WO2007011248A1 - Sensor for monitoring the subarachnoid space of the brain - Google Patents

Sensor for monitoring the subarachnoid space of the brain Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2007011248A1
WO2007011248A1 PCT/PL2006/000018 PL2006000018W WO2007011248A1 WO 2007011248 A1 WO2007011248 A1 WO 2007011248A1 PL 2006000018 W PL2006000018 W PL 2006000018W WO 2007011248 A1 WO2007011248 A1 WO 2007011248A1
Authority
WO
WIPO (PCT)
Prior art keywords
flexible
sensor
casing
emitting
elements
Prior art date
Application number
PCT/PL2006/000018
Other languages
French (fr)
Inventor
Michal Rukasz
Andrzej Frydrychowski
Original Assignee
Michal Rukasz
Andrzej Frydrychowski
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to PL376246A priority Critical patent/PL212214B1/en
Priority to PLP-376246 priority
Application filed by Michal Rukasz, Andrzej Frydrychowski filed Critical Michal Rukasz
Publication of WO2007011248A1 publication Critical patent/WO2007011248A1/en

Links

Classifications

    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B5/00Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnostic purposes; Identification of persons
    • A61B5/0059Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnostic purposes; Identification of persons using light, e.g. diagnosis by transillumination, diascopy, fluorescence
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B5/00Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnostic purposes; Identification of persons
    • A61B5/145Measuring characteristics of blood in vivo, e.g. gas concentration, pH value; Measuring characteristics of body fluids or tissues, e.g. interstitial fluid, cerebral tissue
    • A61B5/1455Measuring characteristics of blood in vivo, e.g. gas concentration, pH value; Measuring characteristics of body fluids or tissues, e.g. interstitial fluid, cerebral tissue using optical sensors, e.g. spectral photometrical oximeters
    • A61B5/14551Measuring characteristics of blood in vivo, e.g. gas concentration, pH value; Measuring characteristics of body fluids or tissues, e.g. interstitial fluid, cerebral tissue using optical sensors, e.g. spectral photometrical oximeters for measuring blood gases
    • A61B5/14553Measuring characteristics of blood in vivo, e.g. gas concentration, pH value; Measuring characteristics of body fluids or tissues, e.g. interstitial fluid, cerebral tissue using optical sensors, e.g. spectral photometrical oximeters for measuring blood gases specially adapted for cerebral tissue
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B5/00Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnostic purposes; Identification of persons
    • A61B5/145Measuring characteristics of blood in vivo, e.g. gas concentration, pH value; Measuring characteristics of body fluids or tissues, e.g. interstitial fluid, cerebral tissue
    • A61B5/1455Measuring characteristics of blood in vivo, e.g. gas concentration, pH value; Measuring characteristics of body fluids or tissues, e.g. interstitial fluid, cerebral tissue using optical sensors, e.g. spectral photometrical oximeters
    • A61B5/1459Measuring characteristics of blood in vivo, e.g. gas concentration, pH value; Measuring characteristics of body fluids or tissues, e.g. interstitial fluid, cerebral tissue using optical sensors, e.g. spectral photometrical oximeters invasive, e.g. introduced into the body by a catheter
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B5/00Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnostic purposes; Identification of persons
    • A61B5/68Arrangements of detecting, measuring or recording means, e.g. sensors, in relation to patient
    • A61B5/6801Arrangements of detecting, measuring or recording means, e.g. sensors, in relation to patient specially adapted to be attached to or worn on the body surface
    • A61B5/6813Specially adapted to be attached to a specific body part
    • A61B5/6814Head
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B2562/00Details of sensors; Constructional details of sensor housings or probes; Accessories for sensors
    • A61B2562/16Details of sensor housings or probes; Details of structural supports for sensors
    • A61B2562/164Details of sensor housings or probes; Details of structural supports for sensors the sensor is mounted in or on a conformable substrate or carrier

Abstract

The present invention is a sensor for monitoring the subarachnoid space of the brain and for observation of changes in the cerebrospinal fluid layer of the brain. The invention is applicable in medicine, especially in the monitoring and diagnostics of the peripheral nervous system. The device is equipped with optoelectronic emitters and receivers and a light impenetrable flexible casing (1) well adapted to the shape of the forehead and supplied at ends with fastenings (2) and wherein the internal, forehead side has mounted optoelectronic emitters and receivers of infrared light signals, wherein one emitting-receiving unit consists of at least one emitter (7) operating in conjunction with at least one near receiver (6) and of at least one far receiver (5) and said emitting-receiving units are protected on the internal, forehead side of the casing by an infrared penetrable coating and in each emitting-receiving unit, the emitter (7) and near receiver (6) are mounted onto one rigid plate (11). All of the elements positioned on the internal part of the casing (1) are protected by the electrically non-conductive flexible first cover (9) in which holes have been made and where said holes are well adapted for individual optoelectronic elements and determine their relative location and the outside edge of this cover (9) and the outside edge of the first cover have two additional electrically conductive flexible elements (8) combined with the earthing of the far receiver (5). All electrical connections (4) of the individual units are flexible.

Description

Sensor for monitoring the subarachnoid space of the brain.

The subject matter of the present invention is a sensor for monitoring the subarachnoid space of the brain. The devices monitors the width of the subarachnoid and observes of change in the cerebrospinal fluid layer which is found between the internal surface of the skull and the surface of the brain and the observed changes reflect the heart rate, the breathing rate and cerebrovascular pathologies such as brain oedema. The invention is applicable in medicine, especially in the monitoring and diagnostics of the peripheral nervous system.

Near infrared light and the use of sensors for the observation of changes occurring in the blood supply to the brain are widely recognized tools in brain monitoring techniques. By sending a test impulse signal of a near infrared frequency to the patient's forehead area and monitoring the returned beam, data is obtained about differences in the penetration of and the absorption by individual biological structures which are dependent on the condition and changes in the width of the subarachnoid space and they give information about changes in the brain volume. It enables a constant, systematic observation and recording of changes in the blood supply to the brain.

Patent No US 5.465.714 discloses a disposable sensor for determining determining blood oxygen saturation. The disclosed sensor consists of an emitting diode and two receiving far diodes located on a flexible light- impenetrable band placed on the external surface of the skull. The emitting diode sends test signals of two different frequencies of the near infrared range which are received by both detecting far diodes. The degree of oxygen saturation in the patient blood is measured by comparing differences in the received signals of the two different frequencies.

The European application for patent No WO 00/59374 discloses a sensor used in spectrophotometric equipment. It consists of a flexible electronic circuit with mounted electro-optical components and a flexible transmitting lead. These elements are rigidly and integrally attached and overmoulded upon the light conducting structure. The flexible circuit has a thin elongated member which includes alternate coatings of conductive, and non-conductive material over the conductive traces. The conductive traces are connected to short flexible electrical leads extending outward from the sensor for a short distance. The flexible circuit is mounted on a soft, thin, foam body, and covered by a thin protective layer. The sensor is disposable, and is attached onto the forehead of the patient with a layer of adhesive. Both described sensors have a thin and delicate structure and they are single use only.

Polish application for patent No P.307.419 discloses a device for measuring pulsation of the brain surface, in which a infrared sensor is used. The device consists of an emitting diode sending the pulsating infrared radiation stream and a complex of detectors situated at different distances from the emitting diode. Such a structure to a sensor does not allow the monitoring of the subarachnoid space of the brain because sensors are mounted on a stiff rubber casing and they are not adjoining precisely the forehead. The light absorbed by the sensors from outside does not provide the sensitivity needed for measurement and the lack of correct earthing causes an increase in the noise level in the received measuring signal. Furthermore, in the disclosed device, there is only one sensor monitoring at a time.

The subject matter of the present invention is a sensor for monitoring the subarachnoid space of the brain, equipped with a light-impenetrable flexible casing which is well adapted to the shape of the forehead and it is equipped at the ends with fastenings and on the internal, forehead side of the casing it has mounted optoelectronic emitting-receiving infrared elements, and where one emitting-receiving unit consists of at least one emitter, working in conjunction with at least one near and one far receiver and which are further protected on the internal, forehead side of the casing by a coating layer which conducts infrared light and in this unit the emitter and the near receiver are located on one rigid plate and all elements positioned on the internal, forehead side of the casing are secured with the first flexible electrically non-conductive cover, in which holes are made which have been adapted for individual optoelectronic elements and which determine the location of these elements. On the exterior ends of the cover it has attached electrically conductive elements, which are connected to the earthed far receiver. All electric connections of the system's individual units are flexible.

In particular emitting-receiving units are arranged symmetrically. It is preferable that the emitting-receiving units of the sensor are placed in at least one moulded recess made in the flexible casing, and the remaining space of each recess is filled up with a flexible, electrically non-conductive substance, preferably with flexible foam filler. Preferably the flexible casing has the channel

led out of the recess. This flexible, light-impenetrable, well-adapted to the shape of the skull construction of the sensor casing together with holes made in the cover of the casing, ensures optimal placement of optoelectronic elements and direct and light-proof contact with the patient's skin. Located on one rigid plate the optoelectronic elements - the emitter and a near receiver in each of the individual emitting-receiving units, ensures that their distances are constant, without the danger of any displacement caused by a change in shape of the flexible casing which is dependent on the size and the cranial structure of the examined patient.

The photoelectronic elements, with the infrared radiation penetrable coating, placed on the internal, forehead side of the casing are protected from mechanical damage and from the influence of chemical and physiological secretions of the patient and as a consequence the functioning of the sensor is failure free and long lasting.

The sensor casing is equiped with catches which allows flexible fastenings to be attached and as a result, a repeated usage of the sensor. The moulded recesses, made in the casing and positioned on the internal, forehead side of the casing, make the whole sensor more flexible and this ensures, together with the correct adjustment of fastenings, optimal joining of emitters and receivers to the skin of the forehead of the examined patient. The effect of the filling up of the free, remaining space of the mouldings with a flexible, non- conductive substance, results in optimal adhesion of the optoelectronic elements to the surface of the skin. Equipping the sensor on the internal, forehead side of the casing with electrically conducting covers connected with the far receiver earthing, allows the direct joining of these elements earthing with the body of the examined patient, and that helps to lower the noise level picked up by the sensor while receiving a measuring signal and as a result the signal quality is higher.

The present invention describes the preferred embodiment of the sensor equipped with two emitting-receiving units symmetrically arranged and used for simultaneous observation of changes in both cerebral hemispheres in conjunction with the following drawings: FIG. 1 - is a pictorial view of the external side of the sensor, FIG. 2 - is a pictorial view of the internal - forehead side of the sensor, FIG. 3 - is a schematic pictorial demonstration of the components of the flexible casing,

FIG. 4 - is a pictorialized lengthwise-section of the sensor and FIG. 5 - is a pictorialized cross-sectional view of the sensor.

Fig. 1 depicts a sensor which consists of a flexible, light impenetrable casing 1 , with special catches on each end 2, which, in the example depicted, are holes, with flexible fastening carried through these holes 3 and this fastening is adjustable. Furthermore, there is an electrical lead 4 which exits the channel made in the side of the casing 4.

Fig. 2 illustrates the internal side of the sensor which contains two emitting-receiving units arranged symmetrically as a mirror image of each other, and where each configuration, unit consists of two far optoelectronic receivers 5, of a near optoelectronic receiver 6 and of two optoelectronic emitters 7 operating in conjunction with each other. In the preferred embodiment photodiodes are used. Also illustrated are electrically conducting flexible elements 8 and an electrically non-conducting flexible cover 9 with cut out holes for the placement of photodiodes. The covers are light- impenetrable.

FIG. 3 illustrates the casing 1 with moulded recess 10 for placement of the sets of photodiodes together with flexible leads and a flexible non conducting cover 9 which has holes to suit the shape of the emitting and receiving photodiodes.

FIG. 4 illustrates the arrangement of individual elements of the sensor, including rigid plates 11 and the free remaining space of the recess 10 filled up with an electrically non- conducting substance 12. In the preferred embodiment the substance used is expanding light impenetrable black foam. The illustration also shows a channel 13 fitted in the casing 1 through which the flexible lead 4 passes .

Fig.5 illustrates the cross-sectional shape of the sensor-casing the shape of which is such that it suits the shape of the cranial structure. Applying a greater number, in the preferred embodiment, a doubled number, of optoelectronic elements in individual emitting-receiving units, allows the elimination of possible mistakes in the measurement which could be caused by the irregularity of details of the anatomical structure of the skull and skin of an examined patient, through which monitoring of the subarachnoid space of the brain is done. As a consequence, results of measurement are achieved which are independent of the differences of the cranial structure of individual patients and thus improved

in quality.

Claims

CLAIMSThe invention claimed is:
1. A sensor for monitoring the subarachnoid space of the brain, equipped with optoelectronic emitting and receiving elements and a light impenetrable flexible casing, characterized in that a flexible light impenetrable casing (1) being well adapted to the shape of the forehead and is supplied at ends with catches (2), and that its internal forehead side has mounted optoelectronic emitters and receivers of infrared light signals, wherein each emitting-receiving unit consists of at least one emitter (7) working in conjunction with at least one near receiver (6) and of at least one far receiver (5), furthermore each said emitting-receiving units is protected on the internal, forehead side of the casing by a infrared penetrable coating layer, the fact that in each emitting-receiving unit, the emitter (7) and working in conjunction with it a near receiver (6) are mounted onto one rigid plate (11 ), and all of the elements positioned on the internal part of the casing (1) are protected with the flexible electrically non- conductive cover (9) in which the holes are made and where said holes are well adapted for individual optoelectronic elements and determine their relative location, over and above the outside edges of the first cover (9) have two additional flexible covers (8) conducting electrically elements connected with the earthing of the far receiver (5), and all electric connections (4) of individual units are flexible.
2. The sensor as claimed in of claim 1 , characterized in that the emitting- receiving units are arranged symmetrically.
3. The sensor as claimed in of claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the emitting-receiving units are placed in at least one moulded recess (10) made in the flexible casing (1).
4. The sensor as claimed in of claim 3, characterized in that the free remaining space of moulded recess is filled up with an electrically non-conductive substance (12).
5. The sensor as claimed in of claim 4, characterized in that the electrically non-conductive substance used in the mouldings (12) is flexible foam.
6. The sensor as claimed in of claim 1 , or 2, or 3, or 4, or 5, characterized in that the flexible casing (1) has a channel (13) leading out from the moulded recess (10) to exterior.
PCT/PL2006/000018 2005-07-19 2006-03-20 Sensor for monitoring the subarachnoid space of the brain WO2007011248A1 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
PL376246A PL212214B1 (en) 2005-07-19 2005-07-19 Sensor for monitoring the sub arachnoid space
PLP-376246 2005-07-19

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
WO2007011248A1 true WO2007011248A1 (en) 2007-01-25

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ID=36676549

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
PCT/PL2006/000018 WO2007011248A1 (en) 2005-07-19 2006-03-20 Sensor for monitoring the subarachnoid space of the brain

Country Status (2)

Country Link
PL (1) PL212214B1 (en)
WO (1) WO2007011248A1 (en)

Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US5111817A (en) * 1988-12-29 1992-05-12 Medical Physics, Inc. Noninvasive system and method for enhanced arterial oxygen saturation determination and arterial blood pressure monitoring
US5465714A (en) * 1993-05-20 1995-11-14 Somanetics Corporation Electro-optical sensor for spectrophotometric medical devices
US5482034A (en) * 1993-05-28 1996-01-09 Somanetics Corporation Method and apparatus for spectrophotometric cerebral oximetry and the like
US5584296A (en) * 1992-12-01 1996-12-17 Somanetics Corporation Patient sensor for optical cerebral oximeters and the like
WO2000059374A1 (en) * 1999-04-08 2000-10-12 Somanetics Corporation Patient sensor for clinical spectrophotometric apparatus

Patent Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US5111817A (en) * 1988-12-29 1992-05-12 Medical Physics, Inc. Noninvasive system and method for enhanced arterial oxygen saturation determination and arterial blood pressure monitoring
US5584296A (en) * 1992-12-01 1996-12-17 Somanetics Corporation Patient sensor for optical cerebral oximeters and the like
US5465714A (en) * 1993-05-20 1995-11-14 Somanetics Corporation Electro-optical sensor for spectrophotometric medical devices
US5482034A (en) * 1993-05-28 1996-01-09 Somanetics Corporation Method and apparatus for spectrophotometric cerebral oximetry and the like
WO2000059374A1 (en) * 1999-04-08 2000-10-12 Somanetics Corporation Patient sensor for clinical spectrophotometric apparatus

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
PL212214B1 (en) 2012-08-31
PL376246A1 (en) 2007-01-22

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