WO2007069309A1 - Gas turbine - Google Patents

Gas turbine Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2007069309A1
WO2007069309A1 PCT/JP2005/022940 JP2005022940W WO2007069309A1 WO 2007069309 A1 WO2007069309 A1 WO 2007069309A1 JP 2005022940 W JP2005022940 W JP 2005022940W WO 2007069309 A1 WO2007069309 A1 WO 2007069309A1
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WO
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Patent type
Prior art keywords
fuel
air
gas turbine
pana
flow rate
Prior art date
Application number
PCT/JP2005/022940
Other languages
French (fr)
Japanese (ja)
Inventor
Satoshi Dodo
Susumu Nakano
Hiroyuki Shiraiwa
Original Assignee
Hitachi, Ltd.
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Filing date
Publication date

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Classifications

    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02CGAS-TURBINE PLANTS; AIR INTAKES FOR JET-PROPULSION PLANTS; CONTROLLING FUEL SUPPLY IN AIR-BREATHING JET-PROPULSION PLANTS
    • F02C9/00Controlling gas-turbine plants; Controlling fuel supply in air- breathing jet-propulsion plants
    • F02C9/26Control of fuel supply
    • F02C9/28Regulating systems responsive to plant or ambient parameters, e.g. temperature, pressure, rotor speed
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02CGAS-TURBINE PLANTS; AIR INTAKES FOR JET-PROPULSION PLANTS; CONTROLLING FUEL SUPPLY IN AIR-BREATHING JET-PROPULSION PLANTS
    • F02C7/00Features, components parts, details or accessories, not provided for in, or of interest apart form groups F02C1/00 - F02C6/00; Air intakes for jet-propulsion plants
    • F02C7/08Heating air supply before combustion, e.g. by exhaust gases
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02CGAS-TURBINE PLANTS; AIR INTAKES FOR JET-PROPULSION PLANTS; CONTROLLING FUEL SUPPLY IN AIR-BREATHING JET-PROPULSION PLANTS
    • F02C7/00Features, components parts, details or accessories, not provided for in, or of interest apart form groups F02C1/00 - F02C6/00; Air intakes for jet-propulsion plants
    • F02C7/22Fuel supply systems
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02CGAS-TURBINE PLANTS; AIR INTAKES FOR JET-PROPULSION PLANTS; CONTROLLING FUEL SUPPLY IN AIR-BREATHING JET-PROPULSION PLANTS
    • F02C9/00Controlling gas-turbine plants; Controlling fuel supply in air- breathing jet-propulsion plants
    • F02C9/26Control of fuel supply
    • F02C9/32Control of fuel supply characterised by throttling of fuel
    • F02C9/34Joint control of separate flows to main and auxiliary burners
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02CGAS-TURBINE PLANTS; AIR INTAKES FOR JET-PROPULSION PLANTS; CONTROLLING FUEL SUPPLY IN AIR-BREATHING JET-PROPULSION PLANTS
    • F02C9/00Controlling gas-turbine plants; Controlling fuel supply in air- breathing jet-propulsion plants
    • F02C9/26Control of fuel supply
    • F02C9/40Control of fuel supply specially adapted to the use of a special fuel or a plurality of fuels
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23RGENERATING COMBUSTION PRODUCTS OF HIGH PRESSURE OR HIGH VELOCITY, e.g. GAS-TURBINE COMBUSTION CHAMBERS
    • F23R3/00Continuous combustion chambers using liquid or gaseous fuel
    • F23R3/28Continuous combustion chambers using liquid or gaseous fuel characterised by the fuel supply
    • F23R3/34Feeding into different combustion zones
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23RGENERATING COMBUSTION PRODUCTS OF HIGH PRESSURE OR HIGH VELOCITY, e.g. GAS-TURBINE COMBUSTION CHAMBERS
    • F23R3/00Continuous combustion chambers using liquid or gaseous fuel
    • F23R3/28Continuous combustion chambers using liquid or gaseous fuel characterised by the fuel supply
    • F23R3/36Supply of different fuels

Abstract

A gas turbine employing as a main fuel a fuel having a variable heating value and as an auxiliary fuel a fuel having a stabilized heating value in which stabilized combustion free from blow-off and overheat is ensured. A combustor (5) comprises a first burner (105) for injecting fuel and air into a combustion chamber, and a second burner (108) for injecting fuel and air to the axial position in the combustor corresponding to the distal end of flame of the first burner such that the flame of the first burner is intercepted thus producing a circulation flow of fuel and air in the combustion chamber. An auxiliary fuel flow rate operation controller (33) and a main fuel flow rate operation controller (34) supply fuel having a stabilized heating value to the first burner at a predetermined flow rate calculated by the air flow rate of gas turbine, supply fuel having a variable heating value to the second burner, and then vary the flow rate of fuel supplied to the second burner based on a correction amount calculated by using the difference between a required gas turbine output and an actual gas turbine output.

Description

Specification

Gas turbine system

Technical field

[0001] The present invention relates to a gas turbine apparatus, in particular, it relates to suitable gas turbine system in the case of using a fuel heating value is varied.

BACKGROUND

[0002] In the combustor for a gas turbine used in a gas turbine apparatus employs a premix combustion system for supplying mixed in a combustor component called premixer before entering the fuel and air into the combustion chamber there are many. The combustor of premixed combustion method, it is possible to mix to force the combustion so that the fuel-lean than the combustion air and fuel previously stoichiometric mixture ratio, since the flame temperature also becomes low without local high-temperature region nitrogen oxides (N_〇_X) emissions is small.

[0003] However, in recent years, the power generation efficiency by sending a pre-heated combustion compressor discharge air by regenerative heat exchanger for, recovers waste heat of the turbine exhaust to improve the thermal efficiency regenerative gas turbine system sauce, even those with a regeneration efficiency greater than 90% in but popular, referred regenerative gas turbine and particularly compact microturbine. In such a regenerative gas turbine combustor inlet for air temperature becomes a high temperature exceeding 600 ° C, a flash point temperature of the fuel or the self ignition in ultra tut premixer, or flame in the combustion chamber pre high risk, such as a flashback to flow back into the mixer.

[0004] On the other hand, in the combustor of the diffusion combustion system in which fuel is mixed with air in the combustion chamber is allowed to flow into the combustion chamber without mixing with air, largely depends on the process of the position of the flame to mix the fuel and air, since the air-fuel mixture near the stoichiometric mixture ratio is held in the area formed locally very often N_〇_X emissions hot region is generated. Especially in the case of the combustor inlet air temperature is high again Namashiki gas turbine, exponentially N_〇_X emissions because flame temperature becomes very high is increased.

[0005] The combustor for a gas turbine capable of stable NOx emissions when the air temperature of such combustors inlet is high to perform low combustion, for example, International Publication filed by the present applicant WO2005 / It has been known those described in 059442A1. [0006] Patent Document 1: International Publication WO2005 / 059442A1

Disclosure of the Invention

Problems that the Invention is to you'll solve

[0007] However, those of International Publication WO2005 / 059442A1 described, which shows a configuration of the case of using a stable fuel of a single heat value, for example, heating value, such as sludge digestion gas varies Les, a record, discloses If Nirre Te, using fuel. For example, fuels such as sludge digestion gas obtained by the sludge generated in wastewater treatment plants dried fermentation process, the changing nature of the changes and sludge humidity seasonal, combustible components concentration in the fuel is changed , calorific value fluctuates. In such Antofagasta one bottle apparatus calorific value utilizing the fuel varies, it corresponds to the variation of the heating value of the fuel is necessary to perform control for adjusting the fuel flow rate so as to maintain a predetermined performance.

[0008] When the heating value of general fuel fluctuates, to prevent blowout or overheating due to variations in heating value, how to use the heating value of the stable another fuel as auxiliary fuel is known ing. However, the main fuel for variations in heating value, in the case of using the heating value of the stable auxiliary fuels, in order to perform a stable discharge amount is small combustion N_〇_X is the main fuel and auxiliary fuel appropriate it is necessary to control to be distributed to.

[0009] An object of the present invention, a fuel heating value varies as the main fuel, the heating value is stable in the gas turbine apparatus using a fuel as an auxiliary fuel, a gas turbine apparatus capable of blowing off and no overheating stable combustion It is to provide a.

Means for Solving the Problems

[0010] (1) To achieve the above object, the present invention provides a fuel variation in calorific value and the main fuel, a gas turbine apparatus use les, Ru calorific value of stable fuel as auxiliary fuel, a first PANA for injecting fuel and air into the combustion chamber, the axial position of the combustor corresponding to the tip portion of the flame of the first PANA, fuel and air to block the first PANA flame a combustor having a second PANA give rise to circulating flow of fuel and air into the combustion chamber out injection and the heating value of a predetermined flow rate calculated by the gas turbine air flow stable fuel the first It is supplied to the PANA, supplied to the second PANA by the correction amount calorific value to supply the fuel that varies the second PANA, is calculated using the actual difference between the gas turbine output with the required gas turbine output a control means for varying the fuel flow rate In the which it is also of the.

With this configuration, the fuel heating value varies as the main fuel, in a gas turbine apparatus using the heat generation amount is stable fuel as auxiliary fuel, becomes capable of performing blow-off and no overheating stable combustion.

[0011] In (2) above (1), preferably, the control means further from the required load and the intake air temperature signal, calculates the driving rotational number capable of outputting the required load, and a predetermined rotation speed increase rate calculating a working rotational speed arithmetic controller, a with reference to the turbine exit gas temperature signal correction amount of the driver rotation number based on a deviation between the reference value of the turbine outlet temperature wish to generate a reference operating rotational speed command value and, a correcting operation speed control calculator which generates a driving rotation speed correction amount command value, the working rotational speed command value the working rotational speed correction amount command value and the nominal operating rotational speed command value to the summing in which it was to occur.

[0012] (3) To achieve the above object, the present invention provides a fuel variation in calorific value and the main fuel, a stable fuel heating value A gas turbine apparatus using as an auxiliary fuel, in the combustion chamber in a first PANA for injecting fuel and air, the axial position of the combustor corresponding to the tip portion of the flame of the first PANA, out injection of fuel and air to block the first PANA flame supply a combustor having a second PANA give rise to circulating flow of fuel and air into the combustion chamber Te, stable fuel heating value of a predetermined flow rate calculated by the gas turbine air flow in the first PANA and, a fuel heating value fluctuates supplied to the second PANA, supplied to the second PANA by the correction amount calculated using the difference between the actual turbine outlet gas temperature reference value of the turbine outlet gas temperature control hand to vary the flow rate of the fuel In which it was to obtain Bei the.

With this configuration, the fuel heating value varies as the main fuel, in a gas turbine apparatus using the heat generation amount is stable fuel as auxiliary fuel, becomes capable of performing blow-off and no overheating stable combustion.

Effect of the invention

According to [0013] the present invention, as also the main fuel fuel heating value fluctuates, combustion becomes capable of performing stable combustion. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

FIG. 1 is an overall block diagram showing a configuration of a gas turbine apparatus according to a first embodiment of the present invention.

FIG. 2 is a longitudinal sectional view showing the structure of Yore, Ru combustor to the gas turbine apparatus according to a first embodiment of the present invention.

3 is an explanatory view of a result of the chemical reaction simulation for slow combustion reaction of the lean mixture in a gas turbine apparatus according to a first embodiment of the present invention.

[Figure 4] equivalents obtained 99% or more of the combustion efficiency when the first embodiment according Yore the gas turbine apparatus, in Ru combustor and the residence time in the secondary combustion zone and 35ms of the present invention it is an explanatory view of a condition of the mixing average temperature and ratio.

FIG. 5 is an explanatory diagram of the working rotational speeds which can output the required load in each case of the intake air temperature in the gas turbine apparatus according to a first embodiment of the present invention.

Is [6] explanatory view of stable flow rate of the auxiliary fuel heating value to be supplied in each case the intake air temperature in the gas turbine apparatus according to a first embodiment of the present invention

7 is an overall configuration diagram showing a configuration of a gas turbine apparatus according to a second embodiment of the present invention.

8 is an overall configuration diagram showing a configuration of a gas turbine apparatus according to a third embodiment of the present invention.

DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS

1, 'and electric power converter

2, 'and generator / motor

3 - - - compressor

4 - '... the regenerative heat exchanger

5 - - - combustor

6 turbine

7 - '... intake thermometer

8 ... combustor inlet air thermometer ... turbine outlet combustion gas thermometer 1 · · • air

2 ·· • auxiliary fuel

3- · • main fuel

4, - exhaust gas

1 - - auxiliary fuel flow rate control valve

2 - - the main fuel flow rate control valve

1 - - working rotational speed calculation controller 2, - correction operation speed control calculator 3-- auxiliary fuel flow rate operation controller 4 - - main fuel flow rate calculation controller 5, - reference main fuel flow rate calculation vessel 6 ·· • correction main fuel flow rate computing unit 0 ·· • request load

1 · · • nominal operating rotational speed command value 2 · · • working rotational speed correction amount command value 3 · · • working rotational speed command value

4 ·· • actual rotational speed signal

5 · · • actual gas turbine output signal 6 · · • intake air temperature signal

7 · · • combustor inlet air temperature signal 8, - turbine outlet gas temperature signal 9, - the auxiliary fuel flow rate feed command 0 - - reference main fuel flow rate feed command 1 & - main fuel flow turned correction command 2- - - the main fuel flow rate feed command value 02 ... the combustion chamber

03 ... the combustor liner 104, 'liner cap

105 - - - start-PANA

106 - '· Endokano rather than one

107- · ■ outer cylinder

108- '- the second PANA

109 - - - startup fuel nozzle

110 - - - the first fuel injection holes

111 - - - first air introduction tube

112-, and swing wing

113- - - the first air inlet hole

114- '- elastic sealing member

115- · · dilution holes

116 · · · second air inlet holes

117 - ', the second fuel nozzle

BEST MODE FOR CARRYING OUT THE INVENTION

[0016] Hereinafter, with reference to FIGS. 1 to 6, a first embodiment according to configuration and operation Nirre gas turbine apparatus of the present invention, Te is described.

First, with reference to FIG. 1, that describes the structure of a gas turbine apparatus of the present embodiment.

Figure 1 is an overall configuration diagram showing the configuration of a gas turbine apparatus according to a first embodiment of the present invention.

[0017] Gas turbine apparatus shown in this embodiment, the generator / motor 2 controlled * driven by the power converter 1, a generator Z motor 2 directly connected to compressor 3 and the turbine 6, turbines 6 a row intends regenerative heat exchanger 4 the preheating of the high pressure air subjected to heat exchange with the exhaust gas between the discharge high pressure air compressor 3, a regenerative gas turbine apparatus comprising a combustor 5. Generator / motors 2, the compressor 3 and the turbine 6 are electrically controlled in accordance with operating rotational speed command value 43 obtained from the working rotational speed calculation control unit 31, start 'load according to a predetermined rotational speed schedule It is operated. After air 11 is measured intake air temperature by the intake temperature gauge 7, after becoming a high-pressure air enters the compressor 3, it is preheated to a high temperature by the regenerative heat exchanger 4, the combustor by the combustion inlet air temperature gauge 8 after the inlet air temperature measured, it enters the combustor 5. The combustor 5, and the auxiliary fuel 12 responsible for combustion stability ensured during heating and load operation at startup, each main fuel 13 to generate a load auxiliary fuel flow control valve 21 and the main fuel flow rate control valve 22 is supplied through these fuel becomes more hot combustion gases by reacting with high temperature preheated air mentioned above, it flows into the turbine 6. After flowing into the turbine 6 the hot combustion gases are driving the turbine, after the turbine outlet combustion gas temperature was measured a total of at turbine outlet temperature gauge 9, regenerative heat exchanger 4 high-pressure air and heat exchange ultimately evacuated by It is discharged from the system as gas 14.

[0018] The controller mainly includes a driving rotation speed calculation control unit 31, the auxiliary fuel flow rate calculation control unit 33, consists of the main fuel flow rate calculation control unit 34. Each working rotational speed, auxiliary fuel flow amount, the main It is responsible for the control of fuel flow.

[0019] working rotational speed calculation control unit 31, the required load 40 and the intake temperature signal 46, using the equation obtained by a function of the ambient temperature characteristics and the rotational speed characteristics of the gas turbine device can force out of the required load 40 operation It calculates the number of revolutions, generates a driving rotation speed command value 43 in accordance with a predetermined rotation speed increase rate. Power converter 1, the generator / M o while adjusting the current and voltage to the motor 2 a rotational speed becomes a predetermined speed, the actual rotation speed actual operating speed based on the driving rotation speed command value 43 and outputs as a signal 44.

[0020] the auxiliary fuel flow rate calculation controller 33 from the gas turbine air flow rate is calculated from the power converter actual speed signal 44 obtained from 1 and intake air temperature signal 46, the combustor inlet air temperature signal 4 7 Metropolitan It obtains the flow rate of the heating value of a stable auxiliary fuel 12 to be supplied, controls the opening of the auxiliary fuel flow rate control valve 21 by an auxiliary fuel flow throw input command 49.

[0021] The main fuel flow calculation control unit 34 includes a reference main fuel flow calculator 35, the correction main fuel flow Starring an adder 36, each of the main fuel flow calculator 35, a reference main fuel stream obtained from 36 the amount closing command 50 and the main fuel flow turned correction command 51 adds the main fuel flow rate feed command value 5 2, controls the opening of the main fuel flow rate adjusting valve 22. Reference main fuel flow rate calculating unit 35, and Antofagasta one bottle air flow rate calculated from the actual speed signal 44 and the intake temperature signal 46 obtained from the power converter 1, a main fuel to be supplied from the combustor inlet air temperature signal 47 calculating a standard flow rate of 13, and outputs as the reference main fuel flow rate feed command 50. Correction main fuel flow calculator 36 calculates the main fuel flow rate to be corrected from the deviation of the actual gas turbine output signal 45 obtained from the power converter 1 and the required load 40, to output the main fuel flow turned correction command 51 that.

[0022] Next, with reference to FIG. 2, illustrating the gas turbine apparatus according to the present embodiment Yore, Ru configuration of the combustor 5.

Figure 2 is a longitudinal sectional view showing the structure of a combustor used in a gas turbine apparatus according to a first embodiment of the present invention.

[0023] The combustor with a combustor liner 103 forming a circular cross-section to form a combustion chamber 102, a liner cap 104 for closing the upstream side of the combustor liner 103, a boot formed in the center of the liner cap 104 a PANA (first burner) 105, an end cover 106 which is provided on the upstream side of the start-PANA 105, through a gap the other end is one end fixed to the end cover 106 on the outer peripheral side of the combustor liner 103 extending an outer cylinder 107 which has a plurality of second PANA 108 formed through the peripheral wall of said combustor liner 103 Te.

[0024] starting PANA 105 is a PANA responsible for partial load operation of the startup 'warm-up operation and for example, 80% or from a gas turbine ignition, is supplied to the heating value of the stable auxiliary fuel 12. Starting PANA 105, combustor liners 103 and concentrically formed, at its central portion located in the center of the downstream end liner cap 104, the upstream end extending through the central portion of the end cover 106 and a fuel nozzle for startup 109. The downstream end of the fuel nozzle for startup 109, the first fuel injection holes 110 is provided on the outer periphery of the fuel nozzle for startup 109, fuel nozzle for startup 109 the first air introduction tube 111 concentric are formed with a gap , swirler 112 is provided in this gap. Downstream of the first air introduction tube 111 is open from the liner Canon-up 104 to the combustor liner 103, upstream that have been closed by the end cover 106. The first air introduction hole 113 is kicked set to end cover 106 side of the first air introduction tube 111.

[0025] The combustor liner 103, shown downstream through the elastic sealing member 114 Shinare is linked to transient Sshiyonpisu and hot combustion gas generated in the combustion chamber guiding the turbine 6 les and. Downstream of combustor liner 103, is provided dilution air holes 115 for smoothing the gas temperature distribution in the combustion outlet. The addition in fact, stopper and fixing the position of the combustor liner 1 03, shown for film cooling slots to ensure reliability is complicated forces are eclipsed set is omitted.

[0026] plurality of second PANA 108, installed to pass through the second air inlet 11 6 provided on the peripheral wall of the combustor liner 103, a peripheral wall of the outer cylinder 107, respectively facing the second air inlet holes 116 were are composed of the second fuel nozzle 117., it is supplied to the main fuel 13 to variations in the heating value.

[0027] combustion air is compressed by compressor 3, while being heated by the regenerative heat exchanger 4 is guided in the figure left from the gap between the combustor liner 103 and the outer cylinder 107 on the right side of the figure that. Some guidance combustion air is introduced through the dilution holes 115 and the second air inlet holes 116, the combustion chamber 102 within the combustor liner 103, and the remainder from the first air inlet holes 113 first after given predetermined turning by the turning vanes 112 enters the air introduction tube 111 is ejected from Rainaki Yap 104 into the combustion chamber 102. After high-temperature and high-pressure air that has been swirled by the swirling vanes 112 enters from the first air introduction holes 113 into the first air introduction tube 111 which has flowed into the combustion chamber 102, since the rapid expansion in the outer peripheral side, fuel nozzle for startup 109 downstream to form a circulating flow region of.

[0028] In addition, the amount of heat generated stable auxiliary fuel 12 is injected into the combustion chamber 102 from the fuel nozzle for startup 109, the main fuel 13 to variations in heating value, the combustion chamber 102 from the second fuel nozzles 117 It is ejected. All of the fuel is injected toward the direct combustion chamber, since the fuel and air is never mixed in the combustion outdoor, self ignition or flashback does not occur.

[0029] starting PANA 105 on affects the combustion stability of the entire combustor to be used in a wide range up to partial load up to 80% ignition 'start, in the present embodiment employs a diffusive combustion system ing.

[0030] On the other hand, the air ejected into the combustion chamber 102 from the secondary air intake hole 116, radially from the second fuel nozzles 117 that Installation the same position, the main fuel 13 is injected to vary the amount of heat generated that. However, the primary fuel 13 immediately after being ejected from the second fuel nozzles 117, for shearing the combustion gas flow rate is large also the surrounding air to be force second air inlet holes 116 jet is strong, the combustion reaction reliability since local high temperature region in the second fuel nozzles 117 and combustor liner 103 near the wall surface does not appear because no flame retention flame disappears blow Shimare ,, secondary fuel Nozunore vicinity immediately be started is advantageous in terms of sex ensured.

[0031] Further, the air ejected from the second air inlet holes 116 in the circumferential direction three, to form a stagnation region collide with each other in the combustion chamber 102 near the central axis, upstream and downstream of the second air inlet holes 116 their respective forms a circulating flow region. These flow rates decrease bookmark a circulation flow region, since the condition can be maintained sufficiently propagate the flame, the fuel injected from the second fuel nozzle 117 starts combustion reaction in a circulating stream. In this case, at the time of starting the reaction was dependent on the diffusion of heat into the second fuel nozzles for air injected from the fuel and a second air inlet holes injected from Honoré has a lean air-fuel mixture take the reaction mode that is limited by the slow oxidation reactions, realizing low NOx combustion which does not cause local high-temperature portion.

[0032] As described above, the combustor of the present embodiment includes a first PANA (startup burner) 105 for ejecting fuel and air into the combustion chamber, the combustion corresponding to the tip portion of the flame of the first PANA the axial position of the vessel, and ejecting the fuel and air to block the first PANA flame and a second PANA 108 give rise to circulating flow of fuel and air to the combustion chamber, of the second mixed flow of fuel and air jetted from burners collides with the combustion chamber, resulting was accompanied by strong turbulence circulating flow, more mixing while contacting the combustion gas with large contact area of ​​the first PANA, can do no slow combustion for generating a local high-temperature region in the combustion chamber, it is capable of performing stable combustion without generating flashback and spontaneous fire.

[0033] Next, with reference to FIG. 3, description about the result of the chemical reaction simulation for slow combustion reaction of a lean mixture in the combustion device for use in a gas turbine apparatus of the present embodiment.

Figure 3 is an illustration of a slow about 慢燃 sintered reaction result of a chemical reaction simulation lean in a gas turbine apparatus according to a first embodiment of the present invention.

[0034] In FIG. 3, the horizontal axis is obtained by normalizing with the total length of the combustor liners 103 the distance to the dilution holes 115 from the second air inlet holes 116. Ie upon combustor configuration shown in FIG. 2, the total length of the combustor liner shown in FIG. 2 is L, when the distance to the dilution holes 115 from the second air inlet holes 116 and the X, in FIG. 3 the horizontal axis shows the X / L. In the combustor 5 shown in FIG. 2, the position of the dilution holes 115 strikes the position of 0.668. [0035] Figure 3 shows predicted distribution diagram by reaction calculation of carbon monoxide concentration and the combustion gas temperature in the axial direction of the combustor illustrated in FIG. 3, the lower curve shows the change in the combustion gas temperature Tg along the combustion gas flow direction within the combustor (° C), the upper curve, the concentration of carbon monoxide along the combustion gas flow direction It is shown as an indicator of the reaction. Fuel and lean air-fuel mixture formed by the air from the second PANA 108, mixed with the combustion gas of the combustor liner 103 near the central axis of the stagnation area at startup PANA 105, lean mixtures mean temperature 866 ° C to become. The lean mixture is being slowly fuel oxidation as described above gradually heat generation and temperature rise while generating carbon monoxide, rapid heat generation line after the concentration of carbon monoxide is reached a maximum value We carbon monoxide concentration decreases. During this residence distillation time required is about 30ms about in the case of mixing average temperature 866 ° C of the combustor 5 shown in FIG.

[0036] Next, with reference to FIG. 4, in Yore, Ru combustor to the gas turbine apparatus of this embodiment, obtained 99% of the combustion efficiency when residence time in the secondary combustion zone and 35ms It will be described equivalent ratio condition of the mixed average temperature that is.

4, first in the combustor for use in gas turbine apparatus according to an embodiment of the mixing average and the secondary combustion zone at an equivalent ratio to be obtained more than 99% of the combustion efficiency when the residence time was 35ms of the present invention it is an explanatory view of a condition of a temperature.

[0037] FIG. 4 is sometimes had a residence time in the region from the second air introduction hole 116 to the dilution holes 115 and 35ms, and the equivalence ratio defined by the fuel and air from the second PANA 108, second PANA 108 the mixing average temperature of the combustion gas from the fuel and air and starting PANA 105 from, Les indicate conditions where 99% or more of high combustion efficiency, Ru. The upper right side of the condition of the approximate line shown in FIG. 4, that is, the mixing average temperature Tmix and equivalence ratio Φ

Φ≥0. 001034567 X Tmix + 1. 27181

Although the combustion efficiency if is ensured, too extreme reaction with the mixture or by increasing the average temperature of higher or equivalent ratio NOx emissions proceeds rapidly increases. Although the combustion efficiency be obtained even with dilute equivalence ratio than the conditions shown in FIG. 3 Taking longer residence times, it may increase the length of the combustor 5, the combustor becomes large unfavorably.

[0038] Here, the equivalence ratio is defined by the fuel and air from the second PANA 108, and the combustible component molar flow rate of the main fuel 13 ejected from the second fuel Roh nozzle 117, the second air inlet holes 116 is a value defined only by the ratio of the oxygen molar flow rate of the air ejected. The main component composition of the fuel 13 is changed, even if the amount of heat generated per unit flow rate is varied, the amount of heat generated per time of the main fuel 13 is supplied to the second PANA 108 supplied to the second PANA 108 if the sum is constant, the molar flow rate of the combustible components of the main fuel 13 in which is supplied at that time is constant, the equivalent ratio defined by the fuel and air from the second PANA 108 changes Shinare.

[0039] On the other hand, mixing average temperature Tmix required to obtain the fuel and high combustion efficiency versus the lean equivalent ratio Φ defined by air from the second PANA 108 fuel from the second PANA 108 charges and determined by the combustion gases from the startup PANA 105 with air, the fuel flow rate of the second PANA 108 or colleagues small compared to the air flow rate of the starting PANA 105 and second PANA les, so mixing average temperature Tmix is It is determined Te cowpea to the air flow rate to be injected air flow rate of the starting PANA 105 and from the flow rate and the second air inlet holes 116 of the auxiliary fuel 12 to be supplied to the start-PANA. Here, since the auxiliary fuel 12 to be supplied to the start-PANA is a stable fuel heating value, the second PANA 108, the equivalent ratio Φ is a constant defined by the fuel and air from the second PANA 108 when the value becomes a constant value fuel flow in the auxiliary fuel 12 to be supplied to the boot for PANA 105 required to obtain a high combustion efficiency.

[0040] In order to obtain the required output in the gas turbine system generally may be given a certain amount of heat relative to air flow rate determined by the gas turbine operating conditions if a high combustion efficiency is maintained. That is, for the gas turbine requested output, the heating value of the sum of the fuel to be turned on a constant value, is constant equivalence ratio Φ defined by fuel and air from the second PANA 108 at that time .

[0041] Accordingly, in the gas turbine apparatus of the present embodiment, when there required load 40 is given, the main fuel 13 and the heating value that varies the amount of heat generated stable with auxiliary fuel 12, the high combustion efficiency because maintain satisfying the required load 40, the intake air temperature atmospheric temperature characteristics and the rotational speed characteristics of the signal 46 gas turbine apparatus using the function of the formula, the working rotational speed that can output a required load 40 and the heating value required respect of the sum to calculate the equivalent ratio which is defined by the fuel and air from the second PANA 108 calculated from the air flow in the heating value and gas turbine operating conditions [Phi, satisfies mixing shown in FIG. 4 supplying a stable flow rate of the auxiliary fuel 12 of calorific giving an average temperature Tmix the starting PANA 105, the main fuel 13 to variations in the calorific value until satisfying the required load 40 may be supplied to the second PANA 108.

[0042] Therefore, in the present embodiment, the auxiliary fuel flow rate operation controller 33, the actual speed signal 44 obtained from the power converter 1 and the gas turbine air flow rate is calculated from the intake air temperature signal 46, the combustor inlet seeking a steady flow rate of the auxiliary fuel 12 in heating value to be supplied from the air temperature signal 47. by the auxiliary fuel flow rate feed command 49 to control braking the opening of the auxiliary fuel flow rate regulating valve 21. On the other hand, the main fuel flow reference main fuel flow calculator 35 of the calculation control unit 34, a gas turbine air flow rate is calculated as the actual speed signal 44 obtained from the power-varying equipment 1 from the intake temperature signal 46, the combustor inlet calculating a standard flow rate of the main fuel 13 to be supplied from the air temperature signal 47, and outputs as the reference main fuel flow rate feed command 50. The correction main fuel flow quantity calculator 36 calculates the main fuel flow rate to be corrected deviation force between the actual gas turbine output signal 45 obtained from the power converter 1 and the required load 4 0, the main fuel flow rate introduced correction command to force out of the 51. Further, more in each of the main fuel flow calculator 35, 36 the main fuel flow rate feed command value 52 by adding the main fuel flow turned correction command 51 as a reference main fuel flow closing command 50 resulting from the main fuel flow rate adjusting valve 22 to control the degree of opening. By this control, the fuel heating value varies as the main fuel, the heating value is performed stable combustion which meets the requirements load is used as auxiliary fuel stable fuel and emissions N_〇_X is It becomes capable of performing less combustion

[0043] Here, with reference to FIG. 5, a description is given of the operational rotational speed that can output a required load in each case of the intake air temperature in the gas turbine apparatus according to the present embodiment.

Figure 5 is an explanatory view of the working rotational speed that can output a required load in each case of the intake air temperature in the gas turbine apparatus according to a first embodiment of the present invention.

[0044] Figure 5, in the gas turbine apparatus shown in this embodiment, the intake air temperature driving rotation speed that can output a required load 40 - of 10 ° C, 5 ° C, 15 ° C, 25 ° C, 40 ° C case is shown for. 5, the horizontal axis is obtained by normalizing a rated rotational speed of the working rotational speeds, the vertical axis represents the value obtained by normalizing the load can be output at the rated output. In general, a gas turbine apparatus, a decrease of compressor inlet air density intake air temperature rises, the gas turbine air flow is reduced, the output can load decreases. Les, such can output load corresponding to the rated output in the case of even a gas turbine apparatus smell of this embodiment, the intake air temperature 25 ° C and 40 ° C.

[0045] Furthermore, with reference to FIG. 6, FIG. 6 to be described flow of a stable auxiliary fuel heating value to be supplied in each case of the intake air temperature in the gas turbine apparatus according to the present embodiment, first the present invention it is an explanatory view of the flow rate stable auxiliary fuel heating value to be supplied in each case the intake air temperature in the gas turbine apparatus according to an embodiment.

[0046] Figure 6, the intake air temperature - 10 ° C, 5 ° C, 15 ° C, 25 ° C, 40 for the case of ° C to be supplied to the start-PANA 105, the heating value stable auxiliary fuel 12 It shows an auxiliary fuel input command value 49 as a function of rotational speed. 6, the horizontal axis is obtained by normalizing a rated rotational speed of the working rotational speeds, the vertical axis is an auxiliary fuel input command value 49.

[0047] As described above, according to this embodiment, the fuel heating value varies as a main fuel, stable combustion example line heating value satisfies the required load using as auxiliary fuel stable fuel, and it becomes capable of performing low in emission of NOx les, combustion.

[0048] Next, with reference to FIG. 7 will be described about configuring a gas turbine apparatus according to a second embodiment of the present invention.

Figure 7 is an overall configuration diagram showing the configuration of a gas turbine apparatus according to a second embodiment of the present invention. Incidentally, FIG. 1 and the same reference numerals denote the same parts.

[0049] The basic apparatus construction of the present embodiment is substantially identical to the embodiment shown in FIG. 1, power converter 1 by the control-driven generator / motor 2 directly connected to the compressor 3 and a turbine 6, is a regenerative gas turbine apparatus comprising a combustor 5 and the regenerative heat exchanger 4 for preheating the high pressure air performs heat exchange between the discharged high-pressure air exhaust gas and the compressor 3 of the turbine 6

[0050] working rotational speed calculation control unit 31, the required load 40 and the intake temperature signal 46, using the equation obtained by a function of the ambient temperature characteristics and the rotational speed characteristics of the gas turbine device can force out of the required load 40 operation and calculates the rotation speed and generates a reference operating rotational speed command value 41 in accordance with a predetermined rotation speed increase rate.

[0051] Furthermore, in the present embodiment, a correction operation speed control operator 32. Corrected operational speed control calculator 32 refers to the turbine outlet gas temperature signal 48 calculates a correction amount of the operation speed based on the deviation between the reference value of the turbine Atsushi Ideguchi, operating rotational speed correction amount command value 42 to generate. Then, to generate the driving rotation speed command value 43 by the addition of a reference operating rotation speed command value 41 working rotational speed correction amount command value 42.

[0052] As described above, the operation speed command value 43 is corrected on the basis of the turbine outlet gas temperature signal 48, the optimum operating conditions of the regenerative heat exchanger combustion gas temperature flowing into the regenerative heat exchanger 4 it can be kept close to, on which can be operated to maintain high thermal efficiency of the gas turbine system, since the heating value of the main fuel 13 is prevented from being overheated when increased, it is possible to further improve the reliability .

[0053] As described above, according to this embodiment, the fuel heating value varies as a main fuel, stable combustion example line heating value satisfies the required load using as auxiliary fuel stable fuel, and it becomes capable of performing combustion NOx emissions less. In addition, it is a child improve reliability.

[0054] Next, with reference to FIG. 8, will be described about configuring a gas turbine apparatus according to a third embodiment of the present invention.

Figure 8 is an overall configuration diagram showing the configuration of a gas turbine apparatus according to a third embodiment of the present invention. Incidentally, FIG. 1 and the same reference numerals denote the same parts.

[0055] The basic apparatus construction of the present embodiment is substantially the same as the embodiment shown in FIG. 1 or FIG. 7, recovering exhaust heat from the exhaust gases 14 as an alternative to the recuperator 4 is Nag exhaust heat recovery system 10 for use in and out of the system it is installed.

[0056] embodiment shown in FIG. 8, the generator / motor 2 and the compressor 3 and a turbine 6 which is directly linked, consisting of combustor 5 a gas turbine apparatus and exhaust gas control and driven by the power converter 1 consisting exhaust heat recovery apparatus 10 that utilizes externally by recovering waste heat from 1 4, a so-called cogeneration facilities. Further, in the embodiment shown in FIG. 8, the correction main fuel flow rate operation controller 36, of calculating the deviation force correction amount of the actual gas turbine output signal 45 obtained from the power converter 1 and the required load 40 nag Referring to the turbine outlet gas temperature signal 48 based on the deviation between the reference value of the turbine Atsushi Ideguchi, to calculate the main fuel flow rate to be corrected, it is Ya 1 for outputting a main fuel flow throw input correction command 51 It differs from the embodiment of FIG. [0057] Output of the general gas turbine apparatus, since it is determined by the temperature of the air flow and the turbine inlet of the gas turbine system, by matching the turbine outlet gas temperature to a target value, controlling the output of the gas turbine system can be the main fuel flow turned correction command 51 reference and calculating a correction amount from a difference between the required load 40 actual gas turbine output signal 45 obtained from the power-varying equipment 1, the turbine outlet gas temperature signal 48 turbine that the deviation between the reference value of the outlet temperature to calculate the correction amount is substantially equivalent, may be towards the present embodiment is a more expensive control arrangement Te.

[0058] As described above, according to this embodiment, the fuel heating value varies as a main fuel, obtain stable combustion line that satisfies the required load using the calorific value is stable fuel as auxiliary fuel. Further, by using the burner shown in FIG 2, the shall perform the emissions is small combustion N_〇_X. Further, it is possible to reduce the apparatus cost.

[0059] As described above, according to the embodiments of the present invention, for gas turbines flow rate of air supplied to the combustor, the first PANA Jo An operated by stable fuel heating value to be to burn, the required gas turbine can achieve temperature conditions required heat generation amount for generating an output for combustion in the second bar Na, the second Banahe is of Kaname Tokoro since the fuel so as to satisfy the gas turbine output is supplied, the amount of heat generated without blowout or overheating regardless of the combustible component concentration of the fuel varies stable and low in emission of N_〇_X les combustion it becomes possible to perform.

Claims

The scope of the claims
[1] a fuel variation of heating value and the main fuel, a gas turbine apparatus use les, Ru calorific value of stable fuel as auxiliary fuel,
A first PANA for injecting fuel and air into the combustion chamber (105), the axial position of the combustor corresponding to the above end portion of the flame of the first PANA, so block the first PANA flame second PANA give rise to circulating flow of fuel and air into the combustion chamber by ejecting fuel and air (1 08) and the provided combustor (5),
The stable fuel heating value of a predetermined flow rate calculated by the gas turbine air flow supplied before Symbol first PANA, a fuel heating value fluctuates supplied to the second PANA Kaname Tokoro gas turbine output gas turbine unit according to feature in that it comprises more control means for varying the fuel flow rate supplied to the second PANA (33, 34) to the correction amount calculated using the actual difference between the gas turbine output when.
[2] In the gas turbine apparatus according to claim 1,
Said control means further comprises
From the required load and the intake air temperature signal, calculates the driving rotational number capable of outputting the required load, the working rotational speed for generating a reference operating rotational speed command value in accordance with the rotation speed increasing rate of Jo Tokoro calculation controller (41),
Referring to the turbine outlet gas temperature signal based on the deviation between the reference value of the turbine exit temperature to calculate a correction amount of the working rotational speed, the correction operation speed control calculator which generates a driving rotation speed correction amount command value ( 42) and equipped with a,
Gas turbine apparatus characterized by generating a driving rotation speed command value by adding the working rotational speed correction amount command value and the nominal operating rotational speed command value.
[3] The fuel variation of heating value and the main fuel, a gas turbine apparatus use les, Ru calorific value of stable fuel as auxiliary fuel,
A first PANA for injecting fuel and air into the combustion chamber (105), the axial position of the combustor corresponding to the above end portion of the flame of the first PANA, so block the first PANA flame second PANA the fuel and air jetted causing a circulation of fuel and air into the combustion chamber (1 08) and the provided combustor (5), heating a predetermined flow rate calculated by the gas turbine air flow supplying a quantity of stable fuel prior Symbol first PANA, a fuel heating value fluctuates supplied to the second PANA, the difference between the actual turbine outlet gas temperature reference value of data one bottle outlet gas temperature gas turbine unit, characterized in that it comprises control means for varying the fuel flow rate supplied to the second PANA by the correction amount that will be calculated (33, 34) with.
PCT/JP2005/022940 2005-12-14 2005-12-14 Gas turbine WO2007069309A1 (en)

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JP2010285955A (en) * 2009-06-12 2010-12-24 Mitsubishi Heavy Ind Ltd Control device of gas turbine, and power generation system
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