WO2007096673A1 - Antifoam from hop extract - Google Patents

Antifoam from hop extract Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2007096673A1
WO2007096673A1 PCT/GB2007/050082 GB2007050082W WO2007096673A1 WO 2007096673 A1 WO2007096673 A1 WO 2007096673A1 GB 2007050082 W GB2007050082 W GB 2007050082W WO 2007096673 A1 WO2007096673 A1 WO 2007096673A1
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WO
WIPO (PCT)
Prior art keywords
hops
hop
antifoam
anti
foaming agent
Prior art date
Application number
PCT/GB2007/050082
Other languages
French (fr)
Inventor
Raymond John Marriott
Original Assignee
Botanix Limited
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to GB0603770A priority Critical patent/GB0603770D0/en
Priority to GB0603770.9 priority
Application filed by Botanix Limited filed Critical Botanix Limited
Publication of WO2007096673A1 publication Critical patent/WO2007096673A1/en

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Classifications

    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C12BIOCHEMISTRY; BEER; SPIRITS; WINE; VINEGAR; MICROBIOLOGY; ENZYMOLOGY; MUTATION OR GENETIC ENGINEERING
    • C12CBREWING OF BEER
    • C12C3/00Treatment of hops
    • C12C3/04Conserving; Storing; Packing
    • C12C3/08Solvent extracts from hops
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C12BIOCHEMISTRY; BEER; SPIRITS; WINE; VINEGAR; MICROBIOLOGY; ENZYMOLOGY; MUTATION OR GENETIC ENGINEERING
    • C12CBREWING OF BEER
    • C12C3/00Treatment of hops
    • C12C3/04Conserving; Storing; Packing
    • C12C3/08Solvent extracts from hops
    • C12C3/10Solvent extracts from hops using carbon dioxide

Abstract

A mixture of the hard resins, lipids and waxes obtained by solvent extraction of hops can be effectively utilized in brewing processes to suppress foaming. The mixture is typically the residue obtained by extraction of hops with liquid carbon dioxide, or other solvents, followed by extraction of alpha acids, beta acids and essential oils from the whole hop extract. The mixture of natural products is at least as effective as silicone antifoams, and has been shown to improve fermentation rates because the presence of hop lipids has a positive effect on yeast metabolism.

Description

ANTIFOAM FROM HOP EXTRACT

Field of the Invention

This invention relates to antifoam agents derived from hop extracts and especially the use of the antifoam agents in brewing.

Background of the Invention

Hops have long been a key flavouring and bittering agent in the production of beer. More recently solvent and CO2 extraction of hops have provided hop components, especially the so-called α and β-acids, as more easily handled concentrates. The extraction of hop fats and waxes using liquid CO2 was first published by Sharpe, F. R., J. Inst. Brew., 1980, 86, 234-241. The subsequent move to supercritical CO2 extraction has increased the relative level of hop lipids (fats and oils) and waxes obtained in the CO2 extracts.

In the brewing industry, the composition of wort and beer makes both products susceptible to foaming during processing. This is conventionally controlled either by mechanical means or by the addition of an proprietary antifoam compositions, especially antifoam compositions based on polymethylsiloxanes.

It is an object of this invention to provide a foam suppressing agent that is based on natural products and suitable for use in brewing.

Summary of the Invention The present invention is based on the finding that the resins, lipids (fats and/or oils) and waxes that are the residue of solvent or CO2 extraction of hops, form an effective foam suppressant, which is especially suitable for brewing due to its origin in a natural material which is an established beer additive.

Accordingly in one aspect the present invention provides an anti-foaming agent comprising a mixture of hop lipids, waxes and hard resins, which may be used in solid form or as an aqueous emulsion, depending on the temperature of the system in which foaming occurs.

In another aspect the invention provides the use of a mixture of hop lipids, waxes and hard resins as an anti-foaming agent, especially in brewing.

More specifically the invention provides use of a mixture of hop lipids, waxes and hard resins as an anti-foaming agent in brewing by addition of the mixture in solid form to the brew kettle or by addition of the mixture as an aqueous emulsion to the fermenter.

Detailed Description of the Invention

The composition of hop wax has been published by Delanghe et al., J.Inst. Brew., 1969, (75), 445-449 and a similar paper by the same author appears in J. Sci. Food Agric, 1969, 20(10), 579-580. There is also a relevant paper by Knorr, F., Brauereitechniker. 1973, 25(17), 122 - 123.

The present invention makes use of what are known as the hard resins and lipids (fixed oils) and waxes, that is the resins, waxes, fats and oils, that remain at the completion of hop extraction procedures. The present invention includes antifoam products comprising hard resins and fixed oils and waxes in the form obtainable by any extraction procedure. Extractions may conveniently be carried out using for example organic solvents, such as ethanol, or using either liquid or supercritical CO2.

Accordingly the antifoam agent is composed of a mixture of hard resins, waxes and lipids (oils/fats), from which has previously been removed α -acids, optionally β- acids, and essential oils which can cause unwanted addition of bitterness or flavour.

The product typically contains, by weight: hard (polymerised) resins (fraction soluble in methanol) 10 - 25% oils and waxes (fraction soluble in hexane) 75 - 90%

The hexane soluble fraction is typically made up of, by weight: fixed oils 15 - 40% waxes 60 - 85% β-acids 0 -10 %.

With this information it is feasible to extract the methanol-soluble and hexane- soluble target materials directly from hops. However a preferred extraction procedure starting from hops is shown below, which makes used of current procedures of choice for extracting desirable hop acids and essential oils from hops. The resulting product, found by the present invention to be an effective antifoam agent, is a dark green-brown waxy extract, which is composed of a mixture of hard resins, waxes and lipids.

Hops

I Pelleting

4 Pellets

I

Extraction with ethanol or CO2 (supercritical or liquid) I

Pure Resin Extract

4 Extraction of α-acids → lsomerised hop extract

I Beta acid oil

4 Extraction of β-acids → β-acid solution

I Oil Extract I

Molecular distillation → Hop essential oil

4 Hard resins, fixed oils, waxes

The residue of any procedure for solvent extraction of hops (seeded or unseeded) may be used. The proportions of the components of the residue (and of the content of a, β-acids and essential oils) will vary depending on the solvent used for extraction. In the commercial production of hop extract products, carbon dioxide is now the solvent of choice, and the residue from liquid carbon dioxide extraction has been found to be especially effective for use as a foam suppressant in accordance with this invention.

The procedures for pelletising hops and for extraction of α-acids, β-acids and essential oils from the initial extract are all well known in the hop processing art.

The α-acids and β-acids are typically removed separately by aqueous washes at different pH values - see for example US Patent 4844939 relating to recovery of components from carbon dioxide hop extractions (the entire disclosure of US 4844939 is incorporated herein by reference). Essential oils are preferably extracted by molecular distillation (i.e. distillation at very low pressure), but steam distillation is a further option.

In an alternative procedure the alpha acid content of the initial extract is isomerised in situ, so that the alpha acids are actually extracted as the more desirable iso- alpha acids.

The residue of hard resins, fixed oils, waxes produced using the extractions described above may be added as an antifoam base directly to the brew kettle in the manufacture of beer, suitably at a rate of 2 - 10 g/hl (20 - 100 ppm). To use this product in the fermenter, where the temperature is lower and there is much less effective mixing, it is preferably dispersed in water as an aqueous emulsion before use.

An emulsion may be prepared by mixing the antifoam base with a suitable emulsifier (approved for food use) such as one of the fatty acid esters of sorbitan polyethoxylates (or polysorbates) commercially available under the trade name

TWEEN. Polysorbate 80 (Tween™ 80 - polyoxyethylene sorbitan monooleate) is effective at a weight ratio of 1 :1 to 4:1 (antifoam base:Tween 80) for dispersing this blend in water. The resulting emulsion is stable and may be used at a rate of 10 - 40 g/hl in the fermenter.

In trial brews, the antifoam hop extract of this invention has been shown to be an effective substitute for conventionally used silicone antifoams, providing similar or better antifoam effect in comparative testing. In particular there is often an improved effect relative to silicones in the first 48 hours of treatment, which may be a stage with heavy foaming. Also an improved fermentation rate has been observed using the hop antifoam.

The invention is further illustrated in the following Examples.

Example 1 - preparation of antifoam base

Hops of the variety Target' were pelletised and subjected to extraction using liquid carbon dioxide at a pressure of 6.3 Mpa (63 bar) and a temperature of 1O0C for 7 hours. The resin extract obtained was treated to isomerise the alpha acids content by the addition of magnesium carbonate, and the resultant iso-alpha acids removed by washing with aqueous KOH at pH 7.5 to leave "beta acid oil". The beta acids were removed from the beta acid oil by a further wash with aqueous KOH to leave the oil extract. The oil extract was distilled at 1.33x10 * Hpa (1 x 10~2 torr) and 9O0C to remove the essential oils, leaving a residue of hard resins, fixed oils and waxes.

This residue contained by weight 15% methanol soluble fraction and 85% hexane soluble fraction, of which 30% was hop lipids (triglycerides) and was found to be an effective antifoam base when utilized in brewing processes to suppress foaming.

Example 2 - use of antifoam base

A 10 hi kettle with an internal heater was filled with 8 hi of 100% malt liquor and 10 g/hl hop extract containing 50% α-acids. This was brought to a rolling boil. 5 g/hl of the hop antifoam base prepared in Example 1 was added and the boil continued for 90 minutes. No over-foaming of the kettle was observed, in contrast to the situation without antifoam. After fermentation and maturation the product was assessed for both taste and aroma and no "off-notes" detected in the final product.

Example 3 - use of antifoam base

A 300 hi kettle with an external boiler was charged with 250 hi liquor produced with by weight 79% Optic, 9% Cara malt, 3% Wheat Flour and 9% Glucoplus 361

(glucose/maltose syrup). 15 kg hop pellets (12% α-acids) were added and brought to a rolling boil. 10 g/hl of hop antifoam base of Example 1 was added and the boil continued for 90 minutes. No over-foaming of the kettle was observed, in contrast to the situation without antifoam. Fermentation proceeded normally and after maturation the product was assessed for both taste and aroma and no "off-notes" were detected.

Example 4 - use of antifoam emulsion

A hop antifoam emulsion was prepared by blending by weight 75% of the hop antifoam base of Example 1 with 25% of Tween 80, and adding water and stirring to form an emulsion containing 10% by weight of the base in water.

A commercial lager beer with original extract of 16.9° plato was fermented in a conical fermenter with the addition of either 10 ppm silicone antifoam (control) or 400 ppm hop antifoam emulsion (40 ppm base component) for 96 hours. The final extract was 2.12° plato in the control and 1.88° plato in the trial fermentation. The antifoam effects of the silicone and the hop antifoam were similar, but the fermentation rate was higher in the trial with the hop antifoam, reaching a final alcohol content of 8.2% v/v compared with 8.08% v/v for the control. The final pH of the control fermentation was 4.07 and the trial was pH 3.96. After maturation the beers were compared and proved to be similar in flavour and aroma.

Example 5 - use of antifoam emulsion

A commercial light lager beer with original extract of 16.0° plato was subject to an attenuated fermentation in a conical fermenter with the addition of either 10 ppm silicone antifoam (control) or 400 ppm hop antifoam emulsion of Example 4 (40 ppm active base component) for 150 hours. The final extract was 6.1° plato in both the control and in the trial fermentation. The antifoam effects of the silicone and the hop antifoam were similar. The fermentation rate was identical in the trial with the hop antifoam and the control with both reaching a final alcohol content of 2.4% v/v. and the final pH of the both trials was 4.24. After maturation the beers were packed and then compared and proved to be similar in both taste and aroma with no "off- notes" detected in the trial with added hop antifoam

Example 6 - use of antifoam emulsion

A commercial top fermented porter was fermented in an open top fermenter with the addition of either 10 ppm silicone antifoam (control) or 400 ppm antifoam emulsion of Example 4 (40 ppm active base component) for 120 hours. The trial with the hop antifoam showed the more vigorous fermentation rate but foam levels remained below that of the control throughout the fermentation. Crucially the foam level remained below 20% of the wort volume for the first 48 hours of fermentation. After maturation the beers were compared and found to be similar in both taste and aroma with no "off-notes" detected in the trial with added hop antifoam.

Example 7 - use of antifoam emulsion

Ale wort with original gravity of 1.050 was subject to fermentation in a 10 hi open fermenter with or without the addition of 200 ppm hop antifoam emulsion (20 ppm active base component) for 96 hours. The final gravity of the control was 1.012 and the batch with added antifoam was 1.009. No overfoaming was observed throughout fermentation in the trial with antifoam but the foam level in the control fermentation reached 30 cm.

After maturation the beers were packed and then compared and proved to be similar in both taste and aroma with no "off-notes" detected in the trial with added hop antifoam. Foam stability of both products was assessed in triplicate using both the Rudin and NIBEM methods. The foam stability of the control was 259 NIBEM (seconds) or 184 seconds (Rudin 75 mm) and the trial with added antifoam was 279 NIBEM (seconds) or 189 seconds (Rudin 75 mm)

Industrial Applicability

The hop antifoam base comprising the hard resins, fixed oils and waxes obtained by solvent extraction of pelletised hops, and typically obtained by extraction of alpha acids, beta acids and essential oils from the whole hop extract, can be effectively utilized in brewing processes to suppress foaming.

The antifoam hop extract of this invention provides an effective natural substitute for silicone antifoam in brewing processes, with similar or better antifoam effect. The improved fermentation rate which has been observed appears to arise because the presence of the hop lipids has a positive effect on yeast metabolism.

The hop antifoam base can be used in any type of brewing kettle configuration. It is preferably warmed before addition to the kettle to make it more fluid. The product can then be added directly to the kettle. Typical dose rate is 2 - 5 g/hl depending on the degree of foam control required. Products with high levels of foam producing substances such as hop acids and proteins will require dose rates at the higher end of this range. It is important that the active components are removed completely so that the foam stability in the finished beer is not compromised. This natural kettle antifoam will be removed with the trub and will not carry over into the wort stream.

For commercial use, the hop antifoam base is packaged in containers for transport to and storage at the place of use, typically accompanied by product safety sheets and instructions for use. The base materials is conveniently packed in 10kg plastic pails, but alternative packaging systems can be used as convenient or appropriate for the user.

The hop antifoam emulsion can be used in conical fermenters and also in top fermentation. It is compatible with other types of aqueous antifoam emulsions such as those based on silicones. The hop antifoam emulsion can be added to the wort as the fermenter is filled or with the pitching yeast. A further addition can be made to the surface of the fermentation mid-way through the fermentation if required. Typical dose rate is 10 - 40 g/hl depending on the product. Products with high levels of foam producing substances such as hop acids and proteins will require dose rates at the higher end of this range. It is important that the active components are removed completely from the finished beer. Yeast removes the majority of the active components by adsorption on to the cell wall and any remainder can removed by filtration.

For commercial use, the hop antifoam emulsion is packaged in containers for transport to and storage at the place of use, typically accompanied by product safety sheets and instructions for use. The emulsion material is conveniently packed in 20 litre polydrums or in 1 ,000 litre IBCs (intermediate bulk containers), but alternative packaging systems can be used as convenient or appropriate for the user.

There are no health hazards known for the antifoam products of this invention. Hops and hop extracts have GRAS status.

Claims

Claims
1. An anti-foaming agent comprising a mixture of lipids, waxes and hard resins obtained from hops
2. An anti-foaming agent according to claim 1 , comprising by weight: hard (polymerised) hop resins (fraction soluble in methanol) 10 - 25% hop oils and waxes (fraction soluble in hexane) 75 - 90%.
3. An anti-foaming agent according to claim 2, in which the hexane soluble fraction comprises by weight: fixed oils 15 - 40%; waxes 60 - 85%; β-acids 0 -10 %.
4. An anti-foaming agent according to any one of claims 1 to 3, obtainable by extraction of hops with an organic solvent.
5. An anti-foaming agent according to any one of claims 1 to 3, obtainable by extraction of hops with liquid or supercritical CO2.
6. An anti-foaming agent according to any preceding claim, in solid form.
7. An anti-foaming agent according to any one of claims 1 to 6, in the form of an aqueous emulsion.
8. An anti-foaming agent according to any one of claims 1 to 7, packaged for transport or storage.
9. Use of a mixture of lipids, waxes and hard resins obtained from hops as an anti-foaming agent.
10. Use according to claim 9 in brewing processes.
11. Use according to claim 10, by addition of the mixture in solid form to the brew kettle.
12. Use according to claim 10, by addition of the mixture as an aqueous emulsion to the fermenter.
13. A method of preparing an antifoam agent from hops, which comprises subjecting hops to solvent extraction to obtain a hop extract; removing alpha acids, optionally beta acids and essential oils from the hop extract; and packaging the residue for use as an antifoam agent.
14. A method according to claim 13 in which the hops are pelletised before solvent extraction.
15. A method according to claim 13 or 14 in which the residue is emulsified in water before packaging.
16. A method according to claim 13, 14 or 15 in which the hops are extracted with liquid or supercritical carbon dioxide.
PCT/GB2007/050082 2006-02-24 2007-02-23 Antifoam from hop extract WO2007096673A1 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
GB0603770A GB0603770D0 (en) 2006-02-24 2006-02-24 Antifoam from hop extract
GB0603770.9 2006-02-24

Applications Claiming Priority (4)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
CA 2641795 CA2641795C (en) 2006-02-24 2007-02-23 Antifoam from hop extract
AU2007217150A AU2007217150B2 (en) 2006-02-24 2007-02-23 Antifoam from hop extract
US12/280,508 US20100055235A1 (en) 2006-02-24 2007-02-23 Antifoam from hop extract
EP20070712965 EP1987126B8 (en) 2006-02-24 2007-02-23 Antifoam from hop extract

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WO2007096673A1 true WO2007096673A1 (en) 2007-08-30

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US (1) US20100055235A1 (en)
EP (1) EP1987126B8 (en)
AU (1) AU2007217150B2 (en)
CA (1) CA2641795C (en)
GB (2) GB0603770D0 (en)
WO (1) WO2007096673A1 (en)
ZA (1) ZA200807105B (en)

Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO2011009588A2 (en) 2009-07-22 2011-01-27 Betatec Hopfenprodukte Gmbh Fermentation auxiliary and fermentation method

Families Citing this family (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US10214711B2 (en) * 2013-10-28 2019-02-26 Totally Natural Solutions Ltd. Fractionation of hop oils using liquid and supercritical carbon dioxide

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE2311828A1 (en) 1972-03-09 1973-09-13 Bush Boake Allen Ltd A method of reducing drifting of beer
US4104409A (en) * 1971-06-03 1978-08-01 Studiengesellschaft Kohle Mbh Production of hop extracts
US4282259A (en) * 1977-04-29 1981-08-04 The Distillers Company (Carbon Dioxide) Limited Process for preparing an extract of hops
US4844939A (en) 1984-02-28 1989-07-04 Kalamazoo Holdings, Inc. Separation of the constitutents of CO2 hop extracts
US5917093A (en) * 1997-11-13 1999-06-29 Miller Brewing Company Purification of α-acids and β-acids
US6242038B1 (en) 1994-09-13 2001-06-05 Kalamazoo Holdings, Inc. Readily-dispersible lipidic hop extract for imparting hoppy aroma and flavor to beer
US20020076475A1 (en) 2000-06-30 2002-06-20 Gimbel Adam M. Flavoring composition and process for brewing malt beverages
US20040115307A1 (en) 2002-08-28 2004-06-17 Boyd James F. Effervescent hop tablet

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GB1006936A (en) * 1961-07-04 1965-10-06 Carlton & United Breweries Hop concentrate and process for the preparation thereof
CA1047436A (en) * 1974-06-11 1979-01-30 Brewing Patents Limited Preparation of hop oil
DE2627534A1 (en) * 1976-06-19 1977-12-22 Hopfen Extraktion Barth Gmbh & Hop extract contg. little or no water - and consisting of resins, oils, waxes and opt. tannins
TW199905B (en) * 1992-02-03 1993-02-11 J E Siebel Sons Company Inc Method and composition for enhancing foam properties of fermented malt beverages
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Patent Citations (8)

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4104409A (en) * 1971-06-03 1978-08-01 Studiengesellschaft Kohle Mbh Production of hop extracts
DE2311828A1 (en) 1972-03-09 1973-09-13 Bush Boake Allen Ltd A method of reducing drifting of beer
US4282259A (en) * 1977-04-29 1981-08-04 The Distillers Company (Carbon Dioxide) Limited Process for preparing an extract of hops
US4844939A (en) 1984-02-28 1989-07-04 Kalamazoo Holdings, Inc. Separation of the constitutents of CO2 hop extracts
US6242038B1 (en) 1994-09-13 2001-06-05 Kalamazoo Holdings, Inc. Readily-dispersible lipidic hop extract for imparting hoppy aroma and flavor to beer
US5917093A (en) * 1997-11-13 1999-06-29 Miller Brewing Company Purification of α-acids and β-acids
US20020076475A1 (en) 2000-06-30 2002-06-20 Gimbel Adam M. Flavoring composition and process for brewing malt beverages
US20040115307A1 (en) 2002-08-28 2004-06-17 Boyd James F. Effervescent hop tablet

Non-Patent Citations (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Title
SHARPE, F. R., J. INST. BREW., vol. 86, 1980, pages 234 - 241

Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO2011009588A2 (en) 2009-07-22 2011-01-27 Betatec Hopfenprodukte Gmbh Fermentation auxiliary and fermentation method
DE102009034465A1 (en) 2009-07-22 2011-02-03 Betatec Hopfenprodukte Gmbh Fermentation aids and fermentation process
WO2011009588A3 (en) * 2009-07-22 2011-04-28 Betatec Hopfenprodukte Gmbh Fermentation auxiliary and fermentation method

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US20100055235A1 (en) 2010-03-04
CA2641795A1 (en) 2007-08-30
GB0603770D0 (en) 2006-04-05
AU2007217150B2 (en) 2012-09-06
GB0703575D0 (en) 2007-04-04
EP1987126B1 (en) 2013-11-27
EP1987126A1 (en) 2008-11-05
GB2435474A (en) 2007-08-29
CA2641795C (en) 2014-04-29
EP1987126B8 (en) 2014-01-08
AU2007217150A1 (en) 2007-08-30
ZA200807105B (en) 2009-07-29

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