WO2007144906A1 - Coordinate measuring machine - Google Patents

Coordinate measuring machine Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2007144906A1
WO2007144906A1 PCT/IT2006/000440 IT2006000440W WO2007144906A1 WO 2007144906 A1 WO2007144906 A1 WO 2007144906A1 IT 2006000440 W IT2006000440 W IT 2006000440W WO 2007144906 A1 WO2007144906 A1 WO 2007144906A1
Authority
WO
WIPO (PCT)
Prior art keywords
characterised
machine according
trolley
runners
guiding
Prior art date
Application number
PCT/IT2006/000440
Other languages
French (fr)
Original Assignee
Hexagon Metrology S.P.A
Russo Domenico
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by Hexagon Metrology S.P.A, Russo Domenico filed Critical Hexagon Metrology S.P.A
Priority to PCT/IT2006/000440 priority Critical patent/WO2007144906A1/en
Publication of WO2007144906A1 publication Critical patent/WO2007144906A1/en

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Classifications

    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01BMEASURING LENGTH, THICKNESS OR SIMILAR LINEAR DIMENSIONS; MEASURING ANGLES; MEASURING AREAS; MEASURING IRREGULARITIES OF SURFACES OR CONTOURS
    • G01B5/00Measuring arrangements characterised by the use of mechanical means
    • G01B5/004Measuring arrangements characterised by the use of mechanical means for measuring coordinates of points
    • G01B5/008Measuring arrangements characterised by the use of mechanical means for measuring coordinates of points using coordinate measuring machines
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01BMEASURING LENGTH, THICKNESS OR SIMILAR LINEAR DIMENSIONS; MEASURING ANGLES; MEASURING AREAS; MEASURING IRREGULARITIES OF SURFACES OR CONTOURS
    • G01B5/00Measuring arrangements characterised by the use of mechanical means
    • G01B5/0011Arrangements for eliminating or compensation of measuring errors due to temperature or weight

Abstract

A coordinate measuring machine (1) comprising a base (2) and a plurality of trolleys (3, 4, 5) mobile along coordinated axes on respective guiding surfaces (13, 14; 28, 32, 35, 38) by means of air bearings (20, 21; 27, 30, 34, 37), in which one or more trolleys (3, 4) are actuated by an iron-core linear motor (16, 24) and the attraction force between a stator (15, 25) and a mobile unit (17, 26) of the linear motor (16, 24) exerts a preload force on the air bearings (20, 21; 27, 34).

Description

COORDINATE MEASURING MACHINE

TECHNICAL FIELD

The present invention relates to a coordinate measuring machine. The present invention finds particularly advantageous although not exclusive application in bridge-type coordinate measuring machines, to which reference will be made by way of example, for greater clarity, without however loosing in generality. BACKGROUND ART

As known, bridge measuring machines comprise a base, for example made of granite, a bridge trolley slidingly mobile on the base along a first axis and provided with two uprights and one upper crossbeam extending along a second horizontal axis perpendicular to the first axis, a trolley carried by the crossbeam and mobile on the same along the second axis, and a column carried by the trolley and mobile on the same along a third vertical axis. The column is provided, at its lower end, with a measuring (feeler or optical) tool.

Electrical direct current motors and mechanical transmission systems, such as belts or pinion/rack assemblies adapted to convert the rotary movement of each motor into the linear movement of the associated trolley are generally used to actuate the mobile parts of the coordinate measuring machines - hereinafter collectively called "trolleys".

However, such actuating and transmission systems introduce oscillations to trolley movements, especially as speed increases, which cannot be compensated due to oscillations of motor torque and machining tolerances of the mechanical members (e.g. pinion offset, geometric imperfections of the teeth, etc.). Such oscillations of movement produce vibrations on the mechanical structure of the trolleys and therefore make speed measurement inaccurate.

Another source of error related to the use of the known actuating and transmission systems is in that motor speed is controlled by the use of a tachometric generator, also subject to voltage ripples. DISCLOSURE OF INVENTION

It is the object of the present invention to make a coordinate measuring machine which is free from the drawbacks related to the known machines specified above.

The present object is achieved by a measuring machine according to claim 1.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION QF THE DRAWINGS For a better understanding of the present invention, a preferred embodiment will now be described by way of non-limitative example, and with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which: figure 1 is a perspective schematic view of a measuring machine according to the present invention; figure 2 is a partial section view taken along line II-II in figure 1; figure 3 is a partial perspective view of a detail in figure 2; figure 4 is a partial section view taken along line IV-IV in figure 1; and figure 5 is a partial perspective view of a detail in figure 4.

BEST MODE FOR CARRYING OUT THE INVENTION With reference to figure 1, it is indicated as a whole by 1 a gantry coordinate measuring machine.

The machine 1 essentially comprises a flat horizontal base 2, for example made of granite, a first bridge trolley 3 (hereinafter called "bridge 3") mobile on base 2 along a first horizontal axis Y, a second trolley 4 (hereinafter called "trolley 4") carried by the bridge 3 and mobile on the same along a second horizontal axis X perpendicular to the first axis Y, and a third column trolley 5 (hereinafter called "column 5") carried by trolley 4 and mobile along a third vertical axis Z, perpendicular to the first axis Y and to the second axis X. More specifically, bridge 3 comprises a main upright 6 having guiding and supporting functions, an auxiliary upright 7 having supporting functions, and a crossbeam 8 fixed to the upper ends of the respective uprights. The crossbeam 8 conveniently presents an equilateral triangular section having the height inclined by approximately 15° with respect to the vertical, so that a front face 9 of the crossbeam 8 is on a plane essentially inclined at 45° and converges with the rear face 10 towards an upper edge 11.

The crossbeam 8 is conveniently made of aluminium alloy, for example by extrusion, or of carbon fibre based composite. Figures 2 and 3 show the actuating and guiding system of the main bridge upright 6 of bridge 3.

As clearly visible in figures 1 and 2, base 2 presents, on the side of the main upright 6 of bridge 3, an upper side chamfer defining an inclined surface 12 (for example by 20° with respect to a vertical plane) comprised between an upper horizontal surface 13 of the base 2, or working plane, and a side 14 vertical to the base itself.

A magnet stator 15 of a linear motor indicated as a whole by 16 is fixed to the inclined surface 12. Stator 15 essentially comprises, in an intrinsically known way, a plurality of permanent magnets (not shown) in sequence along axis Y with alternating polarities, so as to generate a magnetic flow essentially directed in direction perpendicular to the inclined surface 12 and, consequently, to axis Y.

The linear motor 16 comprises a mobile unit 17 accommodated in a seat 18 made in a lower portion 19 of the upright 6 and facing the stator 13. An adjustment unit 22, not described in detail, allows to precisely regulate the distance between the mobile unit 17 and the stator 15.

The mobile unit 17 is conveniently of the "iron- core" type, and therefore comprises a ferromagnetic core (not shown) on which the windings (not shown) are arranged. The magnetic circuit is therefore closed by the core material instead of air, as occurs in the case of "ironless" type motors, thus generating high flow densities and consequently high magnetic forces at relatively low motor costs.

An intrinsic feature of "iron-core" linear motors, potentially disadvantageous for metrological purposes, is the attraction force which is generated between the permanent magnets of the stator 15 and the core of the mobile unit 17, regardless of the electrical power state of the motor.

Again with reference to figures 2 and 3, the main upright 6 is guided with respect to the base 2 by two pairs of pneumatic-static runners 20, 21 respectively sliding on the upper surface 13 and on the side 14 of the base. The magnetic attraction F between the stator 15 and the mobile unit 17, perpendicularly directed to the inclined surface 12, can be split into two components Fxed Fz, which are released on the pneumatic-static runners 20, 21 thus determining its preload.

The inclination of the surface 12 was chosen so that the component Fx is considerably higher, in modulus, than the component F2 since also the weight of the bridge 3 contributes to the preload of the bearings 20 while, on the contrary, the preload of the runners 21 is ensured only by the component Fx. The runners 20, 21 of each pair are arranged on opposite sides of the mobile unit 17 of the motor 16 in direction Y and symmetrically with respect to the same, as clearly shown in figure 3, so that the vertical and horizontal components of the magnetic attraction force, respectively balanced by runners 20 and runners 21, are equally relieved on runners 20, 21 of each pair.

With reference now to figures 4 and 5, the motion of the trolley 4 on the crossbeam 8 is obtained by means of a linear motor 24 comprising a stator 25 fixed to the front face 9 of the crossbeam 8 and a mobile unit 26 fixed to the trolley 4 in a central position.

Also in this case, the linear motor 24 is of the "iron-core" type and therefore an attraction is exerted between the stator 25 and the mobile unit 26.

The trolley 4 is supported on the crossbeam 8 by means of six pneumatic-static runners.

A first pair of runners 27 slide on a guiding surface 28 made on the front face 9 of the crossbeam 8 along the upper edge 11 of the crossbeam itself. A second pair of runners 30 slide on a guiding surface 32 made on the rear face 10 of the crossbeam 8 along the upper edge 11 of the crossbeam itself.

Runners 27, 30 of each pair (figure 5) are arranged on opposite sides of the mobile unit 26, symmetrically with respect to the same.

A fifth runner 34 slides on a guiding surface 35 made on the front face 9 of the crossbeam 8 along a lower front edge 36 of the crossbeam itself. A sixth runner 37 slides along a lower face 38 of the crossbeam 8 along the lower front edge 36 of the crossbeam itself, and is carried by a torsion leaf spring 39 protrudingly fixed to the trolley 4.

The runners 34 and 37 are arranged essentially centred with respect to the mobile unit 26 in direction of axis X, i.e. are in an intermediate position with respect to the pairs of runners 27, 28 with reference to direction X.

The distance of the mobile unit 26 with respect to the stator 25 is adjustable by means of an adjustment device 29.

The attraction force of the stator 25 on the mobile unit 26 exerts a preload on the runners 27, 34; the load on the runners 30 is determined by the weight of the trolley 4 and the column 5, a component of which is also absorbed by the runners 27, 34. The sixth runner 37, otherwise relieved, is maintained in contact with the lower face 38 of the spring 39.

Runners 27, 30, 34 and 37 define as a whole a system capable of cancelling all degrees of freedom of the trolley 4 with respect to crossbeam 8, except for displacement along axis X. The column 5 may be actuated by a further linear motor, not shown, or alternatively by means of a transmission of the conventional type, if the induced error components are acceptable. The linear motors are controlled by a control unit 40.

The operation of machine 1 is essentially similar to the machines of the conventional type and therefore is not described in detail. The control unit 40 operates the trolley motors of the machine on the basis of programmable measuring cycles. As in all measuring machines, the determined measurement values must be compensated by means of appropriate algorithms which account for various sources of error (thermal dilations, geometric errors and structure deformations of dynamic origin or induced by externally applied forces) . However, machine 1 is free from the measuring errors induced by conventional electrical motors and mechanical transmissions.

It must be specified that also linear motors of the "iron-core" type induce errors, which are however easily compensable. Such errors are fundamentally caused by two phenomena: traction force oscillations as the position of the mobile unit varies on the stator due to the periodical variations of magnetic reluctance according to the position (cogging) , and the torque on the mobile unit about an axis perpendicular to the direction of feed

("pitching") , also variable according to the position by effect of the non-uniform magnetic attraction along the stator .

The aforesaid phenomena - unlike the metrological errors induced by the conventional actuating systems - may be easily compensated.

In the case of cogging, for example, a compensation map 41 in which the oscillations of the axial force are stored according to the position along the axis may be experimentally determined and stored by the control unit 40; such map is used by the associated motor controller to generate a variable correction component of the motor feeding current.

Trolley pitching, however very low due to the appropriate arrangement of the pneumatic-static runners, determine metrological errors which may be stored in a map according to the position of the trolley.

From an examination of the features of the machine 1 made according to the present invention, the advantages that it allows to obtain are apparent.

The use of linear motors allows to avoid the non- compensable metrological errors connected to the use of electrical motors of the conventional type of high speed measurements. Furthermore, the combined use of "iron- core" linear motors and pneumatic-static runners allows to use the attraction force between stator and mobile unit of the linear motor as preload force for the pneumatic-static runners, thus simplifying the trolley anchoring system and obtaining an essentially friction- free trolley guidance.

The trolley anchoring system is also particularly simple and cost-effective because the guides may consist of simple, flat surfaces. Further advantages related to the use of "iron-core" motors are the high efficiency and the relatively low cost with respect to "iron-less" motors".

It is finally apparent that changes and variations can be implemented to the machine 1 without departing from the scope of protection defined by the claims.

Specifically, linear motors may be used for actuating one trolley, several trolleys, or all trolleys.

The arrangement of the pneumatic-static runners and the relative guiding surfaces may be different.

Machine 1 may also be of different type, for example a horizontal arm machine instead of a bridge machine.

Claims

1. A coordinate measuring machine (1) comprising a base (2) and a plurality of trolleys (3, 4, 5) mobile according to coordinated axes on respective guide means (13, 14; 28, 32, 35, 38), characterised in that at least one of said trolleys (3, 4) is actuated by a linear motor (16, 24).
2. A machine according to claim 1, characterised in that said linear motor (16, 24) is of the "iron-core" type.
3. A machine according to claim 2, characterised in that said trolley (3, 4) is supported by pneumatic-static runners (20, 21; 27, 30, 34, 37) .
4. A machine according to claim 3, characterised in that said linear motor (16, 24) comprises a stator (15,
25) extending in parallel direction to said guiding means and a mobile unit (17, 26) fixed to said trolley (3, 4) ; said stator (15, 25) exerting on said mobile unit (17, 26) an attraction force which determines a preload on said pneumatic-static runners (20, 21; 27, 34) .
5. A machine according to claim 3 or 4, characterised in that said pneumatic-static runners (20, 21; 27, 30, 34, 37) define an anchoring system for said trolley (3, 4) such that all degrees of freedom, except for displacement along the respective axis, are eliminated.
6. A machine according to claim 5, characterised in that said guiding means comprise a first flat guiding surface (13, 28) and a second flat guiding surface (14, 35) for said trolley (3, 4) extending parallelly to the axis of displacement of the trolley (3, 4), said anchoring system of the trolley (3, 4) comprising a pair of first pneumatic-static runners (20, 27) sliding on one of said guiding surfaces (13, 28) and at least one second runner (21, 34) sliding on the other of said guiding surfaces (14, 35), said stator (15, 25) longitudinally extending between the first and the second guiding surfaces (13, 14; 28, 35) .
7. A machine according to claim 6, characterised in that said first and second guiding surfaces (28, 35) are reciprocally coplanar.
8. A machine according to claim 6, characterised in that the first and second guiding surfaces (13, 14) lay on mutually orthogonal planes, and that the stator (15) lays on an inclined surface (12) with respect to each of said guiding surfaces (13, 14) so that said force of attraction has components which are discharged onto each of said pneumatic-static runners (20, 21) .
9. A machine according to one of the claims from 6 to 8, characterised in that said first runners (20, 27) are arranged on opposite sides of said mobile unit (17, 26) .
10. A machine according to claim 9, characterised in that said first runners (20, 27) are arranged symmetrically with respect to said mobile unit (17, 26) .
11. A machine according to any of the preceding claims, characterised in that it is a bridge machine comprising a first mobile trolley (3) on said base (2) along first guiding means (13, 14) extending along a first horizontal direction (Y) and having a crossbeam (8) provided with second guiding means (28, 32, 35, 38) along a second horizontal direction (X) orthogonal to said first direction (Y) ; a second trolley (4) carried by said crossbeam (8) and mobile along said second guiding means
(28, 32, 35, 38); and a column (5) carried by said second trolley (4) and vertically mobile, at least said first and second trolleys (3, 4) being operated by respective linear motors (16, 24).
12. A machine according to claim 11 when depending on claim 8, characterised in that said first trolley (4) has a main upright (6) guided with respect to said base (2) by two pairs of pneumatic-static runners (20, 21) respectively sliding on an upper surface (13) and on a side (14) of the base (2) defining said first and second guiding surfaces.
13. A machine according to claim 11, characterised in that said crossbeam (8) has a triangular cross-section with a first face (9) and a rear face (10) inclined and reciprocally converging towards an upper edge (11) of said crossbeam (8).
14. A machine according to claim 13, characterised in that said first and second guiding surfaces (28, 35) are made on said front face (9) of said crossbeam (8) .
15. A machine according to claim 14, characterised in that it comprises a third guiding surface (32) arranged on a rear face (11) of said crossbeam (8), said second trolley (4) comprising at least one pneumatic- static runner (30) sliding on said third guiding surface (32).
16. A machine according to claim 14 or 15, characterised in that said second trolley comprises a fourth runner (37) sliding along a lower face (38) of said crossbeam (9) and loaded by elastic means (39) towards said lower face (38) .
17. A machine according to any of the preceding claims, characterised in that it comprises a control unit (40) comprising means for compensating the measurement errors induced by said linear motor (16, 24).
18. A machine according to claim 17, characterised in that said means for compensating the measurement errors induced by said linear motor (16, 24) comprise means (41) for compensating the periodical oscillations of the axial traction force of the linear motor (cogging) .
19. A machine according to claim 17 or 18, characterised in that said means for compensating the measurement errors induced by said linear motor (16, 24) comprise means (42) for compensating the pitching of at least one trolley (3, 4) .
PCT/IT2006/000440 2006-06-12 2006-06-12 Coordinate measuring machine WO2007144906A1 (en)

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US8533967B2 (en) 2010-01-20 2013-09-17 Faro Technologies, Inc. Coordinate measurement machines with removable accessories
US8615893B2 (en) 2010-01-20 2013-12-31 Faro Technologies, Inc. Portable articulated arm coordinate measuring machine having integrated software controls
US8630314B2 (en) 2010-01-11 2014-01-14 Faro Technologies, Inc. Method and apparatus for synchronizing measurements taken by multiple metrology devices
US8638446B2 (en) 2010-01-20 2014-01-28 Faro Technologies, Inc. Laser scanner or laser tracker having a projector
US8677643B2 (en) 2010-01-20 2014-03-25 Faro Technologies, Inc. Coordinate measurement machines with removable accessories
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US8875409B2 (en) 2010-01-20 2014-11-04 Faro Technologies, Inc. Coordinate measurement machines with removable accessories
US8898919B2 (en) 2010-01-20 2014-12-02 Faro Technologies, Inc. Coordinate measurement machine with distance meter used to establish frame of reference
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US9113023B2 (en) 2009-11-20 2015-08-18 Faro Technologies, Inc. Three-dimensional scanner with spectroscopic energy detector
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US9168654B2 (en) 2010-11-16 2015-10-27 Faro Technologies, Inc. Coordinate measuring machines with dual layer arm
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US9551575B2 (en) 2009-03-25 2017-01-24 Faro Technologies, Inc. Laser scanner having a multi-color light source and real-time color receiver
US9074883B2 (en) 2009-03-25 2015-07-07 Faro Technologies, Inc. Device for optically scanning and measuring an environment
US9417316B2 (en) 2009-11-20 2016-08-16 Faro Technologies, Inc. Device for optically scanning and measuring an environment
US9113023B2 (en) 2009-11-20 2015-08-18 Faro Technologies, Inc. Three-dimensional scanner with spectroscopic energy detector
US9529083B2 (en) 2009-11-20 2016-12-27 Faro Technologies, Inc. Three-dimensional scanner with enhanced spectroscopic energy detector
US8630314B2 (en) 2010-01-11 2014-01-14 Faro Technologies, Inc. Method and apparatus for synchronizing measurements taken by multiple metrology devices
US8533967B2 (en) 2010-01-20 2013-09-17 Faro Technologies, Inc. Coordinate measurement machines with removable accessories
US8601702B2 (en) 2010-01-20 2013-12-10 Faro Technologies, Inc. Display for coordinate measuring machine
US8615893B2 (en) 2010-01-20 2013-12-31 Faro Technologies, Inc. Portable articulated arm coordinate measuring machine having integrated software controls
US10060722B2 (en) 2010-01-20 2018-08-28 Faro Technologies, Inc. Articulated arm coordinate measurement machine having a 2D camera and method of obtaining 3D representations
US8638446B2 (en) 2010-01-20 2014-01-28 Faro Technologies, Inc. Laser scanner or laser tracker having a projector
US8677643B2 (en) 2010-01-20 2014-03-25 Faro Technologies, Inc. Coordinate measurement machines with removable accessories
US8683709B2 (en) 2010-01-20 2014-04-01 Faro Technologies, Inc. Portable articulated arm coordinate measuring machine with multi-bus arm technology
US8537374B2 (en) 2010-01-20 2013-09-17 Faro Technologies, Inc. Coordinate measuring machine having an illuminated probe end and method of operation
US8832954B2 (en) 2010-01-20 2014-09-16 Faro Technologies, Inc. Coordinate measurement machines with removable accessories
US8875409B2 (en) 2010-01-20 2014-11-04 Faro Technologies, Inc. Coordinate measurement machines with removable accessories
US8898919B2 (en) 2010-01-20 2014-12-02 Faro Technologies, Inc. Coordinate measurement machine with distance meter used to establish frame of reference
US8942940B2 (en) 2010-01-20 2015-01-27 Faro Technologies, Inc. Portable articulated arm coordinate measuring machine and integrated electronic data processing system
US9607239B2 (en) 2010-01-20 2017-03-28 Faro Technologies, Inc. Articulated arm coordinate measurement machine having a 2D camera and method of obtaining 3D representations
US9009000B2 (en) 2010-01-20 2015-04-14 Faro Technologies, Inc. Method for evaluating mounting stability of articulated arm coordinate measurement machine using inclinometers
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US8171650B2 (en) 2010-01-20 2012-05-08 Faro Technologies, Inc. Intelligent repeatable arm mounting system
US9163922B2 (en) 2010-01-20 2015-10-20 Faro Technologies, Inc. Coordinate measurement machine with distance meter and camera to determine dimensions within camera images
US9628775B2 (en) 2010-01-20 2017-04-18 Faro Technologies, Inc. Articulated arm coordinate measurement machine having a 2D camera and method of obtaining 3D representations
US8028432B2 (en) 2010-01-20 2011-10-04 Faro Technologies, Inc. Mounting device for a coordinate measuring machine
US8001697B2 (en) 2010-01-20 2011-08-23 Faro Technologies, Inc. Counter balance for coordinate measurement device
US8763266B2 (en) 2010-01-20 2014-07-01 Faro Technologies, Inc. Coordinate measurement device
US8284407B2 (en) 2010-01-20 2012-10-09 Faro Technologies, Inc. Coordinate measuring machine having an illuminated probe end and method of operation
US9684078B2 (en) 2010-05-10 2017-06-20 Faro Technologies, Inc. Method for optically scanning and measuring an environment
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