WO2007086853A1 - Method and apparatus for preventing kickback of a motorcycle pedal starter - Google Patents

Method and apparatus for preventing kickback of a motorcycle pedal starter Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2007086853A1
WO2007086853A1 PCT/US2006/002878 US2006002878W WO2007086853A1 WO 2007086853 A1 WO2007086853 A1 WO 2007086853A1 US 2006002878 W US2006002878 W US 2006002878W WO 2007086853 A1 WO2007086853 A1 WO 2007086853A1
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WO
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Application
Patent type
Prior art keywords
rotation
crankshaft
time
ignition plug
engine
Prior art date
Application number
PCT/US2006/002878
Other languages
French (fr)
Inventor
Rogelio B. Agustin
Yukio Yonemura
Toshio Negishi
Original Assignee
Delphi Technologies, Inc.
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
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Publication date

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Classifications

    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02NSTARTING OF COMBUSTION ENGINES; STARTING AIDS FOR SUCH ENGINES, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • F02N3/00Other muscle-operated starting apparatus
    • F02N3/04Other muscle-operated starting apparatus having foot-actuated levers
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02NSTARTING OF COMBUSTION ENGINES; STARTING AIDS FOR SUCH ENGINES, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • F02N2250/00Problems related to engine starting or engine's starting apparatus
    • F02N2250/04Reverse rotation of the engine

Abstract

An apparatus (5) and control system (100) for preventing starter pedal kickback during starting of a motorcycle engine (12). The system includes a segmented target wheel (14) mounted on the engine crankshaft (10) and a sensor (17) that interrogates the rotational speed (X,Y,Z) of the engine at a plurality of predetermined angular intervals ahead of TDC. If minimum rotational speed criteria are not met in the predetermined intervals, logic embedded in the control system either alters the pre- calculated dwell and spark timing to prevent engine reversal and starter pedal kickback or aborts spark ignition altogether.

Description

METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR PREVENTING KICKBACK

OF A MOTORCYCLE PEDAL STARTER

TECHNICAL FIELD

The present invention relates to starting of motorcycle engines; more particularly, to kickback of a pedal starter during starting of a motorcycle engine; and most particularly, to method and apparatus for preventing kickback of a motorcycle pedal starter during starting of a motorcycle engine.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

Motorcycles are known to be equipped with pedal levers for starting a motorcycle's engine. Typically, the pedal lever is energetically depressed by the foot of an operator and actuates a ratchet mechanism engaged to the engine flywheel, whereby the engine is rotated rapidly in the direction of operating for one or more turns during which the ignition system fires and combustion begins. A prior art pedal starting system, also known in the art as a "kickstarting" system, is vulnerable to a serious and dangerous malfunction known in the art as "kickback". When the pedal is depressed with a force insufficient to overcome compression pressure in the engine cylinder to drive the designated piston past top dead center (TDC) before the spark plug fires, the engine may fire ahead of TDC, causing a rapid and powerful reversal of the engine and pedal. Such reversal can cause injury to the operator and can also impair engine operation. The engine may not start with several subsequent cranking attempts due to ignition plug wetting or flooding.

Kickback in general is triggered by insufficient engine rotational speed before reaching TDC, resulting from insufficient force exerted on the starter pedal by an operator; however, the phenomenon can also depend upon a combination of engine factors including throttle opening and position in the four-stroke cycle at which the kick starter is engaged. In the prior art, successful starting relies in large measure upon the skill and strength of the operator rather than the design and construction of the starting apparatus.

What is needed in the motorcycle art is a method and apparatus for preventing kickback of a motorcycle pedal starter during starting of a motorcycle engine.

It is a principal object of the present invention to minimize discomfort or injury from starter pedal kickback. It is a further object of the invention to prevent damage or malfunction to a motorcycle from starter pedal kickback.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

Briefly described, an anti-kickback control system for a motorcycle includes a segmented target wheel mounted on an engine's crankshaft. A sensor element on the engine interrogates the rotational speed of the motorcycle's engine at a plurality of predetermined angular intervals ahead of TDC. If minimum rotational speed criteria are not met in the predetermined intervals, logic embedded in the control system either alters the pre-calculated timing or aborts spark ignition to prevent engine reversal and starter pedal kickback.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

The present invention will now be described, by way of example, with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which:

FIG. 1 is a schematic drawing of a target wheel mounted on an engine crankshaft showing a sensor for interrogating crank position; and FIG. 2 is a diagram showing use of the timing wheel and sensor shown in FIG. 1 ; and

FIG. 3 is a flow diagram showing the method for preventing kickback in accordance with the invention. DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS

Referring to FIG. 1 , a crankshaft 10 of an engine 12 on a motorcycle 13 is provided with a target wheel 14 fixedly mounted on crankshaft 10 for rotation therewith. Lever 11 for urging the crankshaft into rotation in a starting mode is provided. Wheel 14 includes a plurality of angularly spaced-apart timing means, for example, teeth 16 disposed along wheel periphery 18, for providing an alternating signal from crank sensor 17. Timing means in accordance with the invention may take any known form for generating a signal indicative of the angular position of crankshaft 10 at any time, for example, apertures in the wheel, magnetic domains on the wheel, and the like. In a currently preferred embodiment 5 for preventing crankshaft kickback, wheel

14 is provided with 23 teeth 16 spaced apart at angular intervals of 15°, resulting in approximately a 30° gap 20 between tooth 23 and tooth 1 (i.e., tooth 24 is missing). Thus, the gap between teeth 23 and 1 is essentially double the other gaps 22 and thus provides a convenient index for controller 50 to identify tooth 1 on each rotation. Other numbers of teeth and spacings thereof are fully comprehended by the invention. Crank sensor 17 is positioned adjacent the rotational path of teeth 16 for generating a signal 19 indicative of the angular position of wheel 14 and crankshaft 10 and sending signal 19 to engine controller 50. In this manner, rotational time between two particular teeth can be accurately determined such as, for example, between Tooth 3 and Tooth 4, between Tooth 6 and Tooth 7, and between Tooth 8 and Tooth 9.

Referring to FIGS. 1 and 2, in the example presented, the top dead center (TDC) position of a piston in engine 12 is arbitrarily set at Tooth 9. To prevent kickback by ensuring against firing of a spark plug ahead of TDC, a firing position 24 for the firing of the spark plug for starting is arbitrarily set at 5° after TDC (ATDC). Dwell length DT 26 is assumed to be 3 milliseconds at 1200 rpm. In a conventional ignition system, this corresponds to the period of time that the breaker points are open and the magnetic field is allowed to build around the primary side of the ignition coil. As known in the art, at the end of the dwell period, the breaker points close, the magnetic field collapses and current is induced in the secondary side of the coil to fire the spark plug.

Referring to FIG. 3, in the 23 Tooth arrangement of the example shown, wherein Tooth 9 is at TDC and Tooth 4 is 75° before TDC (BTDC), a sparking logic system 100 in accordance with the invention operates during pedal kickstarting of engine 12 preferably in three separate, sequential stages as follows: Sequence 1 : Measure the rotational time between Tooth 3 and Tooth 4, shown as tooth-to-tooth time X in FIG. 2.

If X is more than a predefined calibratable value, the engine speed is too low and kickback may result, so retard the planned spark onset by a time as determined from a lookup table (not shown) embedded in engine controller 50 and proceed to Sequence 2. If X is less than or equal to the predefined calibratable value, the engine is turning fast enough to ensure spark ignition after TDC. Calculate a normal ignition timing for cranking by calculating a "spark edge tooth number" (SETN) which is the tooth at which sparking of the ignition plug begins, and a "dwell edge tooth number" (DETN) which is the tooth at which dwell 28 begins. SETN = (ATDC+BTDC)/15 + 4 = (5+75)/15 + 4 = 9.33 (Eq. 1 )

DETN = 9.33 - (3/(60000/1200) * 360)/15 = 7.89 (Eq. 2)

Using the nearest preceding whole tooth numbers, assign spark edge calculation tooth at Tooth 9 and dwell edge calculation tooth at Tooth 7, and proceed to Sequence 2.

Sequence 2: Measure the time between Tooth 6 and Tooth 7, shown as tooth- to-tooth time Y in FIG. 2, defined herein as the "dwell tooth time" DTT.

If Y is more than a predefined calibratable value, the engine speed is too low and kickback may result, so do not set the dwell, and abort charging of the primary side of the ignition coil. As there will be no spark at the designated point 5° ATDC, the engine will neither kickback nor start. If Y is less than or equal to the predefined value, the engine is turning fast enough that ignition should proceed. From the results of Eq. 2, begin the dwell period sufficiently early enough to charge the ignition coil (in the example, 0.89 tooth fraction in milliseconds after Tooth 7 where 0.89 tooth fraction in millisecond = 0.89 * DTT, - dwell edge 28 in FIG. 2). A spark firing now must occur.

Proceed to Sequence 3.

Sequence 3: After dwell period 26 has begun, measure the time between Tooth 8 and Tooth 9, shown as tooth-to-tooth time Z in FIG. 2, defined herein as the "spark tooth time" STT. If Z is less than or equal to a predefined calibratable value, the engine is turning fast enough that ignition should proceed at the calculated time. From the results of Eq. 1 , set the spark edge in the example shown to 0.33 tooth fraction in milliseconds after Tooth 9 where 0.33 tooth fraction in miliseconds = 0.33 * STT (firing position 24 in FIG.

2). If Z is more than the predefined calibratable value, the engine speed is too low and kickback may result. Retard the spark timing and extend the dwell period by a predefined calibratable angle amount proportional to time Z to assure that firing occurs after TDC to prevent kickback.

In no instance should sparking be permitted until Tooth 9 (TDC) has been sensed.

When engine 12 fires and the rotational velocity of wheel 14 exceeds a predetermined value, anti-kickback system 100 is disabled and engine firing control reverts to normal operating mode.

While the invention has been described by reference to various specific embodiments, it should be understood that numerous changes may be made within the spirit and scope of the inventive concepts described. Accordingly, it is intended that the invention not be limited to the described embodiments, but will have full scope defined by the language of the following claims.

Claims

CLAIMSWhat is claimed is:
1. A method (100) for preventing kickback of a crankshaft (10) during starting of an engine (12) having an ignition system including an ignition plug and an electric coil connected to the ignition plug, and further having a sensor (17) for sensing the angular position of said crankshaft during rotation thereof, and further having a controller (50) for receiving signals from said sensor (17) and for controlling the steps of said method, comprising the steps of: a) impelling said crankshaft (10) in an engine-starting direction at an angular velocity; b) determining a first time of rotation (X) of said crankshaft (10) over a first angle of rotation of said crankshaft ahead of a top-dead-center position of said crankshaft; c) comparing said determined first time of rotation to a predetermined first time limit; d) retarding a predetermined time of firing said ignition plug if said first time of rotation is greater than said first time limit; e) calculating and setting an angular rotation of said crankshaft (10) through which said crankshaft must turn before said ignition plug is fired, and further calculating and setting an angular rotation of said crankshaft through which said crankshaft must turn to begin a dwell (28) of said electric coil if said first time of rotation is less than said first time limit; f) determining a second time of rotation (Y) of said crankshaft (10) over a second angle of rotation of said crankshaft between said first angle of rotation and said top- dead-center position of said crankshaft; g) comparing said determined second time of rotation to a predetermined second time limit; h) aborting firing of said ignition plug if said second time of rotation is greater than said second time limit; i) beginning said dwell (28) of said electric coil as calculated in step e) if said second time of rotation is less than said second time limit; j) determining a third time of rotation (Z) of said crankshaft (10) over a third angle of rotation of said crankshaft during said dwell of said electric coil; k) comparing said determined third time of rotation to a predetermined third time limit;
I) retarding said time of firing said ignition plug if said third time of rotation is greater than said third time limit; and m) firing said ignition plug as calculated in step e) if said third time of rotation is less than said third time limit.
2. A method in accordance with Claim 1 wherein said firing occurs only beyond a top-dead-center position of said crankshaft.
3. A method in accordance with Claim 1 wherein said first, second, and third predetermined time limits are obtained from one or more lookup tables embedded in logic in said controller (50).
4. A method (100) for preventing kickback of a crankshaft (10) of an engine (12) having an ignition system including an ignition plug and an electric coil connected to said ignition plug, and further having a sensor (17) for sensing the angular position of said crankshaft during rotation thereof, and further having a controller (50) for receiving signals from said sensor and for controlling the steps of said method, comprising the steps of: a) impelling said crankshaft (10) in an engine-starting direction at an angular velocity; b) determining a time of rotation (X) of said crankshaft (10) over an angle of rotation of said crankshaft ahead of a top-dead-center position of said crankshaft; c) comparing said determined time of rotation to a predetermined time limit; d) retarding firing of said ignition plug if said time of rotation is greater than said time limit, said retarding being determined as sufficient to cause said firing to occur after said crankshaft passes a top-dead-center position; e) beginning a dwell (28) of said electric coil at a predetermined time if said time of rotation is less than said time limit; and f) firing said ignition plug at said time determined in step d).
5. A method (100) in accordance with Claim 4 wherein said angle of rotation is between about 90° and about 75° before top-dead-center.
6. A method (100) for preventing kickback of a crankshaft (10) during starting of an engine (12) having an ignition system including an ignition plug and an electric coil connected to said ignition plug, and further having a sensor (50) for sensing the angular position of said crankshaft during rotation thereof, and further having a controller for receiving signals from said sensor and for controlling the steps of said method, comprising the steps of: a) impelling said crankshaft (10) in an engine-starting direction at an angular velocity; b) determining a time of rotation (Y) of said crankshaft (10) over an angle of rotation of said crankshaft ahead of a top-dead-center position of said crankshaft; c) comparing said determined time of rotation to a predetermined time limit; and d) prohibiting a dwell (28) of said electric coil and aborting firing of said ignition plug if said time of rotation is greater than said time limit.
7. A method in accordance with Claim 6 wherein said angle of rotation is between about 45° and about 30° before top-dead-center.
8. A method (100) for preventing kickback of a crankshaft (10) during starting of a an engine (12) having an ignition system including an ignition plug and an electric coil connected to said ignition plug, and further having a sensor (17) for sensing the angular position of said crankshaft during rotation thereof, and further having a controller (50) for receiving signals from said sensor and for controlling the steps of said method, comprising the steps of: a) impelling said crankshaft (10) in an engine-starting direction at an angular velocity; b) determining a time of rotation (Z) of said crankshaft over an angle of rotation of said crankshaft ahead of a top-dead-center position thereof; c) comparing said determined time of rotation to a predetermined time limit; d) retarding a predetermined time of firing said ignition plug if said time of rotation is greater than said time limit; e) calculating and setting an angular rotation of said crankshaft (10) through which said crankshaft must turn before said ignition plug is fired, and further calculating and setting an angular rotation of said crankshaft through which said crankshaft must turn to begin firing said ignition plug if said time of rotation is less than said time limit.
9. A method (100) in accordance with Claim 8 wherein said angle of rotation is between about 15° and about 0° before top-dead-center.
10. An apparatus (5) for preventing kickback of a crankshaft (10) during starting of an engine having an ignition system including an ignition plug and an electric coil connected to said ignition plug, comprising: a) a sensor (17) for sensing the angular position of said crankshaft (10) during rotation thereof; and b) a controller (50) for receiving signals from said sensor (17) and allowing or prohibiting a firing of said ignition plug.
11. The apparatus (5) in accordance with Claim 10 wherein a target wheel (14) is disposed on said crankshaft (10) and said target wheel includes a segmented target wheel.
12. The apparatus in accordance with Claim 11 wherein said segmented target wheel comprises 23 teeth (16) extending from a periphery (18) of said wheel and being spaced apart by 15° gaps (22) on center such that an index gap (20) of 30° on center is provided between the first tooth and the twenty-third tooth.
13. The apparatus in accordance with Claim 10 further comprising a lever (11) for impelling said crankshaft (10) in an engine-starting direction at an angular velocity wherein said sensor (17) and said controller (50); a) determines a first time of rotation (X) of said crankshaft (10) over a first angle of rotation ahead of a top-dead-center position thereof; b) compares said determined first time of rotation to a predetermined first time limit; c) retards a predetermined time of firing said ignition plug if said first time of rotation is greater than said first time limit; d) sets an angular rotation of said crankshaft (10) through which said crankshaft must turn before said ignition plug is fired, said angular rotation being sufficient to carry said crankshaft (10) to a position past a top-dead-center position, and further sets an angular rotation of said crankshaft (10) through which said crankshaft must turn to begin a dwell (28) in said electric coil if said first time of rotation is less than said first time limit; e) determines a second time of rotation (Y) of said crankshaft (10) over a second angle of rotation between said first angle of rotation and said top-dead-center position of said crankshaft; f) compares said determined second time of rotation to a predetermined second time limit; g) prohibits the onset of said dwell (28) and aborts firing of said ignition plug if said second time of rotation is greater than said second time limit; h) begins said dwell (28) as determined in step e) if said second time of rotation is less than said second time limit; i) determines a third time of rotation (Z) of said crankshaft (10) over a third angle of rotation during said dwell of said electric coil; j) compares said determined third time of rotation to a predetermined third time limit; k) extends said dwell to retard said time of firing said ignition plug as determined in step e) until said crankshaft (10) has passed a top-dead-center position if said third time of rotation is greater than said third time limit; and
I) fires said ignition plug as determined in step e) if said third time of rotation is less than said third time limit.
14. A motorcycle (13) comprising: a) an engine (12) including a crankshaft (10); b) a lever (11) for urging said crankshaft (10) into rotation in a starting mode; c) an engine ignition system including an ignition plug and an electric coil connected to said ignition plug; d) a sensor (17) for sensing the angular position of said crankshaft (10) during rotation thereof in said starting mode; e) a controller (50) for receiving signals from said sensor (17) and controlling timing of said ignition system; and f) an algorithm in said controller (50) for determining a position of the crankshaft (10) at a plurality of rotational angles during said starting mode to prevent first firing of said ignition plug until said crankshaft (10) has passed a top-dead-center position.
PCT/US2006/002878 2006-01-26 2006-01-26 Method and apparatus for preventing kickback of a motorcycle pedal starter WO2007086853A1 (en)

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PCT/US2006/002878 WO2007086853A1 (en) 2006-01-26 2006-01-26 Method and apparatus for preventing kickback of a motorcycle pedal starter

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CN 200680051649 CN101360913B (en) 2006-01-26 2006-01-26 Method and apparatus preventing recoil of motorcycle pedal starter
PCT/US2006/002878 WO2007086853A1 (en) 2006-01-26 2006-01-26 Method and apparatus for preventing kickback of a motorcycle pedal starter

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Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO2014010164A1 (en) * 2012-07-09 2014-01-16 Yamaha Hatsudoki Kabushiki Kaisha Synchronisation system for an internal combustion engine with a toothed wheel with more than two reference positions
GB2518238A (en) * 2013-09-17 2015-03-18 Mbe Systems Ltd Engine starting system

Families Citing this family (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE102013207173A1 (en) * 2013-04-19 2014-10-23 Robert Bosch Gmbh Method for determining segment times of a phonic wheel of an internal combustion engine

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US5036802A (en) * 1990-03-13 1991-08-06 Bombardier Inc. Reverse rotation engine
US20040107950A1 (en) * 2002-11-26 2004-06-10 Kabushiki Kaisha Moric Kickback preventing circuit for engine

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE19521277A1 (en) 1995-06-10 1996-12-12 Bosch Gmbh Robert Device for cylinder recognition in a multi-cylinder internal combustion engine
DE19638010A1 (en) 1996-09-18 1998-03-19 Bosch Gmbh Robert A method for determining the phase position with a 4-stroke internal combustion engine
JP3729328B2 (en) 2000-08-28 2005-12-21 本田技研工業株式会社 Vehicle engine starting device

Patent Citations (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US5036802A (en) * 1990-03-13 1991-08-06 Bombardier Inc. Reverse rotation engine
US20040107950A1 (en) * 2002-11-26 2004-06-10 Kabushiki Kaisha Moric Kickback preventing circuit for engine

Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO2014010164A1 (en) * 2012-07-09 2014-01-16 Yamaha Hatsudoki Kabushiki Kaisha Synchronisation system for an internal combustion engine with a toothed wheel with more than two reference positions
GB2518238A (en) * 2013-09-17 2015-03-18 Mbe Systems Ltd Engine starting system
GB2518238B (en) * 2013-09-17 2015-09-09 Mbe Systems Ltd Engine starting system

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Publication number Publication date Type
CN101360913B (en) 2010-09-29 grant
CN101360913A (en) 2009-02-04 application

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