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WO2007026332A2 - Storage of compressed gaseous fuel - Google Patents

Storage of compressed gaseous fuel

Info

Publication number
WO2007026332A2
WO2007026332A2 PCT/IB2006/053053 IB2006053053W WO2007026332A2 WO 2007026332 A2 WO2007026332 A2 WO 2007026332A2 IB 2006053053 W IB2006053053 W IB 2006053053W WO 2007026332 A2 WO2007026332 A2 WO 2007026332A2
Authority
WO
Grant status
Application
Patent type
Prior art keywords
pressure
hydrogen
vessel
fuel
gaseous
Prior art date
Application number
PCT/IB2006/053053
Other languages
French (fr)
Other versions
WO2007026332A3 (en )
Inventor
Jeffrey Malcolm Brassey Benson
Andries Gerhardus Visser
Vuuren David Steyn Van
Sibbele Hietkamp
Original Assignee
Csir
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date

Links

Classifications

    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F17STORING OF DISTRIBUTING GASES OR LIQUIDS
    • F17CVESSELS FOR CONTAINING OR STORING COMPRESSED, LIQUEFIED OR SOLIDIFIED GASES; FIXED-CAPACITY GAS-HOLDERS; FILLING VESSELS WITH, OR DISCHARGING FROM VESSELS, COMPRESSED, LIQUEFIED, OR SOLIDIFIED GASES
    • F17C1/00Pressure vessels, e.g. gas cylinder, gas tank, replaceable cartridge
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F17STORING OF DISTRIBUTING GASES OR LIQUIDS
    • F17CVESSELS FOR CONTAINING OR STORING COMPRESSED, LIQUEFIED OR SOLIDIFIED GASES; FIXED-CAPACITY GAS-HOLDERS; FILLING VESSELS WITH, OR DISCHARGING FROM VESSELS, COMPRESSED, LIQUEFIED, OR SOLIDIFIED GASES
    • F17C3/00Vessels not under pressure
    • F17C3/02Vessels not under pressure with provision for thermal insulation
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F17STORING OF DISTRIBUTING GASES OR LIQUIDS
    • F17CVESSELS FOR CONTAINING OR STORING COMPRESSED, LIQUEFIED OR SOLIDIFIED GASES; FIXED-CAPACITY GAS-HOLDERS; FILLING VESSELS WITH, OR DISCHARGING FROM VESSELS, COMPRESSED, LIQUEFIED, OR SOLIDIFIED GASES
    • F17C2201/00Vessel construction, in particular geometry, arrangement or size
    • F17C2201/01Shape
    • F17C2201/0104Shape cylindrical
    • F17C2201/0109Shape cylindrical with exteriorly curved end-piece
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F17STORING OF DISTRIBUTING GASES OR LIQUIDS
    • F17CVESSELS FOR CONTAINING OR STORING COMPRESSED, LIQUEFIED OR SOLIDIFIED GASES; FIXED-CAPACITY GAS-HOLDERS; FILLING VESSELS WITH, OR DISCHARGING FROM VESSELS, COMPRESSED, LIQUEFIED, OR SOLIDIFIED GASES
    • F17C2201/00Vessel construction, in particular geometry, arrangement or size
    • F17C2201/03Orientation
    • F17C2201/035Orientation with substantially horizontal main axis
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F17STORING OF DISTRIBUTING GASES OR LIQUIDS
    • F17CVESSELS FOR CONTAINING OR STORING COMPRESSED, LIQUEFIED OR SOLIDIFIED GASES; FIXED-CAPACITY GAS-HOLDERS; FILLING VESSELS WITH, OR DISCHARGING FROM VESSELS, COMPRESSED, LIQUEFIED, OR SOLIDIFIED GASES
    • F17C2201/00Vessel construction, in particular geometry, arrangement or size
    • F17C2201/05Size
    • F17C2201/056Small (<1 m3)
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F17STORING OF DISTRIBUTING GASES OR LIQUIDS
    • F17CVESSELS FOR CONTAINING OR STORING COMPRESSED, LIQUEFIED OR SOLIDIFIED GASES; FIXED-CAPACITY GAS-HOLDERS; FILLING VESSELS WITH, OR DISCHARGING FROM VESSELS, COMPRESSED, LIQUEFIED, OR SOLIDIFIED GASES
    • F17C2203/00Vessel construction, in particular walls or details thereof
    • F17C2203/03Thermal insulations
    • F17C2203/0304Thermal insulations by solid means
    • F17C2203/0325Aerogel
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F17STORING OF DISTRIBUTING GASES OR LIQUIDS
    • F17CVESSELS FOR CONTAINING OR STORING COMPRESSED, LIQUEFIED OR SOLIDIFIED GASES; FIXED-CAPACITY GAS-HOLDERS; FILLING VESSELS WITH, OR DISCHARGING FROM VESSELS, COMPRESSED, LIQUEFIED, OR SOLIDIFIED GASES
    • F17C2203/00Vessel construction, in particular walls or details thereof
    • F17C2203/03Thermal insulations
    • F17C2203/0304Thermal insulations by solid means
    • F17C2203/0337Granular
    • F17C2203/0341Perlite
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F17STORING OF DISTRIBUTING GASES OR LIQUIDS
    • F17CVESSELS FOR CONTAINING OR STORING COMPRESSED, LIQUEFIED OR SOLIDIFIED GASES; FIXED-CAPACITY GAS-HOLDERS; FILLING VESSELS WITH, OR DISCHARGING FROM VESSELS, COMPRESSED, LIQUEFIED, OR SOLIDIFIED GASES
    • F17C2203/00Vessel construction, in particular walls or details thereof
    • F17C2203/03Thermal insulations
    • F17C2203/0362Thermal insulations by liquid means
    • F17C2203/0366Cryogen
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F17STORING OF DISTRIBUTING GASES OR LIQUIDS
    • F17CVESSELS FOR CONTAINING OR STORING COMPRESSED, LIQUEFIED OR SOLIDIFIED GASES; FIXED-CAPACITY GAS-HOLDERS; FILLING VESSELS WITH, OR DISCHARGING FROM VESSELS, COMPRESSED, LIQUEFIED, OR SOLIDIFIED GASES
    • F17C2203/00Vessel construction, in particular walls or details thereof
    • F17C2203/03Thermal insulations
    • F17C2203/0375Thermal insulations by gas
    • F17C2203/0379Inert
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F17STORING OF DISTRIBUTING GASES OR LIQUIDS
    • F17CVESSELS FOR CONTAINING OR STORING COMPRESSED, LIQUEFIED OR SOLIDIFIED GASES; FIXED-CAPACITY GAS-HOLDERS; FILLING VESSELS WITH, OR DISCHARGING FROM VESSELS, COMPRESSED, LIQUEFIED, OR SOLIDIFIED GASES
    • F17C2203/00Vessel construction, in particular walls or details thereof
    • F17C2203/03Thermal insulations
    • F17C2203/0391Thermal insulations by vacuum
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F17STORING OF DISTRIBUTING GASES OR LIQUIDS
    • F17CVESSELS FOR CONTAINING OR STORING COMPRESSED, LIQUEFIED OR SOLIDIFIED GASES; FIXED-CAPACITY GAS-HOLDERS; FILLING VESSELS WITH, OR DISCHARGING FROM VESSELS, COMPRESSED, LIQUEFIED, OR SOLIDIFIED GASES
    • F17C2203/00Vessel construction, in particular walls or details thereof
    • F17C2203/06Materials for walls or layers thereof; Properties or structures of walls or their materials
    • F17C2203/0602Wall structures; Special features thereof
    • F17C2203/0612Wall structures
    • F17C2203/0626Multiple walls
    • F17C2203/0629Two walls
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F17STORING OF DISTRIBUTING GASES OR LIQUIDS
    • F17CVESSELS FOR CONTAINING OR STORING COMPRESSED, LIQUEFIED OR SOLIDIFIED GASES; FIXED-CAPACITY GAS-HOLDERS; FILLING VESSELS WITH, OR DISCHARGING FROM VESSELS, COMPRESSED, LIQUEFIED, OR SOLIDIFIED GASES
    • F17C2203/00Vessel construction, in particular walls or details thereof
    • F17C2203/06Materials for walls or layers thereof; Properties or structures of walls or their materials
    • F17C2203/0634Materials for walls or layers thereof
    • F17C2203/0636Metals
    • F17C2203/0639Steels
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F17STORING OF DISTRIBUTING GASES OR LIQUIDS
    • F17CVESSELS FOR CONTAINING OR STORING COMPRESSED, LIQUEFIED OR SOLIDIFIED GASES; FIXED-CAPACITY GAS-HOLDERS; FILLING VESSELS WITH, OR DISCHARGING FROM VESSELS, COMPRESSED, LIQUEFIED, OR SOLIDIFIED GASES
    • F17C2203/00Vessel construction, in particular walls or details thereof
    • F17C2203/06Materials for walls or layers thereof; Properties or structures of walls or their materials
    • F17C2203/0634Materials for walls or layers thereof
    • F17C2203/0636Metals
    • F17C2203/0639Steels
    • F17C2203/0643Stainless steels
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F17STORING OF DISTRIBUTING GASES OR LIQUIDS
    • F17CVESSELS FOR CONTAINING OR STORING COMPRESSED, LIQUEFIED OR SOLIDIFIED GASES; FIXED-CAPACITY GAS-HOLDERS; FILLING VESSELS WITH, OR DISCHARGING FROM VESSELS, COMPRESSED, LIQUEFIED, OR SOLIDIFIED GASES
    • F17C2203/00Vessel construction, in particular walls or details thereof
    • F17C2203/06Materials for walls or layers thereof; Properties or structures of walls or their materials
    • F17C2203/0634Materials for walls or layers thereof
    • F17C2203/0636Metals
    • F17C2203/0646Aluminium
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F17STORING OF DISTRIBUTING GASES OR LIQUIDS
    • F17CVESSELS FOR CONTAINING OR STORING COMPRESSED, LIQUEFIED OR SOLIDIFIED GASES; FIXED-CAPACITY GAS-HOLDERS; FILLING VESSELS WITH, OR DISCHARGING FROM VESSELS, COMPRESSED, LIQUEFIED, OR SOLIDIFIED GASES
    • F17C2203/00Vessel construction, in particular walls or details thereof
    • F17C2203/06Materials for walls or layers thereof; Properties or structures of walls or their materials
    • F17C2203/0634Materials for walls or layers thereof
    • F17C2203/0636Metals
    • F17C2203/0648Alloys or compositions of metals
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F17STORING OF DISTRIBUTING GASES OR LIQUIDS
    • F17CVESSELS FOR CONTAINING OR STORING COMPRESSED, LIQUEFIED OR SOLIDIFIED GASES; FIXED-CAPACITY GAS-HOLDERS; FILLING VESSELS WITH, OR DISCHARGING FROM VESSELS, COMPRESSED, LIQUEFIED, OR SOLIDIFIED GASES
    • F17C2203/00Vessel construction, in particular walls or details thereof
    • F17C2203/06Materials for walls or layers thereof; Properties or structures of walls or their materials
    • F17C2203/0634Materials for walls or layers thereof
    • F17C2203/0658Synthetics
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F17STORING OF DISTRIBUTING GASES OR LIQUIDS
    • F17CVESSELS FOR CONTAINING OR STORING COMPRESSED, LIQUEFIED OR SOLIDIFIED GASES; FIXED-CAPACITY GAS-HOLDERS; FILLING VESSELS WITH, OR DISCHARGING FROM VESSELS, COMPRESSED, LIQUEFIED, OR SOLIDIFIED GASES
    • F17C2203/00Vessel construction, in particular walls or details thereof
    • F17C2203/06Materials for walls or layers thereof; Properties or structures of walls or their materials
    • F17C2203/0634Materials for walls or layers thereof
    • F17C2203/0658Synthetics
    • F17C2203/066Plastics
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F17STORING OF DISTRIBUTING GASES OR LIQUIDS
    • F17CVESSELS FOR CONTAINING OR STORING COMPRESSED, LIQUEFIED OR SOLIDIFIED GASES; FIXED-CAPACITY GAS-HOLDERS; FILLING VESSELS WITH, OR DISCHARGING FROM VESSELS, COMPRESSED, LIQUEFIED, OR SOLIDIFIED GASES
    • F17C2203/00Vessel construction, in particular walls or details thereof
    • F17C2203/06Materials for walls or layers thereof; Properties or structures of walls or their materials
    • F17C2203/0634Materials for walls or layers thereof
    • F17C2203/0658Synthetics
    • F17C2203/0663Synthetics in form of fibers or filaments
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F17STORING OF DISTRIBUTING GASES OR LIQUIDS
    • F17CVESSELS FOR CONTAINING OR STORING COMPRESSED, LIQUEFIED OR SOLIDIFIED GASES; FIXED-CAPACITY GAS-HOLDERS; FILLING VESSELS WITH, OR DISCHARGING FROM VESSELS, COMPRESSED, LIQUEFIED, OR SOLIDIFIED GASES
    • F17C2221/00Handled fluid, in particular type of fluid
    • F17C2221/01Pure fluids
    • F17C2221/012Hydrogen
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F17STORING OF DISTRIBUTING GASES OR LIQUIDS
    • F17CVESSELS FOR CONTAINING OR STORING COMPRESSED, LIQUEFIED OR SOLIDIFIED GASES; FIXED-CAPACITY GAS-HOLDERS; FILLING VESSELS WITH, OR DISCHARGING FROM VESSELS, COMPRESSED, LIQUEFIED, OR SOLIDIFIED GASES
    • F17C2223/00Handled fluid before transfer, i.e. state of fluid when stored in the vessel or before transfer from the vessel
    • F17C2223/01Handled fluid before transfer, i.e. state of fluid when stored in the vessel or before transfer from the vessel characterised by the phase
    • F17C2223/0107Single phase
    • F17C2223/0123Single phase gaseous, e.g. CNG, GNC
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F17STORING OF DISTRIBUTING GASES OR LIQUIDS
    • F17CVESSELS FOR CONTAINING OR STORING COMPRESSED, LIQUEFIED OR SOLIDIFIED GASES; FIXED-CAPACITY GAS-HOLDERS; FILLING VESSELS WITH, OR DISCHARGING FROM VESSELS, COMPRESSED, LIQUEFIED, OR SOLIDIFIED GASES
    • F17C2223/00Handled fluid before transfer, i.e. state of fluid when stored in the vessel or before transfer from the vessel
    • F17C2223/01Handled fluid before transfer, i.e. state of fluid when stored in the vessel or before transfer from the vessel characterised by the phase
    • F17C2223/0146Two-phase
    • F17C2223/0153Liquefied gas, e.g. LPG, GPL
    • F17C2223/0161Liquefied gas, e.g. LPG, GPL cryogenic, e.g. LNG, GNL, PLNG
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F17STORING OF DISTRIBUTING GASES OR LIQUIDS
    • F17CVESSELS FOR CONTAINING OR STORING COMPRESSED, LIQUEFIED OR SOLIDIFIED GASES; FIXED-CAPACITY GAS-HOLDERS; FILLING VESSELS WITH, OR DISCHARGING FROM VESSELS, COMPRESSED, LIQUEFIED, OR SOLIDIFIED GASES
    • F17C2223/00Handled fluid before transfer, i.e. state of fluid when stored in the vessel or before transfer from the vessel
    • F17C2223/03Handled fluid before transfer, i.e. state of fluid when stored in the vessel or before transfer from the vessel characterised by the pressure level
    • F17C2223/035High pressure (>10 bar)
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F17STORING OF DISTRIBUTING GASES OR LIQUIDS
    • F17CVESSELS FOR CONTAINING OR STORING COMPRESSED, LIQUEFIED OR SOLIDIFIED GASES; FIXED-CAPACITY GAS-HOLDERS; FILLING VESSELS WITH, OR DISCHARGING FROM VESSELS, COMPRESSED, LIQUEFIED, OR SOLIDIFIED GASES
    • F17C2223/00Handled fluid before transfer, i.e. state of fluid when stored in the vessel or before transfer from the vessel
    • F17C2223/03Handled fluid before transfer, i.e. state of fluid when stored in the vessel or before transfer from the vessel characterised by the pressure level
    • F17C2223/036Very high pressure (>80 bar)
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F17STORING OF DISTRIBUTING GASES OR LIQUIDS
    • F17CVESSELS FOR CONTAINING OR STORING COMPRESSED, LIQUEFIED OR SOLIDIFIED GASES; FIXED-CAPACITY GAS-HOLDERS; FILLING VESSELS WITH, OR DISCHARGING FROM VESSELS, COMPRESSED, LIQUEFIED, OR SOLIDIFIED GASES
    • F17C2260/00Purposes of gas storage and gas handling
    • F17C2260/01Improving mechanical properties or manufacturing
    • F17C2260/013Reducing manufacturing time or effort
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F17STORING OF DISTRIBUTING GASES OR LIQUIDS
    • F17CVESSELS FOR CONTAINING OR STORING COMPRESSED, LIQUEFIED OR SOLIDIFIED GASES; FIXED-CAPACITY GAS-HOLDERS; FILLING VESSELS WITH, OR DISCHARGING FROM VESSELS, COMPRESSED, LIQUEFIED, OR SOLIDIFIED GASES
    • F17C2260/00Purposes of gas storage and gas handling
    • F17C2260/01Improving mechanical properties or manufacturing
    • F17C2260/017Improving mechanical properties or manufacturing by calculation
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F17STORING OF DISTRIBUTING GASES OR LIQUIDS
    • F17CVESSELS FOR CONTAINING OR STORING COMPRESSED, LIQUEFIED OR SOLIDIFIED GASES; FIXED-CAPACITY GAS-HOLDERS; FILLING VESSELS WITH, OR DISCHARGING FROM VESSELS, COMPRESSED, LIQUEFIED, OR SOLIDIFIED GASES
    • F17C2260/00Purposes of gas storage and gas handling
    • F17C2260/01Improving mechanical properties or manufacturing
    • F17C2260/018Adapting dimensions
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F17STORING OF DISTRIBUTING GASES OR LIQUIDS
    • F17CVESSELS FOR CONTAINING OR STORING COMPRESSED, LIQUEFIED OR SOLIDIFIED GASES; FIXED-CAPACITY GAS-HOLDERS; FILLING VESSELS WITH, OR DISCHARGING FROM VESSELS, COMPRESSED, LIQUEFIED, OR SOLIDIFIED GASES
    • F17C2260/00Purposes of gas storage and gas handling
    • F17C2260/02Improving properties related to fluid or fluid transfer
    • F17C2260/026Improving properties related to fluid or fluid transfer by calculation
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F17STORING OF DISTRIBUTING GASES OR LIQUIDS
    • F17CVESSELS FOR CONTAINING OR STORING COMPRESSED, LIQUEFIED OR SOLIDIFIED GASES; FIXED-CAPACITY GAS-HOLDERS; FILLING VESSELS WITH, OR DISCHARGING FROM VESSELS, COMPRESSED, LIQUEFIED, OR SOLIDIFIED GASES
    • F17C2260/00Purposes of gas storage and gas handling
    • F17C2260/03Dealing with losses
    • F17C2260/031Dealing with losses due to heat transfer
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F17STORING OF DISTRIBUTING GASES OR LIQUIDS
    • F17CVESSELS FOR CONTAINING OR STORING COMPRESSED, LIQUEFIED OR SOLIDIFIED GASES; FIXED-CAPACITY GAS-HOLDERS; FILLING VESSELS WITH, OR DISCHARGING FROM VESSELS, COMPRESSED, LIQUEFIED, OR SOLIDIFIED GASES
    • F17C2260/00Purposes of gas storage and gas handling
    • F17C2260/03Dealing with losses
    • F17C2260/031Dealing with losses due to heat transfer
    • F17C2260/033Dealing with losses due to heat transfer by enhancing insulation
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F17STORING OF DISTRIBUTING GASES OR LIQUIDS
    • F17CVESSELS FOR CONTAINING OR STORING COMPRESSED, LIQUEFIED OR SOLIDIFIED GASES; FIXED-CAPACITY GAS-HOLDERS; FILLING VESSELS WITH, OR DISCHARGING FROM VESSELS, COMPRESSED, LIQUEFIED, OR SOLIDIFIED GASES
    • F17C2265/00Effects achieved by gas storage or gas handling
    • F17C2265/03Treating the boil-off
    • F17C2265/031Treating the boil-off by discharge
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F17STORING OF DISTRIBUTING GASES OR LIQUIDS
    • F17CVESSELS FOR CONTAINING OR STORING COMPRESSED, LIQUEFIED OR SOLIDIFIED GASES; FIXED-CAPACITY GAS-HOLDERS; FILLING VESSELS WITH, OR DISCHARGING FROM VESSELS, COMPRESSED, LIQUEFIED, OR SOLIDIFIED GASES
    • F17C2270/00Applications
    • F17C2270/01Applications for fluid transport or storage
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F17STORING OF DISTRIBUTING GASES OR LIQUIDS
    • F17CVESSELS FOR CONTAINING OR STORING COMPRESSED, LIQUEFIED OR SOLIDIFIED GASES; FIXED-CAPACITY GAS-HOLDERS; FILLING VESSELS WITH, OR DISCHARGING FROM VESSELS, COMPRESSED, LIQUEFIED, OR SOLIDIFIED GASES
    • F17C2270/00Applications
    • F17C2270/01Applications for fluid transport or storage
    • F17C2270/0165Applications for fluid transport or storage on the road
    • F17C2270/0168Applications for fluid transport or storage on the road by vehicles
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GASES [GHG] EMISSION, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E60/00Enabling technologies or technologies with a potential or indirect contribution to GHG emissions mitigation
    • Y02E60/30Hydrogen technology
    • Y02E60/32Hydrogen storage
    • Y02E60/321Storage of liquefied, solidified, or compressed hydrogen in containers

Abstract

A method of storing a compressed gaseous fuel includes containing the compressed gaseous fuel, in a gaseous state, in a pressure vessel, and at least partially insulating the pressure vessel with a liquefied cryogenic gas at its boiling point. The liquefied cryogenic gas is allowed freely to boil off.

Description

STORAGE OF COMPRESSED GASEOUS FUEL

THIS INVENTION relates to the storage of compressed gaseous fuel. In particular, the invention relates to a method of storing a compressed gaseous fuel and to a compressed gaseous fuel storage system.

One of the main problems facing the so-called "Hydrogen Economy" is the storage of hydrogen fuel. Although different types of storage systems are being developed or researched, the storage of hydrogen still remains a problem. The challenge facing a designer of a hydrogen storage system is illustrated by the USA Department of Energy targets for a hydrogen storage system for use in vehicles, which are (i) to store 4 kg of hydrogen on board, (ii) the space and mass utilisation of the storage system must be such that at least 62 kg of hydrogen is stored per m3 of the storage system, and (iii) the storage system must comprise at least 6.5 mass % hydrogen.

According to one aspect of the invention, there is provided a method of storing a compressed gaseous fuel, the method including containing the compressed gaseous fuel, in a gaseous state, in a pressure vessel; and at least partially insulating the pressure vessel with a liquefied cryogenic gas at its boiling point, the liquefied cryogenic gas being allowed freely to boil off.

The liquefied cryogenic gas is thus at its boiling point at the pressure prevailing in a space in which the liquefied cryogenic gas is held.

The liquefied cryogenic gas is typically contained in a container open to atmosphere. The container is typically configured to prevent oxygen from entering the container thereby to prevent condensation of oxygen inside the container, and surrounds the pressure vessel holding the compressed gaseous fuel, thereby to insulate the compressed gaseous fuel thermally. Thus, typically, the pressure vessel is a jacketed vessel, with the liquefied cryogenic gas being held in a jacket space defined by the jacket of the pressure vessel. The container or jacket space may be operated at slight positive pressure to prevent oxygen entry.

The compressed gaseous fuel may have a normal boiling point of less than 100 Kelvin, typically less than 50 Kelvin, e.g. less than 30 Kelvin.

The liquefied cryogenic gas may have a normal boiling point of between about 50 Kelvin and about 200 Kelvin, preferably between about 50 Kelvin and about 80 Kelvin, e.g. between about 70 Kelvin and about 80 Kelvin.

The compressed gaseous fuel may include hydrogen as a major component. In one embodiment of the invention, the compressed gaseous fuel is substantially pure hydrogen.

The liquefied cryogenic gas may include nitrogen as a major component. In one embodiment of the invention, the liquefied cryogenic gas is substantially pure nitrogen.

The gaseous fuel may be at a pressure of at least about 20 MPa, preferably at least about 25 MPa, more preferably at least about 30 MPa, most preferably at least about 38 MPa, e.g. between about 25 MPa and about 50 MPa.

The method may include thermally insulating the jacketed vessel with an insulation layer.

According to another aspect of the invention, there is provided a compressed gaseous fuel storage system which includes a pressure vessel configured or rated to store compressed gaseous fuel at a pressure of at least 25 MPa; and a jacket at least partially surrounding the pressure vessel and defining a jacket space for a liquefied cryogenic gas, the jacket space being open or openable to atmosphere in use to release or vent cryogenic gas boiling off.

The jacket is typically configured or operable to prevent atmospheric oxygen from entering the jacket space. The jacket my thus be configured to operate at slight positive pressure, and/or it may include a one way valve.

Thus, in use, liquefied cryogenic gas in the jacket space is free to boil off into the atmosphere.

Preferably, the pressure vessel is configured to store compressed gaseous fuel at a pressure of at least about 25 MPa, more preferably at least about 30 MPa, most preferably at least about 38 MPa, e.g. between about 25 MPa and about 50 MPa.

The pressure vessel may be elongate. Typically, the pressure vessel is circular cylindrical with domed ends.

The construction of a cryogenic pressure vessel requires that the material used has sufficient tensile strength, fracture toughness and impact resistance at the operating temperature of the pressure vessel. Preferably, the material of construction should have as low a density as possible, be readily formed into a desired vessel shape, be unaffected by prolonged contact with the compressed gaseous fuel (e.g. hydrogen) and be cost-effective.

The material of construction of the pressure vessel may be a metal with a face centred cubic crystal structure, e.g. austenitic stainless steels or aluminium alloys.

For use in vehicles, austenitic stainless steels such as 304 and 316 are expected to be too dense and hence too heavy, although they may function well in large storage systems where weight is not a particular concern.

Where an aluminium alloy is used, the alloy must be certified or suitable for pressure vessel application, e.g. 5083 and 5456 alloys. It is expected that 5083 alloy will be preferred in cryogenic applications. The material of construction of the pressure vessel may also be a beta-phase titanium alloy, e.g. Ti-5AI-2.5Sn. The diffusivity of hydrogen in beta-phase titanium alloys is orders of magnitude larger than for other titanium alloys with the result that no or insignificant concentration gradients develop, even at cryogenic temperatures.

The material of construction of the pressure vessel may instead be a composite material, e.g. a carbon fibre reinforced synthetic plastics or polymeric material.

The material of construction of the pressure vessel may thus be selected from a group consisting of a metal with a face centred cubic crystal structure, an aluminium alloy, a beta-phase titanium alloy and carbon fibre reinforced plastic.

Instead, the pressure vessel may be a composite vessel comprising layers of different materials. In one embodiment of the invention, the pressure vessel comprises a thin-walled aluminium inner layer reinforced by a carbon fibre or aramid outer layer wrapped around the inner layer.

The fuel storage system may include a thermal insulation layer at least partially covering or enclosing or surrounding the jacket of the pressure vessel.

The insulation layer may be Multi-Layer Vacuum Super-Insulation (MLVSI). Such a layer can provide thermal conductivities of as low as 5 - 10 x 10"5 VWmK.

The insulation layer may instead, or in addition, comprise a body of an insulating powder or powders. The insulating powder or powders may be a micro- porous powder, e.g. expanded pearlite, which has a bulk density between 50 kg/m3 and 300 kg/m3 and a thermal conductivity of about 8 x 10"3 WVmK at liquid N2 temperatures. With the addition of an opaque/reflective powder, such as aluminium flakes, the thermal conductivity can be reduced to about 0.7 x 10"3 W/mK. Instead, the powder may be a nano-porous powder or powders, i.e. aerogels. Aerogels withstand compressive loads better than pearlite and provide similar thermal conductivities to fused silica.

A further option is thus fused silica, which has a bulk density of between 50 kg/m3 and 100 kg/m3 or even 250 kg/m3 when compacted. Fused silica has a thermal conductivity of about 1 x 10"3 VWmK. With the addition of an opaque/reflective powder, such as aluminium flakes, the thermal conductivity can be reduced to about 0.23 x 10"3 VWmK.

In a further embodiment, the insulating layer may comprise a body of hollow glass spheres. The glass spheres may be aluminium coated, e.g. by chemical vapour deposition techniques, to increase reflectance, providing thermal conductivities of as low as 0.2 x 10"3 VWmK. The uncompressed bulk density of the hollow glass spheres is about 75 kg/m3.

The insulation layer may thus comprise a body of an insulating particulate material selected from a group consisting of a micro-porous powder, a nano-porous powder, fused silica, hollow glass spheres, and two or more of these.

In yet a further embodiment, the insulating layer may include vacuum insulating panels, which comprise vacuum packed, micro-porous open-celled insulating cores in gas barrier bags or holders, which may be metallised to reduce gas permeation and to increase thermal reflectivity. The vacuum insulating panels may have a thermal conductivity in the region of 6 - 7 x 103 VWmK.

The insulating cores of the vacuum insulating panels may comprise a nano- porous powder or powders.

The invention will now be described by way of the following non-limiting

Examples, and the single drawing which shows the dimensions of the compressed gaseous fuel storage system considered in the Examples.

EXAMPLE 1 This Example provides a case study for the design of an affordable compressed gaseous fuel storage system in accordance with the invention in which the compressed gaseous fuel is hydrogen gas and the liquefied cryogenic gas is liquid nitrogen at atmospheric pressure. The gaseous fuel system is intended for use in a motor vehicle or the like.

Alloys to be used for a hydrogen pressure vessel (hereinafter also referred to as the hydrogen cylinder) must be compatible with hydrogen. Three such alloys that were selected as candidate materials for this study are: 316L stainless steel, aluminium alloy 5083, and titanium alloy Ti-5AI-2,5Sn. Metallic cylinders reinforced by means of carbon, glass or aramid fibres were not considered in this case study because of manufacturing costs.

The USA Department of Energy targets for car propulsion are:

❖ To store 4 kg of hydrogen on board

❖ The system hydrogen density must be at least 62 kg of hydrogen/m3

❖ 6.5 mass percent of the system must be hydrogen.

17.8 MPa pressure is required at 77.2 K to reach 62 kg of hydrogen/m3, but this makes no provision for the additional volume of the containers. If it is assumed that this volume is 25 % of the total, then a pressure of 25 MPa is required at 77.2 K. The overall weight of the system must not exceed 61.5 kg to meet the target of 6.5 mass percent hydrogen and an on board amount of 4 kg hydrogen. Knowing that the density of liquid nitrogen at 77 K is 0.808 kg/m3, the weight of the rest of the system can be calculated if the weight of the liquid nitrogen is fixed.

The design of the hydrogen cylinder is based on the above targets, that is: Store 4 kg of hydrogen gas at a pressure of 250 bar (25 MPa) and a temperature of 77 K.

The universal gas constant is: R = 8314.39 J/kmolK The gas law is: PV = mRTIM (1 )

where:

P = pressure in Pascal V = volume in m3 m = kg of gas

R = gas constant in J/kmolK T = absolute temperature in K M = molecular mass of hydrogen

For this study it is required to establish the volume of the container for hydrogen stored at the conditions given above.

Thus, substituting the design parameters in Equation (1 ) the required volume is calculated to be:

4»*3143tt77 ^

2x25x106

This gives a mass/volume ratio of 4/0.051 = 78.4 kg/m3

For this conceptual design a cylinder with ellipsoidal end caps is used, while a spherical container is briefly considered to compare dimensions.

After some trials, a cylinder of length 1.00 m and inner diameter of 0.24 m was selected. The end caps were taken to be ellipsoidal, with internal height = 0.09 m. The calculated volume is 0.0553 m3. The mass of hydrogen contained in 0.0507 m3 at 77K and 25 MPa is 3.99 kg.

The governing strength parameter for cylinders is the hoop stress. For this calculation the cylinder is assumed to be thin-walled, that is, the ratio of the wall thickness to the diameter is not greater than 1/25. The hoop stress is then given by the formula:

Δp.D σH =

2t

where Δρ= pressure differential across the cylinder wall,

D = cylinder diameter (measured to the mid-surface of the cylinder) t = wall thickness

The hoop stress values for typical values of wall thickness are given in Table 1.

TABLE 1 HOOP STRESS AND WALL THICKNESS

It was decided to use a safety factor of 2 based on the tensile yield strength of the material.

The tensile yield strength, σγ , and ultimate tensile stress, σuτs , of the three candidate alloys are given in Table 2 below. The last column gives the maximum allowable stress = σY 12.

TABLE 2 STRESS FACTORS OF DIFFERENT ALLOYS

For reasons of weight it was decided to use a wall thickness of 5 mm. By comparing the hoop stresses given in the first table with the maximum allowable stress in the second table it can be seen that only the titanium alloy satisfies the strength requirement (605 MPa is slightly more than the required 600 MPa). Titanium Ti-5AI- 2,5Sn is therefore proposed as a candidate material.

For this design it was assumed that the jacket was required to contain at least 3 kg of liquid nitrogen. The practical dimensions of the jacket give the inner volume of the outer jacket V = 0.0602 m3. The outer volume of the hydrogen cylinder is 0.0553 m3. The nitrogen volume is therefore: VN = 0.0602 - 0.0553 = 0.0049 m3.

This is equal to 4.9 litres of liquid nitrogen, which exceeds the assumed minimum amount.

The density of liquid nitrogen is equal to 0.808 x 103 kg/m3. The mass of liquid nitrogen is therefore equal to 3.93 kg.

For reasons of weight reduction aluminium is proposed for the outer jacket.

Since the nitrogen is not at a high pressure the wall thickness of the outer jacket can be made thinner than the hydrogen cylinder. A wall thickness of 3 mm is selected as being a practical value.

The external dimensions of the container containing the liquid nitrogen are therefore:

Length: 1206 mm Diameter: 266 mm These and the other principal dimensions (excluding the thermal insulation layer) are shown in the accompanying drawing.

The external surface area of the jacket is required for the heat transfer calculation and is given by the formula for an oblate ellipsoid:

where D = outer diameter of the jacket = 0.266 m;

L = length of cylinder = 1.00 m; λ = (height of ellipsoidal dome / radius of the jacket) = 0.774.

Substituting in the formula gives a value of A = 0.98 m2.

It is required that the nitrogen be replenished not more than once per week.

The design / selection of insulation material is based on the following data:

Nitrogen temperature: 77 K Ambient temperature: 250C Latent heat of vaporization of liquid nitrogen: 198380 J/kg

The heat required to vaporise 3.96 kg of liquid nitrogen is thus: 785585 J.

Assume steady-state conduction heat transfer and neglect convection and radiation.

The wall consists of 3 mm aluminium plus insulation.

The rate of conductive heat transfer is given by:

where:

A = area of jacket (m2) = 0.980 m2. T0, Ti = ambient and inner temperatures, (250C and 77 K, respectively) t = thickness k = conduction heat transfer coefficient (W/m K)

Subscripts a, i of the heat transfer coefficient: aluminium and insulation, respectively.

For aluminium ka = 135 VWm0K

On inspection it became clear that only MLVSI with kj = 0.05 x 10"3 W/m K would give suitable insulation. Use an insulation thickness of 15 mm; then, substituting in the expression for the rate of conductive heat transfer above, a value of q = 0.722 J/s is obtained. This is the rate of conduction heat transfer which gives a time to complete vaporization of 12.6 days, which satisfies the requirement of at least one week before replenishment. Use of thinner insulation will reduce the time to replenishment; this thickness however, is not considered excessive and is retained for this design.

The principal dimensions and volumes for the container are summarised in Table 3 below.

TABLE 3 DIMENSIONS OF THE DIFFERENT COMPONENTS OF THE FUEL TANK

The total volume occupied by the hydrogen container (including 15 mm of insulation applied externally) is calculated to be equal to 0.0796 m3. This gives a ratio of hydrogen mass to total system volume of 50.2. This fails to meet the USA Department of Energy target by 19%.

A spherical hydrogen container with the same capacity as the cylindrical container will have a radius of 230 mm; that is, a diameter of 460 mm. This excludes the jacket and insulation.

Example 1 shows that for practical use and in accordance with the USA Department of Energy targets, in a cylindrical container of dimensions and materials described above and surrounded by a jacket containing liquid nitrogen, 4 kg of liquid hydrogen can be stored at 250 bar pressure, such that replenishment of the liquid nitrogen is needed at an interval exceeding one week. The mass of the container does not exceed 30 kg and its size is such that it could be installed in most motor vehicles. Table 4 below shows that the USA Department of Energy system hydrogen mass concentration requirement is advantageously exceeded by 67% by the design of Example 1. This is important, as the overall weight of a car must be minimised to optimise fuel efficiency. The excessive system hydrogen density problem can be addressed by increasing the hydrogen pressure as illustrated in Example 2. This will also result in a weight increase but not to the extent that the weight target is exceeded.

TABLE 4

COMPARISONS OF THE USA DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REQUIREMENTS WITH

THE DESIGN OF THE EXAMPLE

One disadvantage of the design of Example 1 is that a relatively expensive titanium alloy is required, but the unit price could decrease with large-scale production.

EXAMPLE 2 Example 2 is similar to Example 1 , but using 4.2 kg of hydrogen, and a system pressure of 38 MPa.

Using the same calculation procedure as for Example 1 , but changing the inner diameter of the hydrogen container to 0.2 m the following results are obtained:

The volume of 4.2 kg hydrogen at 38 MPa and 77 K is 0.035 m3

The wall thickness of the hydrogen cylinder is increased from 5 mm to 10 mm resulting in an outer volume of 0.0433 m3 and a mass of the cylinder based upon titanium of 35.8 kg. The safety factor against tensile collapse is 3.6.

The wall thickness and the material of construction of the nitrogen jacket is the same as in Example 1. The width of the nitrogen jacket is 7 mm resulting in an available volume of 0.0061 m3 for the liquid nitrogen.

The total mass of the system including the hydrogen and the liquid nitrogen is 40.1 kg.

The thickness of the insulation is 0.015 m resulting in a total volume of 0.067 m3.

The results of Example 2 are summarised in Table 5.

TABLE 5

The results show that for Example 2 all requirements of the USA Department of Energy have been met using a pressure of 38 MPa.

The density of hydrogen increases as its temperature decreases according to the ideal gas law. If hydrogen is stored at a temperature equal to the boiling point of nitrogen (77.2 K) its density is approximately 3.9 times higher than that of hydrogen at the same pressure, but at normal temperature (25 0C). As heat is transferred to the fuel storage system of the invention, as illustrated in the Examples, nitrogen instead of hydrogen will boil off, keeping the hydrogen gas at 77.2 K. This is much more acceptable than the boiling off of hydrogen, as liquid nitrogen is much cheaper than hydrogen, liquid nitrogen is already distributed by tanker loads to users, is much safer than hydrogen and does not cause pollution as nitrogen constitutes 80 % of the atmosphere.

Claims

CLAIMS:
1. A method of storing a compressed gaseous fuel, the method including containing the compressed gaseous fuel, in a gaseous state, in a pressure vessel; and at least partially insulating the pressure vessel with a liquefied cryogenic gas at its boiling point, the liquefied cryogenic gas being allowed freely to boil off.
2. The method as claimed in claim 1 , in which the liquefied cryogenic gas is contained in a container open to atmosphere, the container being configured to prevent oxygen from entering the container thereby to prevent condensation of oxygen inside the container, and the container surrounding the pressure vessel holding the compressed gaseous fuel, thereby to insulate the compressed gaseous fuel thermally.
3. The method as claimed in claim 2, in which the pressure vessel is a jacketed vessel, with the liquefied cryogenic gas being held in a jacket space defined by the jacket of the pressure vessel, and the container or jacket space being operated or maintained at slight positive pressure to prevent oxygen entry.
4. The method as claimed in any one of the preceding claims, in which the compressed gaseous fuel has a normal boiling point of less than 100 Kelvin.
5. The method as claimed in any one of the preceding claims, in which the liquefied cryogenic gas has a normal boiling point of between 50 Kelvin and 200 Kelvin.
6. The method as claimed in any one of the preceding claims, in which the compressed gaseous fuel includes hydrogen as a major component.
7. The method as claimed in any one of the preceding claims, in which the liquefied cryogenic gas includes nitrogen as a major component.
8. The method as claimed in any one of the preceding claims, in which the gaseous fuel is at a pressure of at least 20 MPa.
9. A compressed gaseous fuel storage system which includes a pressure vessel configured or rated to store compressed gaseous fuel at a pressure of at least 25 MPa; and a jacket at least partially surrounding the pressure vessel and defining a jacket space for a liquefied cryogenic gas, the jacket space being open or openable to atmosphere in use to release or vent cryogenic gas boiling off.
10. The system as claimed in claim 9, in which the jacket is configured or operable to prevent atmospheric oxygen from entering the jacket space.
11. The system as claimed in claim 9 or claim 10, in which the pressure vessel is circular cylindrical with domed ends.
12. The system as claimed in any one of the preceding claims, in which the material of construction of the pressure vessel is selected from a group consisting of a metal with a face centred cubic crystal structure, an aluminium alloy, a beta-phase titanium alloy and a carbon fibre reinforced synthetic plastics or polymeric material.
13. The system as claimed in any one of claims 9 to 11 inclusive, in which the pressure vessel is a composite vessel comprising a thin-walled aluminium inner layer reinforced by a carbon fibre or aramid outer layer wrapped around the inner layer.
14. The system as claimed in any one of claims 9 to 13 inclusive, which includes a thermal insulation layer at least partially covering or enclosing or surrounding the jacket of the pressure vessel.
15. The system as claimed in claim 14, in which the insulation layer is Multi- Layer Vacuum Super-Insulation (MLVSI).
16. The system as claimed in claim 13 or claim 14, in which the insulation layer comprises a body of an insulating particulate material selected from a group consisting of a micro-porous powder, a nano-porous powder, fused silica, hollow glass spheres, and two or more of these.
17. The system as claimed in claim 14, in which the thermal insulation layer comprises aluminium coated hollow glass spheres to increase reflectance.
18. The system as claimed in claim 14, in which the insulating layer includes vacuum insulating panels, which comprise vacuum packed, micro-porous open-celled insulating cores in gas barrier bags.
19. The system as claimed in claim 18, in which the insulating cores of the vacuum insulating panels comprise a nano-porous powder.
PCT/IB2006/053053 2005-09-02 2006-09-01 Storage of compressed gaseous fuel WO2007026332A3 (en)

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