーク加工点に移動させる ための旋回台上での各刃物台の送り動作ス トロークを削減したりす ることができるから、 多種類の工具を用いた多彩な加工能力を低下 させることなく、 自動旋盤の全体寸法を削減できる。 According to the automatic lathe having the above configuration, when drilling the workpiece gripped on the spindle in a direction oblique to the spindle rotation axis, the swivel base is specified with respect to the axis under the control of the turning control axis. A specified slanted hole can be formed by simply moving the tool post with the specified tool in a linear feed operation under the control of its own feed control axis in an angled state. Therefore, during this type of machining operation, it is easy to control the feed operation of multiple tool rests, and only the feed mechanism deployed on one of the control axes needs to be operated. Positioning accuracy can be easily secured. Also, multiple turrets can be arranged with respect to the axis of the swivel. By selecting the appropriate one, the feed torque of each tool post on the swivel to reduce the moment torque applied to the swivel drive mechanism during machining or to move the tool used to the workpiece machining point stroke As a result, the overall dimensions of the automatic lathe can be reduced without degrading the versatility of machining using various types of tools.
上記自動旋盤においては、 旋回台の軸線を、 複数の刃物台に装着 される複数の工具の刃先の、 実質的前方に配置することができる。  In the automatic lathe, the axis of the swivel can be arranged substantially in front of the cutting edges of a plurality of tools mounted on the plurality of tool rests.
この構成によれば、 個々の工具によるワーク加工点を、 複数の刃 物台に共通する旋回台の旋回軸線に、 可及的に近接して設定するこ とができる。 したがって、 加工作業中の切削抵抗により旋回台の駆 動機構へ負荷されるモーメント トルクが減少し、 駆動機構の出力増 加や減速機、 ブレーキ等の付属機器の追加装備を要することなく、 個々の刃物台 (すなわち工具) を高精度に位置決め保持して加工精 度を向上させることができる。 さらに、 旋回台を介して複数の刃物 台を旋回可能に担持する旋盤機台上の基準点と、 各刃物台上の個々 の工具によるワーク加工点との位置関係は、 旋回台が旋回しても実 質的に変化しないので、 加工工程の進行に伴い旋回台を旋回させた ときに、 使用工具をワーク加工点に移動させるための旋回台上での 各刃物台の送り動作ス トロークは、 退避位置から前進させるだけの 必要最小限の移動量とすることがでさ ■ο。 その結果、 自動旋盤の全 体寸法を効果的に削減することができ O o  According to this configuration, the workpiece machining point by each tool can be set as close as possible to the swivel axis of the swivel common to the plurality of tool rests. Therefore, the moment torque that is applied to the drive mechanism of the swivel base is reduced by the cutting resistance during the machining operation, and it is not necessary to increase the output of the drive mechanism and additional equipment such as speed reducers and brakes. Machining accuracy can be improved by positioning and holding the tool post (ie tool) with high accuracy. Furthermore, the positional relationship between the reference point on the lathe machine that supports a plurality of turrets so as to be able to turn via the swivel and the workpiece machining point by each tool on each turret is that the swivel is swiveled. Therefore, when the swivel is swung as the machining process progresses, the feed stroke of each turret on the swivel to move the tool used to the workpiece machining point is It is possible to make the minimum amount of movement necessary to move forward from the retracted position. As a result, the overall dimensions of the automatic lathe can be effectively reduced.
上記自動旋盤においては、 旋回台の軸線が、 主軸の回転軸線に直 交する構成とすることもできる。  The automatic lathe may be configured such that the axis of the swivel base is perpendicular to the rotation axis of the main shaft.
また、 複数の刃物台は、 旋回台に 、 軸線を実質的中心として放射 状に互いに異なる方向へ直線動作可能に支持されることができる。  In addition, the plurality of tool rests can be supported on the swivel base so as to be linearly movable in different directions radially about the axis.
また、 複数の刃物台は、 複数のェ が並列配置で装着されるく し 歯刃物台を含むことができる 。 この 口、 それら刃物台の各々の直 線動作方向は、 旋回台の軸線に直交するとともに複数の工具の並列 方向に直交することができる。 Further, the plurality of turrets can include comb tooth turrets in which a plurality of tools are mounted in a parallel arrangement. This mouth, each of those turrets The line motion direction can be perpendicular to the axis of the swivel and to the parallel direction of multiple tools.
上記自動旋盤は、 旋回台を旋盤機台上で旋回可能に支持する送り 台をさらに具備することができる。 この場合、 送り台は、 旋回台の 軸線に平行な方向へ、 複数の刃物台の送り制御軸とは異なる送り制 御軸の制御下で直線動作可能に旋盤機台に設置されることができる 主軸は、 主軸の回転軸線に平行で旋回台の軸線に直交する方向へ 、 複数の刃物台の送り制御軸とは異なる送り制御軸の制御下で直線 動作可能に、 旋盤機台に設置されることができる。  The automatic lathe may further include a feed base that supports the swivel base so as to be turnable on the lathe base. In this case, the feed base can be installed on the lathe machine base in a direction parallel to the axis of the swivel base and capable of linear operation under the control of a feed control axis different from the feed control axes of the plurality of tool rests. The spindle is installed on the lathe machine base so that it can operate linearly under the control of a feed control axis that is different from the feed control axes of the plurality of turrets in a direction parallel to the axis of rotation of the spindle and perpendicular to the axis of the swivel base. be able to.
上記自動旋盤は、 主軸と複数の刃物台との間に位置するガイ ドブ ッシュをさらに具備することができる。 この場合、 旋回台の軸線を 、 ガイ ドブッシュのワーク送出端面に近接して配置することができ る。  The automatic lathe may further include a guide bush positioned between the spindle and the plurality of tool rests. In this case, the axis of the swivel base can be arranged close to the workpiece delivery end face of the guide bush.
旋回台は、 主軸の回転軸線に平行で旋回台の軸線に直交する方向 へ、 複数の刃物台の送り制御軸とは異なる送り制御軸の制御下で直 線動作可能に、 旋盤機台に設置されることができる。  The swivel base is installed on the lathe machine base so that it can operate in a straight line under the control of a feed control axis that is different from the feed control axes of multiple tool posts in a direction parallel to the axis of rotation of the spindle and perpendicular to the axis of the swivel base. Can be done.
上記自動旋盤は、 主軸に対向配置可能な背面主軸をさらに具備す ることができる。 この場合、 旋回台に支持される複数の刃物台は、 背面主軸に対して加工動作する背面刃物台を含むことができる。 図面の簡単な説明  The automatic lathe may further include a back spindle that can be disposed opposite the spindle. In this case, the plurality of tool rests supported by the swivel base may include a back tool post that performs a machining operation on the back spindle. Brief Description of Drawings
本発明の上記並びに他の目的、 特徴及び利点は、 添付図面に関連 した以下の好適な実施形態の説明により一層明らかになろう。 同添 付図面において、  The above and other objects, features and advantages of the present invention will become more apparent from the following description of preferred embodiments in conjunction with the accompanying drawings. In the accompanying drawings,
図 1は、 本発明の一実施形態による自動旋盤の全体構成を概略で 示す斜視図、 図 2は、 図 1の自動旋盤の概略正面図、 FIG. 1 is a perspective view schematically showing the overall configuration of an automatic lathe according to an embodiment of the present invention. Figure 2 is a schematic front view of the automatic lathe of Figure 1,
図 3は、 図 1の自動旋盤の概略平面図、  Fig. 3 is a schematic plan view of the automatic lathe of Fig. 1.
図 4は、 図 1の自動旋盤の主要部の拡大斜視図、  Fig. 4 is an enlarged perspective view of the main part of the automatic lathe of Fig. 1.
図 5は、 図 1の自動旋盤で遂行可能な加工作業の一例を模式図的 に示す図、  Fig. 5 is a diagram schematically showing an example of machining operations that can be performed by the automatic lathe of Fig. 1.
図 6は、 図 1の自動旋盤で遂行可能な加工作業の他の例を模式図 的に示す図、  Fig. 6 is a diagram schematically showing another example of machining operations that can be performed by the automatic lathe of Fig. 1.
図 7は、 図 1の自動旋盤で遂行可能な加工作業のさらに他の例を 模式図的に示す図、  FIG. 7 is a diagram schematically showing still another example of machining operations that can be performed by the automatic lathe of FIG.
図 8は、 図 1の自動旋盤で遂行可能な加工作業のさらに他の例を 模式図的に示す図、  FIG. 8 is a diagram schematically showing still another example of machining operations that can be performed by the automatic lathe of FIG.
図 9は、 図 1の自動旋盤で遂行可能な加工作業のさらに他の例を 模式図的に示す図、  FIG. 9 is a diagram schematically showing still another example of machining operations that can be performed by the automatic lathe of FIG.
図 1 0は、 図 1の自動旋盤で遂行可能な加工作業のさらに他の例 を模式図的に示す図、  FIG. 10 is a diagram schematically showing still another example of machining operations that can be performed by the automatic lathe of FIG.
図 1 1は、 本発明の他の実施形態による自動旋盤の全体構成を概 略で示す斜視図、 及び  FIG. 11 is a perspective view schematically showing the overall configuration of an automatic lathe according to another embodiment of the present invention, and
図 1 2は、 本発明のさらに他の実施形態による自動旋盤の全体構 成を概略で示す斜視図である。 発明を実施するための最良の形態  FIG. 12 is a perspective view schematically showing the overall configuration of an automatic lathe according to still another embodiment of the present invention. BEST MODE FOR CARRYING OUT THE INVENTION
以下、 添付図面を参照して、 本発明の実施の形態を詳細に説明す る。 図面において、 同一又は類似の構成要素には共通の参照符号を 付す。  Hereinafter, embodiments of the present invention will be described in detail with reference to the accompanying drawings. In the drawings, the same or similar components are denoted by common reference numerals.
図面を参照すると、 図 1〜図 4は、 本発明の一実施形態による自 動旋盤 1 0を示す図、 図 5〜図 1 0は、 自動旋盤 1 0で実行可能な 種々の加工作業例を示す図である。 自動旋盤 1 0は、 1つの旋盤機 台に複数の刃物台を集約的に搭載し、 各刃物台に装着したパイ ト、 ドリル、 フライス等の種々の工具により、 主軸に把持したワークに 対し異なる種類の自動加工 (例えば外丸削り と中ぐり) を同時に又 は任意順序で遂行できるようにした、 多機能構造を有するものであ る。 このような多機能型の自動旋盤 1 0は、 例えば数値制御 (N C ) 旋盤としての制御構成を有することができる。 なお、 本発明に係 る自動旋盤が有する主軸及び刃物台の個数、 配置、 形式等は、 図示 実施形態の構成に限定されない。 Referring to the drawings, FIGS. 1 to 4 are diagrams showing an automatic lathe 10 according to an embodiment of the present invention, and FIGS. 5 to 10 are examples of various machining operations that can be performed by an automatic lathe 10. FIG. Automatic lathe 1 0, 1 lathe machine Multiple turrets are centrally mounted on the platform, and different types of automatic machining (for example, external rounding and medium machining) are performed on workpieces held on the spindle by various tools such as pipes, drills, and millers mounted on each turret. It has a multi-functional structure that can be performed simultaneously or in any order. Such a multifunctional automatic lathe 10 can have a control configuration as a numerical control (NC) lathe, for example. Note that the number, arrangement, type, and the like of the spindle and the tool post included in the automatic lathe according to the present invention are not limited to the configuration of the illustrated embodiment.
図 1〜図 3に示すように、 自動旋盤 1 0は、 旋盤機台 1 2 と、 旋 盤機台 1 2に搭載され、 回転軸線 1 4 aを有する主軸 1 4と、 主軸 1 4に対して個々に移動可能に旋盤機台 1 2 に搭載され、 それぞれ に複数の工具 1 6が装着される第 1及び第 2の刃物台 1 8 、 2 0 と を備える。 自動旋盤 1 0はさらに、 任意の追加機構として、 主軸 1 4の回転軸線 1 4 aに平行な回転軸線 2 2 aを有して、 主軸 1 4に 対向配置可能に旋盤機台 1 2 に搭載される背面主軸 2 2 と、 背面主 軸 2 2に対して移動可能に旋盤機台 1 2に搭載され、 複数の工具 1 6が装着される背面刃物台 2 4とを備える。 旋盤機台 1 2は、 主軸 1 4、 第 1及び第 2刃物台 1 8 、 2 0、 背面主軸 2 2並びに背面刃 物台 2 4を、 予め定めた直交 3軸座標系における複数の制御軸によ る制御下で、 移動可能に担持する。  As shown in FIGS. 1 to 3, the automatic lathe 10 is mounted on a lathe machine base 1 2, a lathe machine base 1 2, and a main spindle 14 having a rotation axis 1 4 a and a main spindle 14. The first and second tool rests 1 8 and 2 0 are mounted on a lathe machine base 12 so as to be individually movable, and a plurality of tools 16 are mounted on each of them. The automatic lathe 10 also has an optional additional mechanism with a rotation axis 2 2 a parallel to the rotation axis 14 of the spindle 14 and mounted on the lathe machine base 1 2 so that it can be placed opposite to the spindle 14 And a back tool post 2 4 which is mounted on a lathe machine base 1 2 so as to be movable with respect to the back spindle 2 2 and on which a plurality of tools 16 are mounted. A lathe machine base 1 2 includes a main spindle 14, first and second tool rests 18, 20, a rear main spindle 2 2, and a rear tool rest 2 4, which are controlled by a plurality of control axes in a predetermined orthogonal three-axis coordinate system. It is movably supported under the control of
主軸 1 4は、 旋盤外部から供給された棒状のワーク Wを把持して 回転する主要な (又は正面側の) 主軸であり、 その回転軸線 1 4 a を旋盤機台 1 2の設置床面から見て水平に配置して、 図示しない軸 受装置を介して主軸台 2 6に回転可能に内蔵される。 主軸 1 4は、 中空筒状の構造を有し、 その前端 (図で右端) 領域に、 後端側から 送給されたワーク Wを強固に把持可能なチヤック (例えばコレッ ト チャック) (図示せず) が設置される。 主軸台 2 6は、 旋盤機台 1 2の長手方向一端領域に設けられた主 軸搭載部 2 8に搭載される。 主軸搭載部 2 8には、 主軸台 2 6 を、 所定の直交 3軸座標系において、 主軸 1 4の回転軸線 1 4 aに平行 な送り制御軸 ( Z 1軸と称する) に沿った制御下で直線移動させる 主軸駆動機構 (図示せず) が設置される。 主軸駆動機構は、 Z 1軸 駆動源 (例えば A Cサ一ポモータ) 、 Z 1軸案内部材 (例えばスラ イ ドガイ ド) 、 送りねじ装置 (例えばポールねじ) 等を含んで構成 される。 したがって主軸 1 4は、 それ自体の回転軸線 1 4 aに平行 な Z 1軸の制御下で、 主軸駆動機構の作動により、 所定の送り動作 ス トロークに渡って、 主軸台 2 6 と共に直線往復動作する。 The main spindle 14 is the main (or front side) main spindle that grips and rotates the rod-shaped workpiece W supplied from the outside of the lathe, and its rotation axis 1 4 a is drawn from the installation floor of the lathe machine base 1 2 It is arranged horizontally as seen, and is rotatably incorporated in the headstock 26 via a bearing device (not shown). The main shaft 14 has a hollow cylindrical structure, and a chuck (for example, a collet chuck) (not shown) capable of firmly gripping the workpiece W fed from the rear end side in the front end (right end in the figure) region. Is installed. The headstock 26 is mounted on a spindle mounting portion 28 provided in one end region of the lathe machine base 12 in the longitudinal direction. In the spindle mounting portion 28, the spindle stock 26 is controlled under a feed control axis (referred to as Z1 axis) parallel to the rotation axis 14a of the spindle 14 in a predetermined orthogonal three-axis coordinate system. A spindle drive mechanism (not shown) is installed. The main shaft drive mechanism includes a Z 1 axis drive source (for example, an AC servo motor), a Z 1 axis guide member (for example, a slide guide), a feed screw device (for example, a pole screw), and the like. Therefore, the main spindle 14 reciprocates linearly with the headstock 2 6 over a predetermined feed stroke by the operation of the main spindle drive mechanism under the control of the Z 1 axis parallel to its own rotation axis 14 a. To do.
主軸台 2 6にはさらに、 主軸 1 4を回転駆動する回転駆動源 (例 えばビルトイン型 A Cサーポモータ) (図示せず) が内蔵される。 また主軸 1 4は、 回転軸線 1 4 aの周りの回転制御軸 (C軸と称す る) を有することができる。 その場合、 主軸回転駆動源を制御して 得られる C軸の位置決め割出動作により、 チャックに把持したヮー ク Wの端面や外周面の所望位置に、 所望の刃物台 1 8 、 2 0 に装備 した回転工具を用いて多様な加工を施すことが可能になる。  The headstock 26 further includes a rotation drive source (for example, a built-in AC servo motor) (not shown) that drives the spindle 14 to rotate. The main shaft 14 can have a rotation control axis (referred to as C axis) around the rotation axis 14 a. In this case, the desired turrets 1 8 and 2 0 are equipped at the desired positions on the end face and outer peripheral surface of the workpiece W gripped by the chuck by the C-axis positioning and indexing operation obtained by controlling the spindle rotation drive source. It is possible to perform various processes using the rotating tool.
旋盤機台 1 2の長手方向略中央には、 主軸搭載部 2 8 に隣接して 、 主軸 1 4の回転軸線 1 4 aから側方へずれた位置に、 コラム 3 0 が立設される。 コラム 3 0は、 主軸 1 4に近接する側の前面 (鉛直 面) 3 0 aに、 主軸回転軸線 1 4 aに直交する鉛直方向へ直線移動 可能に、 送り台 3 2 を担持する。 送り台 3 2は、 所定の直交 3軸座 標系において、 上記 Z 1軸に直交する送り制御軸 (Y 1軸と称する ) の制御下で、 コラム 3 0 に設置される送り台駆動機構 (図示せず ) の作動により、 所定の送り動作ス トロークに渡って直線往復動作 する。 なお、 送り台駆動機構は、 Y 1軸駆動源 (例えば A Cサーポ モータ) 、 Y 1軸案内部材 (例えばスライ ドガイ ド) 、 送りねじ装 置 (例えばポールねじ) 等を含んで構成される。 A column 30 is erected in the center of the lathe machine table 12 in the longitudinal direction, adjacent to the spindle mounting portion 2 8, at a position shifted laterally from the rotation axis 14 a of the spindle 14. The column 30 carries the feed base 3 2 so that it can move linearly in the vertical direction perpendicular to the spindle rotation axis 14 a on the front face (vertical face) 30 a close to the spindle 14. The feed base 3 2 is a feed base drive mechanism installed in the column 30 under the control of a feed control axis (referred to as Y 1 axis) perpendicular to the Z 1 axis in a predetermined orthogonal three-axis coordinate system. Actuation (not shown) causes linear reciprocation over a predetermined feed stroke. The feed base drive mechanism consists of a Y 1 axis drive source (eg, AC servo motor), a Y 1 axis guide member (eg, slide guide), and a feed screw assembly. (For example, a pole screw).
送り台 3 2は、 コラム 3 0の前面 3 0 aから主軸回転軸線 1 4 a に接近する方向へ水平に延長される一対のアーム 3 4を備える。 そ れらアーム 3 4は、 送り台 3 2上で鉛直方向へ互いに十分に離間し て固定的に配置される。 両アーム 3 4の先端には、 第 1及び第 2刃 物台 1 8 、 2 0の共通の支持部材である旋回台 3 6が、 主軸回転軸 線 1 4 aに直交する鉛直軸線 3 6 aを中心として旋回可能に担持さ れる。  The feed base 32 includes a pair of arms 3 4 that extend horizontally from the front surface 30 a of the column 30 in a direction approaching the spindle rotation axis 14 a. These arms 3 4 are fixedly arranged on the feed base 32 so as to be sufficiently separated from each other in the vertical direction. A swivel base 3 6, which is a common support member for the first and second tool rests 18, 20, is provided at the tips of both arms 3 4, and a vertical axis 3 6 a perpendicular to the spindle rotation axis 14 a It is supported so that it can turn around.
旋回台 3 6は、 所定の直交 3軸座標系において、 上記 Y 1軸に平 行な旋回制御軸 (B軸と称する) の制御下で、 送り台 3 2に設置さ れる旋回台駆動機構 (図示せず) の作動により、 予め定めた角度範 囲に渡って旋回往復動作する。 なお、 旋回台駆動機構は、 B軸駆動 源 (例えば A Cサーポモータ) 、 動力伝達装置 (例えば歯車列) 等 を含んで構成される。  The swivel base 36 is a swivel base drive mechanism installed on the feed base 32 under the control of a swivel control axis (referred to as the B axis) parallel to the Y 1 axis in a predetermined orthogonal three-axis coordinate system. (Not shown), the reciprocating motion is performed over a predetermined angle range. The swivel base drive mechanism includes a B-axis drive source (for example, an AC servo motor), a power transmission device (for example, a gear train), and the like.
旋回台 3 6は、 略直角三角形の断面形状を有する角柱状部材であ り、 互いに直交する一対の側面のそれぞれに、 略平坦な刃物台支持 面 3 8 、 4 0が形成される。 旋回台 3 6は、 それら刃物台支持面 3 8 、 4 0の交線を越える方向へ固定的に延設される一対のアーム 4 2を介して、 両刃物台支持面 3 8 、 4 0 を、 旋回軸線 3 6 aに平行 な鉛直姿勢に配置した状態で、 送り台 3 2の一対のアーム 3 4に旋 回可能に支持される。  The swivel base 36 is a prismatic member having a cross section of a substantially right triangle, and substantially flat tool rest support surfaces 3 8 and 40 are formed on each of a pair of side surfaces orthogonal to each other. The swivel base 36 has a pair of turret support surfaces 3 8, 4 0 via a pair of arms 4 2 that are fixedly extended in a direction beyond the intersecting line of the turret support surfaces 3 8, 40. In a state where it is arranged in a vertical posture parallel to the turning axis 3 6 a, it is rotatably supported by the pair of arms 3 4 of the feed base 3 2.
旋回台 3 6の一方の刃物台支持面 3 8 には、 第 1刃物台 1 8力 S、 旋回軸線 3 6 aに直交する水平方向へ直線移動可能に支持される。 第 1刃物台 1 8は、 所定の直交 3軸座標系において、 上記 Y 1軸に 直交する送り制御軸 (X I軸と称する) の制御下で、 旋回台 3 6 に 設置される第 1刃物台駆動機構 (図示せず) の作動により、 所定の 送り動作ス トロークに渡って直線往復動作する。 なお、 第 1刃物台 駆動機構は、 X I軸駆動源 (例えば A Cサーポモ一夕) 、 X I軸案 内部材 (例えばスライ ドガイ ド) 、 送りねじ装置 (例えばボールね じ) 等を含んで構成される。 また図示実施形態では、 第 1刃物台 1 8は、 第 1刃物台駆動機構を介して旋回台 3 6に可動支持される刃 物台テ一ブル 4 4に、 固定して設置される。 The first tool post 18 8 force S is supported on one tool post supporting surface 3 8 of the swivel base 36 so that it can move linearly in the horizontal direction perpendicular to the swivel axis 3 6 a. The first tool post 18 is a first tool post installed on the swivel base 3 6 under the control of the feed control axis (referred to as the XI axis) orthogonal to the Y 1 axis in a predetermined orthogonal three-axis coordinate system. Actuation of a drive mechanism (not shown) causes linear reciprocation over a predetermined feed stroke. The first tool post The drive mechanism is configured to include an XI axis drive source (for example, AC surfamo), an XI axis plan member (for example, a slide guide), a feed screw device (for example, a ball screw), and the like. In the illustrated embodiment, the first tool post 18 is fixedly installed on a tool post table 44 that is movably supported by the swivel base 36 via the first tool post drive mechanism.
第 1刃物台 1 8は、 複数の工具 1 6が並列配置で装着されるく し 歯刃物台の構成を有する。 く し歯構造の第 1刃物台 1 8には、 バイ ト、 ドリル、 フライス等の種々の工具 1 6が、 旋回台 3 6の旋回軸 線 3 6 aに平行な鉛直方向へ並列して、 それぞれの刃先を旋回軸線 3 6 aに近接対向させる水平姿勢で、 固定的に保持される。 なお図 示実施形態では、 第 1刃物台 1 8は、 バイ ト等の複数の旋削工具 1 6 Aを並列配置で保持できる第 1保持部 1 8 Aと、 フライス等の複 数の回転工具 1 6 Bを並列配置で保持できる第 2保持部 1 8 Bとを 備えている (図 2及び図 4参照) 。  The first turret 18 has a comb-tooth turret configuration in which a plurality of tools 16 are mounted in a parallel arrangement. In the first turret 18 having a comb-tooth structure, various tools 16 such as a byte, a drill, and a miller are arranged in parallel in a vertical direction parallel to the swivel axis 3 6 a of the swivel base 3 6. Each blade edge is fixedly held in a horizontal posture in which it faces the swivel axis 36a. In the illustrated embodiment, the first tool post 18 includes a first holding portion 1 8 A capable of holding a plurality of turning tools 1 6 A such as a byte in parallel arrangement, and a plurality of rotating tools 1 such as a milling cutter 1. 6 B has a second holding section 18 B that can hold B in a parallel arrangement (see Figs. 2 and 4).
旋回台 3 6の他方の刃物台支持面 4 0には、 第 2刃物台 2 0が、 旋回軸線 3 6 aに直交する水平方向へ直線移動可能に支持される。 第 2刃物台 2 0は、 所定の直交 3軸座標系において、 上記 Y 1軸及 び X 1軸の双方に直交する送り制御軸 (X 2軸と称する) の制御下 で、 旋回台 3 6 に設置される第 2刃物台駆動機構 (図示せず) の作 動により、 所定の送り動作ストロークに渡って直線往復動作する。 なお、 第 2刃物台駆動機構は、 X 2軸駆動源 (例えば A Cサーポモ 一夕) 、 X 2軸案内部材 (例えばスライ ドガイ ド) 、 送りねじ装置 (例えばポールねじ) 等を含んで構成される。 また図示実施形態で は、 第 2刃物台 2 0は、 第 2刃物台駆動機構を介して旋回台 3 6 に 可動支持される刃物台テーブル 4 6に、 固定して設置される。  The second tool rest 20 is supported on the other tool rest supporting surface 40 of the swivel base 36 so as to be linearly movable in the horizontal direction perpendicular to the swivel axis 36 a. The second tool post 20 is a swivel base 3 6 under the control of a feed control axis (referred to as X2 axis) orthogonal to both the Y1 axis and the X1 axis in a predetermined orthogonal three-axis coordinate system. A second turret drive mechanism (not shown) installed on the machine moves back and forth linearly over a predetermined feed stroke. The second turret drive mechanism includes an X 2 axis drive source (for example, AC surfamo), an X 2 axis guide member (for example, a slide guide), a feed screw device (for example, a pole screw), and the like. . In the illustrated embodiment, the second tool post 20 is fixedly installed on a tool post table 46 that is movably supported by the swivel base 36 via a second tool post drive mechanism.
第 2刃物台 2 0は、 複数の工具 1 6が並列配置で装着されるく し 歯刃物台の構成を有する。 く し歯構造の第 ·2刃物台 2 0には、 バイ ト、 ドリル、 フライス等の種々の工具 1 6が、 旋回台 3 6の旋回軸 線 3 6 aに平行な鉛直方向へ並列して、 それぞれの刃先を旋回軸線The second tool post 20 has a comb tooth post configuration in which a plurality of tools 16 are mounted in a parallel arrangement. Comb tooth structure 2nd tool post 20 Various tools such as drills, drills, and millers 1 6 are arranged in parallel in the vertical direction parallel to the swivel axis 3 6 a of the swivel base 3 6, and the respective cutting edges are arranged in the swivel axis.
3 6 aに近接対向させる水平姿勢で、 固定的に保持される。 なお図 示実施形態では、 第 2刃物台 2 0は、 第 1刃物台 1 8 と同様に、 バ ィ ト等の複数の旋削工具 1 6 Aを並列配置で保持できる第 1保持部3 6 Holds in a horizontal position, close to and facing a. In the illustrated embodiment, the second tool post 20 is, like the first tool post 18, a first holding unit that can hold a plurality of turning tools 16 A such as a byte in a parallel arrangement.
2 O Aと、 フライス等の複数の回転工具 1 6 Bを並列配置で保持で きる第 2保持部 2 0 Bとを備えている (図 2及び図 4参照) 。 2 O A and a second holding part 20 B capable of holding a plurality of rotary tools 16 B such as a milling cutter in parallel arrangement (see FIGS. 2 and 4).
上記構成により、 自動旋盤 1 0においては、 第 1及び第 2刃物台 1 8、 2 0は、 旋回台 3 6上で、 互いに異なる送り制御軸 (X I軸 及び X 2軸) の制御下で独立して直線動作でき、 旋回台 3 6は、 送 り台 3 2上で、 第 1及び第 2刃物台 1 8、 2 0のそれぞれの直線動 作方向に交差する軸線 3 6 aを中心として旋回制御軸 (B軸) の制 御下で旋回動作でき、 送り台 3 2は、 旋盤機台 1 2上で、 旋回台 3 6の軸線 3 6 aに平行な方向へ、 第 1及び第 2刃物台 1 8、 2 0の 送り制御軸 (X I軸及び X 2軸) とは異なる送り制御軸 (Y 1軸) の制御下で直線動作できる。  With the above configuration, in the automatic lathe 10, the first and second tool rests 18, 20 are independent on the swivel base 36 under the control of different feed control axes (XI axis and X 2 axis). The swivel base 3 6 swivels on the feed base 3 2 about the axis 3 6 a that intersects the linear movement directions of the first and second tool rests 1 8 and 20. It can be swiveled under the control of the control axis (B axis). The feed base 3 2 is on the lathe machine base 1 2 in the direction parallel to the axis 3 6 a of the swivel base 3 6. The linear movement can be performed under the control of the feed control axis (Y 1 axis) different from the feed control axes (XI axis and X 2 axis) of the bases 18 and 20.
したがって、 第 1刃物台 1 8は、 送り台 3 2の Y 1軸送り動作に よって第 1刃物台 1 8上で割出選択した所望の工具 1 6 を、 送り台 Therefore, the first turret 1 8 is fed with the desired tool 16 selected and indexed on the first turret 1 8 by the Y 1 axis feed operation of the feed base 3 2.
3 2上での旋回台 3 6の B軸旋回動作により、 主軸 1 4に把持した ワーク Wに対し所望の対向角度に配置し、 その状態で、 当該工具 1 6の刃先を、 旋回台 3 6上での第 1刃物台 1 8 自体の X I軸送り動 作と前述した主軸 1 4の Z 1軸送り動作との協働により、 ワーク W に対し加工動作させることができる。 同様に、 第 2刃物台 2 0は、 送り台 3 2の Y 1軸送り動作によって第 2刃物台 2 0上で割出選択 した所望の工具 1 6を、 送り台 3 2上での旋回台 3 6 の B軸旋回動 作により、 主軸 1 4に把持したワーク Wに対し所望の対向角度に配 置し、 その状態で、 当該工具 1 6の刃先を、 旋回台 3 6上での第 2 刃物台 2 0 自体の X 2軸送り動作と前述した主軸 1 4の Z 1軸送り 動作との協働により、 ワーク Wに対し加工動作させることができる 。 このようにして、 主軸 1 4に把持したワーク Wを、 第 1刃物台 1 8上の所望の工具 1 6 と第 2刃物台 2 0上の所望の工具 1 6 との同 時又は選択的 (或いは交互的) 使用により、 所望形状に加工するこ とができる。 3 With the swivel base 3 2 on the B axis swivel movement of 6 6, it is placed at the desired facing angle with respect to the work W gripped by the main spindle 1 4, and in this state, the cutting edge of the tool 1 6 is placed on the swivel base 3 6 The workpiece W can be machined by the cooperation of the XI axis feed operation of the first tool post 1 8 and the Z 1 axis feed operation of the spindle 14 described above. Similarly, the second tool post 20 is the swivel base on the feed base 32 with the desired tool 16 selected and indexed on the second tool post 20 by the Y 1 axis feed operation of the feed base 32. Place the tool tip of the tool 16 in the second position on the swivel base 3 6 by placing it at the desired facing angle with respect to the work W gripped on the main spindle 14 by the B-axis turning operation of 36. The workpiece W can be machined by the cooperation of the X 2 axis feed operation of the tool post 20 itself and the Z 1 axis feed operation of the spindle 14 described above. In this way, the workpiece W gripped by the spindle 14 can be simultaneously or selectively used by the desired tool 16 on the first tool post 18 and the desired tool 16 on the second tool post 20 ( (Alternatively) By using it, it can be processed into a desired shape.
このように、 自動旋盤 1 0では、 旋盤機台 1 2上で軸線 3 6 aを 中心として旋回動作する旋回台 3 6に、 軸線 3 6 aに交差する方向 へ直線送り動作可能に第 1及び第 2刃物台 1 8 、 2 0を設置してい る。 それにより、 例えば、 主軸 1 4に把持したワーク Wに対し、 主 軸回転軸線 1 4 aに斜交する方向への穴あけ加工を施す場合に、 B 軸制御下で旋回台 3 6 を軸線 3 6 aに関して指定角度に配置した状 態で、 指定工具 1 6を装着した第 1又は第 2刃物台 1 8 、 2 0 を、 それ自体の送り制御軸 (X I軸又は X 2軸) の制御下で直線送り動 作させるだけで、 指定の斜め穴を形成できる。 したがって、 この種 の加工作業に際し、 第 1及び第 2刃物台 1 8 、 2 0 の送り動作制御 が容易になり、 いずれか 1つの制御軸に配備した送り機構 (刃物台 駆動機構) のみを動作させればよいので、 工具 1 6の高水準の位置 決め精度を容易に確保することができる。  Thus, in the automatic lathe 10, it is possible to perform the linear feed operation in the direction crossing the axis 3 6 a to the swivel base 3 6 that rotates about the axis 3 6 a on the lathe machine base 1 2. Second turrets 18 and 20 are installed. Thus, for example, when drilling the workpiece W gripped by the spindle 14 in the direction oblique to the spindle rotation axis 14a, the swivel base 3 6 is moved to the axis 3 6 under the B axis control. The first or second tool post 1 8, 2 0 fitted with the specified tool 16 is placed under the control of its own feed control axis (XI axis or X 2 axis) in a state of being arranged at the specified angle with respect to a. The specified diagonal hole can be formed simply by moving it linearly. Therefore, during this type of machining operation, the feed operation control of the first and second tool rests 18 and 20 becomes easy, and only the feed mechanism (turret drive mechanism) provided on one of the control axes operates. Therefore, a high level positioning accuracy of the tool 16 can be easily secured.
また、 自動旋盤 1 0では、 図示のように、 旋回台 3 6の旋回軸線 3 6 aを、 第 1及び第 2刃物台 1 8 、 2 0に装着される複数の工具 1 6の刃先の、 実質的前方に配置する機械構成を、 容易に実現でき る。 このような構成によれば、 個々の工具 1 6によるワーク加工点 を、 第 1及び第 2刃物台 1 8 、 2 0の共通の旋回軸線 3 6 aに、 可 及的に近接して設定することができる。 したがって、 加工作業中の 切削抵抗により旋回台 3 6の駆動機構へ負荷されるモーメント トル クが減少し、 駆動機構の出力増加や減速機、 ブレーキ等の付属機器 の追加装備を要することなく、 第 1及び第 2刃物台 1 8、 2 0 (す なわち工具 1 6 ) を高精度に位置決め保持して加工精度を向上させ ることができる。 その結果、 自動旋盤 1 0の全体寸法を効果的に削 減することができる。 Further, in the automatic lathe 10, as shown in the figure, the swivel axis 3 6 a of the swivel base 36 is connected to the cutting edges of a plurality of tools 16 mounted on the first and second tool rests 18, 20. A machine configuration that is arranged substantially forward can be easily realized. According to such a configuration, the workpiece machining point by each tool 16 is set as close as possible to the common pivot axis 3 6 a of the first and second tool rests 18, 20. be able to. Therefore, the moment torque applied to the drive mechanism of the swivel base 36 is reduced by the cutting resistance during the machining operation, and the output of the drive mechanism is increased and accessories such as reducers and brakes are added. Without the need for additional equipment, the first and second tool rests 18 and 20 (that is, the tool 16) can be positioned and held with high accuracy to improve the machining accuracy. As a result, the overall dimensions of the automatic lathe 10 can be effectively reduced.
さらに、 工具 1 6によるワーク加工点を第 1及び第 2刃物台 1 8 、 2 0の旋回軸線 3 6 aに可及的に近接して設定できることから、 旋盤機台 1 2上で旋回台 3 6を介して両刃物台 1 8 、 2 0 を旋回可 能に担持する送り台 3 2 と、 各刃物台 1 8 、 2 0上の個々の工具 1 6 によ ワーク加工点との位置関係は、 旋回台 3 6が旋回しても実 質的に変化しないことになる。 したがって、 加工工程の進行に伴い 旋回台 3 6 を旋回させたときに、 使用工具 1 6 をワーク加工点に移 動させるための旋回台 3 6上での各刃物台 1 8 、 2 0の送り動作ス トロークは、 退避位置から前進させるだけの必要最小限の移動量と することができる。 その結果、 自動旋盤 1 0の全体寸法を効果的に 削減することができる。  Furthermore, since the workpiece machining point by the tool 16 can be set as close as possible to the swivel axis 3 6 a of the first and second tool rests 18, 20, the swivel base 3 on the lathe machine base 1 2 The positional relationship between the workpiece machining point by the feed table 3 2 that supports the two turrets 1 8 and 20 through the 6 and the individual tools 1 6 on the turrets 1 8 and 20 is Even if the swivel base 3 6 turns, there will be no substantial change. Therefore, when the swivel base 3 6 is swung as the machining process progresses, each tool post 1 8, 20 on the swivel base 3 6 is moved to move the tool 16 to the workpiece machining point. The motion stroke can be the minimum amount of movement required to advance from the retracted position. As a result, the overall dimensions of the automatic lathe 10 can be effectively reduced.
このように、 本発明に係る自動旋盤 1 0は、 主軸 1 4に対して個 々に移動可能な第 1及び第 2刃物台 1 8 、 2 0上の多種類の工具 1 6 により、 ワーク Wに多彩な加工を施す多機能性を維持しつつ、 自 動旋盤 1 0の全体寸法を効果的に削減でき、 しかも工具 1 6の高水 準の位置決め精度を確保できる、 高性能のものとなる。  As described above, the automatic lathe 10 according to the present invention is configured so that the first and second tool rests 18 and 20 that can be individually moved with respect to the spindle 14 are used to work the workpiece W. It is possible to effectively reduce the overall dimensions of the automatic lathe 10 while maintaining the versatility of applying various machining to the tool. .
図示実施形態による自動旋盤 1 0は、 旋回台 3 6 の旋回軸線 3 6 aが、 主軸 1 4の回転軸線 1 4 aに直交する構成を採用してい 。 したがって、 第 1及び第 2刃物台 1 8 、 2 0 の少なく とも一方にお いて、 回転工具 1 6 Bを、 それ自体の回転軸線 (すなわち工具.軸線 ) が旋回台 3 6の旋回軸線 3 6 aに直交する位置に装着することに より、 後述するように、 主軸 1 4に把持したワーク Wの軸線方向端 面の中心に、 穴あけ加工を施すことができる。 また、 図示実施形態による自動旋盤 1 0は、 第 1刃物台 1 8 と第 2刃物台 2 0 とが、 旋回台 3 6に、 旋回軸線 3 6 aを実質的中心と して放射状に互いに異なる方向 (X I軸及び X 2軸) へ直線動作可 能に支持される構成を採用している。 したがって、 後述するように 、 旋回台 3 6上で 2つの刃物台 1 8、 2 0 を個々に送り動作させる ことで、 主軸 1 4に把持したワーク Wに対し、 異なる種類の自動加 ェ (例えば外丸削り と中ぐり) を同時に又は任意順序で遂行できる さ らに、 図示実施形態による自動旋盤 1 0では、 第 1及び第 2刃 物台 1 8、 2 0の各々を、 複数の工具 1 6が並列配置で装着される く し歯刃物台として構成し、 旋回台 3 6上での各刃物台 1 8、 2 0 の直線動作方向を、 旋回軸線 3 6 aに直交するとともに複数の工具 1 6の並列方向に直交する方向に設定している。 したがって、 加工 プログラムで必要とされる多種類の工具 1 6 を予め第 1及び第 2刃 物台 1 8、 2 0に装着しておき、 加工プログラムに従い各刃物台 1 8、 2 0から所望の工具 1 6 を迅速に選択して加工作業を遂行でき るので、 サイクルタイムを効果的に削減することができる。 The automatic lathe 10 according to the illustrated embodiment employs a configuration in which the swivel axis 36 a of the swivel base 36 is orthogonal to the rotation axis 14 a of the main shaft 14. Therefore, in at least one of the first and second tool rests 18, 20, the rotary tool 16 B has its own rotation axis (ie, tool.axis) as the swivel axis 3 6 of the swivel base 3 6. By mounting at a position orthogonal to a, as will be described later, it is possible to drill a hole in the center of the axial end surface of the workpiece W gripped by the spindle 14. Further, in the automatic lathe 10 according to the illustrated embodiment, the first tool rest 18 and the second tool rest 20 are radially different from each other on the swivel base 36 and the swivel axis 36a. A configuration that supports linear movement in the direction (XI axis and X 2 axis) is adopted. Therefore, as will be described later, by moving the two tool rests 18 and 20 individually on the swivel base 36, different types of automatic processing (for example, the workpiece W gripped by the spindle 14) (for example, In addition, in the automatic lathe 10 according to the illustrated embodiment, each of the first and second tool rests 1 8 and 2 0 can be replaced with a plurality of tools 1 6 Are configured as comb tooth turrets mounted in parallel, and the linear motion direction of each turret 18 and 20 on the swivel base 36 is perpendicular to the swivel axis 3 6 a and a plurality of tools 1 The direction perpendicular to the 6 parallel directions is set. Therefore, various types of tools 16 required by the machining program are mounted on the first and second tool rests 1 8 and 20 in advance, and each tool rest 1 8 and 2 0 according to the machining program can be used as desired. Since the tool 16 can be selected quickly and the machining operation can be performed, the cycle time can be effectively reduced.
さ らに、 図示実施形態による自動旋盤 1 0は、 旋回台 3 6 を旋盤 機台 1 2上で旋回可能に支持する送り台 3 2 を、 旋回軸線 3 6 aに 平行な方向へ、 第 1及び第 2刃物台 1 8、 2 0の送り制御軸 (X 1 軸、 X 2軸) とは異なる送り制御軸 (Y 1軸) の制御下で直線動作 可能に旋盤機台 1 2に設置している。 したがって、 送り台 3 2の Y 1軸送り動作により、 第 1及び第 2刃物台 1 8、 2 0から所望のェ 具 1 6 を容易に選択することができる。  Further, the automatic lathe 10 according to the illustrated embodiment is configured so that the feed base 3 2 that supports the swivel base 3 6 so as to be capable of swiveling on the lathe machine base 1 2 is arranged in a direction parallel to the swivel axis 3 6 a. And the second tool post 1 8 and 20 are installed on a lathe table 1 2 so that they can move linearly under the control of the feed control axis (Y 1 axis) different from the feed control axes (X 1 axis, X 2 axis). ing. Therefore, the desired tool 16 can be easily selected from the first and second tool rests 18 and 20 by the Y 1 axis feed operation of the feed base 3 2.
図示実施形態による自動旋盤 1 0では、 主軸 1 4が、 主軸回転軸 線 1 4 aに平行で旋回台 3 6の旋回軸線 3 6 aに直交する方向へ、 第 1及び第 2刃物台 1 8、 2 0の送り制御軸 (X I軸、 X 2軸) と は異なる送り制御軸 ( Z 1軸) の制御下で直線動作可能に、 旋盤機 台 1 2 に設置される構成を採用している。 したがって、 主軸 1 4の Z 1軸送り動作と、 第 1又は第 2刃物台 1 8、 2 0の X I軸又は X 2軸送り動作との協働により、 ワーク Wに多彩な加工を施すことが できる。 In the automatic lathe 10 according to the illustrated embodiment, the main spindle 14 is parallel to the main spindle rotational axis 14 a in a direction perpendicular to the pivot axis 3 6 a of the swivel base 36 and the first and second tool rests 1 8 , 20 feed control axes (XI axis, X 2 axes) and Adopts a configuration that is installed on a lathe table 1 2 so that it can operate linearly under the control of different feed control axes (Z 1 axis). Therefore, the workpiece W can be processed in various ways by cooperating with the Z 1 axis feed operation of the main spindle 14 and the XI axis or X 2 axis feed operations of the first or second tool post 18 8, 20. it can.
上記構成においては、 図示のように、 主軸 1 4と第 1及び第 2刃 物台 1 8、 2 0 との間に位置するガイ ドブッシュ 4 8 をさらに装備 することが有利である。 ガイ ドブッシュ 4 8は、 主軸台 2 6を担持 する主軸搭載部 2 8から、 送り台 3 2の両アーム 3 4の間に介入す るように延設される第 2コラム 5 0 に支持されて、 主軸 1 4の回転 軸線 1 4 aに対し同軸に配置される。 ガイ ドブッシュ 4 8は、 主軸 1 4に把持されたワーク Wの先端の被加工領域を、 加工作業中に振 れが生じないように心出し支持する。 ガイ ドブッシュ 4 8は、 固定 型ガイ ドブッシュと回転型ガイ ドブッシュとのいずれかの、 公知の 構造を有することができる。 この場合、 旋回台 3 6の旋回軸線 3 6 aは、 ガイ ドブッシュ 4 8のワーク送出端面 4 8 a (図 3 ) に近接 して配置される。  In the above configuration, as shown in the figure, it is advantageous to further provide a guide bush 48 located between the main shaft 14 and the first and second tool rests 18, 20. The guide bush 48 is supported by a second column 50 extending so as to intervene between both arms 3 4 of the feed base 3 2 from the spindle mounting portion 28 that carries the spindle base 26. The main shaft 14 is arranged coaxially with the rotation axis 14 a. The guide bush 48 supports the work area at the tip of the workpiece W gripped by the main spindle 14 so as to center and support it so that no vibration occurs during the machining operation. The guide bush 48 can have a known structure of either a fixed guide bush or a rotary guide bush. In this case, the swivel axis 36 a of the swivel base 36 is disposed close to the workpiece sending end face 48 a (FIG. 3) of the guide bush 48.
また、 図示実施形態による自動旋盤 1 0は、 前述したように、 主 軸 1 4に対向配置可能な背面主軸 2 2 と、 背面主軸 2 2に対して加 ェ動作する背面刃物台 2 4とを備えている。 背面主軸 2 2は、 正面 側の主軸 1 4から受け渡された一部加工済みのワーク (図示せず) を把持して回転する補助的な主軸であり、 その回転軸線 2 2 aを旋 盤機台 1 2の設置床面から見て水平に配置して、 図示しない軸受装 置を介して背面主軸台 5 2に回転自在に内蔵される。 背面主軸 2 2 は、 中空筒状の構造を有し、 その前端領域に、 対向する主軸 1 4 ( 又はガイ ドブッシュ 4 8 ) から送出されたワークを強固に把持可能 なチャック (例えばコレッ トチャック) (図示せず) が設置される 背面主軸台 5 2は、 旋盤機台 1 2上で主軸搭載部 2 8の反対側に 設けられた背面主軸搭載部 5 4に搭載される。 背面主軸搭載部 5 4 は、 背面主軸 2 2の回転軸線 2 2 aに直交する鉛直方向へ直線移動 可能に送り台 5 6 を担持し、 この送り台 5 6 に、 背面主軸台 5 2が 、 背面主軸回転軸線 2 2 aに平行な水平方向へ直線移動可能に担持 される。 背面主軸搭載部 5 4及び送り台 5 6 には、 背面主軸台 5 2 を、 所定の直交 3軸座標系において、 背面主軸回転軸線 2 2 aに直 交する送り制御軸 (Y 2軸と称する) に沿った制御下で直線移動さ せるとともに、 背面主軸回転軸線 2 2 aに平行な送り制御軸 (Z 2 軸と称する) に沿った制御下で直線移動させる背面主軸駆動機構 ( 図示せず) が設置される。 背面主軸駆動機構は、 Y 2軸駆動源 (例 えば A Cサ一ポモータ) 、 Z 2軸駆動源 (例えば A Cサーポモー夕 ) 、 Y 2軸案内部材 (例えばスライ ドガイ ド) 、 Z 2軸案内部材 ( 例えばスライ ドガイ ド) 、 送りねじ装置 (例えばポールねじ) 等を 含んで構成される。 したがって背面主軸 2 2は、 それ自体の回転軸 線 2 2 aに直交する Y 2軸及び平行な Z 2軸の制御下で、 背面主軸 駆動機構の作動により、 所定の送り動作ス トロークに渡って、 背面 主軸台 5 2 と共に直線往復動作する。 In addition, as described above, the automatic lathe 10 according to the illustrated embodiment includes the back spindle 2 2 that can be disposed opposite to the spindle 14 and the back tool post 24 that moves with respect to the back spindle 2 2. I have. The rear spindle 2 2 is an auxiliary spindle that rotates by gripping a partly processed workpiece (not shown) passed from the front spindle 14 and turning the rotary axis 2 2 a. It is arranged horizontally when viewed from the installation floor of the machine base 12 and is rotatably incorporated in the rear headstock 52 via a bearing device (not shown). The back main shaft 2 2 has a hollow cylindrical structure, and a chuck (for example, a collet chuck) that can firmly hold a workpiece fed from the main shaft 14 (or the guide bush 48) opposed to the front end region of the rear main shaft 2 2. (Not shown) is installed The rear spindle stock 5 2 is mounted on the rear spindle mounting portion 5 4 provided on the opposite side of the spindle mounting portion 28 on the lathe machine base 12. The rear spindle mounting portion 5 4 carries a feed base 5 6 that can move linearly in the vertical direction perpendicular to the rotation axis 2 2 a of the rear spindle 2 2, and the rear spindle base 5 2 It is supported so that it can move linearly in the horizontal direction parallel to the back spindle rotation axis 2 2 a. The back spindle mounting part 5 4 and the feed base 5 6 include a back spindle base 5 2, a feed control axis (referred to as Y 2 axis) that is orthogonal to the back spindle rotation axis 2 2 a in a predetermined orthogonal three-axis coordinate system. ) Drive backside spindle drive mechanism (not shown) that moves linearly under control along the feed control axis (referred to as Z 2 axis) parallel to back spindle rotation axis 2 2 a ) Is installed. The back spindle drive mechanism consists of a Y 2 axis drive source (eg, AC support motor), a Z 2 axis drive source (eg, AC servo motor), a Y 2 axis guide member (eg, slide guide), a Z 2 axis guide member ( For example, a slide guide), a feed screw device (for example, a pole screw) and the like are included. Therefore, the back spindle 22 is controlled over the predetermined feed stroke by the operation of the back spindle drive mechanism under the control of the Y 2 axis orthogonal to its own rotation axis 2 2 a and the parallel Z 2 axis. , Back It moves linearly with the headstock 5 2.
背面刃物台 2 4は、 旋回台 3 6の一方の刃物台支持面 3 8に可動 支持される刃物台テーブル 4 4に、 第 1刃物台 1 8 と共に固定して 、 第 1刃物台 1 8 の後背側に設置される。 したがって、 背面刃物台 2 4は、 所定の直交 3軸座標系における X 1軸の制御下で、 第 1刃 物台 1 8の送り動作に同期して、 所定の送り動作ス トロークに渡つ て直線往復動作する。 背面刃物台 2 4は、 複数の工具 1 6が並列配 置で装着されるく し歯刃物台の構成を有する。 図示実施形態では、 背面刃物台 2 4には、 フライス等の種々の回転工具 1 6 Bカ^ 旋回 台 3 6の旋回軸線 3 6 aに平行な鉛直方向へ並列して、 それぞれの 刃先を旋回軸線 3 6 aから離反させる水平姿勢で、 固定的に保持さ れる (図 2及び図 4参照) 。 The rear tool post 24 is fixed together with the first tool post 1 8 to the tool post table 4 4 movably supported by one of the tool post support surfaces 3 8 of the swivel base 36 and the first tool post 1 8. Installed on the back side. Therefore, the back tool post 24 is synchronized with the feed operation of the first tool post 18 under the control of the X1 axis in a predetermined orthogonal three-axis coordinate system, and passes over a predetermined feed operation stroke. Reciprocates linearly. The back tool post 24 has a comb-tooth tool post configuration in which a plurality of tools 16 are mounted in a parallel arrangement. In the illustrated embodiment, the back tool post 24 has various rotary tools such as milling cutters. The blades 36 are fixedly held in a horizontal posture in parallel with the pivot axis 36a of the base 36 in a horizontal direction in which each blade edge is separated from the pivot axis 36a (see FIGS. 2 and 4).
したがって、 背面刃物台 2 4は、 送り台 3 2の Y 1軸送り動作及 び背面主軸 2 2用の送り台 5 6の Y 2軸送り動作 2 4の少なく とも 一方によって背面刃物台 2 4上で割出選択した所望の工具 1 6 を、 送り台 3 2上での旋回台 3 6の B軸旋回動作により、 背面主軸 2 2 に把持したワークに対し、 ワーク軸線に平行な対向角度に配置し、 その状態で、 当該工具 1 6の刃先を、 旋回台 3 6上での背面刃物台 2 4 自体の X I軸送り動作と背面主軸 2 2の Y 2軸及び Z 2軸送り 動作との協働により、.ワークに対し加工動作させることができる。 それにより、 背面主軸 2 2に把持したワークを、 背面刃物台 2 4上 の所望の工具 1 6により、 所望形状に加工することができる。 この 背面加工は、 第 1及び第 2刃物台 1 8、 2 0上の所望の工具 1 6で 、 主軸 1 4に把持したワーク Wを加工する間に、 同時に遂行するこ とができる。 なお、 背面刃物台 2 4を、 旋回台 3 6の他方の刃物台 支持面 4 0 に可動支持される刃物台テ一ブル 4 6に、 第 2刃物台 2 0 と共に固定して設置することもできる。  Therefore, the rear turret 2 4 is connected to the rear turret 2 4 by at least one of the Y 1 axis feed operation of the feed base 3 2 and the feed base for the rear spindle 2 2 5 6 Y 2 axis feed operation 2 4. The desired tool 16 selected and indexed in step 1 is placed at an opposing angle parallel to the workpiece axis with respect to the workpiece gripped by the back spindle 2 2 by the B-axis turning operation of the turning table 3 6 on the feed table 3 2. In this state, the tool tip of the tool 16 is moved in cooperation with the XI axis feed operation of the back tool post 2 4 itself on the swivel base 3 6 and the Y 2 axis and Z 2 axis feed operations of the back spindle 2 2. By machining, it is possible to perform machining operations on the workpiece. As a result, the workpiece gripped by the back spindle 22 can be machined into a desired shape by a desired tool 16 on the back tool post 24. This back surface machining can be performed simultaneously with the desired tool 16 on the first and second tool rests 18, 20 while machining the workpiece W gripped on the spindle 14. The rear tool post 24 may be fixedly installed together with the second tool post 20 on the tool post table 46 that is movably supported on the other tool post support surface 40 of the swivel base 36. it can.
次に、 図 5〜図 1 0を参照して、 上記構成を有する自動旋盤 1 0 におけるワーク Wに対する加工作業の幾つかの例を説明する。  Next, with reference to FIGS. 5 to 10, some examples of machining operations on the workpiece W in the automatic lathe 10 having the above-described configuration will be described.
例えば図 5に示すように、 ワーク Wに対し、 第 1刃物台 1 8上の 回転工具 1 6 Bを用いた端面二次加工 (端面穴あけ等) と、 第 2刃 物台 2 0上の旋削工具 1 6 Aを用いた外径旋削加工 (外丸削り等) とを、 同時に遂行できる。 また、 旋回台 3 6 を図 5に示す位置と同 じ旋回位置に配置した状態で、 第 1刃物台 1 8上の旋削工具 1 6 A (図 4 ) を用いた内径旋削加工 (中ぐり等) と、 第 2刃物台 2 0上 の回転工具 1 6 A (図 4 ) を用いた側面二次加工 (クロス穴あけ等 ) とを、 同時に遂行することもできる。 For example, as shown in Fig. 5, for the workpiece W, secondary machining of the end face using the rotary tool 16 B on the first turret 18 (end face drilling, etc.) and turning on the second turret 20 External turning using tool 16 A (external rounding, etc.) can be performed simultaneously. In addition, with the swivel base 3 6 placed in the same swivel position as shown in Fig. 5, the internal turning (boring etc.) using the turning tool 16 A (Fig. 4) on the first tool post 18 ) And side secondary machining using the rotary tool 16 A (Fig. 4) on the second tool post 20 (cross drilling, etc.) ) Can be performed at the same time.
また、 図 6 に示すように、 旋回台 3 6 を、 図 5 の旋回位置に対し 9 0 ° 異なる位置に配置して、 ワーク Wに対し、 第 1刃物台 1 8上 の旋削工具 1 6 Aを用いた外径旋削加工 (外丸削り等) と、 第 2刃 物台 2 0上の回転工具 1 6 Bを用いた端面二次加工 (端面穴あけ等 ) とを、 同時に遂行できる。 同じ旋回位置で、 第 1刃物台 1 8上の 回転工具 1 6 Bを用いた側面二次加工 (クロス穴あけ等) と、 第 2 刃物台 2 0上の旋削工具 1 6 Aを用いた内径旋削加工 (中ぐり等) とを、 同時に遂行することもできる。 さ らに、 図 7に示すように、 旋回台 3 6を、 図 6 の旋回位置と同じ位置に配置して、 ワーク Wに 対し、 第 1刃物台 1 8上の回転工具 1 6 Bを用いた側面二次加工 ( クロス穴あけ等) と、 第 2刃物台 2 0上の回転工具 1 6 Bを用いた 端面二次加工 (端面穴あけ等) とを、 同時に遂行できる。  Also, as shown in Fig. 6, the swivel base 3 6 is placed at a position that is 90 ° different from the swivel position in Fig. 5, and the turning tool 1 6 A on the first tool post 1 8 with respect to the workpiece W Can be performed simultaneously with external turning (external rounding, etc.) using, and end face secondary machining (end face drilling, etc.) using the rotary tool 16 B on the second tool post 20. Side turning (rotary drilling etc.) using rotary tool 1 6 B on the first tool post 18 at the same turning position, and internal turning using the turning tool 1 6 A on the second tool post 20 Processing (boring, etc.) can be performed simultaneously. Furthermore, as shown in FIG. 7, the swivel base 3 6 is arranged at the same position as the swivel position of FIG. 6, and the rotary tool 1 6 B on the first tool post 18 is used against the workpiece W. The secondary side machining (cross drilling, etc.) and the secondary end face machining (end drilling, etc.) using the rotary tool 16 B on the second tool post 20 can be performed simultaneously.
また、 図 8 に示すように、 旋回台 3 6 を、 図 5及び図 6のそれぞ れの旋回位置の中間位置に配置して、 ワーク Wに対し、 第 1刃物台 1 8上の旋削工具 1 6 Aを用いた外径旋削加工 (外丸削り等) と、 第 2刃物台 2 0上の旋削工具 1 6 Aを用いた外径旋削加工 (外丸削 り等) とを、 同時に遂行できる。 この同時加工は、 2つの旋削工具 1 6 Aのワーク加工点をワーク軸線方向へ僅かにずらすことで、 一 方の旋削工具 1 6 Aによりワーク外周面を粗加工し、 他方の旋削ェ 具 1 6 Aによりワーク外周面を仕上げ加工するもの (例えばバラン スカッ トと称する) であって、 サイクルタイムの短縮に有効である また、 図 9 に示すように、 旋回台 3 6 を、 指定の旋回角度に配置 して、 ワーク Wに対し、 第 1又は第 2刃物台 1 8、 2 0上の回転ェ 具 1 6 Bを用いた斜め穴加工を遂行することができる。 さらに、 図 1 0 に示すように、 旋回台 3 6 を、 B軸制御下で旋回送り動作させ ることにより、 ワーク Wに対し、 第 1又は第 2刃物台 1 8 、 2 0上 の回転工具 1 6 Bを用いた面取り加工又は丸み付け加工を遂行する こともできる。 Further, as shown in FIG. 8, the turning table 3 6 is arranged at an intermediate position between the respective turning positions in FIGS. 5 and 6, and the turning tool on the first tool post 18 with respect to the workpiece W. External turning (external rounding, etc.) using 16 A and external turning (external rounding, etc.) using the turning tool 16 A on the second tool post 20 can be performed simultaneously. In this simultaneous machining, the workpiece machining point of the two turning tools 16 A is slightly shifted in the workpiece axis direction, so that the outer peripheral surface of the workpiece is roughly machined by one turning tool 16 A and the other turning tool 1 6 Finishing the outer peripheral surface of the workpiece with A (for example, called a balance cut), which is effective for shortening the cycle time. Also, as shown in Fig. 9, the swivel base 3 6 is set to the specified turning angle. In this case, the workpiece W can be subjected to oblique hole machining using the rotating tool 16 B on the first or second tool post 18, 20. Further, as shown in Fig. 10, the swivel base 3 6 is swung and fed under the B-axis control. Thus, the workpiece W can be chamfered or rounded using the rotary tool 16 B on the first or second tool post 18, 20.
上記した種々のワーク加工例は、 いずれも、 旋回台 3 6上で第 1 及び第 2刃物台 1 8 、 2 0を互いに独立して送り動作させることで 、 2つの工具 1 6の加工動作が互いに影響を及ぼすことなく、 円滑 に遂行されるものである。 また、 前述したように、 図 5〜図 7 に示 すような旋回台 3 6の旋回位置では、 ワーク Wに対する上記した加 工作業に並行して、 背面刃物台 2 4上の工具 1 6により、 背面主軸 2 2に把持したワークに所望の背面加工を施すことができる。  In each of the above-described various workpiece machining examples, the first and second tool rests 18 and 20 are fed independently of each other on the swivel base 36 so that the machining operations of the two tools 16 can be performed. It can be carried out smoothly without affecting each other. Further, as described above, at the swivel position of the swivel base 3 6 as shown in FIGS. 5 to 7, the tool 16 on the back tool post 2 4 is used in parallel with the above-described machining operation on the work W. The desired back machining can be performed on the work gripped by the back spindle 22.
以上、 本発明の好適な実施形態による自動旋盤 1 0の構成を説明 したが、 本発明に係る自動旋盤は、 上記実施形態に限定されず、 種 々の修正や変形を採用することができる。  The configuration of the automatic lathe 10 according to the preferred embodiment of the present invention has been described above. However, the automatic lathe according to the present invention is not limited to the above embodiment, and various modifications and variations can be adopted.
例えば図 1 1 に示すように、 主軸 1 4を内蔵する主軸台 2 6 を、 旋盤機台 1 2に固定的に設置して、 ガイ ドブッシュ 4 8 を省略した 機械構成を採用できる。 また、 図 1 2に示すように、 図 1 1 の構成 に加えて、 第 1及び第 2刃物台 1 8 、 2 0 を担持する旋回台 3 6 を 、 送り台 3 2及びコラム 3 0 ごと、 主軸 1 4の回転軸線 1 4 aに平 行で旋回台 3 6 の軸線 3 6 aに直交する方向へ、 第 1及び第 2刃物 台 1 8 、 2 0の送り制御軸 (X I軸、 X 2軸) とは異なる送り制御 軸 (例えば Z 3軸) の制御下で直線動作可能に、 旋盤機台 1 2に設 置することもできる。  For example, as shown in FIG. 11, a machine configuration can be adopted in which a headstock 26 containing a main spindle 14 is fixedly installed on a lathe machine base 12 and the guide bush 48 is omitted. Further, as shown in FIG. 12, in addition to the configuration of FIG. 11, the swivel base 3 6 supporting the first and second tool rests 18, 20 is provided for each of the feed base 3 2 and the column 30. Feed control axes (XI axis, X 2) of the first and second tool rests 1 8 and 2 0 in the direction perpendicular to the axis 3 6 a of the swivel base 3 6 and parallel to the rotation axis 14 of the main spindle 14 It can also be installed on a lathe machine base 1 2 so that it can operate linearly under the control of a feed control axis (for example, Z 3 axis) different from the axis.
また、 旋回台 3 6の刃物台支持面 3 8 、 4 0が互いに直交する図 示実施形態の構成に代えて、 様々な角度で交差する刃物台支持面を 備えた旋回台を採用し、 複数の刃物台がそれら刃物台支持面上で、 様々な角度で交差する方向へ送り動作できるように構成することも できる。 なお、 旋回台に設置される刃物台の個数、 工具保持形式等 は、 任意である。 さらに、 旋盤機台 1 2に、 夕レッ ト刃物台等の他 の刃物台、 N C装置等の制御装置、 操作盤、 工具マガジン、 自動ェ 具交換装置等を併設することもできる。 Further, instead of the configuration of the illustrated embodiment in which the tool post supporting surfaces 3 8, 40 of the swivel base 36 are orthogonal to each other, a swivel base having tool post support surfaces that intersect at various angles is adopted, It is also possible to configure the tool post so that it can be fed in directions intersecting at various angles on the tool support surface. The number of turrets installed on the swivel, tool holding type, etc. Is optional. Furthermore, the lathe machine base 12 can be equipped with other tool rests such as an evening tool post, a control device such as an NC device, an operation panel, a tool magazine, an automatic tool changer, and the like.
以上、 本発明をその好適な実施形態に関連して説明したが、 後述 する請求の範囲の開示から逸脱することなく様々な修正及び変更を 為し得ることは、 当業者に理解されよう。  While the invention has been described in connection with preferred embodiments thereof, those skilled in the art will recognize that various modifications and changes can be made without departing from the scope of the claims that follow.

Claims

請 求 の 範 囲 The scope of the claims
1 . 旋盤機台と、 1. Lathe machine stand,
主軸と、  The spindle,
前記主軸に対して個々に移動可能に前記旋盤機台に搭載される複 数の刃物台と、  A plurality of tool rests mounted on the lathe table so as to be individually movable with respect to the spindle;
前記複数の刃物台を、 互いに異なる送り制御軸の制御下で独立し て直線動作可能に支持する旋回台とを具備し、  A swivel that supports the plurality of tool rests so that they can be independently linearly operated under the control of different feed control axes;
前記旋回台は、 前記複数の刃物台のそれぞれの直線動作方向に交 差する軸線を中心として、 旋回制御軸の制御下で旋回可能に前記旋 盤機台に設置される、  The swivel base is installed on the lathe machine base so as to be capable of swiveling under the control of a swivel control axis about an axis line intersecting each linear motion direction of the plurality of tool rests.
自動旋盤。 Automatic lathe.
2 . 前記旋回台の前記軸線は、 前記複数の刃物台に装着される複 数の工具の刃先の、 実質的前方に配置される、 請求項 1 に記載の自 動旋盤。  2. The automatic lathe according to claim 1, wherein the axis of the swivel base is disposed substantially in front of the cutting edges of a plurality of tools mounted on the plurality of tool rests.
3 . 前記旋回台の前記軸線が、 前記主軸の回転軸線に直交する、 請求項 1に記載の自動旋盤。  3. The automatic lathe according to claim 1, wherein the axis of the swivel base is orthogonal to a rotation axis of the main shaft.
4 . 前記複数の刃物台は、 前記旋回台に、 前記軸線を実質的中心 として放射状に互いに異なる方向へ直線動作可能に支持される、 請 求項 1 に記載の自動旋盤。  4. The automatic lathe according to claim 1, wherein the plurality of tool rests are supported on the swivel base so as to be linearly movable in different directions radially about the axis.
5 . 前記複数の刃物台は、 複数の工具が並列配置で装着されるく し歯刃物台を含み、 該刃物台の各々の前記直線動作方向は、 前記旋 回台の前記軸線に直交するとともに該複数の工具の並列方向に直交 する、 請求項 1 に記載の自動旋盤。  5. The plurality of tool rests include comb tooth tool rests on which a plurality of tools are mounted in a parallel arrangement, and the linear movement direction of each of the tool rests is orthogonal to the axis of the turntable. The automatic lathe according to claim 1, wherein the automatic lathe is orthogonal to a parallel direction of the plurality of tools.
6 . 前記旋回台を前記旋盤機台上で旋回可能に支持する送り台を さらに具備し、 該送り台は、 前記旋回台の前記軸線に平行な方向へ 、 前記複数の刃物台の前記送り制御軸とは異なる送り制御軸の制御 下で直線動作可能に該旋盤機台に設置される、 請求項 1 に記載の自 動旋盤。 6. The apparatus further comprises a feed base that rotatably supports the swivel base on the lathe machine base, and the feed base controls the feed control of the plurality of tool rests in a direction parallel to the axis of the swivel base. Feed control axis control different from the axis The automatic lathe according to claim 1, wherein the automatic lathe is installed on the lathe base so as to be linearly movable below.
7 . 前記主軸は、 該主軸の回転軸線に平行で前記旋回台の前記軸 線に直交する方向へ、 前記複数の刃物台の前記送り制御軸とは異な る送り制御軸の制御下で直線動作可能に、 前記旋盤機台に設置され る、 請求項 1に記載の自動旋盤。  7. The main shaft is linearly operated under control of a feed control axis different from the feed control shaft of the plurality of tool rests in a direction parallel to the rotation axis of the main shaft and perpendicular to the axis of the swivel base. The automatic lathe according to claim 1, wherein the automatic lathe is installed on the lathe machine base.
8 . 前記主軸と前記複数の刃物台との間に位置するガイ ドブッシ ュをさらに具備し、 前記旋回台の前記軸線は、 該ガイ ドブッシュの ワーク送出端面に近接して配置される、 請求項 1 に記載の自動旋盤  8. A guide bush positioned between the main shaft and the plurality of tool rests is further provided, and the axis of the swivel base is disposed close to a workpiece sending end surface of the guide bush. Automatic lathe described in
9 . 前記旋回台は、 前記主軸の回転軸線に平行で該旋回台の前記 軸線に直交する方向へ、 前記複数の刃物台の前記送り制御軸とは異 なる送り制御軸の制御下で直線動作可能に、 前記旋盤機台に設置さ れる、 請求項 1 に記載の自動旋盤。 9. The swivel base moves linearly under the control of a feed control axis different from the feed control axes of the plurality of tool rests in a direction parallel to the rotation axis of the main shaft and perpendicular to the axis of the swivel base. The automatic lathe according to claim 1, wherein the automatic lathe is installed on the lathe machine base.
1 0 . 前記主軸に対向配置可能な背面主軸をさらに具備し、 前記 旋回台に支持される前記複数の刃物台は、 該背面主軸に対して加工 動作する背面刃物台を含む、 請求項 1 に記載の自動旋盤。  The back main shaft that can be disposed to face the main shaft is further provided, and the plurality of tool rests supported by the swivel base include a back tool post that performs a machining operation on the rear main shaft. Automatic lathe described.
PCT/JP2007/065110 2006-07-27 2007-07-26 Automatic lathe having a plurality of tool rests WO2008013313A1 (en)

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