WO2007010209A1 - User-identifier - Google Patents

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Publication number
WO2007010209A1
WO2007010209A1 PCT/GB2006/002615 GB2006002615W WO2007010209A1 WO 2007010209 A1 WO2007010209 A1 WO 2007010209A1 GB 2006002615 W GB2006002615 W GB 2006002615W WO 2007010209 A1 WO2007010209 A1 WO 2007010209A1
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WO
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Application
Patent type
Prior art keywords
area
enclosure
ridge
apparatus according
form
Prior art date
Application number
PCT/GB2006/002615
Other languages
French (fr)
Inventor
Neil Maxwell Rhiando
Original Assignee
Neil Maxwell Rhiando
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
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Publication date

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Classifications

    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06KRECOGNITION OF DATA; PRESENTATION OF DATA; RECORD CARRIERS; HANDLING RECORD CARRIERS
    • G06K9/00Methods or arrangements for reading or recognising printed or written characters or for recognising patterns, e.g. fingerprints
    • G06K9/00006Acquiring or recognising fingerprints or palmprints
    • G06K9/00067Preprocessing; Feature extraction (minutiae)
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06KRECOGNITION OF DATA; PRESENTATION OF DATA; RECORD CARRIERS; HANDLING RECORD CARRIERS
    • G06K9/00Methods or arrangements for reading or recognising printed or written characters or for recognising patterns, e.g. fingerprints
    • G06K9/00006Acquiring or recognising fingerprints or palmprints
    • G06K9/00013Image acquisition

Abstract

Apparatus and method for generating a unique identifier for an individual. A body part, typically a finger, is placed onto a contact surface and a detector detects the contact area of the body part on the surface. A sensing means senses the force with which the finger contacts the surface and the surface and the detector is arranged to detect the area when a predetermined force is sensed so that the detected area is a constant for any individual. Processing means process the detected contact area to produce a vectored image from which a unique identifier can be generated. The detection means may be arranged to produce a scanned image of the inborn markings of the finger and the processing means can identify one or more features of the inborn markings and the position to produce the user identifier.

Description

USER-IDENTIFIER

This invention relates to a device and method for producing a vectored image constructed of mathematical elements in which the configuration of its constituent parts consist of line segments to describe the periphery of an enclosure wherein sector areas and feature points represent the inborn markings on a finger, and includes an origin-point for centering the enclosure on a coordinate register and measuring the sector position of each feature point to originate a user-identifier expressed as a set of numeric constants to identify the finger of each and every individual person. A vectored image is produced every time the finger pad of a finger is placed and pressed on the contact face of a terminal to form a contact area at a constant pre-set force and in a pre-set time for recording a user-identifier at a server to execute a registration, and separately, to form a contact area at the constant pre-set force and in the pre-set time for matching a user-identifier at the server to execute a validation. Each user-identifier may be used with a card-identifier to identify a terminal location and a server location for two-way communication.

The vectored image may be produced to represent the inborn markings on any body part for example the head, hand and foot of an individual in 2- dimension and 3-dimension form by adapting the contact face on a terminal and adapting the terminal to suit the body part. The terminal may therefore consist of many shapes and sizes for producing a vectored image of the inborn markings on a body part. The expression 'inborn markings, refers to any inherent identity feature of known class and type on a body part. The present invention is described and illustrated with reference to the inborn markings on the finger pad of a finger in 2-dimensional form.

Prior Art

The inborn markings on the finger pad of a finger have been used to identify an individual person for over 100 years and are described in prior art as fingerprints, which are referred to herein as printed images for facsimile matching and scanned images for biometric matching.

Printed images: When a finger is placed on a black ink-pad and then placed on a sheet of white paper, a free-form pattern of ridge-lines are produced to represent the inborn markings on the finger and is referred to as a printed image for facsimile matching.

When the same finger is repeatedly placed on a black ink-pad and placed on a sheet of white paper, each printed image is a constant due to the consistent image quality of reproducing each free-form pattern of ridge-lines for facsimile matching two printed images to identify the same finger by the skilled person with a magnifying glass. Each ridge-line on a printed image is a true reproduction of a ridge-line on a finger.

Furthermore, the free-form outline of each ridge-line on a printed image is not effected by the surrounding environment such as ambient light, temperature and humidity as each printed image is an impression record of a fingerprint. In recent years, the fingerprint records for printed images have been converted into fingerprint records for scanned images. The conversion of a printed image into a scanned image alters the basic structure of the ridge- lines from a free-form pattern to a grid-form pattern, therefore each ridge-line on a scanned image is a false reproduction of the same ridge-line on a finger. Consequently, printed images are true fingerprints in free-form and scanned images are false fingerprints in grid-form.

Scanned images: When a finger is placed on a scanner device which incorporates an integrated circuit with an array of sensors for a light detector or with an array of sensors for a touch detector, a grid-form pattern of ridge- lines are produced to represent the inborn markings on the finger and is referred to as a live-scan image for biometric matching in a database. Scanner devices are also referred to as biometric scanners. A typical integrated circuit contains one million sensors arranged in vertical and horizontal formation, and each discrete sensor occupies a unit of area with an X and Y coordinate and is of known size for example five-micron square. When the finger is placed on the scanner device to capture a live- scan image, each sensor produces a discrete discharge value which is converted to a grayscale value (0 to 255) to generate a discrete area element with a specific value, and therefore an array of discrete sensors generate a grid-form pattern of area elements in the grayscale range 0 to 255 and each ridge-line is therefore constructed of area elements to define a scanned image with a grid-form pattern of ridge-lines which are a false reproduction of the free-form pattern of ridge-lines on a finger.

When the same finger is repeatedly placed on a scanner device to capture a live-scan image, the discrete discharge values are effected by the surrounding environment such as ambient light, temperature and humidity which alters the moisture content on the surface of the finger and these variable live-scan conditions of wet - dry and heat - cold influence the image quality of reproducing each grid-form pattern of ridge-lines for biometric matching two scanned images to identify the same finger. The identifier method of biometric matching two scanned images with variable discharge values to verify the same finger assumes a computer program can perform a statistical analysis using an algorithm for comparing two variants within a specified accept or reject range, and assumes that individuals are registered and validated under the same live-scan conditions which restricts the use of this identifier method to single locations for verifying every individual entering or leaving a building. Biometric scanners are intended for access control systems which register a card and user and validate the card and user at the same entry and exit point. The accuracy of biometric matching depends on the 'false accept rate' and 'false reject rate', these italic expressions in fact mean accepting the inaccurate and rejecting the accurate.

PCT/GB2003/004225

Multiple locations do not have the same live-scan conditions as the surrounding environment (ambient light, temperature, humidity) is variable at each location inside and outside a building. The International Application PCT/GB2003/004225 describes an Identification System for recording a set of identifiers for a card and user at a database to register an individual at any terminal location, and matching a set of identifiers for the card and user at the database to validate the individual at any terminal location with 100% accuracy - an identifier method for facsimile matching numeric constants.

The identifier method of facsimile matching originates a set of numeric constants at a terminal and transmits the set of numeric constants to a server to execute a registration, and separately, duplicates a set of numeric constants at any terminal and transmits the set of numeric constants to the server to execute a validation. A ten-key sensor is fitted to every terminal to originate and duplicate a numeric constant for the user-identifier and it is proposed that a one-key sensor is fitted to every terminal to originate and duplicate a numeric constant for the user-identifier, according to the present invention.

Vectored image

It is the objective of the present invention to describe and illustrate a terminal with a contact face in which a computer program performs a series of sequences in a prescribed order to produce a vectored image with inherent identity features every time a finger is placed and pressed on the contact face of any terminal. A set of numeric constants are generated in the terminal computer to originate the user-identifier of any individual person with precision and accuracy for recording and matching.

Accordingly a first aspect of the present invention comprises placing and pressing the finger pad of a finger on the contact face of an input recording device to capture the inborn markings on the finger pad within a contact area formed at a constant pre-set force and in a pre-set time, and to originate the same contact area every time the same finger is pressed on the contact face at any terminal location. A second aspect of the present invention comprises describing a closed curve around the extremities of a contact area to define a replica area of equal size and shape as the contact area for constructing the periphery of a distinct and separate enclosure every time the same finger is pressed on the contact face at any terminal location. A third aspect of the present invention comprises comparing an inherent identity feature of known class and type defined in a program library with an inherent identity feature of known class and type defined in a contact area, wherein a ridge-line pattern of stored markings and a ridge-line pattern of inborn markings both conform to the intrinsic shape of the same inherent identity feature to locate the position of a set of matched objects within the contact area and recording its centre position within the periphery of the distinct and separate enclosure.

A fourth aspect of the present invention comprises constructing each ridge-line pattern of stored markings in the program library of mathematical elements in which the configuration of its constituent parts consist of line segments to describe a free-form pattern of ridge-lines capable of object movement in every direction and orientation and in which the intrinsic shape for each ridge-line pattern of stored markings is maintained within an object area of known size for object matching with each ridge-line pattern of inborn markings within an object area of known size situated within any contact area.

A fifth aspect of the present invention comprises matching the intrinsic shape of a first set of inherent identity features of known class and type within any contact area and recording the centre position of its object area within the periphery of any distinct and separate enclosure, wherein a geometric element with no dimension defines a first feature point representing the class and type of the first inherent identity feature to record a first designated feature point within the periphery of any enclosure.

A sixth aspect of the present invention comprises assigning an index number to each inherent identity feature of known class and type for object matching each ridge-line pattern of stored markings in the program library with each ridge-line pattern of inborn markings in a contact area which conform to the same intrinsic shape of an inherent identity feature with an index number, and to designate each feature point recorded in any distinct and separate enclosure with assigned index number for each set of matched objects, and the known class and type of each ridge-line pattern for object matching includes any of the following intrinsic shapes: a ridge-arch; a ridge-whorl; a ridge-loop; a ridge-delta; a ridge-end; a ridge-yoke; a ridge-spur; a ridge-link; a ridge-isle and a ridge-scar. A seventh aspect of the present invention comprises dividing the surface area within the periphery of any distinct and separate enclosure into parts of equal area to define sector areas bounded by lines which converge at the centre of the surface area to define an origin-point within the periphery of any enclosure, and wherein the sector position of each feature point is recorded with its assigned index number referenced to each inherent identity feature in each sector area within the periphery of any enclosure.

An eighth aspect of the present invention comprises positioning and measuring any distinct and separate enclosure with sector areas and feature points on two register lines intersecting at a register centre-point to represent the X and Y axes on a coordinate register for centering the origin-point in the enclosure on the register centre-point and aligning the sector lines in the enclosure on the register lines, and each register line includes graduations at one-micron intervals for measuring the X and Y position of each feature point recorded within the periphery of any enclosure to generate a set of numeric values for each index number assigned to each feature point to originate a user-identifier for each individual person at any terminal location for recording at a server location and for matching at the server location with micron accuracy. There are two methods of producing a vectored image in which the difference between each method is technically obvious as summarised below according to the present invention.

Method one: comprises a terminal with a pressure sensing contact face for placing and pressing fingers thereon, in which the surface area of the contact face is smaller than the contact area of a finger for generating a partial contact area and constructing a replica area of constant size to generate an enclosure with sector areas and feature points for centering and measuring a vectored image on a coordinate register to generate a user-identifier.

Method two: comprises a terminal with a pressure sensing contact face for placing and pressing fingers thereon, in which the surface area of the contact face is larger than the contact area of a finger for generating a whole contact area surrounded by a non-contact area and constructing a replica area of variable size to generate an enclosure with sector areas and feature points for centering and measuring a vectored image on a coordinate register to generate a user-identifier.

The description and illustrations with reference to figures 01 to 21 hereinafter relate to method two for device operation, in which a whole contact area of variable size is described and illustrated for producing a vectored image derived from the inborn markings on the surface of a finger pad at a constant pre-set force.

The following description of the drawings illustrate three versions of a pressure sensor device in figures 01 to 11 , and illustrate a series of sequences in sequential order controlled by a computer program in figures 12 to 20 in which each figure shows either a representation of a rastered image indicated in grid-form, or a representation of a vectored image in free-form, to distinguish the difference between the two images in diagrammatic form, particularly where each distinct and separate image is shown together in figures 13 and 14. Furthermore, figures 10 and 11 show a representation of a light detector and a touch detector in which the lines represent spacings and the squares represent discrete areas to describe in diagrammatic form an image area within a border 07 and an image area within a border 34, with discrete units of area 82 in vertical and horizontal formation, and each unit of area 82 is shown enlarged for the practical purpose of descriptive explanation. Typically, each unit of area 82 measures nine micron square and each space measures one micron wide therefore an image area measuring 25mm X 25mm contains 6.25 million units of area 82.

Furthermore, figures 21 and 21A illustrate a pressure sensor 150 which generates a binary image in free-form instead of a rastered image in grid- form. The pressure sensor 150 incorporates a light detector of different construction to generate a free-form image direct from the inborn markings on the surface of a finger pad at a constant pre-set force. Consequently, the light detector or touch detector shown in figures 10 and 11 for the pressure sensors 01, 40 and 60 are not used, and instead the pressure sensor 150 uses a light detector in which a set of lasers rotate on a moving carriage to capture a free-form image which do not contain any units of area within a partial contact area or within a whole contact area for producing a vectored image, according to the present invention. Furthermore, the expression 'vectored image' is a diagrammatic representation of an enclosure constructed of mathematical elements for centering and measuring on a coordinate register with X and Y axes to generate a set of numeric constants to represent a unique user-identifier.

The present invention will now be described, by way of example, with reference to the accompanying drawings in which:

Figure 01 shows a plan view of a pressure sensor incorporating an input recording device mounted on a terminal casing.

Figure 02 shows a front elevation of view X-X in part cross section of the pressure sensor in figure 01. Figure 03 shows a side elevation of the pressure sensor in figure 01. Figure 04 shows a side elevation of view Y-Y in part cross section, of the pressure sensor in figure 01.

Figure 05 shows a side elevation of another pressure sensor incorporating an input recording device mounted on a terminal casing.

Figure 06 shows a side elevation of view Y-Y in part cross section, of the pressure sensor in figure 05.

Figure 07 shows a side elevation of another pressure sensor incorporating an input recording device mounted on a terminal casing. Figure 08 shows a side elevation of view Y-Y in part cross section, of the pressure sensor in figure 07.

Figure 09 shows a plan view of the surface area on a contact face for placing and pressing a finger thereon indicated by the axis lines X-X and Y-Y to form a contact area within a border of known size. Figure 10 shows a plan view of a light detector with units of area arranged in vertical and horizontal formation within a border of known size.

Figure 11 shows a plan view of a touch detector with units of area arranged in vertical and horizontal formation within a border of known size.

Figure 12 shows a rastered data structure comprising a contact area within a boundary and a non-contact area within a perimeter of known size, generated by a 1-st computer sequence.

Figure 13 shows the rastered data structure in figure 12 and shows superimposed thereon, a closed curve around the contact area to describe the periphery of a replica area, generated by a 2-nd computer sequence. Figure 14 shows the rastered data structure in figure 13 with a plurality of rastered objects to locate the position of data-clusters, and shows superimposed thereon, the replica area with a plurality of designated feature points in the centre of each data-cluster to locate the centre position of each inherent identity feature therein, generated by a 3-rd computer sequence. Figure 14A shows a rastered object which conforms to the intrinsic shape of an inherent identity feature derived from the inborn markings within a contact area.

Figure 15 shows a plurality of vectored objects which conform to the intrinsic shape of inherent identity features derived from the inborn markings on the surface of a finger pad at a constant pre-set force and in a constant pre-set time.

Figure 16 shows an enclosure divided into four-parts of equal area by the two lines of intersection at 90 degrees, to provide an origin-point at the intersection for determining the sector position of designated feature points from the origin-point, generated by a 4-th computer sequence.

Figure 17 shows the enclosure centered and aligned on the X and Y axes of a coordinate register for scaling and measuring from the origin-point the sector areas and feature points within the enclosure to produce a vectored data structure with precise and accurate numeric values, located and notated by a 5-th computer sequence.

Figure 18 shows another enclosure with sector areas and feature points, adapted to include a regular configuration of boundary lines to form four-parts of equal area within the enclosure, generated by another computer sequence.

Figure 19 shows another enclosure with sector areas and feature points, adapted to include an irregular configuration of boundary lines connected by points starting and finishing from the origin-point to form an individual shape within the enclosure, generated by another computer sequence.

Figure 20 shows another enclosure with sector areas and feature points, adapted to include a rectangular configuration of boundary lines extending outside the enclosure, generated by another computer sequence.

Figure 21 shows a plan view of an alternative pressure sensor incorporating an input recording device mounted on a terminal casing.

Figure 21 A shows a side elevation in part cross section of the pressure sensor in figure 21.

Figure 22 shows a plan view of a terminal with a contact face situated in the bevelled opening of a moulded fascia forming part of the terminal casing which incorporates a computer and modem to transmit and receive data.

Figures 23 to 26 illustrate computer sequences carried out by embodiments in accordance with the present invention.

Figures 01 to 03 show a pressure sensor 01 in plan, front and side views mounted to a terminal casing 02 of varying size and shape. The pressure sensor 01 includes a moulded fascia 03 with a guide recess 04 which incorporates on a lower face 05 a contact face 06 within a border 07 to define the size of an opening 25 in the guide recess 04, for example 30mm width X 36mm length. The border 07 therefore defines the surface area for placing a finger 76 on the contact face 06 and aligning the cuticle 78 of the nail 77 between each spaced-apart register 08, and in the middle of the guide recess 04 to visually position the finger 76 in the middle of the contact face 06, indicated by the reference line 09 on the X-X axis and the reference line 10 on the Y-Y axis which intersect at the imaginary centre-point 11 shown on the surface area of the contact face 06.

The underside of the moulded fascia 03 is shown rigidly fixed to the terminal casing 02. A packer strip 12 and a cross-bar 13 is shown positioned each side of the opening 25 in the guide recess 04 and rigidly fixed by screw means 14 to threaded bosses in the moulded fascia 03. A support bar 15 with a thread and flange at one end is rigidly fixed to each cross-bar 13 to provide two spaced-apart perpendicular supports fixed to the two horizontal crossbars 13 screwed in place on the underside of the moulded fascia 03.

Situated between each support bar 15 is a prism 27 of optical quality mounted in an assembled housing comprising a left hand housing 20 with an external mounting 21 and a right hand housing 22 with an external mounting 23 which are bolted together using bolt holes 24. Each mounting 21 and 23 includes an oversize hole for positioning the assembled housing 20, 22 over each support bar 15 and locating the prism 27 with bevel edges 26 in the opening 25 in mated contact with bevel edges 26 on the underside of the guide recess 04.

The mountings 21 and 23 are shown supported on two load sensors 16 with sensing means and cables 17 for independent operation. Each load sensor 16 incorporates bushes 18 to provide a slide-fit for mounting on each support bar 15 and fixed in place by threaded adjusters 19. Each load sensor 16 also incorporates sensing means such as a piezoelectric crystal encapsulated in the body of the load sensor 16 which is cable connected to a computer board (not shown) for measuring an applied force when the finger 76 is placed and pressed on the contact face 06 of the prism 27 in the opening 25 of the guide recess 04. Alternative sensing means can be used which measures the vertical movement between the assembled fascia 03 and the assembled housing 20, 22. A yielding material for example a metal coil spring, can be mounted on each support bar 15 between the face of each mounting 21 , 23 and the face of each adjuster 19 to support the assembled housing 20, 22 and sensing means such as a strain gauge material can be bonded at one end to a side face of each cross-bar 13 and bonded at the other end to a side face of each mounting 21 and 23 to detect the vertical movement between the two assembled parts (fascia and housing) when the finger 76 is pressed on the contact face 06. Each strain guage sends an electrical signal to the computer when an applied force causes each coil spring to depress momentarily.

Each load sensor 16 in effect combines the design of a spring and sensor means as shown in side view on figure 03. Therefore, many design variations are obvious and possible to sense the vertical movement between the two assembled parts in which one part is rigidly fixed and both parts are in mutual alignment. The vertical movement can be one-micron.

The position of each support bar 15 is shown in spaced apart alignment with the centre-point 11 on the surface area of the contact face 06 in figure 01, and is shown in spaced-apart alignment with each mounting 21 and 23 in the sectioned front view along the reference line 09 on the X-X axis in figure 02. This arrangement is a preferred embodiment to distribute the applied force between and directly onto each load sensor 16 when the finger 76 is placed and pressed on the contact face 06. Consequently, a pressing force is applied to the contact face 06 for vertical movement in the perpendicular direction without angular deviation for calibrating each load sensor 16 to send a signal to the computer when a constant pre-set force is exceeded to activate the pressure sensor 01 when any size of finger pad is pressed on the contact face

06 located in the opening 25 of the guide recess 04 on the moulded fascia 03.

Figure 04 shows a side view of the pressure sensor 01 with the right hand housing 22 removed and shows the moulded fascia 03 sectioned along the reference line 10 on the Y-Y axis, to reveal the internal arrangement of the components mounted in the left hand housing 20 of the assembled housing 20, 22. The prism 27 is mounted in a fixed position provided for in both housings 20 and 22 and is shown located in the opening 25 of the moulded fascia 03 with the bevel edges 26 around the prism 27 in mated contact with the bevel edges 26 around the opening 25 for positioning the contact face 06 at the same level as the lower face 05 in the guide recess 04. A diffuser 28 illuminated by a light source 29 is mounted in a fixed position provided for in both housings 20 and 22 and includes a cable hole 30 for a cable (not shown) to supply power to the light source 29.

A lens system 31 is mounted in an adjustable position provided for in both housings 20 and 22 with the optical axis of the lens system 31 in angular alignment with the imaginary centre-point 11 on the contact face 06 and with the optical centre on a light detector 32 screwed in place at the base of both housings 20 and 22. The light detector 32 comprises an integrated circuit 33 within a border 34 on a silicon substrate which is mounted in a receptacle with electrical connections for soldering on a printed circuit board 35 fixed to the base of the assembled housing 20, 22. A cable connector 36 is soldered to the board 35 for fitting a cable 37 to receive power from, and transmit data to, a computer board (not shown) which is fitted in the terminal casing 02.

The design of the assembled pressure sensor 01 can be adapted, for example the optical axis from the centre-point 11 to the optical centre of the image area 80 can be set at any preferred angle from the horizontal position of the contact face 06 on the prism 27. The prism 27 can be illuminated and diffused from any side of the prism 27, and a linear light source 29 can also be recessed into the bevel edges 26 of the opening 25 in the guide recess 04 to illuminate the surface area on the contact face 06 which can be an integral layer such as a coating or film material on the prism 27. The lens system 31 includes a series of lenses and a diaphragm (not shown) for reducing the image size on the contact face 06 to the image size on the light detector 32. The body of the lens system 31 includes a groove 38 for external focus adjustment. A bar with an offset pin at one end is inserted in the hole 39 to engage the offset pin in the groove 38 and is rotated in either direction to move the lens system 31 along the optical axis.

The arrangement of the prism 27, the light source 29, the lens system 31 and the light detector 32 comprising an integrated circuit 33 are mounted in the assembled housing 20, 22 and is of known type for detecting on the contact face 06 a full-size image within a border 07 of known size, and capturing on the light detector 32 a smaller image within a border 34 of known size using the principles of frustrated total internal reflection or total internal reflection and evanescent fields for optical imaging within a specified wave length. The full-size image incorporates a contact area 80 surrounded by a non-contact area 81 within the border 07 and this image size is reduced through the lens system 31 to form the smaller image on the light detector 32. The smaller image incorporates the same contact area 80 surrounded by the non-contact area 81 within the border 34 during proportional reduction.

In operation, the pressure sensor 01 communicates with the terminal computer for device operation and a computer program performs a series of sequences in sequential order every time a finger 76 is placed and pressed on the contact face 06, and the surface area within the border 07 is sized for pressing fingers 76 of variable size and forming contact areas 80 of variable size on the contact face 06 located in the guide recess 04 of the moulded fascia 03.

The finger 76 is first placed in the middle of the contact face 06 by aligning the cuticle 78 on the nail 77 between each register 08 and centering the finger 76 in the middle of the guide recess 04 for finger placement. The finger 76 is then pressed on the contact face 06 to cause the finger pad on the underside of the finger 76 to flatten and the inborn markings on the surface of the finger pad form a contact area 80 of resultant size at a constant pre-set force (for example one kilogram force) surrounded by a non-contact area 81 to form a full size image within the border 07 on the contact face 06.

The pressing force is detected by the load sensors 16 which are calibrated to transmit a signal to the computer when the pressing force exceeds the constant pre-set force (one kilogram) and on receiving the signal the computer energises the light source 29 and light detector 32 which charges each unit of area 82 on the integrated circuit 33 to capture the contact area 80 surrounded by the non-contact area 81 within the border 34 and record the discrete discharge value in each unit of area 82 for data transfer in an addressable order to the terminal computer in a pre-set time, for example 100-milliseconds. The light detector 32 is energised and de-energised to indicate this time period from when the finger 76 is pressed on the contact face 06 to when the finger 76 is removed from the contact face 06. The terminal computer converts the discrete discharge values into gray scale values to generate a rastered data structure 90 in the computer memory, wherein a grid-form pattern of area elements 92 and 93 within a perimeter 91 defines a contact area 95 and a non-contact area 94 to represent the contact area 80 surrounded by the non-contact area 81 formed on the contact face 06. Each area element 92 at the extremities 96 of the contact area 95 is a location point with an X and Y position for plotting the grid-form outline of a boundary 97 in the computer memory.

The terminal computer constructs a distinct and separate vectored data structure 130 by referencing the area elements 92 and 93 on the rastered data structure 90 in the computer memory. A computer program performs a series of sequences to represent each stage of constructing the vectored data structure 130 in a terminal 150 to originate a user-identifier, as summarised in the following description with reference to figures 12 to 17. A free-form outline is formed from the grid-form outline of the boundary

97 by selecting a series of area elements 92 as control points to connect a series of Bezier curves or line segments to describe a closed curve 100 which defines the periphery of a replica area 105 for locating the position of designated feature points 106 therein. Each designated feature point 106 represents the centre of a data-cluster 98 wherein a set of matched objects conform to the intrinsic shape of an inherent identity feature of known type within the boundary 97 of the contact area 95, for example a set of matched objects P2 represents the intrinsic shape of a ridge-whorl P2. This data cluster

98 is formed when the computer is instructed to select a vectored object P2 comprising a free-form pattern of ridge-lines 107 for matching a rastered object P2 comprising a grid-form pattern of ridge-lines 108 by referencing the area elements 92 within the contact area 95 which conform to the same intrinsic shape of a ridge-whorl - an inherent identity feature of known type.

The inborn markings on the finger pad of any finger 76 consists of different inherent identity features of known type and therefore the computer program consists of different inherent identity features of known type for object matching, to form data-clusters 98 within a contact area 95 and locate the position of each designated feature point 106 within the replica area 105. At this stage, the contact area 95 is deleted from the computer memory and the replica area 105 is retained in the computer memory to form an enclosure 110 with feature points 106 within its periphery 103 for dividing into four-parts of equal area to create four sector areas, each bounded by two linear lines of intersection at 90 degrees to define a minor axis 112 and a major axis 113 and at the point of intersection an origin-point 114 is created within the enclosure 110.

The entire construction of the enclosure 110 is then centered and aligned on a coordinate register 120 with two linear lines 121 and 123 intersecting at a centre-point 125 to represent the X and Y axes for measuring the sector areas and feature points within the enclosure 110 in the computer memory. The origin-point 114 is centered on the centre-point 125 and the minor axis 112 and major axis 113 is aligned on each linear line 121 and 123 which incorporate one-micron graduations for measuring the sector position of each designated feature point 106 in every direction from the origin-point 114 in the computer memory. Consequently, the terminal computer generates a set of numeric values for each inherent identity feature of known type within the enclosure 110 of the completed vectored data structure 130 to originate a user-identifier derived from the inborn markings on a finger 76.

The pressure sensor 01 described and illustrated in figures 01 to 04 communicates with the terminal computer every time a finger 76 is placed and pressed on the contact face 06 to form a contact area 80 at a constant pre-set force, and figures 12 to 17 describe and illustrate the computer sequences controlled by a computer program to generate a user-identifier for datafile recording in a national database and to generate a user-identifier for datafile matching in the national database, derived from the inborn markings on the same finger 76 to identify an individual person with constant accuracy at any terminal location.

Figures 05 and 06 shows a pressure sensor 40 in side view in which figure 06 is a part cross-section along the reference line 10 on the Y-Y axis, to reveal the internal arrangement of the components mounted in the assembled housing 41 shown in figure 05. The pressure sensor 40 includes the same moulded fascia 03 with a guide recess 04 which incorporates on a lower face 05 a contact face 06 within a border 07 to define the size of an opening 44 in the guide recess 04, for example 30mm width X 36mm length. The border 07 therefore defines the surface area for placing and pressing a finger 76 on the contact face 06 at a constant p re-set force as previously described for the pressure sensor 01.

The underside of the moulded fascia 03 is also shown rigidly fixed to a terminal casing 02 and includes the same mounting arrangement as previously described for positioning each external mounting 42 over each support bar 15 to support the assembled housing 41 on the load sensors 16 for activating the pressure sensor 40 at a constant pre-set force to perform the series of computer sequences as previously described using a light detector 51 comprising an integrated circuit 52 within a border 53 with an alternative optical arrangement incorporated in the pressure sensor 40,

Consequently, a block 43 of optical quality is mounted in a fixed position provided for in the housing 41 and is shown located in the opening 44 of the moulded fascia 03 with the bevel edges 45 around the block 43 in mated contact with the bevel edges 45 around the opening 44 for positioning the contact face 06 at the same level as the lower face 05 in the guide recess 04. A diffuser 46 illuminated by a light source 47 is mounted in a fixed position provided for in the housing 41 and a cable (not shown) supplies power to an external light source 47. A lens system 48 is shown mounted in an adjustable holder 49 which is rigidly fixed to the housing 41 by screw means 50 with the optical axis of the lens system 48 in angular alignment with the imaginary centre-point 11 on the contact face 06, and with the optical centre on a light detector 51 screwed in place at the end of the housing 41. The light detector 51 comprises an integrated circuit 52 within a border 53 on a silicon substrate which is mounted in a receptacle with electrical connections for soldering on a printed circuit board 54 fixed to the base of the assembled housing 41. A cable connector 55 is soldered to the board 54 for fitting a cable 56 to receive power from, and transmit data to, a computer board (not shown) which is fitted in the terminal casing 02.

The pressure sensor 40 performs the same functions for device operation as previously described for the pressure sensor 01, except that the optical axis is set at a reduced angle of alignment to the horizontal position of the contact face 06 as shown in figure 06 for the pressure sensor 40 when compared to an optical axis set at an increased angle of alignment to the horizontal position of the contact face 06 as shown in figure 04 for the pressure sensor 01.

The design of the assembled pressure sensor 40 can be adapted to suit a wide range of optical angle and using optical materials such as glass or plastic in a range of refractive index and include integral layers such as a coating of film material on the contact face 06. The light source 47 can be positioned on any side of the block 43 and include discrete light sources in the infra-red to ultra violet range. The lens system 48 includes a series of lenses and a diaphragm (not shown) for reducing the image size on the contact face 06 to the image size on the light detector 51. The body of the lens system 48 includes a groove 57 for external focus adjustment. A bar with an offset pin at one end is inserted in the hole 58 to engage the offset pin in the groove 57 and is rotated in either direction to move the lens system 48 along the optical axis.

The arrangement of the block 43, the light source 47 the lens system 48 and the light detector 51 comprising an integrated circuit 52 are mounted in the assembled housing 41 and is of known type for detecting on the contact face 06 a full-size image within a border 07 of known size, and capturing on the light detector 51 a smaller image within a border 53 of known size using the principles of frustrated total internal reflection or total internal reflection and evanescent fields for optical imaging within a specified wave length. The full-size image incorporates a contact area 80 surrounded by a non-contact area 81 within the border 07 and this image size is reduced through the lens system 48 to form the smaller image on the light detector 51. The smaller image incorporates the same contact area 80 surrounded by the non-contact area 81 within the border 53 during proportional reduction.

In operation, the pressure sensor 40 communicates with the terminal computer for device operation as previously described for the pressure sensor 01 and the computer program performs the same series of sequences in sequential order every time a finger 76 is placed and pressed on the contact face 06, and the surface area within the border 07 is sized for pressing fingers 76 of variable size and forming contact areas 80 of variable size on the contact face 06 located in the guide recess 04 of the moulded fascia 03. The pressure sensor 40 described and illustrated in figures 05 and 06 communicates with the terminal computer every time a finger 76 is placed and pressed on the contact face 06 to form a contact area 80 at a constant pre-set force, and figures 12 to 17 describe and illustrate the computer sequences controlled by a computer program to generate a user-identifier for datafile recording in a national database and to generate a user-identifier for datafile matching in the national database, derived from the inborn markings on the same finger 76 to identify an individual person with constant accuracy at any terminal location. Figures 07 and 08 show a pressure sensor 60 in side view in which figure 08 is a part cross-section view along the reference line 10 on the Y-Y axis, to reveal the internal arrangement of the components mounted in the assembled housing 61 shown in figure 07. The pressure sensor 60 includes the same moulded fascia 03 with a guide recess 04 which incorporates on a lower face 05 a contact face 06 within a border 07 to define the size of an opening 67 in the guide recess 04, for example 30mm width X 36mm length. The border 07 therefore defines the surface area for placing and pressing a finger 76 on the contact face 06 of a touch detector 63.

The underside of the moulded fascia 03 is also shown rigidly fixed to a terminal casing 02 and includes the same mounting arrangement as previously described for positioning the external mounting 62 on each side of the housing 61 over each support bar 15 to support the housing 61 on the load sensors 16 for device operation. The assembled housing 61 incorporates the touch detector 63 fitted in a receptacle 65 with bevel edges 66 and is shown mounted in a surround on top of the housing 61 and located in the opening, 67 of the moulded fascia 03. The bevel edges 66 around the receptacle 65 are in mated contact with the bevel edges 66 around the opening 67 for positioning the contact face 06 at the same level as the lower face 05 in the guide recess 04. The receptacle 65 incorporates electrical connections for soldering to a printed circuit board 68 shown on the underside of the receptacle 65 and supported in the surround of the housing 61. A connector 69 is soldered to the board 68 and a connector 71 is soldered to another printed circuit board 72 for fitting a power and data cable 70. A connector 73 and cable 74 is fitted to the board 72 to receive power from, and transmit data to, a computer board (not shown) which is fitted in the terminal casing 02.

The touch detector 63 is of known type for capacitance operation and a passivation layer 87 is applied onto an integrated circuit 64 with units of area 82 arranged in vertical and horizontal formation, and each unit of area 82 contains a metal electrode to provide a conducting surface of discrete metal electrodes which act as individual plates 82 of a capacitor, and the conducting surface on the finger pad of any finger 76 acts as the other plate. When the finger 76 is placed and pressed on the contact face 06 at a constant pre-set force, for example one kilogram force, the passivation layer 87 acts as a dielectric 88 between two conducting surfaces, and each individual plate 82 records a discrete discharge value corresponding to a ridge detail or a valley detail which collectively form the inborn markings within the contact area 80.

In a preferred embodiment, the passivation layer 87 on the integrated circuit 64 extends to the inner sides of the receptacle 65 to provide a touch detector 63 which abuts the edges of the border 07 in the guide recess 04 for capturing a full-size image extending to each edge of the border 07 to define the surface area on the contact face 06. The full-size image therefore consists of a contact area 80 of variable size surrounded by a non-contact area 81 delimited by the border 07 to allow for variation in finger alignment about the imaginary centre-point 11 on the contact face 06 to form any size of contact area 80 at a constant pre-set force without over lapping the border 07 on the lower face 05 of the guide recess 04. Consequently, the surface area on the contact face 06 is larger than the contact area 80 for device operation according to the present invention.

In operation, the pressure sensor 60 communicates with the terminal computer for device operation and a computer program performs a series of sequences in sequential order every time a finger 76 is placed and pressed on the contact face 06, and the surface area within the border 07 is sized for pressing fingers 76 of variable size and forming contact areas 80 of variable size on the contact face 06 located in the guide recess 04 of the moulded fascia 03.

The finger 76 is first placed in the middle of the contact face 06 by aligning the cuticle 78 on the nail 77 between each register 08 and centering the finger 76 in the middle of the guide recess 04 for finger placement. The finger 76 is then pressed on the contact face 06 to cause the finger pad on the underside of the finger 76 to flatten and the inborn markings on the surface of the finger pad form a contact area 80 of resultant size at a constant pre-set force (for example one kilogram force) surrounded by a non-contact area 81 to form a full size image within the border 07 on the contact face 06.

The pressing force is detected by the load sensors 16 which are calibrated to transmit a signal to the computer when the pressing force exceeds the constant pre-set force (one kilogram) and on receiving the signal the computer energises the touch detector 63 which charges each unit of area 82 on the integrated circuit 64 to capture the contact area 80 surrounded by the non-contact area 81 within the border 07 and record the discrete discharge value in each unit of area 82 for data transfer in an addressable order to the terminal computer in a pre-set time, for example 100-milliseconds. The touch detector 63 is energised and de-energised to indicate this time period from when the finger 76 is pressed on the contact face 06 to when the finger 76 is removed from the contact face 06.

The terminal computer converts the discrete discharge values into gray scale values to generate a rastered data structure 90 in the computer memory, wherein a grid-form pattern of area elements 92 and 93 within a perimeter 91 defines a contact area 95 and a non-contact area 94 to represent the contact area 80 surrounded by the non-contact area 81 formed on the contact face 06. Each area element 92 at the extremities 96 of the contact area 95 is a location point with an X and Y position for plotting the grid-form outline of a boundary 97 in the computer memory.

The terminal computer constructs a distinct and separate vectored data structure 130 by referencing the area elements 92 and 93 on the rastered data structure 90 in the computer memory. A computer program performs a series of sequences to represent each stage of constructing the vectored data structure 130 in a terminal 150 to originate a user-identifier, as summarised in the following description with reference to figures 12 to 17.

A free-form outline is formed from the grid-form outline of the boundary 97 by selecting a series of area elements 92 as control points to connect a series of Bezier curves or line segments to describe a closed curve 100 which defines the periphery of a replica area 105 for locating the position of designated feature points 106 therein. Each designated feature point 106 represents the centre of a data-cluster 98 wherein a set of matched objects conform to the intrinsic shape of an inherent identity feature of known type within the boundary 97 of the contact area 95, for example a set of matched objects P2 represents the intrinsic shape of a ridge-whorl P2. This data cluster 98 is formed when the computer is instructed to select a vectored object P2 comprising a free-form pattern of ridge-lines 107 for matching a rastered object P2 comprising a grid-form pattern of ridge-lines 108 by referencing the area elements 92 within the contact area 95 which conform to the same intrinsic shape of a ridge-whorl - an inherent identity feature of known type.

The inborn markings on the finger pad of any finger 76 consists of different inherent identity features of known type and therefore the computer program consists of different inherent identity features of known type for object matching, to form data-clusters 98 within a contact area 95 and locate the position of each designated feature point 106 within the replica area 105. At this stage, the contact area 95 is deleted from the computer memory and the replica area 105 is retained in the computer memory to form an enclosure 110 with feature points 106 within its periphery 103 for dividing into four-parts of equal area to create four sector areas, each bounded by two linear lines of intersection at 90 degrees to define a minor axis 112 and a major axis 113 and at the point of intersection an origin-point 114 is created within the enclosure 110.

The entire construction of the enclosure 110 is then centered and aligned on a coordinate register 120 with two linear lines 121 and 123 intersecting at a centre-point 125 to represent the X and Y axes for measuring the sector areas and feature points within the enclosure 110 in the computer memory. The origin-point 114 is centred on the centre-point 125 and the minor axis 112 and major axis 113 is aligned on each linear line 121 and 123 which incorporate one-micron graduations for measuring the sector position of each designated feature point 106 in every direction from the origin-point 114 in the computer memory. Consequently, the terminal computer generates a set of numeric values for each inherent identity feature of known type within the enclosure 110 of the completed vectored data structure 130 to originate a user-identifier derived from the inborn markings on a finger 76.

The pressure sensor 60 described and illustrated in figures 07 and 08 communicates with the terminal computer every time a finger 76 is placed and pressed on the contact face 06 to form a contact area 80 at a constant pre-set force, and figures 12 to 17 describe and illustrate the computer sequences controlled by a computer program to generate a user-identifier for datafile recording in a national database and to generate a user-identifier for datafile matching in the national database, derived from the inborn markings on the same finger 76 to identify an individual person with constant accuracy at any terminal location.

Figure 09 shows an enlarged plan view of the surface area on the contact face 06 for the pressure sensors 01, 40 and 150 and the surface area on the contact face 06 for the pressure sensor 60. Situated about the imaginary centre-point 11 on the contact face 06 is a finger 76 with the cuticle 78 of the nail 77 in approximate alignment with each spaced-apart register 08 for placing the finger 76 in the middle of the contact face 06. The finger 76 is also shown with the finger pad pressed on the contact face 06 at a constant pre-set force to form a contact area 80 surrounded by a non-contact area 81 within a border 07.

The surface area on the contact face 06 for the pressure sensors 01, 40, 60 and 150 is the same size, for example 30mm width X 36mm length, for placing and pressing fingers 76 of variable size about the imaginary centre- point 11 to form any size of contact area 80 surrounded by a non-contact area 81 on the surface area of the contact face 06. Therefore, the surface area on the contact face 06 is larger than any. contact area 80 for device operation, according to the present invention.

Figure 10 shows in diagrammatic form a light detector 32 or 51 in which the squares represent units of area 82 and the lines represent the spacing 83 between each unit of area 82. Each unit of area 82 is shown arranged in vertical and horizontal formation delimited by a border of known size, for example 10mm width X 12mm length, to describe and illustrate a light detector 32 or 51 fitted in the pressure sensor 01 or 40 for device operation, according to the present invention. The construction of the light detector 32 comprises an integrated circuit 33 with a border 34 on a silicon substrate in which discrete light sensors 85 such as a photodiode of known type occupy each unit of area 82 to provide an array of discrete photodiodes on the integrated circuit 33 for detecting an illuminated image on the contact face 06 which consists of the contact area 80 surrounded by the non-contact area 81 within the border 07 of the guide recess 04.

The illuminated image is captured within the border 34 on the integrated circuit 33 for recording the discrete discharge value in each unit of area 82 which corresponds to either a ridge detail or a valley detail when any finger 76 is pressed on the contact face 06 at a constant pre-set force to form the inborn markings within the contact area 80. The ridges and valleys on the surface of any finger pad are not in uniform contact with the contact face 06 in that the valleys do not touch the contact face 06 and therefore the discrete discharge value in each unit of area 82 corresponds to a ridge detail or a valley detail which collectively form the inborn markings within the contact area 80 surrounded by the non-contact area 81 within the border 34 around the integrated circuit 33. The non-contact area 81 also includes units of area 82 for recording the discrete discharge values therein. Each unit of area 82 on the integrated circuit 33 has an X and Y coordinate to locate the position of each discrete discharge value for data transfer in an addressable order to the terminal computer, to perform the 1 -st computer sequence in the computer memory as described and illustrated in figure 12. A unit of area 82 may measure between one-micron square to ten- micron square or to another geometric shape.

Figure 11 shows in diagrammatic form a touch detector 63 in which the squares represent units of area 82 and the lines represent the spacing 83 between each unit of area 82. Each unit of area 82 is shown arranged in vertical and horizontal formation delimited by a border of known size, for example 30mm width X 36mm length, to describe and illustrate a touch detector 63 fitted in the pressure sensor 60 for device operation, according to the present invention.

The construction of the touch detector 63 comprises an integrated circuit 64 with a border 07 on a silicon substrate in which discrete touch sensors 86 such as a metal electrode of known type occupy each unit of area 82 to provide a conducting surface of discrete metal electrodes on the integrated circuit 64 which act as individual plates 82 of a capacitor, and the conducting surface of the finger 76 acts as the other plate for detecting a generated image on the contact face 06 which consists of the contact area 80 surrounded by the non-contact area 81 within the border 07 of the guide recess 04.

The generated image is captured within the border 07 on the integrated circuit 64 for recording the discrete discharge value in each unit of area 82 which corresponds to either a ridge detail or a valley detail when any finger 76 is pressed on the contact face 06 at a constant pre-set force to form the inborn markings within the contact area 80. The ridges and valleys on the surface of any finger pad are not in uniform contact with the contact face 06 in that the valleys do not touch the contact face 06 and therefore the discrete discharge value in each unit of area 82 corresponds to a ridge detail or a valley detail which collectively form the inborn markings within the contact area 80 surrounded by the non-contact area 81 within the border 06 around the integrated circuit 64. The non-contact area 81 also includes units of area 82 for recording the discrete discharge values therein. Each unit of area 82 on the integrated circuit 64 has an X and Y coordinate to locate the position of each discrete discharge value for data transfer in an addressable order to the terminal computer, to perform the 1 -st computer sequence in the computer memory as described and illustrated in figure 12. A unit of area 82 may measure between one-micron square to ten- micron square or to another geometric shape.

The touch detector 63 includes a passivation layer 87 applied onto the surface of the integrated circuit 64 which acts as a dielectric 88 between the two conducting surfaces for pressing fingers 76 on the contact face 06 of the pressure sensor 60. The passivation layer 87 on the integrated circuit 64 extends to the sides of the receptacle 65 which abut the opening 67 in the guide recess 04 for generating an image extending to each edge of the border 07.

The terminal computer constructs a distinct and separate vectored data structure 130 by referencing the area elements 92 and 93 on a rastered data structure 90 in the computer memory. A computer program performs a series of sequences to represent each stage of constructing the vectored data structure 130 in the prescribed order listed below:

Figure 12 1-st stage of construction Figure 13 2-nd stage of construction

Figure 14/15 3-rd stage of construction Figure 16 4-th stage of construction Figure 17 5-th stage of construction

Figure 12 is a representation of the 1-st stage of construction in the computer memory and shows in diagrammatic form a rastered data structure

90 with a perimeter 91 on known size, and situated therein is a grid-form pattern of area elements 92 depicted in black and white area elements 93 depicted in white to define a contact area 95 surrounded by a non-contact area 94 within the perimeter 91. Each area element 92 and 93 represents the X and Y coordinate of a discrete discharge value recorded in each unit of area

82 on an integrated circuit 33 for a light detector 32 or on an integrated circuit

64 for a touch detector 63 as described and illustrated in figure 10 and figure

11. The terminal computer converts the discrete discharge values recorded on the light detector 32 or touch detector 63 into gray scale values and further converts the gray scale value in each unit of area 82 into a grid-form pattern of area elements with the following two values:

A unit of area 82 with a gray scale value within the gray scale range (0 to 150) is converted to the value (0) to form an area element 92 as depicted in black in figure 12. A unit of area 82 with a gray scale value within the gray scale range

(151 to 255) is converted to the value (1) to form an area element 93 as depicted in white in figure 12.

This conversion is performed by a set of instructions to generate rastered data structures 90 wherein a first data-set of area elements 92, 93 define the contact area 95 in which each area element 92 records the X and Y position of each ridge detail and each area element 93 records the X and Y position of each valley detail, to collectively record the inborn markings on the finger pad of any finger 76, and wherein a second data-set of area elements 93 define the non-contact area 94 delimited by the perimeter 91. During conversion, the grid-form pattern of area elements in each data- set is segregated by locating the X and Y coordinate of each area element 92 and 93 at the extremities 96 of the contact area 95 to construct the grid-form outline of a boundary 97 in the computer memory. For example, each horizontal row of area elements are analysed to locate the X and Y coordinate of the first and last area element 92 from each edge of the perimeter 91 determines the location points with the value (0) for plotting a boundary 97 around the contact area 95.

It is important to emphasise that an area element of the type 92 or 93 is equal in size to a corresponding unit of area 82 which may measure between one-micron square to ten-micron square, and therefore a rastered data structure 90 may consist of millions of area elements with the value (0) and the value (1) to describe the grid-form pattern within the perimeter 91 of any rastered data structure 90. Figure 13 is a representation of the 2-nd stage of construction in the computer memory and shows the rastered data structure 90 in figure 12, and further shows in diagrammatic form a free-form outline of a closed curve 100 superimposed on the grid-form outline of the boundary 97 to define a replica area 105 of equal size and shape to the contact area 95 for constructing the periphery 111 of a distinct and separate enclosure 110.

The terminal computer constructs the free-form outline of the closed curve 100 on the grid-form outline of the boundary 97 by referencing the same area elements 92 which formed the boundary 97 around the contact area 95 described in figure 12. A set of instructions perform an enclosing sequence in which the X and Y coordinates for each area element 92 on the boundary 97 act as the location points for selecting control points to connect a series of Bezier curves or line segments for plotting the closed curve 100 of a replica area 105 equivalent in size and shape to the contact area 95.

It is important to emphasise that the contact area 95 is a grid-form structure and the replica area 105 is a free-from structure and are therefore distinct and separate structures with equal surface area for accurate referencing in the computer memory wherein the replica area 105 is retained and the contact area 95 is deleted at a point in time. Figure 14 is a representation of the 3-rd stage of construction in the computer memory and shows the rastered data structure 90 in figure 13, and further shows in diagrammatic form the location of data-clusters 98 situated within the contact area 95 and the location of designated feature points 106 situated within the replica area 105. Each designated feature point 106 represents the centre of each data-cluster 98, wherein a set of matched objects conform to the intrinsic shape of an inherent identity feature of known type in each data-cluster 98 for locating different feature points 106 within a closed curve 100 which defines the periphery of any replica area 105. Figure 14A is a representation of a rastered object constructed of area elements 92 and 93 in which the grid-form pattern of ridge-lines 108 conform to the intrinsic shape of a ridge-whorl P2, an inherent identity feature formed from the inborn markings within a contact area 95 in the computer memory.

The terminal computer performs a set of instructions for matching vectored objects of known type with rastered objects of known type in which the free-form pattern of ridge-lines 107 in a vectored object conform to the grid-form pattern of ridge-lines 108 in a rastered object for locating data- clusters 98 in a contact area 95 and locating feature points 106 in a replica area 105 which represent the biological characteristics of inherent identity features of known type on the surface of any finger 76, and hereinafter identified by class and type in TABLE-A as set forth by way of example:

Figure imgf000028_0001

Referring to Figures 14, 14A and 15, TABLE-A lists a typical selection of vectored objects in a program library, and each vectored object is a free- form pattern of a well known inherent identity feature on the finger pad of any finger 76 and classified as a primary group P1 to P6 and as a secondary group S1 to S6. Each feature point 106 is therefore referenced to each inherent identity feature by class and type, for example a feature point 106 designated P2 represents the intrinsic shape of a ridge-whorl P2 which is recognised in the program library as the vectored object P2 and shown in diagrammatic form in figure 15. Each vectored object P1 to P6 and S1 to S6 shown in figure 15 is therefore an inherent identity feature with an intrinsic shape wherein a free-form pattern of ridge-lines 107 are constructed in an organised arrangement with valid geometry which defines the intrinsic shape of each inherent identity feature recorded in the program library. Consequently, each vectored object may be selected in a prescribed order for object matching with each rastered object situated within the contact area 95 to locate inherent identity features of known class and type derived from the inborn markings on the surface of any finger 76.

Vectored objects: Each vectored object is constructed of mathematical elements in which the configuration of its constituent parts consist of line segments to describe a free-form pattern of ridge-lines 107 which conform to the intrinsic shape of an inherent identity feature of known class and type, for example a ridge-whorl P2. Each vectored object is therefore a mathematical representation of an inherent identity feature of known class and type in which the free-form pattern of ridge-lines 107 are capable of object movement in any direction and orientation and in which the intrinsic shape of the ridge-lines 107 is maintained within an object area, for the computer program to perform a comparative analysis of the contact area 95 in which the free-form pattern of ridge-lines 107 for the vectored object conforms to the grid-form pattern of ridge-lines 108 for a rastered object for matching two intrinsic shapes within the same object area to define the size of the data-cluster 98, wherein a set of matched objects conform to the intrinsic shape of the inherent identity feature of known class and type within the contact area 95 and wherein, the middle of the data-cluster 98 locates the position of the designated feature point 106 within the replica area 105.

Rastered objects: Each rastered object is constructed of area elements 92 and area elements 93 arranged in a data-cluster 98 wherein the area elements 92 with the value (0) describe a grid-form pattern of ridge-lines 108 which conform to the intrinsic shape of an inherent identity feature of known class and type, for example a ridge-whorl P2 as shown in figure 14A situated within the contact area 95 on the rastered data structure 90 formed from the inborn markings on the surface of any finger 76. Consequently, the inherent identity features of known class and type are typical biological characteristics with individual intrinsic shapes for matching rastered objects and vectored objects in the computer memory. Figure 14 shows in diagrammatic form individual data-clusters 98 with large and small object areas in outline to indicate the position of large data-clusters 98 and small data-clusters 98 situated within the contact area 95.

A large data-cluster 98 may contain 400,000 area elements 92 and 93 to accommodate a grid-form pattern of ridge-lines 108 which conform to the intrinsic shape of an inherent identity feature in the primary group P1 to P6. For example, a data-cluster 98 is shown referenced P2 for a set of matched objects which conform to a ridge-whorl P2 situated within the contact area 95.

A small data-cluster 98 may contain 10,000 area elements 92 and 93 to accommodate a grid-form pattern of ridge-lines 108 which conform to the intrinsic shape of an inherent identity feature in the secondary group S1 to S6. For example, a data-cluster 98 is shown referenced S2 for a set of matched objects which conform to a ridge-yoke S2 situated within the contact area 95.

Object matching: The free-form pattern of ridge-lines 107 within a vectored object are constructed of line segments to describe the intrinsic shape of an inherent identity feature of known class and type in the program library, and the grid-form pattern of ridge-lines 108 within a rastered object are constructed of area elements 92 to describe the intrinsic shape of an inherent identity feature of known class and type in a contact area 95. Consequently, a matching sequence is performed when a free-form pattern of ridge-lines 107 within a vectored object is aligned on a grid-form pattern of ridge-lines 108 within a rastered object.

The X and Y coordinate of each area element 92 and 93 within the boundary 97 of a contact area 95 is recorded in the computer memory for comparative analysis and pattern recognition. Each area element 92 with the value (0) represents a ridge detail and each area element 93 with the value (1) represents a valley detail which collectively represent the ridges and valleys on the surface of any finger 76 and define the inborn markings within a contact area 95. Therefore, the inborn markings which form the intrinsic shapes of inherent identity features exist within the contact area 95 for the object matching of ridge-lines 107 within each vectored object with the ridge- lines 108 within each rastered object. The following definitions for object matching apply:

1. A free form pattern of ridge-lines 107 and a grid-form pattern of ridge-lines 108 which conform to the intrinsic shape of an inherent identity feature is a set of matched objects within a data-cluster 98.

2. A vectored object and a rastered object which conforms to the same intrinsic shape of an inherent identity feature is a set of matched objects derived from the inborn markings within a contact area 95.

The preferred sequence for object matching is to select and match vectored objects P1 to P6 first and then select and match vectored objects S1 to S6 last. The terminal computer performs a comparative analysis of each vectored object for pattern recognition in successive order to either execute a matched sequence with a valid result or execute a matched sequence with an invalid result. A matched sequence with a valid result occurs when a vectored object is selected and a rastered object is located with the same intrinsic shape to form a set of matched objects in a data-cluster 98.

A matched sequence with an invalid result occurs when a vectored object is selected and a rastered object cannot be located with the same intrinsic shape and is therefore aborted.

Typically, any two vectored objects from the primary group P1 to P6 will produce valid results and any six vectored objects from the secondary group S1 to S6 will produce valid results. The inborn markings in each contact area 95 are unique to each individual and the inborn markings which form each inherent identity feature vary in class and type in each contact area 95 to generate a unique combination of large and small data-clusters 98 in a unique arrangement within each contact area 95. For example in figure 14, a contact area 95 contains the following combination of data-clusters 98: one ridge- whorl P2, one ridge-yoke S2 - one ridge-spur S3 - one ridge-delta P6 - one ridge-link S4 and one ridge-scar S6, and each data-cluster 98 is located in a unique position within the contact area 95 and therefore each designated feature point 106 is located in a unique position within the replica area 105 to represent the following six inherent identity features: P2 - S2 - S3 - P6 - S4 - S6 in sector order.

It is important to emphasise that each vectored object in the program library is constructed of mathematical elements in which the configuration of its constituent parts consist of line segments to describe a free-form pattern of ridge-lines 107 which conform to the intrinsic shape of an inherent identity feature of known class and type. During each matching sequence in the computer memory, the free-form pattern of line segments are capable of object movement in any direction and orientation for aligning on a grid-form pattern of area elements 92 within a specified tolerance for adjusting the ridge-lines 107 within a vectored object to the ridge-lines 108 within a rastered object for the object matching of intrinsic shapes where the line-segments are moved and the area elements are fixed.

Figure 16 is a representation of the 4-th stage of construction in the computer memory wherein the rastered data structure 90 has been deleted in the computer memory at this point in time, and shows in diagrammatic form the distinct and separate enclosure 110 with its surface area divided into four- parts of equal area by two linear lines of intersection at 90 degrees, to define within the periphery 111 four sector areas 115, 116, 117 and 118 each bounded by a minor axis 112 and a major axis 113 with an origin-point 114 at the point of intersection. The terminal computer performs a set of instructions for dividing the surface area within the periphery 111 of the enclosure 110 into parts of equal area to partition the designated feature points 106 into sector areas and create an origin-point 114 in the centre of the enclosure 110.

Any method of calculating the surface area within the periphery 111 of an enclosure 110 can be used. The periphery 111 is formed from the closed curve 100 around the replica area 105 of equal surface area and the free-form outline of the closed curve 100 is formed from the grid-form outline of the boundary 97 at the extremities 96 of the contact area 95 in the computer memory. As previously described each contact area 95 is formed on the contact face 06 at a constant pre-set force and in a constant pre-set time and each contact area 95 is surrounded by a non-contact area 94 to define the grid-form outline of the boundary 97 for calculating the quantity of units of area 82 within each contact area 95 to determine its size based on a unit of measurement.

As a consequence, the size of each contact area 95 within the grid- form outline of the boundary 97 can be measured using a unit of area 82, for example 09-micron square, and the size of each replica area 105 within the free-form outline of the closed curve 100 can be measured using a unit of area, for example 01 -micron square in the computer memory for dividing the surface area within each enclosure 110 into four-parts of equal area and each area contains the same quantity of micron units within a plus or minus micron tolerance to form the sector areas 115, 116, 117 and 118, each bounded by a linear line to represent the minor axis 112 and the major axis 113, and at the point of intersection an origin-point 114 is created to represent the centre of each enclosure 110.

Consequently, each enclosure 110 is a free-form structure with linear lines which divide the surface area into parts of equal area within its periphery 111 and incorporates an origin-point 114 with feature points 106 representing the position of distinct and separate inherent identity features situated within each sector area derived from the inborn markings formed within each contact area 95. Each designated feature point 106 is a geometric element having no dimension and its position in space can now be located in each sector area 115, 116, 117 and 118 from the origin point 114 when each enclosure 110 is centred and aligned on a coordinate register 120 described and illustrated in figure 17.

Many arrangements of lines can be used for dividing the surface area within the periphery 111 of an enclosure 110 in the computer memory. For example, an arrangement of intersecting lines can be constructed of line- segments, described herein as mathematical elements capable of movement in every direction and orientation, to form a fixed-line divider for spacial positioning on the enclosure 110 to separate its surface area into many parts of equal area in which the centre of the divider represents the origin-point 114 in the enclosure 110. An arrangement of lines can be used each capable of separate movement to divide an enclosure 110 into parts of equal area and create an origin-point 114 at a point of intersection. Alternatively, an arrangement of separate lines can be used in which one end of each line meets to form the centre of this arrangement without intersection and the other end of each line is equally spaced apart to form divisions set in an angular arrangement which do not intersect and the centre of this angular arrangement represents the origin-point 114 in the enclosure 110.

It is important to emphasise that the different arrangements of dividing an enclosure 110 into parts of equal area can also be performed on the coordinate register 120 in the computer memory. The linear line 121 on the X- X axis and the linear line 123 on the Y-Y axis which intersect at the centre- point 125 act as a fixed-line divider for spacial positioning the periphery 111 of each enclosure 110 thereon. The enclosure 110 is also capable of movement in every direction and orientation as a free-form structure and the designated feature points 106 maintain their relative positions in space during object movement in the computer memory.

Figure 17 is a representation of the 5-th stage of construction in the computer memory and shows the enclosure 110 in figure 16 centered and aligned on a coordinate register 120 with two linear lines 121 and 123 intersecting at the centre-point 125 to represent the X and Y axes for scaling and measuring the sector position of each designated feature point 106 within the enclosure 110 from the centre-point 125 to generate the numeric values for a vectored data structure 130 in the computer memory. The terminal computer performs a set of instructions for centering the origin-point 114 in the enclosure 110 on the centre-point 125 of the coordinate register 120 and rotating the enclosure 110 to align the minor axis 112 on the linear line 121 and align the major axis 113 on the linear line 123 for calculating the sector position of each designated feature point 106 for example a ridge-whorl P2 from the centre-point 125 on the coordinate register 120. This example is used to describe a set of numeric values for one feature point 106 with the designation P2.

The linear line 121 includes graduations 122 at 01 -micron intervals on the X-X axis and the linear line 123 includes graduations 124 at 01 -micron intervals on the Y-Y axis to provide a micron scale for measuring in every direction the sector position of each feature point 106 situated within each sector area from the centre-point 125 in the computer memory. A set of numeric values for the above designated feature point 106 may be expressed as follows, by way of example:

Figure imgf000035_0001

The numeric values produce a twelve-digit number 011231754205 for the feature point 106 designated P2 within the enclosure 110. In this example, a set of instructions are performed in an order of sequence to produce the set of numeric values controlled by a computer program which assigns each sector area 115, 116, 117, 118 in the numeric order 01 - 02 - 03 - 04 to identify the sector value in the twelve-digit example.

The program also assigns each feature point 106 designated P1 - P2 - P3 - P4 - P5 - P6 in the numeric order 11 - 12 - 13 - 14 - 15 - 16 and assigns each feature point 106 designated S1 - S2 - S3 - S4 - S5 - S6 in the numeric order 21 - 22 - 23 - 24 - 25 - 26 to identify the feature value in the twelve-digit example.

A 1-st instruction to identify the quantity of feature points 106 in each sector area is performed in the numeric order. Referring to the twelve-digit example, one feature point 106 designated P2 is identified in sector area 115 by the program to record the sector value '01 ' and the feature value '12' in the twelve-digit example.

A 2-nd instruction to calculate the sector position of the feature point 106 designated P2 is performed on the coordinate register 120 whereon the location of the said feature point 106 is measured along the linear line 121 to determine the X-X coordinate on the micron scale 122 and is measured along the linear line 123 to determine the Y-Y coordinate on the micron scale 124 and record the X-X numeric value '3175' and Y-Y numeric value '4205' in the twelve-digit example. The 2-nd instruction for calculating the sector position of feature points 106 in other sector areas is performed using the same procedure for measuring the X-X numeric value and the Y-Y numeric value of each feature point 106 as depicted in the twelve-digit example for the sector area 115. Each set of numeric values for each feature point 106 is therefore distinct and separate for generating a combination of numeric values to produce a user- identifier at a terminal location for transmittal to a server location.

It is important to emphasise that the sector position of each feature point 106 within any enclosure 110 represents an inherent identity feature of known class and type derived from the inborn markings on the same finger 76 to identify an individual person, every time a contact area 95 is formed on the contact face 06 at a constant pre-set force and in a constant pre-set time. Consequently, the sector position of any feature point 106 designated P1 to P6 and S1 to S6 of known class and type in TABLE-A can be located and identified within any enclosure 110 to originate a combination of numeric values at one terminal location to register a user-identifier in a national database, and duplicate the combination of numeric values at another terminal location to validate the user-identifier in the national database.

The measurement of the X-X numeric value and the Y-Y numeric value may include a plus or minus tolerance at the micron scale for facsimile matching any two sets of numeric values which represent an original and duplicate inherent identity feature of known class and type in any datafile record of a database to accept a user-identifier within the specified tolerance. Typically, the X and Y numeric values measured from the centre-point 125 to each feature point 106 may vary every time the same finger 76 is pressed on a contact face 06, to form a contact area 95 for generating a rastered data structure 90 and to form a replica area 105 for generating a vectored data structure 130 in the same sequenced order in any terminal computer at any terminal location as described and illustrated herein. Many variations are possible for measuring the sector position of each feature point 106 designated P1 to P6 and S1 to S6 within any enclosure 110 on the coordinate register 120. For example, the sector position of each feature point 106 can be determined by measuring its angle and length from the centre-point 125 on the X and Y axes of the coordinate register 120 to produce each set of numeric values with direction and magnitude to originate vectored values for datafile recording and duplicate vectored values for datafile matching in a computerised system.

The coordinate register 120 may be adapted to incorporate geometric shapes, for example a circle 126 is shown on the coordinate register 120 with zones 127 of equal area bounded by the linear lines 121 and 123 wherein feature points 106 may be located in the zone area 127 of a sector area 115, 116, 117, 118. The geometric shape may be concentric or eccentric to the centre-point 125 to provide zones 127 of equal area and zones 127 of unequal area. Furthermore, the quantity of square microns in each sector area and zone area may be determined to produce area numeric values within any enclosure 110 on the coordinate register 120.

Figure 18 is a representation of an adapted enclosure 135 with its surface area divided into four-parts of equal area by two lines of intersection to define within its periphery 136 four sector areas 115, 116, 117 and 118 each bounded by a minor axis 112 and a major axis 113 with an origin-point 114, and the enclosure 135 is adapted to incorporate an inner boundary 137 with inner zones 138 of equal area to form geometric shapes within the periphery 136 of the enclosure 135. The adapted enclosure 135 further shows in diagrammatic form the sector positions of four feature points 106 designated S2 - S4 - S2 - S5 in the sector areas 115, 116, 117, 118 and the sector position of one feature point 106 designated P1 in the zone area 138 of sector area 116, for centering and aligning on the coordinate register 120 in the computer memory to calculate the set of numeric values for each feature point 106 using the same procedure as previously described and exampied in figure 17 for producing a combination of numeric values to generate a user-identifier for datafile recording and datafile matching in the same national database using the same finger 76 of an individual person at different terminal locations. Figure 19 is a representation of another adapted enclosure 140 with its surface area divided into four-parts of equal area by two lines of intersection to define within its periphery 141 four sector areas 115, 116, 117 and 118 each bounded by a minor axis 112 and a major axis 113 with an origin-point 114, and the enclosure 140 is adapted to incorporate an inner boundary 142 with inner zones 143 of unequal area to form irregular shapes by connecting a series of feature points 106 with lines within the periphery 141 of the enclosure 140.

The adapted enclosure 140 further shows in diagrammatic form the sector positions of five feature points 106 designated S4 - P6 - S2 - S6 - P6 in the sector areas 115, 116, 117, 118 and the sector position of one feature point 106 designated P3 in the zone area 143 of sector area 116, for centering and aligning on the coordinate register 120 in the computer memory to calculate the set of numeric values for each feature point 106 using the same procedure as previously described and exampled in figure 17 for producing a combination of numeric values to generate a user-identifier for datafile recording and datafile matching in the same national database using the same finger 76 of an individual person at different terminal locations.

Figure 20 is a representation of another adapted enclosure 145 with its surface area divided into four-parts of equal area by two lines of intersection to define within its periphery 146 four sector areas 115, 116, 117 and 118 each bounded by a minor axis 112 and a major axis 113 with an origin-point 114, and the enclosure 145 is adapted to incorporate an outer boundary 147 with lines parallel to the lines of intersection to form rectangular sectors 148 within the outer boundary 147 of the enclosure 145.

The adapted enclosure 145 further shows in diagrammatic form the sector positions of four feature points 106 designated S5 - P4 - S4 - S4 in the rectangular sectors 148, for centering and aligning on the coordinate register 120 in the computer memory to calculate the set of numeric values for each feature point 106 using the same procedure as previously described and exampled in figure 17 for producing a combination of numeric values to generate a user-identifier for datafile recording and datafile matching in the same national database using the same finger 76 of an individual person at different terminal locations. The four enclosures 110, 135, 140 and 145 are intended to illustrate different configurations in constructing enclosures with sector areas and zone areas inside and outside a periphery and locating the position of feature points 106 within different bounded areas for classifying a set of numeric values in zone areas and sector areas. Many configurations are possible for measuring areas, points and lines on the coordinate register 120 in the computer memory of the terminal 180.

Figures 21 and 21 A show an alternative pressure sensor 150 in plan and side view mounted to a terminal casing 02 of varying size and shape with the same moulded fascia 03 and reference numbers 04 to 19 as described for pressure sensors 01 , 40 and 60.

Referring to figure 21 A, the moulded fascia 03 and the housing 151 are shown in cross section along the reference line 10 on the Y-Y axis to reveal the internal arrangement of the assembled components mounted in the left side of the housing 151. A glass block 152 with bevelled edges 153 is shown mounted in a fixed position on a surround 154 which also defines the size of an opening 155 in the housing 151 to correspond with the surface area of the contact face 06 defined by its border 07 on the glass block 152, for example 30mm width X 36mm length. Situated below the opening 155 is a light detector 156 comprising a rotary support 157 with a set of four laser modules 158 mounted thereon, and this sub-assembly is supported on a vertical shaft (not shown) and rotated by a motor 159 which are rigidly fixed on a carriage 160, and this sub-assembly is supported on two spaced apart slide bars 161 rigidly fixed at both ends in a mounting block 163 and 164 which are spaced apart to provide a 1-st stop position and a 2-nd stop position within the housing 151. The carriage 160 also includes a drive means 162 to move the carriage 160 between the 1-st stop position and the 2-nd stop position. A travel length of 36mm is required to match the 36mm length of the contact face 06 on the glass block 152 as previously exampled.

The rotary support 157 is disc shaped and includes a integral boss 165 with a gear ring 166 which engages with a larger gear wheel 167 fixed to the shaft of the motor 159 to provide a constant geared ratio, for example 3:1. A typical motor 159 spins at 15,000 RPM and therefore the rotary support 157 is spinning at 45,000 RPM during operation.

The rotary support 157 includes four laser modules 158 positioned at 90 degrees to each other as indicated in figure 21 and each laser module 158 incorporates a lens (not shown) to emit a fine beam of focused light through the glass block 152 and each beam of focused light may have a diameter of one micron, by way of example. Furthermore, each laser module 158 also includes an optical sensor (not shown) to detect changes in light during rotation which are converted into electrical signals or optical signals to generate digitised data corresponding to the value (0) or the value (1) controlled by a computer program.

The rotary support 157 further includes a power electrical circuit (not shown) connected to a set of contact rings 168 embedded in the integral boss 165 to receive continuous power to energise each laser module 158 during rotation, and includes a data electrical circuit (not shown) connected to a set of contact rings 169 embedded in the integral boss 165 to transfer electrical signals or optical signals from each laser module 158 during rotation. The set of contact rings 169 consist of four segments and each segment is separately connected to each laser module 158 to transfer the electrical signals or optical signals from each laser module 158 in sequential order (per revolution) to the terminal computer for processing the signals per revolution into data streams and recording each data stream of Os and 1s in the memory of the terminal computer in an addressable order.

A cable connector 170 is shown mounted on the carriage 160 to connect the power and data electrical circuits to the terminal computer. The cable connector 170 contains four yielding contact points (not shown) and each contact point is pressed against each contact ring on the integral boss 165 to maintain power and data transference between the stationary surfaces and the rotatory surfaces. In operation, each laser module 158 is energised and the carriage 160 moves from the 1-st stop 163 to the 2-nd stop 164 in one second to generate a full size binary image consisting of Os and 1s in the memory of the terminal computer.

The carriage 160 is shown in figure 21 A with the slide bar 161 on the right side of the housing 151 removed to reveal in part cross section the drive means 162 positioned between both slide bars 161 as indicated in figure 21. The carriage 160 includes a threaded block 171 mounted on the underside which is in mutual engagement with the drive means 162 which is rotated to move the carriage 160 supported on the slide bars 161 in the forward and reverse direction between the mounting blocks 163 and 164. The drive means 162 is a fine pitched screw supported at each end in the mounting blocks 163 and 164 and includes a set of gear wheels 172 and 173 and a stepper motor 174 which in combination moves the rotary support 157 mounted on the carriage 160 in micron increments between the 1-st stop position and the 2-nd stop position, controlled by the computer program. The assembly of the light detector 156 is shown mounted on a removable base plate 175 which is screwed (not shown) to the housing 151 of the pressure sensor 150.

In operation, the pressure sensor 150 communicates with the terminal computer for device operation and a computer program performs a series of sequences using the light detector 150 to generate a binary image instead of a rastered image every time any finger 76 is placed and pressed on the contact face 06 to form contact areas 80 of variable size at the same pre-set force on the contact face 06 located in the guide recess 04 of the moulded fascia 03 as previously described for the pressure sensors 01 , 40 and 60.

When the finger 76 is pressed on the contact face 06 of the pressure sensor 150 at a pre-set force, the ridges and valleys on the surface of any finger pad are not in uniform contact with the contact face 06 in that the valleys do not touch the contact face 06 and therefore the light detector 156 is only capturing the ridge detail and not the valley detail which collectively form the inborn markings within the contact area 80 surrounded by the non contact area 81 within the border 07 of the contact face 06 as illustrated in figure 09.

Consequently, when the finger 76 is pressed on the contact face 06 of the pressure sensor 150 at the pre-set force, the carriage 160 starts moving from the 1-st stop position and the rotating laser modules 158 capture the ridge detail touching the contact face 06 and the extremities of each ridge detail define the contact area 80 at the pre-set force and the border 07 defines the surface area of the contact face 06. As the carriage 160 moves forward to the 2-nd stop position in a pre-set time for example one second, the laser modules 158 are synchronised to rotate at 750 revs per second to capture the ridge detail at high resolution.

During each revolution, each laser module 158 detects changes in light between a ridge detail and a valley detail on the contact face 06 to generate electrical signals or optical signals for processing into a data stream of Os and 1s per revolution and recording every data stream of Os and 1s in the memory of the terminal computer to produce a full size binary image of the finger 76 for constructing a vectored image as previously described.

The pressure sensor 150 described and illustrated in figures 21 and 21 A communicates with the terminal computer every time a finger 76 is placed and pressed on the contact face 06 to form a contact area 80 at a constant pre-set force, and figures 13 to 17 describe and illustrate the computer sequences controlled by a computer program to generate a user-identifier for datafile recording in a national database and to generate a user-identifier for datafile matching in the national database, derived from the inborn markings on the same finger 76 to identify an individual person with constant accuracy at any terminal location.

It is important to emphasise that the pressure sensors 01 , 40 and 60 generate a rastered image which contains area elements with the values (0) and (1), whereas, the pressure sensor 150 generates a binary image which contains the values (0) and (1). No units of area exist and therefore no area elements exist in a binary image.

Figure 22 shows a plan view of a terminal 180 with a contact face 06 for executing transactions at a terminal location to register any card and user at a server location, and separately, to validate any card and user at a server location. Consequently, the computer terminal 180 has two modes of operation - registration and validation.

The terminal 180 is shown with a moulded fascia 03 rigidly mounted on the top face of a casing 02. A pressure sensor 01, 40, 60, 150 described and illustrated in figures 01 to 08 and figures 21 and 21A is mounted to the underside of the moulded fascia 03 and the contact face 06 is positioned at the same level as the lower face 05 in the guide recess 04 of the moulded fascia 03. A border 07 which may be circular or rectangular in shape defines the size of the contact face 06 in the guide recess 04 for placing and pressing a finger 76 thereon to produce a vectored image for originating the user- identifier of a cardholder in the computer terminal 180.

The terminal 180 is shown with a display 181 to output selective commands from the computer to operate the terminal 180 and a keyboard 182 to input selective commands to the computer. A card-slot 183 is shown for inserting payment cards and identity cards in the unissued state for registration transactions and in the issued state for validation transactions. Hinges 184 are provided for fitting a terminal cover (not shown) or a terminal cover incorporating a display panel (not shown). The terminal 180 incorporates a computer (not shown) with circuit connection to the pressure sensor (01, 40, 60, 150), the display 181, the keyboard 182, the card-slot 183, and includes a modem (not shown) with external connector 185 and cable 186 to transmit and receive numeric data for both modes of operation. Other devices are circuit connected for writing data to unissued cards and reading data from issued cards and includes cables for mains power and battery power.

The terminal 180 further includes computer programs for terminal operation and the compiling and processing of numeric data in random access memory to form sets of identifiers for two-way communication between a terminal location and a server location, to execute transactions for registering each card and user, and separately, to execute transactions for validating each card and user, in a card-type database at the server location.

The present invention can be modified for example any input recording device can be adapted for measuring a pre-set force on the contact face of a terminal to activate the device for capturing a contact area in a pre-set time.

The pressure sensor 150 may use a modified light detector 156 to detect changes in light in which a rotary set of four optical sensors 158 mounted at 90 degrees to each other on the rotary support 157 transfer optical signals to a stationary set of four optical receptors mounted at 90 degrees to each other on the carriage 160 and each optical sensor is assigned to one optical receptor to receive optical signals in sequential order during each revolution. The integral boss 165 incorporates a set of four optical fibres arranged at 90 degrees to each other and each optical fibre terminates at an outlet directly above each receptor to receive the optical signals during rotation. Each optical fibre is inserted in vertical holes within the body of the integral boss 165.

The touch detector 63 may be constructed for different methods of operation including radio frequency and ultra-sonic techniques and the contact face 06 may be constructed of different materials for example glass and plastic and include layers and coatings.

The terminal 180 with the contact face 06 may incorporate a slideable mechanism for horizontal fitting to the vertical fascia of cash-point machines for self-service and on insertion of a card, the terminal 180 projects from the fascia for placing and pressing a finger on the contact face 06 and then retracts into the fascia of the cash-point machine or vending machine.

The terminal 180 with the contact face 06 may be adapted for use in any location with a telephone socket, such as shops, stores, garages, offices, hotels and homes for land-line or mobile telephony operation.

The sequence of steps described with reference to Figures 12 to 17 is summarised in Figure 23. This shows the rastering, outlining and matching steps for the contact area, and the enclosing, featuring, dividing and measuring steps for the replica area. It is possible to provide a simplified sequence which does not involve the matching and featuring steps. This sequence is shown in Figure 24. This sequence is based upon the recognition that when a finger is placed on the contact surface of the sensor (01 , 40 or 60) with a predetermined force, its contact area on that surface will have a unique constant value and is therefore a user identifier for the individual. Thus the sequence of Figure 24 involves capturing the constant contact area and measuring that area on the coordinate register to produce the unique user identifier.

Figures 25 and 26 show sequences similar to those of Figures 23 and

24 but applicable to arrangements which use the sensor of Figures 21 and 21 A

Claims

Claims:
1. Apparatus for producing an identifier indicative of an individual comprising detection means detecting a contact area of a body part of an individual, a surface onto which said body part can be placed, said surface being supported on load sensing means, the arrangement being such that said detection means detects the contact area when the load sensing means detects that the body part is producing a predetermined force on said surface, so that the contact area of the body part on the surface at the time of detection is a constant for an individual, and processing means for processing the detected area to produce a vectored image which can be used to produce said identifier in the form of a numeric value.
2. Apparatus according to claim 1 wherein the contact area is detected in a preset time.
3. Apparatus according to any preceding claim, wherein the scanning means includes an array of photodetectors.
4. Apparatus according to claim 3, including a light source for illuminating the body part.
5. Apparatus according to claim 4, wherein a diffuser is associated with the light source.
6. Apparatus according to claim 4 or claim 5 including a prism mounted below said surface and a lens system for directing light from the body part to the photodetectors.
7. Apparatus according to claim 4 including a block of material mounted below said surface and a lens system for directing light from the body part to the photodetectors.
8. Apparatus according to any one of claim 1 or claim 2, wherein the detection means includes a touch sensitive detector for producing electrical signals representative of the inborn markings of the body part placed on said surface.
9. Apparatus according to claim 8, wherein the touch sensitive detector is of the capacitive type.
10. Apparatus according to claim 8 or claim 9, which is arranged to produce said signals when the body part is pressed onto the surface with a predetermined force.
11. Apparatus according to any preceding claim, wherein detection means is arranged to produce a scanned image of the inborn markings of the body part, and the processing means is arranged to convert the scanned image of constant area into a rastered data structure of corresponding area.
12. Apparatus according to claim 11 , said processing means is arranged to form a free-form enclosure around said area, to align the free-form enclosure with a coordinate register and to measure the area of the enclosure.
13. Apparatus according to claim 12, wherein the processing means is arranged to generate from said measured area a numeric value which is a unique identifier for said individual.
14. Apparatus according claim 13, wherein the processing means is arranged to divide the free-form enclosure into a sectored area prior to alignment with the coordinate set.
15. Apparatus according to claim 11, wherein said processing means is arranged form an enclosure around that area.
16. Apparatus according to claim 15, wherein the processing means has stored therein data representative of characteristic features of said inborn markings and said processing means is arranged to identify in said scanned image a feature or features corresponding to one or more of the stored features.
17. Apparatus according to claim 16, wherein said stored data comprises mathematical elements such as line segments.
18. Apparatus according to claim 17, wherein the processing means is arranged to convert the enclosure to a free-form enclosure containing said feature or features.
19. Apparatus according to claim 18, wherein the processing means is arranged to align the enclosure with a coordinate register.
20. Apparatus according to claim 19, wherein the processing means is arranged to divide the enclosure into sectored areas prior to alignment with the coordinate set.
21. Apparatus according to claim 19 or claim 20, wherein the processing means is arranged to identify the position of the or each feature in a coordinate register and to generate a numeric value based upon the position and type of feature, said numeric value being a unique identifier for the individual.
22. Apparatus according to any preceding claim, wherein the body part is a finger and the inborn markings of the ridge lines of a fingerprint.
23. Apparatus according to claim 22, wherein the characteristic features include shapes such as a ridge arch, a ridge whorl, a ridge loop, a ridge delta, a ridge end, a ridge yoke, a ridge spur, a ridge link, a ridge isle, and a ridge scar.
24. A method for producing an identifier indicative of an individual comprising detecting a contact area of a body part of the individual, the body part being placed on a surface and the contact area being detected when it is sensed that the body part is pressing on the surface with a predetermined force, so that the contact area of the body part of the surface at the time of detection is a constant for an individual, and processing the detected area to produce a vectored image which can be used to produce said identifier in the form of a numeric value.
25. A method according to claim 24, wherein the contact area is detected using an array of photodiodes.
26. A method according to claim 24, wherein the contact area is detected using a touch-sensitive detector.
27. A method according to claim 24, wherein the contact area is detected using a scanned laser beam.
28. A method according to any one of claims 24 to 27, wherein the processing step includes converting the detected contact area into a rastered data structure of corresponding area.
29. A method according claim 28, wherein the processing step includes forming a free-form enclosure around said area, aligning the free-form enclosure with a coordinate register and measuring the area of the enclosure.
30. A method according to claim 29, including generating from said measured area a numeric value which is a unique identifier for said individual.
31. A method according to claim 30, including dividing the free-form enclosure into sectored areas prior to said alignment.
32. A method according to claim 28, wherein the detecting step includes detecting a scanned image of inborn markings of the body part, and the method includes providing stored data representative of the characteristic features of said inborn markings and wherein said processing step includes identifying in said scanned image a feature or features corresponding to one or more of the stored features.
33. A method according to claim 32, wherein the stored data comprises mathematical elements such as line segments.
34. A method according to claim 33, including forming an enclosure around the scanned area.
35. A method according to claim 34, including converting the enclosure to a free-form enclosure.
36. A method according to claim 35, including aligning the free-form enclosure with a coordinate register.
37. A method according to claim 36, including prior to said alignment step dividing the enclosure into sectored areas.
38. A method according to claim 36 or claim 37 including identifying the position of the or each identified feature in the coordinate register and generating a numeric value based upon the position and type of feature, said numeric value being a unique identifier for the individual.
39. A method according to any one of claims 24 to 38, wherein the body part is a finger and the inborn markings are the ridge lines of a finger print.
40. A card-based transaction system including apparatus according to any one of claims 1 to 23.
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