径流叶栅压气机 技术领域 本发明属于航空涡喷发动机领域，尤其涉及一种应用于航 空涡喷发动机的径流叶栅压气机。 背景技术 压气机是航空涡喷发动机的重要部件之一，其作用是对进 入发动机的气流进行压缩，进气压缩过程是航空发动机热力学 循环的必须过程，压缩比的大小是决定发动机功率的最主要元 素。 现有的小型航空喷气发动机的设计都采用离心式压气机， 然而， 离心式压气机仅靠自 由旋转气体离心力进行压缩， 其压 缩比很小， 效率很低， 达不到需要的压缩比， 离心式压气机勉 强适用于航电发电机中的发动机。而现有航空喷气发动机常用 的另一种压气机——轴流叶栅压气机， 由于其离心力方向与气 流压縮方向不一致， 离心力会干扰压缩， 而且， 轴流叶栅压气 机无法做成小尺寸， 小尺寸叶片的加工及安装都十分困难， 所 以轴流叶栅压气机仅适用于大中型航空喷气发动机和大型飞 机。 目前， 小型飞机还都是应用活塞发动机带动螺旋桨推进。 发明内容 本发明所要解决的技术问题在于提供一种具有高压.缩比， 可适用 '于扁平式航空发动机和小型飞机涡喷发动机的径流叶 栅压气机。 BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 1. Field of the Invention The present invention relates to the field of aviation turbojet engines, and more particularly to a radial cascade compressor for an aerial turbojet engine. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION Compressor is one of the important components of an aviation turbojet engine. Its function is to compress the airflow entering the engine. The compression process of the intake air is a necessary process for the thermodynamic cycle of the aeroengine. The size of the compression ratio is the most important factor determining the engine power. element. The existing small air jet engines are designed with a centrifugal compressor. However, the centrifugal compressor is only compressed by the free-rotating gas centrifugal force. The compression ratio is small, the efficiency is low, and the required compression ratio is not achieved. The compressor is barely suitable for use in engines in avionic generators. Another axial compressor, which is commonly used in existing jet engines, is inconsistent with the direction of compression of the airflow due to its centrifugal force, and the centrifugal force can interfere with compression. Moreover, the axial cascade compressor cannot be made small. Dimensional, small-sized blades are difficult to machine and install, so axial-blade compressors are only suitable for large and medium-sized jet engines and large aircraft. At present, small aircraft are also driven by propeller engines. SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION The technical problem to be solved by the present invention is to provide a radial cascade compressor which has a high pressure and a reduction ratio and is applicable to a flat aircraft engine and a small aircraft turbojet engine.
为解决上述技术问题， 本发明所采用的技术方案是： 提供 一种径流叶栅压气机， 其包括位于轴心的进气口、 机壳、 动叶 盘和静叶盘； 所述动、 静叶盘上分别设有呈同心圆环状排列的 若干动叶片及静叶片， 所述动、 静叶片分别形成环形动、 静叶 栅； 动、 静叶盘相对安装， 环形动、 静叶栅相互间隔； 所述动 叶盘旋转时，气体由进气口吸入沿径向被向外压缩后经通道排 确 认 本
出。 In order to solve the above technical problem, the technical solution adopted by the present invention is: providing a radial flow cascade compressor including an air inlet, a casing, a bucket disk and a stationary blade disk at an axial center; the moving and static The leaf discs are respectively provided with a plurality of moving blades and static vanes arranged in a concentric annular shape, and the moving and stationary vanes respectively form an annular moving and stationary vane grid; the moving and stationary vanes are oppositely mounted, and the circular moving and stationary vanes are mutually connected. Interval; when the bucket disk rotates, the gas is compressed by the air inlet and compressed outward in the radial direction, and then confirmed by the channel row. Out.
更具体地， 所述动叶盘是外圆区域为锥面的圆盘， 所述动 叶片位于其外圆区域的内表面。 More specifically, the bucket disk is a disk having a tapered outer circumference, and the rotor blade is located on an inner surface of an outer circular region thereof.
更具体地，位于所述动叶盘的圆锥面内侧的动叶片与相对 静止的静叶片都是二维曲面，其母线即其高度方向与旋转轴平 行。 More specifically, the moving blade located inside the conical surface of the bucket disc and the relatively stationary vane are both two-dimensional curved surfaces, and the busbars thereof have their height directions parallel to the rotating shaft.
更具体地，位于所述动叶盘与静叶盘的内圈的叶片面积大 于外圈的叶片面积。 More specifically, the blade area of the inner ring of the bucket disk and the vane disk is larger than the blade area of the outer ring.
更具体地，位于所述动叶盘与静叶盘的外圈的叶片间距小 于内圈的叶片间距， 并且， 外圈的叶片数量多于内圈的叶片数 更具体地， 所述径流叶栅压气机还可以包括轴向压气叶 轮，所述轴向压气叶轮位于进气口 内，并且与动叶盘同轴安装。 More specifically, the blade pitch of the outer ring of the bucket disk and the vane disk is smaller than the blade pitch of the inner ring, and the number of blades of the outer ring is more than the number of blades of the inner ring. More specifically, the runoff cascade The compressor may also include an axial compression air impeller located within the intake port and mounted coaxially with the bucket disk.
更具体地， 于所述静叶盘上相邻于所述进气口的位置处， 可以设置有环状静叶栅，所述环状静叶栅的叶片形状为空间螺 旋面。 More specifically, at a position adjacent to the intake port on the vane disk, an annular stationary blade cascade may be provided, the blade shape of the annular stationary blade cascade being a space spiral surface.
更具体地，所述动叶盘的背部与机壳之间设有用于防止压 力回泄的非接触的迷宫式密封结构。 More specifically, a non-contact labyrinth seal structure for preventing pressure backflow is provided between the back of the bucket disc and the casing.
与现有技术相比较， 本发明具有以下有益效果： 本发明的 径流叶栅压气机利用轴流叶栅压气机的原理，将轴流叶栅的管 道式布局变换为径向同心环叶栅的盘式构造。 由于动、 静叶盘 外圈的周长比内 圈更长， 因此， 外圈可以布置更多的叶片； 而 且， 由于外圈叶片的速度更高， 与静叶片作用的压缩效果优于 轴流叶栅压气机。 与离心式压气机和轴流叶栅压气机相比， 本 发明的径流叶栅压气机由于压缩比较高和设计变化范围大，适 用于模具制造， 能保证制造精度， 同时工艺成本低， 因此， 在 扁平式航空发动机和小型飞机涡喷发动机的应用上有绝对优 势。 附图说明
下面结合附图和具体实施方式对本发明作进一步的详细 图 1 是本发明一较佳实施例的组装构造剖视图。 Compared with the prior art, the present invention has the following beneficial effects: The radial flow cascade compressor of the present invention utilizes the principle of an axial flow cascade compressor to transform the pipeline layout of the axial flow cascade into a radial concentric annular cascade. Disc construction. Since the circumference of the outer ring of the moving and stationary blade is longer than the inner ring, the outer ring can be arranged with more blades; and, because the outer ring has a higher speed, the compression effect with the stationary blade is better than that of the axial flow. Grid compressor. Compared with the centrifugal compressor and the axial cascade compressor, the radial cascade compressor of the present invention is suitable for mold manufacturing due to high compression and large design variation range, and can ensure manufacturing precision and low process cost. There is an absolute advantage in the application of flat aero engines and small aircraft turbojet engines. DRAWINGS BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. 1 is a cross-sectional view showing an assembled structure of a preferred embodiment of the present invention in conjunction with the drawings and specific embodiments.
图 2是图 1 所示实施例的分解示意图。 Figure 2 is an exploded perspective view of the embodiment of Figure 1.
图 3 是图 1 所示实施例中动、 静叶盘装配位置投影图。 具体实施方式 请参阅图 1 至图 3， 是本发明的一较佳实施例， 该径流叶 栅压气机主要包括位于中央的进气口 1、 静叶盘 2、 动叶盘 5、 后罩盖 8、 环形集压腔 11 及轴向压气叶轮 16。 Figure 3 is a projection view of the position of the moving and stationary blade assembly in the embodiment shown in Figure 1. 1 to 3, which are a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the radial cascade compressor mainly includes a centrally located air inlet 1, a stationary blade disk 2, a rotor blade 5, and a rear cover. 8. An annular collecting chamber 11 and an axial compressor impeller 16.
所述静叶盘 2呈圆盘状，其上设置有呈同心圆环状排列的 若干静叶片 12、 14, 所述静叶片 12、 14形成环形静叶栅， 于 静叶盘 2 上相邻于进气口 1 的位置处， 还设置有环状静叶栅 15， 所述环状静叶栅 15 的叶片形状为空间螺旋面。 The vane disk 2 has a disk shape, and is provided with a plurality of stator blades 12 and 14 arranged in a concentric annular shape. The stator blades 12 and 14 form an annular stationary blade cascade adjacent to the stationary blade disk 2 At the position of the intake port 1, an annular stationary blade cascade 15 is also provided, and the blade shape of the annular stationary blade cascade 15 is a spatial spiral surface.
所述动叶盘 5 上设置有呈同心圆环状排列的若干动叶片 9、 13, 所述动叶片 9、 13 形成环形动叶栅； 动叶盘 5 的外圆 区域为圆锥面， 此处的动叶片 9、 13 位于圆锥面的内表面， 锥 面式圆盘设计可避免高速旋转的动叶片 9、 13 产生的离心力造 成动叶盘 5 变形， 以保证旋转间隙稳定。 The moving blade disc 5 is provided with a plurality of moving blades 9 and 13 arranged in a concentric annular shape, and the moving blades 9 and 13 form an annular moving blade cascade; the outer circular area of the moving blade 5 is a conical surface, where The moving blades 9, 13 are located on the inner surface of the conical surface, and the tapered surface disc design prevents the centrifugal force generated by the high-speed rotating moving blades 9, 13 from deforming the vane disc 5 to ensure the stability of the rotating gap.
所述动叶盘 5 与轴 6紧固连接， 并通过轴承 7安装在后罩 盖 8 上， 所述静叶盘 2 兼作压气机的前罩盖， 其与后罩盖 8 紧固连接而形成机壳。 动、 静叶盘 5、 2 相对安装， 装配好的 环形动、 静叶栅相互间隔， 并具有合理的间隙， 以保证动叶盘 5旋转时所有的动、 静叶片 9、 13、 12、 14不会发生干涉。 在 动叶盘 5的背部与后罩盖 8之间设有非接触的迷宫式密封构造 4， 以防止压缩流沿狭缝回泄。 The vane disc 5 is fastened to the shaft 6 and mounted on the rear cover 8 via a bearing 7, the vane disc 2 also serving as a front cover of the compressor, which is fastened to the rear cover 8 to form cabinet. The moving and stationary vanes 5, 2 are oppositely mounted, and the assembled annular moving and stationary cascades are spaced apart from each other and have a reasonable gap to ensure that all the moving and stationary vanes 9, 13, 12, 14 when the vane disc 5 rotates No interference will occur. A non-contact labyrinth seal configuration 4 is provided between the back of the bucket 5 and the rear cover 8 to prevent the compressed flow from escaping along the slit.
所述环形集压腔 11 位于环形静叶栅的外围， 其由静叶盘 2 与后罩盖 8 密封连接而成， 压縮后的气体在环形集压腔 11 中蓄集后通过通道 3、 10压向燃烧室 （ 图中未示出） 。 所述轴 向压气叶轮 16 位于进气口 1 内， 并且紧固连接于与动叶盘 5
紧固连接的轴 6 的前端。 The annular collecting chamber 11 is located at the periphery of the annular stationary blade grid, and is formed by sealing connection between the stationary vane 2 and the rear cover 8. The compressed gas is accumulated in the annular collecting chamber 11 and then passes through the passage 3. 10 is pressed into the combustion chamber (not shown). The axial compressed air impeller 16 is located in the air inlet 1 and is fastened to the moving blade 5 Tighten the front end of the connected shaft 6.
当动叶盘 5 旋转时， 气体由进气口 1 吸入， 沿径向不断被 高速的动叶片压缩向临近的静叶片， 经静叶片折返方向后， 进 入下一组临近的高速动叶片， 最后， 经通道 3、 1 0排出。 上述 气体的流动方向如图 1 及图 3 中的箭头方向所示。 When the bucket disk 5 rotates, the gas is sucked by the air inlet 1, and is continuously compressed by the high speed moving blades in the radial direction to the adjacent stationary blades. After the static blades are folded back, the next set of adjacent high-speed moving blades is finally entered. , discharged through channel 3, 10 0. The flow direction of the above gas is shown by the direction of the arrows in Figs. 1 and 3.
由于气体在动、 静叶盘 5、 2 的外圈位置时巳被压缩，. 其 体积已减小， 需要通过相对面积迅速变小， 因此， 本发明的动 叶盘 5 与静叶盘 2 的内圈的叶片面积大于外圈的叶片面积。 Since the gas is compressed at the outer ring position of the moving and stationary vanes 5, 2, its volume has been reduced, and it needs to be rapidly reduced by the relative area. Therefore, the vane 5 and the vane disc 2 of the present invention The blade area of the inner ring is larger than the blade area of the outer ring.
由于动、 静叶盘 5、 .2 的外圈周长大于内圈周长， 因此， 可以布置更多的叶片，本发明的动叶盘 5 与静叶盘 2 的外圈的 叶片间距小于内圈的叶片间距， 并且， 外圈的叶片数量多于内 圈的叶片数量。 当动叶盘 5旋转时， 外圈更高的动、 静叶片作 用次数和动、 静叶片相对速度， 也正好满足外圈已压缩到一定 程度的气体继续强化压缩的需要。与现有的轴流叶栅压气机相 比较，虽然轴流叶栅压气机的后级叶片也比前级叶片多，但是， 本发明的外圈叶片数量与内圈叶片数量之比远大于轴流叶栅 压气机的后级叶片数量与前级叶片数量之比； 现有轴流叶栅压 气机的后级叶片与前级叶片的线速度相同，而本发明的外圈叶 片的线速度比内圈叶片的线速度高得多， 因此， 本发明的压縮 作用要比轴流叶栅气机强得多。 Since the outer circumference of the moving and stationary vanes 5, .2 is larger than the inner circumference, more vanes can be arranged, and the blade pitch of the outer vane 5 of the present invention and the outer ring of the vane disc 2 is smaller than the inner circumference. The blade pitch of the ring, and the number of blades of the outer ring is greater than the number of blades of the inner ring. When the bucket 5 rotates, the higher number of dynamic and static blades of the outer ring and the relative speed of the moving and stationary blades also meet the need for the outer ring to be compressed to a certain extent to continue to strengthen the compression. Compared with the existing axial flow cascade compressor, although the rear stage blades of the axial flow cascade compressor are more than the front stage blades, the ratio of the number of outer ring blades of the present invention to the number of inner ring blades is much larger than that of the shaft. The ratio of the number of blades in the downstream stage of the cascade compressor to the number of blades in the preceding stage; the linear velocity of the rear blade of the existing axial cascade compressor is the same as that of the preceding blade, and the linear velocity ratio of the outer ring blade of the present invention is The linear speed of the ring blades is much higher, so the compression of the present invention is much stronger than that of the axial flow cascade.
本发明的动、 静叶片 9、 1 3、 1 2、 1 4 的高度方向与旋转轴 6平行， 动叶盘 5 的圆锥面内侧的动叶片 9、 1 3 与相对静止的 静叶片 1 2、 1 4 都是二维曲面， 其母线与旋转轴 6平行， 在完 全满足气流压缩形面要求的同时有利于使用模具制造零件，这 样， 与离心式压气叶轮的三维空间曲面叶片的复杂工艺相比， 本发明极大地简化了工艺， 从而更好地保证产品精度， 同时更 降低了发动机的总成本。 工业应用性 与现有的轴流叶栅压气机相比较， 虽然轴流叶栅压气机的
后级叶片也比前级叶片多， 但是， 本发明的外圈叶片数量与内 圈叶片数量之比远大于轴流叶栅压气机的后级叶片数量与前 级叶片数量之比；现有轴流叶栅压气机的后级叶片与前级叶片 的线速度相同，而本发明的外圈叶片的线速度比内圈叶片的线 速度高得多， 因此， 本发明的压缩作用要比轴流叶栅气机强得 多。 本发明的动、 静叶片 9、 1 3、 1 2、 1 4 的高度方向与旋转轴 6平行， 动叶盘 5 的圆锥面内侧的动叶片 9、 1 3 与相对静止的 静叶片 1 2、 1 4 都是二维曲面， 其母线与旋转轴 6 平行， 在完 全满足气流压缩形面要求的同时有利于使用模具制造零件，这 样， 与离心式压气叶轮的三维空间曲面叶片的复杂工艺相比， 本发明极大地简化了工艺， 从而更好地保证产品精度， 同时更 降低了发动机的总成本。
The height direction of the moving and stationary vanes 9, 13 3, 1 2, 1 4 of the present invention is parallel to the rotating shaft 6, and the moving vanes 9, 13 and the relatively stationary vanes 12 on the inner side of the conical surface of the vane disc 5 are provided. 1 4 are all two-dimensional curved surfaces, and the busbars are parallel to the rotating shaft 6, which is beneficial to the use of the mold to manufacture the parts while fully satisfying the requirements of the airflow compression profile, so that compared with the complex process of the three-dimensional curved blades of the centrifugal compressor The invention greatly simplifies the process, thereby better ensuring product accuracy while reducing the total cost of the engine. Industrial applicability compared to existing axial cascade compressors, although axial flow cascade compressors The latter stage blade is also more than the front stage blade. However, the ratio of the number of outer ring blades of the present invention to the number of inner ring blades is much larger than the ratio of the number of the rear stage blades of the axial flow cascade compressor to the number of the front stage blades; The downstream blade of the cascade compressor is the same as the linear velocity of the preceding blade, and the linear velocity of the outer ring blade of the present invention is much higher than that of the inner ring blade. Therefore, the compression effect of the present invention is higher than that of the axial flow blade. The grid machine is much stronger. The height direction of the moving and stationary vanes 9, 13 3, 1 2, and 14 of the present invention is parallel to the rotating shaft 6, and the moving vanes 9, 13 and the relatively stationary vane 12 on the inner side of the conical surface of the vane disc 5 are provided. 1 4 are all two-dimensional curved surfaces, and the busbars are parallel to the rotating shaft 6 to facilitate the use of the mold to manufacture the parts while fully satisfying the requirements of the airflow compression profile. Thus, compared with the complex process of the three-dimensional curved blades of the centrifugal compressor The invention greatly simplifies the process, thereby better ensuring product accuracy while reducing the total cost of the engine.