FIELD OF THE INVENTION
This invention relates to improved support structures and building elements for use in the construction of wooden framed buildings and improved methods for constructing such buildings. More particularly the invention relates to wooden framed buildings that may be pre- nailed off site and transported to the building site where the pre-nailed frames are joined together into a strong wooden building frame. The invention may also be applicable to multi-storey wooden framed dwellings and methods of constructing the same.
High strength building techniques are desirable as earthquakes, wind and other natural forces affect the stability and serviceability of wooden framed buildings. Alternative construction techniques which give high strength, include all steel framing construction, however such construction is expensive and can result in buildings that are not particularly accommodating of standard residential finishing elements. Reinforced building methods for wooden framed buildings are also known such as that disclosed in WO 05007983, the disclosure of which, is incorporated herein by reference.
Conventional wooden frame construction is a labour intensive process requiring considerable skill from builders and carpenters to produce a structure that is level, upright, has square or sometimes angled corners and parallel door and window openings and a high level of strength. During construction, and especially in areas where inclement weather is probable, it may be desirable to construct buildings in such a way that the initial framing is minimised so that the roof of the structure can be placed as soon as possible. After the initial framing structure is completed, the roof can be placed over the top to weatherproof the overall structure. Builders can then proceed to erect the rest of the internal and external framing with some additional shelter from the weather. Other advantages which can be realised by the earliest possible fitting of the roof are that the nails that hold the floor down are less likely to rust, and the initial framing and floor structures have less opportunity to become wet and soak up moisture which may take a long time to dry out thoroughly or in severe cases may damage the structure, especially the flooring.
To accommodate early installation of the roof, it is known to use a bulkier timber (post and beam) method. However, this method can be expensive due to the additional cost associated with complex cutting of the framing such as mortice and tenon joints. Further, the sheet floor is
not connected to the outside walls, which may result in a structure lacking stiffness against shear loads. It is also desirable to utilise a 2x4 framing system in order to ensure an economical use of timber.
It is an object of the invention to provide a high strength wooden framed building and method of constructing same that goes some way to overcoming the abovementioned disadvantages or at least provides industry or the public with a useful choice.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
In a first aspect the present invention may broadly be said to consist in a method of hanging a floor joist from a wooden wall frame comprising:
locating a first metal component over said frame including a plurality of spaced studs, such that at least a part of said first component laps a side face of an adjacent said stud,
locating a metal joist hanger over said first component such that at least a part of said hanger laps said first component and said side of said stud,
fastening said hanger to said first component and said stud, with a plurality of fasteners wherein said fasteners extend through said hanger and said first component, and into or through said stud, and
fastening said joist to said hanger.
Preferably a second metal component is located over the top of said frame and extends along said top of said frame, and
said first component is located over said frame, and between said frame and said second component, and
at least one extension portion of said second component extends over said frame to lap the top of said joist, and
locating a floor member over said joist and fastening to said joist wherein said fasteners extend through said floor and said extension portion of said second member and into or through said joist.
Preferably said second component includes a skirt portion extending downwards, substantially parallel to said wall frame and fastened with fasteners extending into or through a top plate of said frame.
Preferably a wall panel is located against said wall frame and the upper edge of said panel is located between said top plate and said skirt of said second component, such that said skirt captures said upper edge of said panel, and
fastening with fasteners extending through said skirt, and said wall panel and into or through said top plate.
Preferably said first component laps both side faces of said adjacent stud and said hanger is fastened to said stud on both sides with fasteners extending through respective sides of said hanger and said first component and into said stud.
Preferably said joist hanger has a curved supporting portion and said joist has a complementary curved bottom edge provided at least at the end of said joist.
Preferably said fasteners are nails.
In a further aspect the present invention may broadly be said to consist in a joint assembled according to the method claimed in any one of claims 1 to 7.
In a further aspect the present invention may broadly be said to consist in a method of hanging a joist from a wall frame having a top plate and at least one stud, said method comprising:
locating a saddle component over said top plate, said saddle comprising a planar portion and at least first and second ties extending from opposite sides of said planar portion, such that at least said first tie is adjacent a side of said stud,
locating a substantially U shaped stirrup component adjacent an edge of said stud to receive said joist substantially in line with said stud, wherein a portion of said stirrup extends around said side of the stud and over said portion of the saddle adjacent said side of said stud,
fastening said stirrup to the side of said stud such that said fasteners pass through said stirrup and through said first tie of said saddle and into said stud,
locating said joist into said stirrup and fastening said stirrup to said joist.
Preferably said stirrup has a rounded base and said method includes providing a joist that has a complementary rounded bottom edge at least at the end of said joist.
Preferably said first tie includes portions that locate adjacent both sides of said stud and said method includes fastening both sides of said stirrup to said stud.
Preferably said first tie and said second tie include portions that locate adjacent at least one side of said stud.
Preferably said stirrup is fastened through said first and said second ties on at least one side and into the side of said stud.
Preferably said method further includes fastening a nog adjacent said joist to support a floor member, and
locating a second metal component on top of said top plate, and over said saddle component, said second component including at least one extension portion extending beyond said top plate and over said joist and said adjacent nog, and
locating said floor member on said joist and said nog,
fastening said floor to said nog or said joist, with fasteners extending through said floor member and said second component, and into said joist or said nog.
Preferably said second component includes a skirt portion on an opposite edge than said extension portion, said skirt extending downwards, substantially parallel to said wall frame, and defining a wall panel space,
said method including fastening a wall panel to said frame wherein the upper edge of said wall panel is in said space, and
said fastening includes fasteners extending through said skirt and said wall panel and into or through said top plate.
In a further aspect the present invention may broadly be said to consist in a joint assembled according to the method claimed in any one of claims 9 to 15.
In a further aspect the present invention may broadly be said to consist in a component comprising:
planar web and two side portions
first and second substantially parallel ties extending from said side portions
at least one stud lapping portion extending perpendicularly from said first tie toward said second tie.
Preferably said component is fabricated from sheet metal and said metal is resistant to corrosion.
Preferably said planar web includes at least one aperture for receiving a fastener.
Preferably said lapping portion of said tie includes a plurality of apertures for receiving fasteners.
Preferably at least said second tie branches into two legs and said at least one stud lapping portion extends from at least one of said legs.
Preferably each of said legs includes a said stud lapping portion.
Preferably said ties extend directly from said web portion.
Preferably said component includes a plurality of apertures aligned along fold lines to aid with folding of said component into shape.
In a further aspect the present invention may broadly be said to consist in a joist hanger comprising:
a pair of substantially parallel planar side members, wherein
said members are connected by a curved bridge portion.
Preferably said side members include a stud lapping portion and a joist lapping portion.
In a further aspect the present invention may broadly be said to consist in a corner bracket comprising:
a body having two leaves located at an angle to each other about a central fold, wherein each said leave includes a base edge, and wherein
each said leave includes a channel section integrally formed and extending from at least a section of each said base edge, each said channel having a base web and sides, and
a side of each said channel including a tie extending away from said base web, and wherein each said tie includes at least one stud lapping portion extending from each said tie.
Preferably said stud lapping portion of a tie is substantially parallel with the said leave from which the said tie is not directly associated.
Preferably each said tie extends away from a said channel side from which it is integrally formed.
Preferably each said leave of said body is substantially triangular, such that one side of said triangle is said base edge and said body forms a narrow tip.
In a further aspect the present invention may broadly be said to consist in a base bracket substantially as herein described and with reference to Figure 16.
In a further aspect the present invention may broadly be said to consist in a saddle bracket substantially as herein described and with reference to any one of Figures 17 to 19.
In a further aspect the present invention may broadly be said to consist in a connector bracket substantially as herein described and with reference to any one of Figures 20 to 22.
In a further aspect the present invention may broadly be said to consist in a joist hanger bracket substantially as herein described and with reference to Figure 23.
In a further aspect the present invention may broadly be said to consist in a corner reinforcing bracket substantially as herein described and with reference to Figure 24.
In a further aspect the present invention may broadly be said to consist in an assembly of building components substantially a herein described with reference to the drawings.
The term 'comprising' is used in this specification and claims means 'consisting at least in part oF, that is to say when interpreting statements in this specification and claims which include that term, the features, prefaced by that term in each statement, all need to be present but other features can also be present.
This invention may also be said broadly to consist in the parts, elements and features referred to or indicated in the specification of the application, individually or collectively, and any or all combinations of any two or more of said parts, elements or features, and where specific integers are mentioned herein which have known equivalents in the art to which this invention relates, such known equivalents are deemed to be incorporated herein as if individually set forth.
Description of the Drawings
Figure 1 is an exploded view of a corner of a wooden building constructed according to a method of the present invention.
Figure 2 is a blown up view of region A of the building of Figure 1. Figure 3 is an outside view of a wall of the present invention shown assembled with plywood cladding.
Figure 4 is an exploded view of region B of the building shown in Figure 1. Figure 5 is an assembled view of region B of the building shown in Figure 1. Figure 6 is an exploded view of region C of the building shown in Figure 1. Figure 7 is an assembled view of region C of the building shown in Figure 1.
Figure 8 is an assembled view of a building constructed according to the method of the present invention.
Figure 9 is an assembly view of the sheet metal reinforcing components of a joist hanging stirrup and joint according to the present invention. Figure 10 is a partial cut-away perspective view of the joint of Figure 9 shown with the components in position.
Figure 11 is a perspective view of an alternative joint configuration shown with the wooden building components in position.
Figure 12 is a perspective view of the joint of Figure 11 shown from underneath. Figure 13 is a perspective view of the alternative joint configuration of Figure 11 shown from the outside.
Figure 14 is a perspective view of a further joint configuration of an internal wall shown with the components in position.
Figure 15 is a perspective view of the joint of Figure 14 shown from above. Figure 16 is a perspective view of the base connector component.
Figure 17 is a perspective view of the saddle component.
Figure 18 is a perspective view of an alternative saddle component.
Figure 19 is a perspective view of a further alternative saddle component.
Figure 20 is a perspective view of a connector component shown with tabs flat. Figure 21 is a perspective view of the connector component of Figure 20 shown with tabs extended.
Figure 22 is a perspective view of an alternative variation of a connector component shown with tabs extended.
Figure 23 is a perspective view of a joist stirrup according to the present invention. Figure 24 is a perspective view of a corner bracket of the present invention.
Figure 25 is a perspective view of a further alternative connector component shown with tabs extended.
A first preferred embodiment of the method and apparatus for constructing a wooden framed building structure will now be described by way of example with reference to the Figures. Figure 1 shows an exploded view of a corner of a two storey building constructed using the method of the present invention.
The building is preferably constructed of multiple pre-nailed wooden wall frames 113 that can be built on or off site, as is well known in the construction industry. The wall frames and roofing trusses are assembled together and firmly fastened to create the building structure. Sheet metal components are used to achieve high strength joints by locating around the wood components and fastening in place. In this regard it is preferable to treat the surfaces of the sheet metal components to reduce corrosion, for example by galvanising, painting, or constructing from a metallic material not prone to rusting such as stainless steel. In order to aid with fastening the metal components, it is preferred to pre-drill the components with a plurality of appropriate apertures as illustrated.
It will be appreciated by those skilled in the art that the embodiment described relating to a two storey building, can readily be adapted to a single or multi-storey construction if desired. The preferred embodiment described is exemplary and is not meant to be limiting. The preferred embodiment will be described from the foundation up which is preferably how the structure is constructed.
The first step for constructing a building according to the present invention is laying the foundation 101. The foundation 101, is preferably concrete and can be laid according to known methods in the building industry. The foundation 101 includes a number of regularly spaced bolts 114, projecting upwards. The hold down bolts 114 are preferably embedded in the concrete foundation and arranged on a suitable grid spacing. The grid spacing is adapted to match subsequent building elements which are adapted to fit over the hold down bolts. The appropriate grid spacing is usually determined by standard widths of building materials utilised i.e. sheet material such as plywood, and gib board etc, and can vary from country to country.
Once the concrete foundation is laid, vent blocks 102 are placed on top of the foundation, over the hold down bolts 114, to create an air gap between the concrete and the bottom plate 104 of the wall framing. The air gap helps to dry out the space under the building.
Referring to Figure 2, vent block 102 is a substantially rectangular block (preferably of polymer or wood material) with an aperture 121 for receiving the hold down bolt 114 and a protrusion 122.
The vent packers are located on the bolts and the protrusion registers with the bottom plate 104 to prevent rotation. At the corners of the foundation, an L shaped vent packer 123 may be used as illustrated in Figures 1 and 2.
In Figure 1, a typical pre-nailed wooden frame 113 is shown. The frame is essentially rectangular, and made up of a top plate 105, a bottom plate 104, and a number of studs 116, between the top and bottom plates. A door 117 or window 118, may be present in the frame 113 as desired. The window frame includes a lintel 119 and a horizontal cill 120, as known in the art. Nogs or dwangs (not shown) may be used to aid in keeping the studs 116 straight, and provide additional rigidity to the structure as is known in the building art.
To secure the wall frame 113 to the foundation 101, base brackets 103 are provided between the vent blocks 102 and the bottom plate 104 (see Figure 16). The brackets 103 are positioned on the grid spacing in-line with each stud. The base brackets 103 fit over the hold down bolts 114 and the vent block protrusions 122 (through an aperture), and include ties that extend around the adjacent studs when the wall frame 113 is in place. Preferably one of the ties of base bracket 103 includes substantially flat side portions 128 that lap the side face of the adjacent stud. It is preferable that the side lapping portion of base bracket 103 seats flat to the side surface of the stud. This is because the floor joist of the ground floor are preferably supported from underneath by bottom plate 104 and located adjacent the stud. Preferably the floor joists are fastened to the studs by fasteners such as nails. In each corner of the building structure, a corner bracket 126 is used instead of the base brackets 103.
With particular reference to Figure 24, a corner bracket will be described in more detail. In the preferred embodiment the same corner bracket component is used on the top and bottom of each wall frame 113, 130. The corner bracket consists of bracket body 152 made up of two leaves located about a central fold 155. Preferably each leave is substantially triangular in shape, such that the leaves include a base portion 153, and extend towards a tip portion 154. the base and tip portions 153, 154 are fastened through the plywood 125 (or similar bracing) into the underlying framing. The leaves may also include apertures that allow the underlying framing to be partially visible. Each leave includes a channel section 150 extending from the base portion 153 for receiving the top/bottom plate of the wall frame. Preferably the channel sections include apertures to allow the assembly to be bolted together. As illustrated, preferably the channel sections extend only from a portion of the base edges of base 153. This allows for the possibility that a building may not have right angled corners, and the fold can be adjusted accordingly. For example, some buildings require the flexibility of walls that meet at acute or obtuse angles. Extending from a side of each channel is a tie. The tie extends such that is position the nailing portions adjacent and lapping the side of the corresponding stud as shown in Figure 5.
Wall frame 113, is then positioned on top of the packers over the hold down bolts and base brackets. The bottom plate 104 is drilled with a number of holes 124 to accommodate the bolts and vent block protrusions. The drilling may be done at the time the wall frame is prefabricated or may be done on site. Holes 124 are spaced according to the standard grid spacing. Once the frame is positioned on the foundation over the hold-down bolts, it can be fastened down, via nuts (and washers) to assemble the building structure as shown in Figure 2. After assembly, the corner bracket can be fastened to the outside of the wall and to the side of the studs on the inside, as shown in Figures 2 and 3. The base brackets 103 located adjacent and in-line with each stud can then be nailed off to firmly secure the wall frame studs 116 to the foundation 101. It will be appreciated that the order of fastening the wall frames 113 to the foundations via the bolts 114 and the base brackets 103 can be variable.
Referring to Figure 3, in a preferred embodiment, the wooden frame 113 may be braced by sheet or panel material 125, such as plywood or other bracing material such as strap bracing. In this embodiment the base bracket 103 is dimensioned to accommodate the width of the bottom plate 104 of the framing, plus the thickness of the plywood bracing 125 between the upstanding tie portions. In this way, the base bracket ties on the outside of the structure are fastened through the plywood and into the studs, while on the inside the base bracket ties are fastened directly to the studs. Preferably, the inner ties are fastened to the sides of the studs by nailing as shown via portions of the inner tie that locate adjacent and lap the side of the stud.
In use, the bottom plate 104 of a pre-constructed wooden frame 113, is located over the hold down bolts 114. The bottom plate 104 of the lower level rests on the vent blocks with a base bracket 103 in between. The hold down bolts 114 pass through the vent block 102, the base bracket 103, and the bottom plate 104 before being secured by nuts 129 (washer not shown). For convenience the ties 127,128 of base bracket 103 may have pre-punched, drilled or otherwise made holes to enable, fasteners to easily pass through the ties for fastening to the stud. Alternatively the ties 127,128 may have integrally formed fasteners which can be hammered into the framing and bracing structure i.e. Gang Nails.
With reference to Figure 1, a joiner channel 111 may be provided for reinforcing the join between adjacent top plates 105 or bottom plates 104. Joiner 111 consists of a sheet metal channel having a base portion equal to the width of the plates 104, 105. Preferably, the joiner is predrilled to make it easier to nail to the wood structure to reinforce the joint.
The erection of the second story will now be described from the bottom up, starting at the interface between level one and level two. On the top of the wall frame 113 an elongate sheet metal component is placed over the top plate 105. The metal component may take different forms according to embodiments the present building method. Different options will be described, where the component may be a channel 106, or an 'L' shaped sheet 206, depending on the particular needs. Alternatively, the component may be a flat sheet in some circumstances. The option of channel 106 will be described first.
Channel 106 is placed over the top plate 105, and several sheet metal saddle components 107 are placed at intervals in line with each stud 116. The saddles 107 have ties 131, 132 extending from opposites sides of a central planar portion 145 such that the ties are located adjacent and lapping the studs 116 when positioned correctly. In particular, tie 131 laps the edge of the stud, and ties 132 include portions 147 which lap the respective sides of the stud 116. Figure 17 shows a detailed drawing of one preferred saddle component which includes a channel portion between planar portion 145 and the ties. Figure 18 shows an alternative saddle 107 where the ties are directly depending from planar portion 145. The ties 131, 132 of saddles 107 are fastened to the studs once everything is in position, described later. Corner brackets 126 are used in the corners of the building over the top of the wall frame 113 of the lower level as shown in Figure 1 in an equivalent manner to that described previously.
It should be noted that it may be desirable to include a double thickness bottom plate in order to provide a larger area for fastening internal cladding such as gib board etc. This is particularly desirable where the members used for the flooring are particularly thick. Figure 11
shows such and embodiment with two bottom plates. Accordingly, the shape of the metal components can vary to accommodate the extra bottom plate. Figure 22 shows such a variant of the connector.
The wooden framing 130 of the second storey is also preferably pre-nailed, and is essentially the same as for the first storey. If the building has more than two levels then the respective levels are stacked on top of each other. Before being bolted together, several sheet metal connector brackets 108 are placed under the bottom plate 109 of the second storey wall frame 130 at grid intervals in-line with each stud 116. A preferred embodiment of a sheet metal connector component is shown in detail in Figure 20. The brackets 108 have ties 134, 135 extending from opposites sides of a central planar portion 148 such that the ties are located adjacent and lapping the proximate stud 116 of the wall frame 130 when positioned correctly. Preferably, ties 135 include portions which lap the side of the proximate stud when in position such that the connector can be fastened into the side of the stud. The ties 134, 135 of the connector bracket 108 are fastened to the studs once everything is in position. Corner brackets 126 are also used in the corners of the building over the bottom of the upper level wall frame 130 as shown in Figure 1.
The second storey framing is placed on top of the first storey framing and the two frames are bolted together. Holes 124, in the channel 106 and top plate 105 of the first storey framing, are lined up with holes 124 in the bottom plate 109 of the second storey, to enable the two frames 113, 130 to be easily secured together. The bolts pass through the frames (105, 109), channel 106, saddle 107, and connector bracket 108. A layer of compressible rubber or plastic membrane (not shown) may be placed between the plates 105,109 (saddle 107 and bracket 108) in order to prevent wear.
With reference to Figure 4, a reinforcing corner plate 133 may be placed over top of the abutting top plates 105 in the corners of the structure. The reinforcing corner plate 133, is a right angled L shaped metallic reinforcing plate which is approximately 3-5 millimetres thick. The reinforcing plate 133 is preferably pre-drilled with regularly spaced holes to receive the bolts for securing adjacent floors together.
After the framing is tied together and straightened and the internal walls are set in place, the next stage is to position the rafter trusses between the tabs 136 of the corresponding rafter brackets 108. The rafter trusses are secured in place firmly by the rafter clasps. Once the rafter trusses are in place all the nogs facias, barge boards and braces are nailed into place and the roof can be fixed in place. It may be necessary to position a few floor joists in order to help bring the
structure into proper alignment and keep it square and level, before the rafters are installed. Figure 8 illustrates a partially complete structure with a few floor joists installed for stability.
With particular reference to Figures 6-8, and Figure 21 on the top level of the building, a rafter bracket 108, is attached over the top plate 110, of the top level of framing 130. The rafter brackets 108 are the same component as the base bracket 108 described earlier. However, when used as a rafter bracket, tabs 136 are bent upwards so that they extend away from the planar portion and are spaced to receive a rafter between. The rafter can then be fastened to the rafter bracket by fastening through the side of the bracket tabs 136.
Once the building framing has been assembled in this manner, the roofing rafter trusses 147 are attached to the top storey. The rafters 147 are placed between the rafter tabs 136 and a metal rafter clasp 137, is placed through an aperture in the rafter as illustrated in Figure 6. The rafter clasp is then fastened down with bolts that extend through the rafter clasp, rafter bracket, and top plate. In this way the joint between the rafter and the wall frame is sturdily reinforced.
The building components and building method of the present invention allows the pre- nailed exterior framing to be quickly assembled and tied together with the building elements described above. The resulting structure has very high strength and can resist significant forces which might be imposed on the structure by high winds and/or earthquakes which may act to pull the joints apart. In order that the roof can be placed on the building as quickly as possible, some or all of the nogs, dwangs, floor joists and bracing can be added to the structure after the roof is on. This gives other added benefits by making the structure thereby weather proof while it is finished off. This gives the builders the opportunity to work inside the structure away from the extremes of weather when completing the internal and external framing and placing of the floor joists and floor sheets. The reinforcing components of the present invention (103, 106, 107, 108, 111, 126, 133 and 138) are preferably manufactured from metallic sheet, which is punched, and folded into the shapes described. It is envisaged that the pre-formed sheet metal components may be also pre-folded or may be folded on site as required.
With particular reference to Figures 8-10 and 23, the placing of the floor joists 139 will now be described. A joist stirrup 138 is used to support the floor joists and is illustrated in detail in Figure 23. The joist stirrup 138 consists of a channel with two sides 140, 141 and a bottom 142. Each side of the channel includes a stud overlapping portion 143 and a joist overlapping portion 144. The width of the channel between the sides 140, 141 is preferably the width of the joist that the stirrup is to hang. Preferably the width of the joists to be hung, and the studs supporting the hung joist are also the same, for example 2 inches or 50 mm. This allows the end
on butt joint between a floor joist and the proximate stud to be formed in-line as shown in Figures 9 and 10. Preferably the bottom 142 of the joist stirrup is curved or semi-circular in cross section for receiving a correspondingly curved bottom 148 surface of the joist. The bottom of the joist can be shaped at its ends with a router or similar process to make the mating surface of the joist, fit the bottom 142 of the joist stirrup as illustrated in Figure 10. The complementary curved surfaces at the joist/stirrup interface help reduce local crushing stress when the joint is put under extreme loads.
In order to hang the joist, a plurality of joist stirrups 138 are fitted over the saddles 107, which in turn, are fitted over the top plate and stud as described previously. Sides 140, 141 of stirrup 138 include stud overlapping portions 143 such that when located correctly (as shown in
Figure 9), the portions 143 of the stirrup 138, overlap the side of the stud and the saddle ties 132.
The joist stirrup forms a channel for locating the joist in-line with the stud and supports it. To complete the joint, it is fastened together by fastening through the joist stirrup overlapping portions 143, and through the saddle tie portions 132 and into the side of the stud as illustrated in Figure 10. The joist is also fastened by nailing through the joist overlapping portions 144 and into the stud. In particular, the nailing of the joist stirrup into a metal saddle component and into the side of the stud gives the joint enormous strength. Additional strength is also imparted to the joint due to the fact that the end of the joist does not butt directly against the edge of the stud, but rather butts against the metal saddle which is wrapped around the edge of the stud. This feature further contributes to the reduction of crushing stresses as the joint flexes under extreme loads. This feature is particularly useful where softer timber is used such as pine.
Figure 10 shows a first floor joist 139 supported in a joist stirrup 138 as described previously. An additional nog 112 may be fitted between the neighbouring floor joists to which the sheet floor panels will be attached. The nog 112 is fastened to the top plate 105 through the channel 106 for additional strength. The floor 149 is then fastened to the nogs 112. This feature effectively facilitates transfer of shear forces from the floor sheet 149 to the walls 113 through the top plate 105 and channel 106 and significantly increases the stiffness of the structure.
Battens 218, are fastened at grid intervals to the exterior of the building. The gaps 219 between the battens 218 may then be filled with insulation such as glass wool or polystyrene sheet as is known in the art. The thickness of the polystyrene sheet is preferably the same as the battens to form a flush outer surface. After the insulation is installed between the battens, the exterior trimming or weatherboards 220 can be fastened to the exterior of the house as is known
in the art. The remaining finishing touches such as window frames, plumbing and electrical wiring can also be installed according to methods well known in the art.
A more preferred method of joining the floor to the walls will now be described with reference to Figures 11 to 13. In this embodiment the structure and order of assembly of the components in the region between floor levels is improved. Instead of placing a channel member 106 over the top plate 105, an 'L' shaped member 206 is used.
In this embodiment, the saddles 107 are positioned on wall frames before the component 206. As a result, the saddles can be positioned off-site when the pre-nailed wall frames are assembled. The stud wrapping portions 147 are helpful to keep saddles 107 in place without fasteners while being assembled. After the saddles 107 are fitted over the top plate and respective studs, the 'L' shaped component 206 can be positioned. Component 206 includes a skirt portion 208 extending downwards from one edge substantially perpendicularly. The opposite edge is wide enough to provide an extension portion 207, extending beyond the top plate 105 as shown in Figuresll and 12. The extension portion 207 extends over the top surface of joist 139 and nog 112. In this way a very strong shear joint is formed between the floor and the walls. The floor member is nailed to the nogs 112, and/or joists 139, through the extension portion 207 of metal component 206.
As best shown in Figure 12, exterior wall panel 125 is captured in the space formed between top plate 105 and skirt portion 208 and nailed off. Figure 13 best shows the wall panels 125 fastened to the wall frame by fasteners extending through the skirt portion 208, and the wall panel and into the top plate. Metal component 206 is preferably pre drilled with holes in order to allow fastening bolts to pass through when bolting the top plate of the ground floor wall framing to the bottom plate (or bottom plates) of the first floor wall framing.
With reference to Figures 14 and 15 a further method of hanging a floor joist and constructing a joint will be described. In this embodiment, an internal joint is provided. In this joint the stud is not positioned adjacent an external wall of the building as shown in Figure 14. The illustrated joint may include floor joists extending from each edge of the stud and the joists may also have different depths. Many of the components of this internal joint are shared with the external joint. The primary difference is that a flat sheet metal component 306 is used instead of a channel or 'L' shaped component as described for earlier embodiments. Flat component 306 allows flooring members 149 to be attached to respective nogs 112 on both sides of the joint.
The flooring is nailed into the nogs and/or joists and the fasteners pass through component 306 as illustrated. This arrangement provides an improved sheared joint between the internal wall and the floor sections either side thereof.
The modified saddle component 308 of Figure 19 may be used instead of saddle component 107 for the internal wall joint. Component 307 includes portions 147 which lap the side of the studs on both legs 131 and 132. Figure 25 illustrates an alternative connector which can be used for the double joist internal joint.
Figure 22 shows an alternative embodiment of the connector at Figure 20 and 21. In this embodiment, two top plates or bottom plates can be accommodated as described earlier. It will be appreciated that the extra depth portion can be provided as a different component or alternatively the position of fold line 400 can be varied on site at the time of installation. In this way, the same component can be used for different embodiments by having the fold made in the appropriate position. Score line apertures (not shown) may be provided in order to allow the fold line to be located in the appropriate position..
Throughout this specification "fastening" of the metal reinforcing components to the wood frame is described as preferably nailing. However it will be appreciated that other fastening methods in which a fastener extends through the metal components and through the wooden structure will also be appropriate such as screws, gang nails, coach bolts, bolts, rivets, or pins.
The construction elements and construction method of the present invention allows the outer framing of a building to be constructed and assembled quickly and gives very high strength joins. This allows the roof to be placed over the building without needing to complete the construction of the floor joists, bracing elements and nogs etc. Once the roof is placed, temporary cladding can be used to effectively weatherproof the structure and allow the finishing of the framing to be done without the adverse effects of inclement weather. The high strength structure is also capable of resisting high loads due wind or earthquakes etc.