前旋翼倾转式垂直起落飞机 本发明涉及一种垂直起落飞机， 特别是前旋翼倾转式垂直起 落飞机。 BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 1. Field of the Invention This invention relates to a vertical landing aircraft, and more particularly to a front rotor tilting vertical landing aircraft.
在申请号为 03137211. 2的发明专利申请书中， 所介绍的前旋 翼倾转式垂直起落飞机的主翼设在了前旋翼与后旋翼之间的位置 处。 主翼的这种位置安排要求两前旋翼与后旋翼所产生的升力不 能相差较大。 由于两前旋翼产生总起飞重量 1 /4 左右的升力便可 满足飞机前飞时的拉力要求， 这样便无法让两前旋翼的升力减小 到使飞机保持在高效率的前飞状态。 另外， 前翼仅起到在垂直起 飞时支撑前旋翼的作用， 在水平飞行时， 飞机重量基本由中部位 置的主翼承载， 前旋翼承受升力载荷的能力便未被利用， 从而因 功能闲置造成了相应的结构浪费。 In the invention patent application No. 03137211. 2, the main wing of the front-rotor tilting vertical landing aircraft is described at a position between the front rotor and the rear rotor. This positional arrangement of the main wing requires that the lift generated by the two front and rear rotors does not differ significantly. Since the two front rotors produce a lift of about 1 / 4 of the total takeoff weight to meet the pull requirements of the aircraft in front of the flight, the lift of the two front rotors cannot be reduced to maintain the aircraft in a highly efficient forward flight state. In addition, the front wing only serves to support the front rotor during vertical takeoff. In horizontal flight, the weight of the aircraft is basically carried by the main wing of the middle position, and the ability of the front rotor to withstand the lift load is not utilized, resulting in idle function. The corresponding structure is wasted.
当上述的垂直起落飞机在向前飞行、 停转的共轴反转后旋翼 的桨叶停在与机身中线对齐的最小阻力位置后， 处在前侧的桨叶 容易受到气流的扰动作用而上下振动， 这一问题在小型垂直起落 飞机中还能较好的解决， 但在大中型垂直起落飞机中便难以克 服。 同时， 后旋翼的每副上下旋翼因只设两片桨叶， 不利于让后 旋翼采用较大的桨盘载荷， 也就不适合制成更大型的垂直起落飞 机。 When the above-mentioned vertical landing aircraft stops at the minimum resistance position aligned with the fuselage center line after the co-axial reversal of the forward flight and the stop rotation, the blade on the front side is easily disturbed by the air flow. Up and down vibration, this problem can be better solved in small vertical landing aircraft, but it is difficult to overcome in large and medium vertical landing aircraft. At the same time, because each pair of upper and lower rotors of the rear rotor has only two blades, it is not suitable for the rear rotor to use a large paddle load, and it is not suitable for making a larger vertical landing gear.
本发明的目的是提供一种改进的前旋翼倾转式垂直起落飞 机， 其结构布局不仅更为合理， 而且还有利于获得更高的飞行效 率。 SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION It is an object of the present invention to provide an improved front rotor tilting vertical landing gear that is not only more erroneous in construction but also advantageous in achieving higher flight efficiency.
本发明的前旋翼倾转式垂直起落飞机具有采用轮式起落架的 机身， 在机身前部靠上的位置设有前翼， 在前翼两端通过倾转 和前旋翼轴分别装有前旋翼， 两前旋翼轴之间经前旋翼内的横传 动轴传动连接， 在机身后部上面的凸起座上设有共轴反转后旋 翼， 每副后旋翼由两个桨叶构成， 后旋翼停转时， 桨叶被停在与 机身中心线对齐的位置处， 后旋翼的旋翼轴经其上设有离合器的 中间传动轴与前旋翼的横传动轴传动连接， 在机身上还设有主 翼； 后旋翼的桨盘面积较大于两个前旋翼的桨盘面积， 主翼基本 被设在后旋翼的旋翼轴下面位置处， 前翼与主翼的面积大小之比
T/CN2006/001944 基本上同两前旋翼产生的较小力与后旋翼产生的较大升力之比相 对应。 The front rotor tilting vertical landing aircraft of the present invention has a fuselage adopting a wheeled landing gear, and a front wing is arranged at a position on the front part of the fuselage, and is respectively installed at both ends of the front wing by tilting and front rotor shafts. The front rotor is connected between the two front rotor shafts via the transverse transmission shaft in the front rotor, and the coaxially inverted rear rotor is arranged on the convex seat on the rear of the fuselage, and each pair of rear rotors is composed of two blades. When the rear rotor is stopped, the blade is stopped at a position aligned with the center line of the fuselage, and the rotor shaft of the rear rotor is connected to the transverse transmission shaft of the front rotor via the intermediate transmission shaft on which the clutch is disposed, in the fuselage The main wing is also provided; the paddle area of the rear rotor is larger than the paddle area of the two front rotors, and the main wing is basically located at the position below the rotor axis of the rear rotor, and the ratio of the area of the front wing to the main wing T/CN2006/001944 basically corresponds to the ratio of the smaller force generated by the two front rotors to the larger lift produced by the rear rotor.
在对本发明结构的进一步完善中， 在主翼的后侧设有仍具襟 翼功能的较大面积的下折翼， 下折翼由设置在主翼与下折翼之间 的控制油缸控制， 下折翼在下洗气流中可相应下折。 在主翼的下 折翼以外部分， 被制成通过倾转轴装有的倾转外翼， 该外翼经传 动控制机构与前翼上的倾转舱既可同步倾转， 也可进行单独的角 度控制。 另外， 在每侧的主翼或倾转外翼上分别设有垂直尾翼， 垂直尾翼设在倾转外翼上时， 在倾转外翼由水平转到垂直位置 后， 垂直尾翼上的方向舵仍能被转向操纵。 In the further improvement of the structure of the present invention, a large area of the lower flap which still functions as a flap is provided on the rear side of the main wing, and the lower flap is controlled by a control cylinder disposed between the main wing and the lower flap, and is folded down. The wings can be folded down in the lower wash stream. Outside the lower wing of the main wing, it is made into a tilting outer wing fitted through the tilting shaft, which can be tilted synchronously by the transmission control mechanism and the tilting compartment on the front wing, or at a separate angle control. In addition, a vertical tail is provided on each side of the main wing or the tilting outer wing. When the vertical tail is placed on the tilting outer wing, the rudder on the vertical tail can still be turned after the tilting outer wing is turned horizontally to the vertical position. Being turned to maneuver.
为使本发明中前旋翼倾转式垂直起落飞机的后旋翼能被有效 控制， 在后旋翼的旋翼轴上分别设有卡盘、 从动轮和刹车盘 （或 刹车毂）， 在卡盘的外圆面 （或者上下侧的一个端面） 上设有一 或两个对称布置的双斜面卡槽， 在凸起座的支撑轴上装有受油缸 控制、 其头部具有压轮的定位压臂； 旋翼轴上的从动轮经传动连 接的驱动轮和单向离合器被低速驱动装置的驱动轴带动； 后旋翼 被刹车盘制动停转后， 低速驱动装置经单向离合器带动后旋翼的 旋翼轴低速转动， 当油缸使定位压臂上的压轮压入转到的卡盘上 的卡槽中时， 低速转动装置停转， 相对应的后旋翼的桨叶也转到 与机身中心线对齐的位置处。 另外， 也可以让定位压臂经一个液 压或弹簧定中套筒铰接在凸起座的支撑轴上。 In order to enable the rear rotor of the front rotor tilting vertical landing aircraft to be effectively controlled, a chuck, a driven wheel and a brake disc (or brake hub) are respectively arranged on the rotor shaft of the rear rotor, outside the chuck. The circular surface (or one end surface of the upper and lower sides) is provided with one or two symmetrically arranged double beveled card slots, and a positioning pressure arm controlled by the oil cylinder and having a pressure roller on the head is mounted on the support shaft of the convex seat; the rotor shaft The driving wheel and the one-way clutch of the upper driven wheel are driven by the driving shaft of the low-speed driving device; after the rear rotor is braked and stopped by the brake disk, the low-speed driving device is driven by the one-way clutch, and the rotor shaft of the rotor rotates at a low speed. When the cylinder presses the pressure roller on the positioning pressing arm into the slot on the turned chuck, the low speed rotating device stops, and the corresponding rear rotor blade also turns to the position aligned with the center line of the fuselage . Alternatively, the positioning arm can be hinged to the support shaft of the boss via a hydraulic or spring centering sleeve.
在本发明的前旋翼倾转舱安装方式中， 倾转舱通过轴承安装 在前翼外侧结构的支撑轴套上， 在外侧结构内设有轴承和传动 室， 带动前旋翼的横传动轴穿过轴承、 传动室和支撑轴套后伸到 倾转舱内的轴承上， 在支撑轴套内装有套在横传动轴上的变距控 制套， 该控制套内端与传动室内的变距从动轮相连， 另一端伸进 倾转舱， 经传动轮和变距机构与前旋翼各桨叶的变距臂传动连 接。 In the front rotor tilting cabin installation method of the present invention, the tilting chamber is mounted on the supporting bushing of the outer structure of the front wing through a bearing, and a bearing and a transmission chamber are arranged in the outer structure to drive the transverse drive shaft of the front rotor to pass through. The bearing, the transmission chamber and the support sleeve extend to the bearing in the tilting chamber, and a variable pitch control sleeve sleeved on the transverse transmission shaft is arranged in the support sleeve, and the inner end of the control sleeve and the variable-distance driven wheel in the transmission chamber Connected, the other end extends into the tilting compartment, and is connected to the variable pitch arm of each blade of the front rotor via the transmission wheel and the variable pitch mechanism.
为控制倾转舱的倾转， 在倾转舱内侧面下部的支出轴与前翼 外侧翼下凸出部的支撑轴套上装有倾转作动器， 该作动器经其前 部壳体内的轴承座安装在支撑轴套上， 在穿过支撑轴套进入壳体 内的驱动轴外端设有驱动齿轮， 与之相啮合的从动齿轮经其内侧
连为一体的伞齿轮带动轴承座后面的螺杆上的从动伞齿轮， 螺杆 装在壳体后部的轴承与后侧连接筒后座的轴承上， 并由其前端的 从动伞齿轮和后端的挡圈轴向限位， 从装在螺杆上的螺母作动板 伸出两平行的伸缩杆， 两伸缩杆穿过前部壳体上轴承座两侧的滑 孔与带有轴承孔的连接头连成一体， 倾转作动器经其前端的连接 头与倾转舱上的支出轴相连。 In order to control the tilting of the tilting chamber, a tilting actuator is mounted on the supporting shaft of the lower part of the inner side of the tilting compartment and the supporting sleeve of the outer wing lower wing projection, the actuator passing through the front housing The bearing housing is mounted on the support sleeve, and a drive gear is arranged at an outer end of the drive shaft passing through the support sleeve into the housing, and the driven gear meshing therethrough passes through the inner side thereof The integrated bevel gear drives the driven bevel gear on the screw behind the bearing housing. The screw is mounted on the bearing at the rear of the housing and the bearing on the rear seat of the rear connecting barrel, and the driven bevel gear and rear of the front end The end retaining ring is axially constrained, and two parallel telescopic rods are protruded from the nut actuating plate mounted on the screw. The two telescopic rods pass through the sliding holes on both sides of the bearing housing on the front housing and the connection with the bearing holes. The head is integrated, and the tilting actuator is connected to the payout shaft on the tilting chamber via a connector at its front end.
本发明采用改进的前旋翼倾转式垂直起落飞机后， 由于主翼 基本上设在后旋翼的旋翼轴下面， 前翼与主翼的翼面积大小便可 根据两前旋翼与后旋翼在垂直起落时所产生的升力大小来决定， 两前旋翼产生的升力较小， 前翼的翼面积也要相应减少。 后旋翼 的升力较大， 其下面主翼的面积也应较大。 依据这种方式所确定 出的前翼与主翼使得， 在飞机平飞时前翼产生的升力与垂直起落 时前旋翼产生的升力相同， 消除了改进前前翼不产生升力的这一 不足， 也让主翼所承担的升力相应减小， 使飞机的结构及机翼的 升力分配更为合理。 After the invention adopts the improved front rotor tilting vertical landing aircraft, since the main wing is basically disposed under the rotor shaft of the rear rotor, the wing area of the front wing and the main wing can be based on the vertical movement of the front and rear rotors. The amount of lift generated determines that the lift generated by the two front rotors is smaller and the wing area of the front wing is correspondingly reduced. The lift of the rear rotor is larger, and the area of the main wing below it should also be larger. The front wing and the main wing determined in this way make the lift generated by the front wing the same as the lift generated by the front rotor when the aircraft is leveling off, eliminating the problem of improving the front front wing without generating lift. The lift that the main wing assumes is correspondingly reduced, making the structure of the aircraft and the lift distribution of the wing more reasonable.
由于较小直径的前旋翼与一般螺旋桨飞机相比也是较大， 仍 然能产生足够的前飞作用力， 因此， 在采用相对更大直径的后旋 翼时， 不仅可让这种垂直起落飞机具有更大的垂直起飞能力， 使 运载量增加。 而且在水平飞行时， 当后旋翼停转后， 因带动后旋 翼的发动机功率更大， 关闭的后发动机使燃油被大量节省， 被节 省的这部分燃油便可让前发动机带动前旋翼更长时间的运转， 大 幅度增加了飞机的飞行距离。 Since the smaller diameter front rotor is larger than the average propeller aircraft, it still produces enough forward flying force. Therefore, when using a relatively larger diameter rear rotor, it can not only make this vertical landing aircraft more The large vertical take-off capability increases the carrying capacity. Moreover, when flying in the horizontal direction, when the rear rotor is stopped, the engine power of the rear rotor is larger, and the closed engine saves the fuel. The saved fuel can make the front engine drive the front rotor longer. The operation has greatly increased the flight distance of the aircraft.
在本发明具体实施过程中， 不仅要使前旋翼和后旋翼具有适 当的大小不同直径， 也要让两者具有不同的桨盘载荷。 前旋翼的 桨盘载荷要更大一些， 以有利于达到较快的前飞速度和较高的巡 航效率， 使其平飞状态与普通固定翼飞机相近。 后旋翼的桨盘载 荷要比前旋翼相对减小， 以使这种飞机在垂直起落时平均下洗气 流不是很大， 接近于一般直升机。 In the practice of the present invention, not only do the front and rear rotors have the appropriate size and diameter, but also have different paddle loads. The paddles of the front rotor are loaded more to facilitate faster forward speeds and higher cruising efficiencies, making them level up similar to conventional fixed-wing aircraft. The paddle load of the rear rotor is relatively smaller than that of the front rotor, so that the average airflow of the aircraft during vertical landing is not very large, close to that of a general helicopter.
本发明的这种垂直起落飞机在悬停过程中， 因通过调整两前 旋翼和后旋翼的桨距改变升力大小便可让飞机前行、 向左右侧移 和后退， 而操纵两倾转外翼使其处于不同的下折偏转角度及改变 垂直尾翼上的方向舵便可分别实现飞机前部的调头及后部的摆
动， 使这种垂直起落飞机的前倾转旋翼和共轴反转后旋翼采用具 有变距功能的筒单桨毂结构即可， 不必象直升机那样采用复杂的 桨毂结构。 In the vertical landing aircraft of the present invention, by adjusting the pitch of the two front and rear rotors to change the lift force, the aircraft can be moved forward, left and right, and retracted, and the two tilting outer wings are operated. By making it at different lower deflection angles and changing the rudder on the vertical tail, the front and rear swings of the aircraft can be realized separately. Therefore, the forward tilting rotor and the coaxial reversing rear rotor of the vertical landing aircraft can adopt a single-hub structure with a variable pitch function, and it is not necessary to adopt a complicated hub structure like a helicopter.
由于本发明的前旋翼倾转式垂直起落飞机具有较大的垂直起 飞载荷， 同时飞行速度较快、 飞行距离较远， 实际中只要不是用 于专门的悬停作业， 都可替代现有的普通直升机。 可垂直起落， 又速度快航程远的综合优点， 也使这种垂直起落飞机能执行很多 固定翼飞机难以完成的任务， 从而可进一步扩大本发明这种垂直 起落飞机的应用范围。 Since the front rotor tilting vertical landing aircraft of the present invention has a large vertical take-off load, and the flying speed is fast and the flying distance is long, in practice, as long as it is not used for special hovering operations, it can replace the existing common Helicopter. The comprehensive advantages of vertical landing and fast speed range make this vertical landing aircraft able to perform many tasks that are difficult for fixed-wing aircraft to complete, thus further expanding the application range of the vertical landing aircraft of the present invention.
本发明的另一目的还要提供一种适合制成大中型垂直起落飞 机的改进方案。 Another object of the present invention is to provide an improved solution suitable for making a large and medium vertical landing gear.
在把本发明的前旋翼倾转式垂直起落飞机制成大中型飞机 时， 它具有釆用轮式起落架的机身， 在机身前部靠上的位置设有 前翼， 在前翼两端通过倾转般和前旋翼轴分别装有前旋翼， 两前 旋翼轴之间经前翼内的横传动轴传动连接， 在机身后部上面的凸 起座上设有共轴反转后旋翼， 在机身上还设有主翼， 后旋翼的桨 盘面积较大于两个前旋翼的桨盘面积， 主翼基本设在后旋翼的旋 翼轴下面位置处， 前翼与主翼的面积大小之比基本上同两前旋翼 产生的较小升力与后旋翼产生的较大升力之比相对应； 带动两前 旋翼的前发动机经中间传动轴和变速器与后旋翼的主减速器传动 连接， 当前飞时， 带动前旋翼的前发动机经变速器减速带动后旋 翼； 后发动机经单向离合器与后旋翼的主减速器传动连接， 后发 动机只在垂直起落过程中带动后旋翼， 而这时的变速器则以 1: 1 传动比使两前旋翼与后旋翼传动相连。 When the front rotor tilting vertical landing aircraft of the present invention is made into a medium and large aircraft, it has a body of a wheeled landing gear, and a front wing is provided at a position on the front of the fuselage, and two in the front wing. The front end is equipped with a front rotor by tilting and the front rotor shaft respectively, and the two front rotor shafts are connected and connected via a transverse transmission shaft in the front wing, and the coaxial shaft is reversed on the convex seat on the rear part of the fuselage. The rotor has a main wing on the fuselage. The paddle area of the rear rotor is larger than the paddle area of the two front rotors. The main wing is basically located at the position below the rotor axis of the rear rotor, and the ratio of the area of the front wing to the main wing. Basically, the smaller lift generated by the two front rotors corresponds to the ratio of the larger lift generated by the rear rotor; the front engine that drives the two front rotors is connected to the final drive via the intermediate transmission shaft and the transmission and the rear rotor, current flight time The front engine that drives the front rotor drives the rear rotor via the transmission deceleration; the rear engine is connected to the final drive of the rear rotor via a one-way clutch, and the rear engine only drives the rear rotor during vertical landing, and this Transmission places 1: 1 gear ratio so that the two front and rear of the rotor connected to the drive rotor.
上述大中型垂直起落飞机中的变速器具有与前发动机相连的 输入轴和带动后旋翼的输出轴， 输入轴通过离合器与共轴布置的 输出轴相连； 输入轴上所设的小齿轮与另设的减速轴上的齿轮啮 合， 减速轴另一侧的小齿轮与通过单向离合器套装在输出轴上的 齿轮啮合。 The transmission in the above-mentioned large and medium-sized vertical landing aircraft has an input shaft connected to the front engine and an output shaft that drives the rear rotor. The input shaft is connected to the output shaft of the coaxial shaft through the clutch; the pinion provided on the input shaft and the additional deceleration The gears on the shaft mesh, and the pinion on the other side of the deceleration shaft meshes with a gear that is placed on the output shaft through the one-way clutch.
在把本发明的垂直起落飞机制成大、 中型飞机后， 在前飞时 所设的共轴反转后旋翼经变速器也被带动低速旋转并产生一小部 分升力。 由于后旋翼在垂直起落和平飞状态中都保持旋转， 便可
让后旋翼的上下两副旋翼桨叶数量增加到三片至四片， 使后旋翼 具有更大的桨盘载荷， 以适合制成起飞重量更大的大、 中型垂直 起落飞机。 虽然这种大、 中型垂直起落飞机在前飞时后旋翼经变 速器被前发动机带动继续旋转， 但在这种状态下， 因后旋翼的桨 叶迎角较小， 转速很低， 所消耗的发动机功率也较少， 而停转的 后发动机仍能节省大量的燃油供前发动机带动飞机前飞， 使飞机 具有更远的飞行航程。 After the vertical landing aircraft of the present invention is made into a large and medium-sized aircraft, the coaxial reversing rear rotor provided during the forward flight is also driven by the transmission to rotate at a low speed and generate a small amount of lift. Since the rear rotor keeps rotating in the vertical up and down and flying state, Increase the number of upper and lower rotor blades of the rear rotor to three to four, so that the rear rotor has a larger paddle load, which is suitable for large and medium vertical landing aircraft with larger take-off weight. Although the large- and medium-sized vertical landing aircraft rotates forward by the front engine through the transmission during the forward flight, in this state, the blade of the rear rotor has a small angle of attack, the rotation speed is low, and the engine consumed. The power is also less, and the engine that is stopped can still save a lot of fuel for the front engine to fly the aircraft, so that the aircraft has a longer flight range.
下面结合附图和具体实施例对本发明作进一步详细的说明。 图 1是根据本发明一个实施方案的垂直起落飞机的俯视图。 图 2是图 1 中垂直起落飞机的侧视图。 The present invention will be further described in detail below with reference to the accompanying drawings and specific embodiments. 1 is a top plan view of a vertical landing aircraft in accordance with one embodiment of the present invention. Figure 2 is a side elevational view of the vertical landing gear of Figure 1.
图 3是图 1 中垂直起落飞机的正视图。 Figure 3 is a front elevational view of the vertical landing gear of Figure 1.
图 4 是本发明垂直起落飞机中主翼及其后侧下折翼的结构剖 视图。 Figure 4 is a cross-sectional view showing the structure of the main wing and its rear lower flap in the vertical landing aircraft of the present invention.
图 5 是本发明的后旋翼刹车、 低速驱动装置和定位压臂的结 构示意图。 Figure 5 is a schematic view showing the structure of the rear rotor brake, the low speed driving device and the positioning pressing arm of the present invention.
图 6是本发明中带定中套筒的定位压臂结构示意图。 Figure 6 is a schematic view showing the structure of a positioning press arm with a centering sleeve in the present invention.
图 7是本发明的垂直起落飞机倾转舱的结构剖视图。 Figure 7 is a cross-sectional view showing the structure of a vertical landing gear tilting cabin of the present invention.
图 8中的倾转抢处于水平状态， 前旋翼转到前翼前面。 The tilting grab in Figure 8 is level and the front rotor is turned to the front of the front wing.
图 9中的倾转舱处在垂直状态， 前旋翼转到主翼的上面。 图 10是本发明中倾转作动器的俯视剖视图。 The tilting pod in Figure 9 is in a vertical position with the front rotor turning over the main wing. Figure 10 is a top cross-sectional view of the tilt actuator of the present invention.
图 11是图 10中倾转作动器的侧视剖视图。 Figure 11 is a side cross-sectional view of the tilt actuator of Figure 10.
图 12是本发明的小型垂直起落飞机的俯视图。 Figure 12 is a plan view of a small vertical landing aircraft of the present invention.
图 13是图 12中小型垂直起落飞机的侧视图。 Figure 13 is a side elevational view of the small vertical landing gear of Figure 12.
图 14是本发明的小型垂直起落飞机前、 后旋翼的发动机驱动 系统布置图。 Figure 14 is a layout view of the engine drive system of the front and rear rotors of the small vertical landing gear of the present invention.
图 15是根据本发明另一实施方案用于大型垂直起落飞机的传 动机构的示意图。 Figure 15 is a schematic illustration of a transmission mechanism for a large vertical landing aircraft in accordance with another embodiment of the present invention.
图 16是图 15中变速器的结构示意图。 Figure 16 is a schematic view showing the structure of the transmission of Figure 15.
图 1、 图 2 和图 3 给出的是本发明的前旋翼倾转式垂直起落 飞机的三视图。 它具有采用轮式起落架的机身 1 , 在机身上设有 前翼 11 和主翼 78， 前翼设在机身 1 的前部靠上位置处， 在前翼 两端通过倾转抢 31和前旋翼轴 29分别装有前旋翼 26 , 两前旋翼
轴 29之间经前翼内的横传动轴 23传动连接， 以使两前旋翼同步 运转。 因共轴反转后旋翼 98 设在机身后部上面的凸起座 4 上， 共轴反转的两副后旋翼使其在转动时所存在的不平衡力被相互抵 消， 由两个桨叶构成的每副后旋翼在停转时， 可被停在与机身中 心线 1 0 对齐的最小阻力位置处， 让后旋翼在飞机平飞时所受到 的阻力较小。 主翼 78位于机身 1 的后部， 基本设在后旋翼 98 的 旋翼轴 1 06 下面位置处。 在本发明的垂直起落飞机中， 在垂直起 落时， 因前翼 11 处于前旋翼 26 的下面， 在把主翼 78 设在后旋 翼 98 下面位置后， 前翼 11 与主翼 78 的面积大小之比要基本上 同两前旋翼 26 产生的较小升力与后旋翼 98 产生的较大升力之比 相对应。 1, 2 and 3 show three views of the front rotor tilting vertical landing aircraft of the present invention. It has a fuselage 1 with a wheeled landing gear, and a front wing 11 and a main wing 78 on the fuselage. The front wing is located at the front upper position of the fuselage 1 and is tilted at both ends of the front wing. And the front rotor shaft 29 is respectively equipped with a front rotor 26 and two front rotors The shafts 29 are drivingly coupled via a transverse drive shaft 23 in the front wing to synchronize the operation of the two front rotors. After the coaxial reversal, the rotor 98 is disposed on the boss 4 above the rear of the fuselage, and the two rear rotors of the coaxial reversal cause the unbalance forces existing during the rotation to cancel each other by the two oars. Each rear rotor of the leaf can be stopped at the minimum resistance position aligned with the fuselage centerline 10 when it is stopped, so that the rear rotor receives less resistance when the aircraft is flying flat. The main wing 78 is located at the rear of the fuselage 1, and is disposed substantially at a position below the rotor shaft 106 of the rear rotor 98. In the vertical landing gear of the present invention, in the case of vertical take-off, since the front wing 11 is below the front rotor 26, after the main wing 78 is placed below the rear rotor 98, the ratio of the area of the front wing 11 to the main wing 78 is Substantially the ratio of the smaller lift generated by the two front rotors 26 to the greater lift produced by the rear rotors 98 corresponds.
在确定前旋翼与后旋翼的各自直径及升力大小时， 由于较小 直径的前旋翼与一般螺旋桨飞机相比也是较大， 仍然能让前旋翼 产生足够的前飞作用力。 因此， 实际中要让后旋翼 98 的桨盘面 积较大于两个前旋翼 26 的桨盘面积， 让后旋翼所产生的升力也 较大于两前旋翼所产生的升力 （垂直起落时） 。 旋翼升力的大小 不仅与桨盘面积有关， 也与所确定的桨盘载荷大小有关， 为使本 发明的垂直起落飞机具有较高的前飞效率和更快的飞行速度， 应 让前旋翼的桨盘载荷更大一些 （ 85kg/m2 - 110kg/m2 ) , 而后旋翼 的桨盘载荷 （ 30kg/m2 - 60kg/m2 ) 要相应低于前旋翼， 以便获得 较高的悬停效率， 使飞机的平均下洗气流不是很大。 In determining the respective diameters and lifts of the front and rear rotors, since the smaller diameter front rotor is larger than the general propeller aircraft, the front rotor can still produce sufficient forward flying force. Therefore, in practice, the paddle area of the rear rotor 98 is made larger than the paddle area of the two front rotors 26, so that the lift generated by the rear rotor is also larger than the lift generated by the two front rotors (in vertical landing). The size of the rotor lift is not only related to the paddle area, but also related to the determined paddle load. In order to make the vertical landing aircraft of the present invention have higher forward flight efficiency and faster flight speed, the front rotor should be paddle. The disk load is larger (85kg/m 2 - 110kg/m 2 ), and the paddle load of the rear rotor (30kg/m 2 - 60kg/m 2 ) is correspondingly lower than that of the front rotor in order to achieve higher hovering efficiency. The average downwash flow of the aircraft is not very large.
前翼和主翼的面积也应¾1据前、 后旋翼的升力大小进行确定。 确定出前、 后旋翼的升力大小后， 因前旋翼 26 的升力相对较小， 相应的前翼 11 的翼展和面积也要较小； 后旋翼 98 的升力较大， 相应的主翼 78 的翼展和面积也要较大， 如图 1 俯视图所示。 在 时速 400 公里的螺旋桨飞机中， 螺旋桨的向前拉力一般相当于飞 机总重的 1 /4 左右， 据此， 两前旋翼所产生的升力可确定为相当 于飞机总重的 1 /4左右， 后旋翼的升力相当于飞机总重的 3/4 左 右。 前旋翼 26 的直径相当于后旋翼 98 直径的 30%- 40%。 在具体 实施中， 还要考虑到有利于飞机平稳飞行的重心前移量。 The area of the front and main wings should also be determined according to the lift of the front and rear rotors. After determining the lift of the front and rear rotors, since the lift of the front rotor 26 is relatively small, the corresponding wingspan and the area of the front wing 11 are also small; the lift of the rear rotor 98 is large, and the wingspan of the corresponding main wing 78 is correspondingly And the area is also larger, as shown in the top view of Figure 1. In a propeller aircraft with a speed of 400 km/h, the forward pulling force of the propeller is generally about 1/4 of the total weight of the aircraft. According to this, the lift generated by the two front rotors can be determined to be about 1/4 of the total weight of the aircraft. The lift of the rear rotor is equivalent to about 3/4 of the total weight of the aircraft. The diameter of the front rotor 26 is equivalent to 30% - 40% of the diameter of the rear rotor 98. In the specific implementation, it is also necessary to consider the amount of center of gravity that is conducive to the smooth flight of the aircraft.
因前翼 11 面积较小， 当机身 1 与倾转抢 31之间的前翼面积 不够时， 如图 1所示， 还可在倾转舱 31外侧增设前外翼 53。
P T/CN2006/001944 由于主翼 78设在后旋翼 98 的下面， 为避免垂直起落时主翼 在后旋翼的下洗气流中产生较大阻力， 如图 1 中所示， 在主翼的 后侧设有较大面积的下折翼 86， 下折翼 86 在主翼后侧的结构安 装如图 4所示，在主翼 78与下折翼 86之间安装有的控制油缸 91 , 该油缸使下折翼在飞机平飞时处在收回位置。 而飞机垂直起落 时， 切断供给控制油缸 91 的压力油， 下折翼便在后旋翼的下洗 气流作用下相应下折， 如图中虚线所示， 以减少主翼所产生的气 流阻力， 这时的控制油缸也会对下折翼在气流中所产生的摆动冲 击进行阻尼。 因下折翼占据了原机翼后侧的襟翼位置， 如飞行中 通过控制下折翼的向下角度偏转也起到足够的襟翼作用， 可仍让 下折翼替代原来位置的襟翼。 如只有采用后退式襟翼才能达到应 用的控制作用， 可在下折翼后侧增设后退式襟翼 （图中未画） 。 同样， 为减少主翼 78 在下洗气流中所产生的阻力， 在主翼的下 折翼 86以外部分被制成通过倾转轴 81装有的倾转外翼 94， 该外 翼经传动控制机构与前翼 11 上的倾转舱 31 既可同步倾转， 也可 为完成相应的悬停姿态而进行单独的角度控制。 如在下洗气流中 让已转到垂直位置的倾转外翼 94，同时向前或向后偏转， 便可让 悬停中的垂直起落飞机向前或向后移动。 如控制两侧的倾转外翼 94，向相反的角度位置偏转， 便可让机身前部向被控制的方向摆 动„ Since the front wing 11 has a small area, when the front wing area between the fuselage 1 and the tilting grab 31 is insufficient, as shown in FIG. 1, the front outer wing 53 may be added outside the tilting compartment 31. PT/CN2006/001944 Since the main wing 78 is disposed under the rear rotor 98, in order to avoid large resistance in the lower washing airflow of the rear rotor during vertical landing, as shown in Fig. 1, the rear side of the main wing is provided. A large area of the lower flaps 86, the lower flaps 86 are mounted on the rear side of the main wing as shown in Fig. 4. A control cylinder 91 is mounted between the main wing 78 and the lower flaps 86, the cylinders making the lower flaps in the aircraft When flying, it is in the retracted position. When the aircraft rises and falls vertically, the pressure oil supplied to the control cylinder 91 is cut off, and the lower flap is folded downward under the action of the lower washing airflow of the rear rotor, as shown by the broken line in the figure, to reduce the airflow resistance generated by the main wing. The control cylinder also dampens the oscillating shock generated by the lower flap in the airflow. Because the lower flap occupies the flap position on the back side of the original wing, such as the downward angle deflection of the flap under control during flight, it also has enough flaps to allow the lower flap to replace the flap of the original position. . If only the receding flaps are used to achieve the application control, a retracting flap (not shown) can be added to the rear side of the lower flap. Similarly, to reduce the resistance generated by the main wing 78 in the downwash airflow, portions of the main wing's lower flaps 86 are formed as tilting outer wings 94 mounted through the tilting shaft 81, which are transmitted through the transmission control mechanism and the front wing. The tilting compartment 31 on the 11 can be tilted simultaneously or separately for the corresponding hovering attitude. If the tilting outer wing 94, which has been turned to the vertical position, is deflected forward or backward in the lower washing airflow, the vertical landing gear in the hovering can be moved forward or backward. If the tilting outer wings 94 on both sides are controlled and deflected at opposite angular positions, the front of the fuselage can be swung in the controlled direction.
由于机身后部设有安装后旋翼的凸起座 4， 占据了一般飞机 垂直尾翼的位置， 因此在每侧的主翼 78或倾转外翼 94上分别设 有垂直尾翼 96。 图中的垂直尾翼设在了倾转外翼的外端， 垂直尾 翼采用这种方式布置后， 在悬停状态中为能控制机身 1 后部向两 侧摆动， 在倾转外翼 94 由水平转到垂直位置 94，后， 垂直尾翼上 的方向舵 97要仍能被转向操纵 （参看图 2 ) 。 Since the rear part of the fuselage is provided with a raised seat 4 for mounting the rear rotor, occupying the position of the vertical tail of the general aircraft, a vertical tail 96 is provided on each of the main wing 78 or the tilting outer wing 94 on each side. The vertical tail in the figure is located at the outer end of the tilting outer wing. After the vertical tail is arranged in this way, in the hovering state, in order to control the rear of the fuselage 1 to swing to the sides, the tilting outer wing 94 is Horizontally turning to the vertical position 94, the rudder 97 on the vertical tail can still be steered (see Figure 2).
实际中如主翼 78 在后旋翼的下洗气流作用下发生抖动现象 时， 可在主翼与机身之间设斜拉加强梁， 以加强主翼的结构强度。 In practice, if the main wing 78 is shaken under the action of the lower swirling airflow of the rear rotor, a diagonally-stretched reinforcing beam may be provided between the main wing and the fuselage to strengthen the structural strength of the main wing.
在前旋翼倾转式垂直起落飞机的不同飞行状态中， 当飞机进 行垂直起落时，前旋翼 26上转到 26，所示位置（参看图 2和图 3 )， 与旋转的后旋翼 98共同产生向上的升力。 在这种状态中， 主翼 78 上的下折翼 86 下转到 86，的位置， 主翼外侧的倾转外翼 94 也转
06 001944 到 94，的位置， 如图 3 中虛线所画。 当飞机完成垂直起飞过程需 转入前飞状态时， 前旋翼从 26，位置逐渐向前倾转， 产生出使飞 机前飞的分力， 让飞机开始前飞， 在这一过程中， 飞机的前翼 11 和主翼 78也开始产生相应的升力， 共同旋转的后旋翼 98 则相应 减小桨叶的迎角， 逐渐减小其产生的上升力。 当前旋翼 26 完全 转到向前的位置时， 前旋翼产生的所有作用力都用来使飞机向前 飞行， 让飞机达到一定的前飞速度， 飞机的重量也改由前翼 11 和主翼 78 分别承载， 而主翼上的下折翼 86 和倾转外翼 94 则回 到平直位置， 相对应的后旋翼桨叶 99 被调整到零升力角度。 如 果飞机转入长距离巡航状态， 带动后旋翼的涡轮发动机便被关 闭， 让后旋翼停止转动， 并使其桨叶停在与机身中心线 10 对齐 的最小阻力位置处， 以直接降低燃料的消耗、 减小后旋翼阻力， 从而大幅度提高飞机的巡航效率。 In the different flight states of the front rotor tilting vertical landing aircraft, when the aircraft is in vertical take-off, the front rotor 26 is turned up to 26, shown (see Figures 2 and 3), co-produced with the rotating rear rotor 98. Uplifting force. In this state, the lower flap 86 on the main wing 78 is turned down to the position of 86, and the tilting outer wing 94 on the outer side of the main wing is also turned. The position of 06 001944 to 94, as shown by the dotted line in Figure 3. When the aircraft completes the vertical take-off process and needs to be transferred to the forward flight state, the front rotor gradually tilts forward from the position of 26, generating a component that causes the aircraft to fly forward, allowing the aircraft to start flying forward. In the process, the aircraft The front wing 11 and the main wing 78 also begin to generate corresponding lift forces, and the co-rotating rear rotors 98 correspondingly reduce the angle of attack of the blades, gradually reducing the lift generated thereby. When the current rotor 26 is fully turned to the forward position, all the forces generated by the front rotor are used to fly the aircraft forward, allowing the aircraft to reach a certain forward speed. The weight of the aircraft is also changed by the front wing 11 and the main wing 78 respectively. The load, while the lower flap 86 and the tilt outer flap 94 on the main wing return to a straight position, and the corresponding rear rotor blade 99 is adjusted to a zero lift angle. If the aircraft is turned into long-range cruising, the turbine engine that drives the rear rotor is turned off, allowing the rear rotor to stop rotating and stopping its blades at the lowest resistance position aligned with the fuselage centerline 10 to directly reduce fuel. It consumes and reduces the rear rotor resistance, thus greatly improving the cruising efficiency of the aircraft.
后旋翼 98从旋转状态到停止转动并被锁止在与机身中心线对 齐的位置处， 是在机身后部凸起座 4 内的不同控制机构作用下实 现的， 各机构的设置如图 5 所示， 在后旋翼的旋翼轴 106上分别 设有卡盘 108， 从动轮 112和刹车盘 118 (或刹车毂） ， 刹车盘用 来使不被驱动的后旋翼尽快停转， 从动轮可让停转的后旋翼桨叶 回到定位位置， 卡盘使移到定位位置的后旋翼被卡紧。 在卡盘 108 的外圆面 109 上设有一或两个对称布置的双斜面卡槽 110 (也可 把卡槽设在卡盘 108 上下侧的一个端面上） ， 相对应的在凸起座 内的支撑轴 128上装有受油缸 130控制， 其头部具有压轮 121 的 定位压臂 120， 定位压臂在后旋翼旋转时由回位弹簧 123 保持在 收回位置。 设在旋翼轴 106上的从动轮 112 可经传动连接的驱动 轮 114和单向离合器 115被低速驱动装置 117的驱动轴 116带动。 The rear rotor 98 is rotated from the rotating state to the stop rotation and locked at the position aligned with the center line of the fuselage, and is realized by different control mechanisms in the rear raised seat 4 of the fuselage. As shown in FIG. 5, on the rotor shaft 106 of the rear rotor, there are respectively a chuck 108, a driven wheel 112 and a brake disc 118 (or a brake hub). The brake disc is used to stop the unrotated rear rotor as soon as possible, and the driven wheel can be driven. The stalled rear rotor blade is returned to the locating position, and the chuck causes the rear rotor that is moved to the locating position to be clamped. One or two symmetrically arranged double beveled slots 110 are provided on the outer circular surface 109 of the chuck 108 (the card slots may also be provided on one end surface of the upper and lower sides of the chuck 108), correspondingly in the raised seats The support shaft 128 is controlled by the oil cylinder 130, and its head has a positioning pressure arm 120 of the pressure wheel 121. The positioning pressure arm is held in the retracted position by the return spring 123 when the rear rotor rotates. The driven wheel 112 provided on the rotor shaft 106 is driven by the drive shaft 114 of the transmission unit 116 and the one-way clutch 115 via the drive shaft 116 of the low speed drive unit 117.
从后旋翼停止被涡轮发动机带动、 到固定在与机身中心线对 齐的位置处是这样实现的， 当飞机进入正常巡航状态、 带动后旋 翼的涡轮发动机停止运转后， 在惯性作用下转动的后旋翼经旋翼 轴 106上的刹车盘 118被刹车装置 119作用停止转动。 后旋翼停 转后， 低速驱动装置 117经其上的驱动轴 116、 单向离合器 115、 驱动轮 114和传动带 113带动旋翼轴 106上的从动轮 112低速转 动， 同时， 控制油缸 130也被压力油作用使定位压臂 120经其上
2006/001944 的压轮 121压向旋翼轴 106上的卡盘 108，当定位压臂上的压轮 121 压入转到的卡盘 108上的卡槽 110中时， 后旋翼被压轮卡紧停转， 低速驱动装置 117也相应停止驱动， 这时相对应的后旋翼桨叶 99 正转到与机身中心线 10对齐的最小阻力位置处 （参看图 1 ) 。 在 图 5所示的状态中， 卡盘 108上的卡槽 110沿箭头 111所示方向 将要转到压轮 121 的位置被卡住， 被卡住的卡盘在桨叶的低惯性 作用下仍少量偏移， 通过卡槽 110的斜面使压轮 121相应回弹， 而油缸 130的压力使桨叶的惯性被消减并又被压轮 121压回到卡 紧位置， 后旋翼的桨叶连同其卡盘在几次这样越来越小的摆动 后， 最终被压轮卡紧定位（参看图 6中卡盘位置） 。 在旋翼轴 106 的轴套内是上层另一副后旋翼的旋翼内轴 102 , 两者转速相同转 向相反， 停转后的两副旋翼桨叶都被定位在与机身中心线对齐的 位置处。 This is achieved from the stop of the rear rotor by the turbine engine to the position fixed to the center line of the fuselage. When the aircraft enters the normal cruise state and the turbine engine of the rotor is stopped, after the inertia is rotated The brake disc 118 on the rotor shaft 106 is stopped by the brake device 119 to stop rotating. After the rear rotor is stopped, the low speed driving device 117 drives the driven wheel 112 on the rotor shaft 106 to rotate at a low speed via the driving shaft 116, the one-way clutch 115, the driving wheel 114 and the transmission belt 113 thereon, and at the same time, the control cylinder 130 is also pressurized oil. Acting to position the positioning arm 120 over it The pressure roller 121 of 2006/001944 is pressed against the chuck 108 on the rotor shaft 106. When the pressure roller 121 on the positioning pressure arm is pressed into the slot 110 on the turned chuck 108, the rear rotor is clamped by the pressure roller. When stopped, the low speed drive 117 also stops driving accordingly, at which time the corresponding rear rotor blade 99 is being turned to the minimum resistance position aligned with the fuselage centerline 10 (see Figure 1). In the state shown in Fig. 5, the card slot 110 on the chuck 108 is caught in the direction indicated by the arrow 111 to be turned to the pressure roller 121, and the jammed chuck remains under the low inertia of the blade. With a small amount of offset, the pressure roller 121 is rebounded correspondingly by the inclined surface of the card slot 110, and the pressure of the oil cylinder 130 causes the inertia of the blade to be reduced and is pressed back to the clamping position by the pressure roller 121, and the blade of the rear rotor together with the blade After several such smaller and smaller oscillations, the chuck is finally clamped by the pressing wheel (see the chuck position in Fig. 6). Within the bushing of the rotor shaft 106 is the rotor inner shaft 102 of the other rear rear rotor of the upper layer, and the two rotating shafts are reversed in opposite directions, and the two rotor blades after the rotation are positioned at positions aligned with the center line of the fuselage. .
图 6给出的定位压臂 120是经液压定中套筒 129铰接在凸起 座内的支撑轴 128上， 采用这种结构后， 刚压入卡盘 108 上卡槽 11 0 内的压轮 121 将不再回弹， 后旋翼桨叶的低惯性力由液压定 中套筒 129 消减。 在具体实施中， 也可用强力弹簧代替液压力制 成弹簧式定中套筒。 图 5和图 6 中的卡盘 108上设置了两个对称 的卡槽 110， 为增大定位压臂的卡紧作用力， 也可相应设置两个 定位压臂 120。 The positioning pressing arm 120 shown in Fig. 6 is a supporting shaft 128 which is hinged in the boss by the hydraulic centering sleeve 129. With this structure, the pressing wheel which is just pressed into the slot 11 0 of the chuck 108 is pressed. 121 will no longer rebound, and the low inertia force of the rear rotor blade is reduced by the hydraulic centering sleeve 129. In a specific implementation, a spring-type centering sleeve can also be made by using a strong spring instead of hydraulic pressure. Figures 5 and disposed on a chuck 108 6 two symmetrical slots 110, positioned to increase the clamping force of the press arm, may also be provided two respective press arm 120 is positioned.
在本发明的垂直起落飞机中， 前旋翼 26 通过倾转舱 31 装在 前翼 11 的外端， 在大中型飞机中， 因前旋翼的直径相对较大， 所需驱动功率也大， 可让前旋翼由设在倾转舱内的涡轴发动机带 动。 由于后旋翼在飞机前飞时被锁止， 其旋翼轴 106 是经带离合 器 8 的中间传动轴 5 与两前旋翼的横传动轴 23传动连接 （参看 图 1 ) 。 后旋翼由设在机身后部的涡轮发动机带动， 其动力经传 动齿轮传递到离合器 8 后面的后段中间传动轴 9， 再由该轴经减 速器带动后旋翼 98。 而在中小型飞机中， 因前旋翼的直径也相对 变小， 所需功率也小， 可由设在机身 1 内的发动机带动。 In the vertical landing aircraft of the present invention, the front rotor 26 is mounted on the outer end of the front wing 11 by the tilting compartment 31. In the medium and large aircraft, since the diameter of the front rotor is relatively large, the required driving power is also large. The front rotor is driven by a turboshaft engine located in the tilting compartment. Since the rear rotor is locked while flying in front of the aircraft, its rotor shaft 106 is coupled to the transverse drive shaft 23 of the two front rotors via the intermediate drive shaft 5 with the clutch 8 (see Figure 1). The rear rotor is driven by a turbine engine located at the rear of the fuselage, and its power is transmitted via a transmission gear to the rear intermediate transmission shaft 9, which is behind the clutch 8, and the rear rotor is driven by the shaft through the speed reducer. In small and medium-sized aircraft, the diameter of the front rotor is also relatively small, and the required power is also small, which can be driven by an engine provided in the fuselage 1.
在采用让前旋翼由机身内的发动机驱动方式后， 安装前旋翼 的倾转舱结构如图 7 所示， 前旋翼 26 的倾转舱 31通过其结构壳 32上的轴承 36 安装在前翼外侧结构 12 的支撑轴套 14上， 在外
侧结构 12 内设有轴承 21 和传动室 13， 带动前旋翼 26 的横传动 轴 23 穿过轴承 21、 传动室 13和支撑轴套 14后伸到倾转舱结构 壳 32 内的轴承 38上， 在横传动轴 23 的外端装有驱动齿轮 42， 该齿轮经相啮合的从动齿轮 43和相连的伞齿轮 40带动中间短轴 37 上的伞齿轮 41， 让横传动轴 23 实现进入倾转舱后转折 90度 的传动连接， 中间短轴 37 的前端再通过行星减速齿轮组 39 带动 装有前旋翼 26的前旋翼轴 29。 After the front rotor is driven by the engine in the fuselage, the tilting cabin structure of the front rotor is mounted as shown in Fig. 7, and the tilting compartment 31 of the front rotor 26 is mounted on the front wing through a bearing 36 on its structural shell 32. The outer structure 12 is supported on the sleeve 14, outside The side structure 12 is provided with a bearing 21 and a transmission chamber 13 for driving the transverse drive shaft 23 of the front rotor 26 through the bearing 21, the transmission chamber 13 and the support sleeve 14 and extending into the bearing 38 in the tilting cabin structural shell 32. At the outer end of the transverse drive shaft 23, a drive gear 42 is mounted. The gear drives the bevel gear 41 on the intermediate stub shaft 37 via the meshing driven gear 43 and the associated bevel gear 40, so that the transverse drive shaft 23 enters the tilting. After the cabin is turned 90 degrees, the front end of the intermediate stub shaft 37 drives the front rotor shaft 29 with the front rotor 26 through the planetary reduction gear set 39.
在支撑轴套 14 内装有套在横传动轴 23上的变距控制套 20 , 该控制套内端与传动室 13 内的变距从动轮 19相连， 另一端伸入 倾转舱 31的结构壳 32 内， 经其端部的传动轮 18、 螺杆摇臂变距 机构 49与结构壳 32前部的支出轴套 35上的变距环 50相连， 变 距环再分别经变距拉杆 5 1与前旋翼各桨叶 27的变距臂 28相连。 在图 7 给出的倾转舱结构中， 因穿过支撑轴套 14 的横传动轴 23 并不与支撑轴套相接触， 留出了安装变距控制套 20 的空间， 从 而能让前旋翼受到可靠的变距控制。 对变距控制套 20 的操纵， 既可采用如图中所示的通过传动杆 1 7 带动变距从动轮 19 的方 式， 也可采用由设在前翼外侧结构 12 内的液压或电控驱动器直 接带动变距主动轮 1 8的方式。 A variable pitch control sleeve 20 sleeved on the transverse drive shaft 23 is mounted in the support bushing 14. The inner end of the control sleeve is connected to the variable pitch driven wheel 19 in the transmission chamber 13, and the other end extends into the structural shell of the tilting compartment 31. 32, through the end of the transmission wheel 18, the screw rocker arm changing mechanism 49 and the variable length ring 50 on the front of the structural shell 32 of the expenditure sleeve 35, the variable distance ring and then through the variable distance rod 5 1 and The variable pitch arms 28 of the respective blades 27 of the front rotor are connected. In the tilting pod structure shown in Fig. 7, since the transverse drive shaft 23 passing through the support bushing 14 does not come into contact with the support bushing, the space for installing the variable pitch control sleeve 20 is left, so that the front rotor can be made Reliable variable pitch control. For the manipulation of the variable pitch control sleeve 20, either the manner of driving the variable distance driven wheel 19 through the transmission rod 17 or the hydraulic or electronically controlled actuator provided in the outer structure 12 of the front wing may be used as shown in the figure. Directly drive the variable distance drive wheel 18 way.
对于倾转舱的倾转控制， 在本发明中也给出了相应的倾转作 动器的结构方案。 倾转作动器 54 的安装位置如图 8 和 9 所示， 经被安装在倾转舱 31 内侧面下部的支出轴 33与前翼外侧翼下凸 出部 15 的支撑轴套 16上。 图 8 中的倾转作动器 54 处于收回状 态， 这时倾转舱 31 的支出轴 33与翼下凸出部 15 的支撑轴套 16 基本处于同一水平位置上， 相应的前旋翼 2 6 随倾转舱 31被转到 前翼 11 的前面， 此状态中的倾转作动器 54也转到水平位置， 并 上摆到前翼外侧的整流罩 25下面。 图 9 中倾转作动器 54的双伸 缩杆 74处于完全伸出状态， 其后部也相应下摆， 这时的倾转船 31 被推动到向上的垂直位置， 让其上的前旋翼转到前翼 11 的上面， 配合飞机进行垂直起落。 For the tilting control of the tilting compartment, the structural solution of the corresponding tilting actuator is also given in the present invention. The mounting position of the tilting actuator 54 is as shown in Figs. 8 and 9, via the payout shaft 33 mounted on the lower side of the inner side of the tilting compartment 31 and the support bushing 16 of the front outer wing lower projection 15. The tilting actuator 54 in Fig. 8 is in the retracted state, at which time the payout shaft 33 of the tilting pod 31 is substantially at the same horizontal position as the supporting bushing 16 of the underwing projection 15, and the corresponding front rotor 26 is tilted. The nacelle 31 is turned to the front of the front wing 11, and the tilting actuator 54 in this state is also turned to the horizontal position and swings up to the underside of the fairing 25 outside the front wing. In Fig. 9, the double telescopic rod 74 of the tilting actuator 54 is in a fully extended state, and the rear portion thereof is also swayed accordingly, at which time the tilting boat 31 is pushed to the upward vertical position, and the front rotor is turned to The upper part of the front wing 11 is used for vertical landing with the aircraft.
倾转作动器的结构如图 1 0和图 11所示， 倾转作动器 54经其 前部壳体 55 内的轴承座 57 套装在翼下凸出部 15 的支撑轴套 16 上， 在穿过支撑轴套进入壳体 55 的驱动轴 59 的外端部设有驱动
齿轮 60 , 与之相啮合的从动齿轮 61 经内侧连为一体的伞齿轮 62 带动轴承座 57后面的螺杆 66上的从动伞齿轮 65。 螺杆 66装在 壳体 55后部的轴承 68与后侧连接筒后座 70的轴承 71上， 并由 其前端的从动伞齿轮 65 和后端的挡圈 67 轴向限位。 在螺杆 66 上装有螺母作动板 73 , 从该作动板上伸出两平行的伸缩杆 74， 两伸缩杆穿过前部壳体 55上轴承座 57两侧的滑孔 56， 与带有轴 承孔 76 的连接头 75 连成一体。 倾转作动器 54 经其前端的连接 头 75 与倾转舱 31 上的支出轴 33 相连。 图中所给出的倾转作动 器利用双轴缩杆 74 带动倾转舱， 在结构上能承受较大的拉伸作 用力。 让两伸缩杆从壳体内的轴承座两侧伸出， 也减小了作动器 沿驱动轴 5 9 方向上的厚度。 带动两伸缩杆的螺杆 66是通过承受 拉力的形式作用螺母作动板 73的， 受力方式较为合理。 The structure of the tilting actuator is as shown in Figs. 10 and 11, and the tilting actuator 54 is fitted over the bearing sleeve 16 of the underwing projection 15 via the bearing housing 57 in the front housing 55 thereof. Driven through the outer end of the drive shaft 59 that enters the housing 55 through the support bushing The gear 60, the driven gear 61 meshing therewith, and the bevel gear 62 integrally coupled on the inner side drive the driven bevel gear 65 on the screw 66 behind the bearing housing 57. The screw 66 is mounted on the bearing 68 at the rear of the housing 55 and the bearing 71 on the rear side of the cartridge rear seat 70, and is axially restrained by the driven bevel gear 65 at the front end thereof and the retaining ring 67 at the rear end. A screw actuating plate 73 is mounted on the screw 66, and two parallel telescopic rods 74 project from the actuating plate, and the two telescopic rods pass through the sliding holes 56 on both sides of the bearing housing 57 of the front housing 55, and The connector 75 of the bearing hole 76 is integrated. The tilting actuator 54 is connected to the payout shaft 33 on the tilting pod 31 via a connector 75 at its front end. The tilting actuator shown in the figure utilizes a biaxial shrink rod 74 to drive the tilting chamber and is structurally capable of withstanding a large tensile force. Extending the two telescopic rods from both sides of the housing in the housing also reduces the thickness of the actuator in the direction of the drive shaft 59. The screw 66 that drives the two telescopic rods acts on the nut actuating plate 73 by the tensile force, and the force is relatively reasonable.
实际中， 也可把这种结构的倾转作动器用于控制主翼 78 两侧 的倾转外翼 94， 以便与前旋翼的倾转舱 31保持整体动作的同步性。 In practice, a tilting actuator of this configuration can also be used to control the tilting outer wings 94 on either side of the main wing 78 to maintain synchronism with the tilting bay 31 of the front rotor.
图 12 和图 13 给出的是本发明小型前旋翼倾转式垂直起落飞 机的外观图， 这种小型飞机有 4-5 个座位， 因不方便把中间传动 轴设在机身的中心线上， 便把它的前段传动轴设在了机身座舱 2 侧面的结构框 3内。 Figure 12 and Figure 13 show the appearance of the small front-rotor tilt-type vertical landing aircraft of the present invention. The small aircraft has 4-5 seats. It is inconvenient to set the intermediate transmission shaft on the center line of the fuselage. , its front drive shaft is placed in the structural frame 3 on the side of the fuselage cockpit 2.
图 14是图 12和 13中前旋翼倾转式垂直起落飞机的发动机和 中间传动轴等的布置示意图。 在图 14 给出的发动机布置方案中， 为躲开飞机客舱， 中间传动轴 5的前半部分设在了机身 1的侧面， 该轴的后端经侧传动齿轮 1 38、 前段中间传动轴 7、 离合器 8、 后 段中间传动轴 9和传动齿轮 142与后面的带动旋翼轴 1 06 的中间 传动轴 5传动连接。 带动前旋翼 26的活塞式发动机 135 (也可以 是涡轴发动机） 设在了机身 1 的后部 （或者布置在机身前部） ， 通过传动齿轮 137 带动离合器 8 前面的前段中间传动轴 7。 带动 后旋翼 98的涡轴发动机 139设在机身 1后部， 通过传动齿轮 141 带动离合器 8 后面的后段中间传动轴 9。 设置活塞式和涡轴两种 发动机是为了利用活塞式发动机油耗低的特点进行巡航飞行， 而 重量轻、 功率大的涡轴发动机主要用来带动后旋翼让飞机进行垂 直起落。 当然， 在活塞式发动机出现故障停机时， 涡轴发动机也 可作为备用发动机投入使用， 从而增加这种垂直起落飞机的使用
01944 安全性。 Figure 14 is a schematic view showing the arrangement of the engine and the intermediate transmission shaft of the front-rotor tilting vertical landing aircraft of Figures 12 and 13. In the engine arrangement given in Fig. 14, in order to avoid the aircraft cabin, the front half of the intermediate transmission shaft 5 is disposed on the side of the fuselage 1, and the rear end of the shaft passes the side transmission gear 1 38, the front intermediate transmission shaft 7 The clutch 8, the rear intermediate transmission shaft 9 and the transmission gear 142 are drivingly coupled to the rear intermediate transmission shaft 5 that drives the rotor shaft 106. The piston engine 135 (which may also be a turboshaft engine) that drives the front rotor 26 is disposed at the rear of the fuselage 1 (or at the front of the fuselage), and drives the front intermediate drive shaft 7 in front of the clutch 8 through the transmission gear 137. . A turboshaft engine 139 that drives the rear rotor 98 is disposed at the rear of the fuselage 1, and the rear intermediate transmission shaft 9 behind the clutch 8 is driven by the transmission gear 141. The piston and turboshaft engines are designed to cruise cruising with the low fuel consumption of the piston engine. The light weight and high power turboshaft engine is mainly used to drive the rear rotor to make the aircraft vertical and vertical. Of course, when the piston engine fails, the turboshaft engine can also be used as a backup engine, thereby increasing the use of such vertical landing aircraft. 01944 Security.
在以上所述前旋翼倾转式垂直起落飞机中， 当飞机平飞时， 后旋翼上下两副旋翼的两片桨叶被停在与机身中线对齐的最小阻 力位置处， 由于前飞时的气流会使停在前侧位置的后旋翼桨叶产 生一定幅度的上下振动， 这在小型垂直起落飞机中， 因后旋翼的 直径相对较小， 这一问题是容易解决的。 在中型垂直起落飞机中， 也可以把后旋翼桨叶的平面形状制成外窄内宽的梯形， 增加桨叶 在停转后所具有的刚性， 以增强桨叶的抗振动能力。 但在大型垂 直起落飞机中， 因后旋翼的直径太大， 桨叶的质量也明显增加， 很难使停转的后旋翼具有足够的抗下坠和防振强度。 同时， 因上 下层的每副旋翼只具有两片桨叶， 也难以让后旋翼具有较大的桨 盘载荷， 使采用这种后旋翼结构的垂直起落飞机不适合制成大型 的垂直起落飞机。 为改变这一不足， 在上述前旋翼倾转式垂直起 落飞机基础上， 本发明还提供了一种前飞时后旋翼经变速器能被 前发动机带动低速旋转、 并适合制成大型垂直起落飞机的实施方 案。 在这一实施方案中， 因后旋翼 98 在前飞时也被前发动机带 动旋转， 如图 15所示， 带动两前旋翼 26的前发动机 144是经中 间传动轴 5和变速器 145与后旋翼 98的主减速器 158传动连接， 带动后旋翼 98 的后发动机 159 经单向离合器 160 与后旋翼的主 减速器 158 传动连接。 本方案的垂直起落飞机当前飞时， 带动前 旋翼 26 的前发动机 144经变速器 145减速带动后旋翼 98。 因前 飞时后旋翼的升力转由主翼 78 产生， 后旋翼这时只以较低的转 速和较小的桨叶迎角产生一小部分升力， 所消耗的前发动机功率 并不大， 只要使后旋翼的桨叶能处在稳定的低转速状态下即可， 这时所形成的前飞阻力比原小型垂直起落飞机中停转的后旋翼 98 增加的不是很多。 In the front rotor tilting vertical landing aircraft described above, when the aircraft is flying flat, the two blades of the upper and lower rotors of the rear rotor are stopped at the minimum resistance position aligned with the fuselage center line, due to the time of flight The airflow causes the rear rotor blades that are parked in the front side position to vibrate up and down a certain degree. This is easily solved in small vertical landing aircraft because the diameter of the rear rotor is relatively small. In a medium-sized vertical landing aircraft, the planar shape of the rear rotor blade can also be made into a trapezoid with a narrow outer width and a wide inner width to increase the rigidity of the blade after the rotation to enhance the vibration resistance of the blade. However, in large vertical landing gears, the diameter of the blades is also greatly increased due to the large diameter of the rear rotors, and it is difficult to make the rear rotors have sufficient anti-dropping and anti-vibration strength. At the same time, since each rotor in the upper and lower layers has only two blades, it is difficult to make the rear rotor have a large paddle load, so that a vertical landing aircraft adopting such a rear rotor structure is not suitable for a large vertical landing aircraft. In order to change this deficiency, on the basis of the above-mentioned front-rotor tilting vertical landing aircraft, the present invention also provides a front-flying rear-rotor that can be rotated by a front engine through a transmission and is suitable for making a large vertical landing aircraft. implementation plan. In this embodiment, since the rear rotor 98 is also rotated by the front engine during forward flight, as shown in Fig. 15, the front engine 144 that drives the two front rotors 26 is coupled via the intermediate transmission shaft 5 and the transmission 145 and the rear rotor 98. The main reducer 158 is in transmission connection, and the rear engine 159 that drives the rear rotor 98 is drivingly coupled to the final drive 158 of the rear rotor via the one-way clutch 160. When the vertical landing aircraft of the present solution is currently flying, the front engine 144 of the front rotor 26 is driven to reduce the rear rotor 98 via the transmission 145. Since the lift of the rotor is generated by the main wing 78 after the front flight, the rear rotor only generates a small amount of lift at a lower rotational speed and a smaller blade angle of attack. The front engine power consumed is not large, as long as The blades of the rear rotor can be in a stable low-speed state, and the forward flight resistance formed is not much increased compared with the rear rotor 98 that was stopped in the original small vertical landing aircraft.
在前飞时， 由于后旋翼 98被前发动机低转速带动， 只在垂直 起落过程中带动后旋翼 98 的后发动机 159 便被关闭， 节省下来 的燃油都用来供带动前旋翼 26 的前发动机 144 使用， 直接增加 了飞机的飞行航程。 在垂直起落过程中， 后发动机 159 经单向离 合器 160和主减速器 158带动后旋翼 98， 前发动机 14 主要带动 前旋翼 26， 而这时的变速器 145不再起变速作用， 只以 1 : 1的传
01944 动比使两前旋翼 26与后旋翼 98传动相连。 During the forward flight, since the rear rotor 98 is driven by the low speed of the front engine, the rear engine 159 of the rear rotor 98 is only turned off during the vertical landing, and the saved fuel is used to drive the front engine 144 of the front rotor 26 Use, directly increases the flight range of the aircraft. During vertical landing, the rear engine 159 drives the rear rotor 98 via the one-way clutch 160 and the final drive 158. The front engine 14 primarily drives the front rotor 26, while the transmission 145 is no longer shifting, only 1:1. pass The 01944 ratio causes the two front rotors 26 to be coupled to the rear rotors 98.
在本方案的垂直起落飞机中， 无论在垂直起落状态走还是在 平飞过程时， 由于后旋翼都处在旋转状态， 这使后旋翼的上下两 副旋翼桨叶数量可从原来的两片增加到三至四片， 以便让后旋翼 具有更大的桨盘载荷， 以适应大型垂直起落飞机中对后旋翼的大 升力要求。 另外， 如平飞时让后旋翼所产生的升力较大， 也要相 应减小主翼 78所产生的升力。 In the vertical landing aircraft of this scheme, whether the rear rotor is in a rotating state, whether in the vertical landing or in the leveling process, the number of upper and lower rotor blades of the rear rotor can be increased from the original two. Three to four pieces are used to allow the rear rotor to have a larger paddle load to accommodate the large lift requirements of the rear rotor in large vertical landing gear. In addition, if the lift generated by the rear rotor is large when flying, the lift generated by the main wing 78 should be reduced accordingly.
图 15中垂直起落飞机的变速器结构如图 16所示， 变速器 145 设在靠近后旋翼的主减速器前侧， 或者与主减速器制成一体， 变 速器 145具有与前发动机相连的输入轴 146 和带动后旋翼的输出 轴 156， 输入轴 146通过离合器 148与共轴布置的输出轴 156相 连。 在输入轴 146 和输出轴 156 的侧旁另设平行布置的减速轴 152 ,输入轴 146上所设的小齿轮 150与减速轴上的齿轮 151啮合， 减速轴另一侧的小齿轮 153与通过单向离合器 155 套装在输出轴 156上的齿轮 154相啮合。 The transmission structure of the vertical landing gear in Fig. 15 is as shown in Fig. 16, the transmission 145 is disposed on the front side of the final drive closer to the rear rotor, or is integral with the final drive, and the transmission 145 has an input shaft 146 connected to the front engine and An output shaft 156 that drives the rear rotor, the input shaft 146 is coupled to the coaxially disposed output shaft 156 by a clutch 148. A deceleration shaft 152 disposed in parallel is disposed on the side of the input shaft 146 and the output shaft 156. The pinion gear 150 provided on the input shaft 146 meshes with the gear 151 on the deceleration shaft, and the pinion gear 153 and the other side of the deceleration shaft pass through. The one-way clutch 1 5 5 engages the gear 154 on the output shaft 156.
在垂直起落飞机前飞时， 前发动机的动力经变速器 145 的输 入轴 146 和小齿轮 150带动减速轴 152 上的齿轮 151 , 减速轴再 经其上的小齿轮 153 减速带动相啮合的齿轮 154， 齿轮 154 则经 单向离合器 155 带动输出轴 156 , 让前发动机的动力能经变速器 145 减速带动后旋翼。 变速器减速传动时， 输入轴 146 与输出轴 156 之间的离合器 148 处在分离状态。 当需要转入垂直起落状态 时， 先启动带动后旋翼 98的后发动机 159， 随着后发动机的启动， 其动力也会经单向离合器 160 传给主减速器 158， 逐渐让后旋翼 98 加速旋转 （参看图 15 ) 。 在这一过程中也要相应调小后旋翼 桨叶的迎角， 以使后旋翼在达到正常转速过程中其升力并不增 大， 让飞机仍保持在稳定的前飞状态。 在后旋翼增速过程中， 因 变速器的齿轮 154经单向离合器 155 与输出轴 156相连， 输出轴 的转速增加不会经变速器传递给前发动机。 When flying in front of the vertical landing aircraft, the power of the front engine drives the gear 151 on the deceleration shaft 152 via the input shaft 146 of the transmission 145 and the pinion 150, and the deceleration shaft is further decelerated by the pinion gear 153 thereon to drive the meshing gear 154. The gear 154 drives the output shaft 156 via the one-way clutch 155 to allow the power of the front engine to decelerate through the transmission 145 to drive the rear rotor. When the transmission is being driven down, the clutch 148 between the input shaft 146 and the output shaft 156 is in a disengaged state. When it is required to turn into the vertical landing state, the rear engine 1 5 that drives the rear rotor 98 is started first, and the power is also transmitted to the final speed reducer 158 via the one-way clutch 160 as the rear engine is started, gradually allowing the rear rotor 98. Speed up the rotation (see Figure 15). In this process, the angle of attack of the rear rotor blade should also be adjusted accordingly so that the lift of the rear rotor does not increase during the normal speed, so that the aircraft remains in a stable forward flight state. During the rear rotor speed increase, as the gear 154 of the transmission is coupled to the output shaft 156 via the one-way clutch 155, the increase in the rotational speed of the output shaft is not transmitted to the front engine via the transmission.
当后发动机完全起动， 后旋翼也达到正常转速后， 这时， 便 可接合输入轴 146 与输出轴 156之间的离合器 148， 为向垂直起 落状态进行转换作好了准备。
When the rear engine is fully started and the rear rotor also reaches normal speed, then the clutch 148 between the input shaft 146 and the output shaft 156 can be engaged to prepare for the transition to the vertical landing state.