WO2007006310A2 - Method of making data available to a pilot - Google Patents

Method of making data available to a pilot Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2007006310A2
WO2007006310A2 PCT/DK2006/000405 DK2006000405W WO2007006310A2 WO 2007006310 A2 WO2007006310 A2 WO 2007006310A2 DK 2006000405 W DK2006000405 W DK 2006000405W WO 2007006310 A2 WO2007006310 A2 WO 2007006310A2
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WO
WIPO (PCT)
Prior art keywords
runway
method according
weight
airplane
actual
Prior art date
Application number
PCT/DK2006/000405
Other languages
French (fr)
Other versions
WO2007006310A3 (en
Inventor
Steen Bach Sandal
Original Assignee
Sandal Consulting
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to DKPA200501021 priority Critical
Priority to DKPA200501021 priority
Priority to US70103305P priority
Priority to USPA60/701,033 priority
Application filed by Sandal Consulting filed Critical Sandal Consulting
Publication of WO2007006310A2 publication Critical patent/WO2007006310A2/en
Publication of WO2007006310A3 publication Critical patent/WO2007006310A3/en

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Classifications

    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01DMEASURING NOT SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR A SPECIFIC VARIABLE; ARRANGEMENTS FOR MEASURING TWO OR MORE VARIABLES NOT COVERED IN A SINGLE OTHER SUBCLASS; TARIFF METERING APPARATUS; MEASURING OR TESTING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • G01D7/00Indicating measured values
    • G01D7/02Indicating value of two or more variables simultaneously
    • G01D7/08Indicating value of two or more variables simultaneously using a common indicating element for two or more variables
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60KARRANGEMENT OR MOUNTING OF PROPULSION UNITS OR OF TRANSMISSIONS IN VEHICLES; ARRANGEMENT OR MOUNTING OF PLURAL DIVERSE PRIME-MOVERS IN VEHICLES; AUXILIARY DRIVES FOR VEHICLES; INSTRUMENTATION OR DASHBOARDS FOR VEHICLES; ARRANGEMENTS IN CONNECTION WITH COOLING, AIR INTAKE, GAS EXHAUST OR FUEL SUPPLY OF PROPULSION UNITS IN VEHICLES
    • B60K37/00Dashboards
    • B60K37/02Arrangement of instruments
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01CMEASURING DISTANCES, LEVELS OR BEARINGS; SURVEYING; NAVIGATION; GYROSCOPIC INSTRUMENTS; PHOTOGRAMMETRY OR VIDEOGRAMMETRY
    • G01C23/00Combined instruments indicating more than one navigational value, e.g. for aircraft; Combined measuring devices for measuring two or more variables of movement, e.g. distance, speed, acceleration
    • GPHYSICS
    • G05CONTROLLING; REGULATING
    • G05DSYSTEMS FOR CONTROLLING OR REGULATING NON-ELECTRIC VARIABLES
    • G05D1/00Control of position, course or altitude of land, water, air, or space vehicles, e.g. automatic pilot
    • G05D1/0083Control of position, course or altitude of land, water, air, or space vehicles, e.g. automatic pilot to help an aircraft pilot in the rolling phase
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60KARRANGEMENT OR MOUNTING OF PROPULSION UNITS OR OF TRANSMISSIONS IN VEHICLES; ARRANGEMENT OR MOUNTING OF PLURAL DIVERSE PRIME-MOVERS IN VEHICLES; AUXILIARY DRIVES FOR VEHICLES; INSTRUMENTATION OR DASHBOARDS FOR VEHICLES; ARRANGEMENTS IN CONNECTION WITH COOLING, AIR INTAKE, GAS EXHAUST OR FUEL SUPPLY OF PROPULSION UNITS IN VEHICLES
    • B60K2370/00Details of arrangements or adaptations of instruments specially adapted for vehicles, not covered by groups B60K35/00, B60K37/00
    • B60K2370/15Output devices or features thereof
    • B60K2370/155Virtual instruments

Abstract

Information allowing a pilot to safer and faster determine the status of an airplane, especially at take-off and landing. The information graphically illustrates to the pilot a relation between the length of a runway and a distance required for the airplane to accelerate to a predetermined velocity and decelerate to zero velocity. The information also comprises a graphical relation between a lowest, a highest weight of the airplane and the actual weight of the airplane and an illustration of the surroundings of the runway with an indication of the most relevant obstacle. During landing the display will show the highest weight for landing using wheel brake only. Different autobrake settings will also be depicted on the runway selected for landing. If values for idle and maximum reverse thurst exist these values will also be show adjacent to the non reverser value. Calculated values will depict the actual conditions loaded into the computer by the operator/pilot. As well as approach speeds and missed approach climb restrictions will apply.

Description

Method of making data available to a pilot

Background of the invention

In a continued work to optimize operation, operators and manufacturers have increased the use of computers in the cockpit. With the introduction of ACARS (Aircraft Communication And Report System) another source of computer power is available to the flight crew; the airline mainframe computer located at a remote position on the ground. This has led to tasks previously performed by the pilots in the cockpit that are now being performed somewhere else by some one else (in this case a computer).

ACARS is used for communication with outside sources (company, other aircraft and Air Traffic Control) and to calculate Take off performance. This change in communication media and pattern to the joint cockpit system has not yet been fully explored.

The computerized TODC (Take off Data Calculation) and LDC (Landing Data Calculation) was seen as a quick, precise and efficient way of calculating aircraft performance before every departure and landing, relieving the pilots of the time consumingjand ajjime^ com^ new tool allowed engines to be operated at a lower temperature (reducing maintenance cost and increased engine reliability) and provided the means to accommodate more payloads during departure.

The introduction of the EFB (Electronic Flight Bag) a on board computer tool, that in its present state can contain Aircraft Documentation, Airline manuals, charts and other operational information the operator (airline in this case) finds desirable. Take off and landing calculation is already being performed using the on board EFB on some aircraft types, presenting the results of the often complicated calculations on electronic displays as a number chart.

Side effects

Incidents indicate that the TODC/LDC system or process, starting when obtaining the weather and aircraft input values, analyzing, cross-checking and finally using the

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C l I QCTlTl ITC C U C CT /Dl I l C Oβ\ results during the take off poses latent conditions. These latent conditions have catastrophic consequences, and as history shows, lead to incidents and accidents. What was at first believed to be a smart way of bridging the gap between calculating the complex take off performance with high precision using the huge database of performance figures and doing it "real time" in the cockpit just minutes before departure using the actual weather, aircraft and runway values has proved to possess significant pitfalls when used during daily operation. The present way provides no meaning to numbers and the envelope of normal operation has blurred in the complexity and opaque automation, as well as the long stream of numbers. These numbers all carry significant information that on a critical day could result in an incident or even accident. As such the operator (pilots in this case) is not provided with the best tool to analyze and judge the results of the calculation and the application of these results in the real world. Providing numbers without any meaning creates a gab that the operator in some way needs to bridge.

It is essential to understand that the cockpit with its instrumentation (tools), pilots (bringing knowledge, skills and experience to the system) and now also the resource of the ACARS and EFB together form a joint cognitive system that pursue goals in the world surrounding it. The overall outcome is influenced by all these three resources.

Description of the different concepts and abbreviations.

APD Airplane Performance Data, such as but not limited to

• Aircraft take off distance, accelerate stop distance, accelerate go distance, take off roll.

• Engine thrust output, variation with air density, airspeed, derated thrust settings, engine acceleration, • Reverse thrust, variation with air density, air speed, bank angle, un coordinated flight, spoiler deflection, anti ice systems selection, unserviceable systems, engine turbine inlet temperature, exhaust gas temperature, engine compressor and fan speed, water injection (if installed and certified on applicable airplane), bleed air and accessories, humidity, precipitation, wind shear and temperature inversions • Aircraft center of gravity

• Alignment data, i.e. distance used for line up on the runway

• Runway slope

• Aircraft acceleration in relation to said airplane performance data and aircraft weight, contamination on runway, fuselage, wings and engines.

• Acceleration as a function of actual weather conditions, wind direction and velocity, temperature, air pressure, wind shear and temperature inversions

• Aircraft braking capabilities, using manual and automatic wheel braking systems. Automatic brake settings and deceleration, reduced braking action and contamination

• Aircraft landing distance, variation with manual and automatic brake setting, reverse thrust and variation of reverse thrust as mentioned before, aircraft spoiler deflection, flap setting used during landing, contamination and braking action on the runway. Actual weather conditions, wind direction and velocity, temperature and air pressure.

ED

Environmental Data such as but not limited to

• Data of runway length, clear and stop way, width, slope, and friction coefficient of runway pavement

• Density of air, temperature and air pressure

• Obstacles man made or natural, terrain

• Effect of precipitation, contamination and reduced braking action

• Wind direction and velocity

CID

Cockpit Interface Data such as but not limited to

• Models and symbols of cockpit instruments.

• Airspeed indicators, altimeters, vertical speed indicators, engine controls and displays, acceleration and deceleration indication (speed trend indication), terrain presentation as part of EGPWS(Enhanced Ground Proximity Warning System) systems controls and switches, angle of attack indicator, aircraft annuciator system, thrust levers, flight control levers and surfaces including flaps and slats, spoilers and thrust reversers. Attitude indicator and Primary Flight Display (PFD), altimeter, radio altimeter, compass or direction system such as Navigational Display (ND)

EL Environmental Layout such as but not limited to

• Symbols, icons or displays that displays to the operator a model of the

Environmental Data ED. Terrain, obstacles, runways, taxiways, clear and stop way, airports, wind indications, ND (navigation display), aircraft model,

State of the art

In the state of the art the present presentation of APD consists of numbers, numbers that the operator (pilot) must couple with the ED. This translation or coupling of data from one presentation onto another is critical for the operator to understand the limits, margins and threats involved. The operators cognitive and memory burden is significant, as take off and landing phase of flight pose some of the highest risks in modern aviation, the presentation in the state of the art does not allow the operator to form an understanding of the limiting factors and margins. It is difficult to use numbers presented in relation to the "real world" where the aircraft is operated.

Operators knowledge of the system that provides existing numbers lacks -- - comprehensiveness, as results are provided with no relation to the surroundings of the operator or the consequences of the aircraft that is operated. Theses numbers are in the state of the art shown as one number, the limiting one, however the operator needs to know margins and envelopes in order to effectively analyze, evaluate and cross check the results provided by the computer or automation.

The Lido system as made by Lufthansa AG determines the remaining runway length after the airplane has accelerated to a predetermined velocity and decelerated to zero velocity, but this length is merely provided as one number between a large number of numbers relating to the airplane. Not displaying context and not enabeling the pilots to observe the results mapped onto a runway system.

Description of the invention In a first aspect, the present invention relates to a method of providing information relating to an airport runway and an airplane to be taking of from said runway, the method comprising:

providing information relating to a length of the runway, providing information relating to weight of the airplane, providing information relating to a force or a thrust with which the engine(s) of the airplane are operatable, - determining, on the basis of the length information, the weight information, and the force/thrust information, a stop distance required to accelerate the airplane to a predetermined velocity and decelerate to zero velocity, providing the information as a relation between the determined distance and the runway length.

The method is taking runway length, weight of the airplane and the thrust of the engines and on that basis determines a stop and go decision as a length or part of the runway. The information about the predetermined stop and go decision speed, normally called Vi, and the distance used to obtain it is hereby related to the actual runway.

In a preferred embodiment of the invention, the relation is illustrated as schematic runway with said accelerate-stop distance indicated as a part of the length of the runway. In this manner, the pilot readily is able to evaluate whether the remaining length of runway is a suitable margin for the take-off.

In a further embodiment of the invention, the schematic runway is shown on a graphical illustration that shows a runway layout of the actual airport, including illustration of lengths of at least the actual runway. Preferably, the direction of runways and the indication of the chosen runway is in scale to the runways.

In a further embodiment of the aspect, at least two stop distances are indicated showing the stop distance for at least two different force/thrust configurations. As it is possible to reduce the thrust by using a general configuration of the engines, it is important to be able to indicate the consequences of this. At times only two configurations are relevant, but in other cases more configurations, or even a complete range of configurations, are desired.

In a further embodiment of the aspect, the method further comprises providing information relating to a condition (such as a surface, temperature, contamination, or the like) of the runway, where the step of determining the stop distance then comprises determining the stop distance also on the basis also of the runway condition. To be able to determine the correct accelerate-stop distance, it is beneficial to include data related to the condition of the runway. Different stop speeds are normally seen on runways made of concrete than those made of asphalt, and also the presence of drain grooves, etc. is relevant.

Temperature is normally important for multiple factors, such as the performance of the engines, the friction between the surface and the tires, brake temperature, and cooling.

In a further embodiment of the aspect, the force/thrust information is determined from information relating to the engine, such as a type and mechanical status thereof, as well as information relating to the surroundings of the engine, such as the weather (temperature, dew point, air pressure, wind speed/ direction and/or precipitation)?

To determine the thrust of the engine(s), both external and internal factors may be considered. Especially when dealing with Jet engines, external factors such as wind speed/direction, temperature, and other factors have an impact on performance. Internal factors, such as mechanical status, age and service status also have an impact.

Another aspect of the invention relates to a method of providing information relating to operating an airplane, such as ensuring that said airplane is operated according to the actual weight of the airplane and that the airplane weight is within the limitations that are present for the airplane in the actual situation, the method comprising: providing information relating to a lowest (such as the so-called dry operating weight) weight of the airplane, providing information relating to a highest weight (such as the so-called max structural) weight of the airplane, and providing information relating to an actual or expected weight of the airplane, - displaying the information as information relating to a position of the actual weight on a scale bounded by the lowest and highest weights for the aircraft.

The weight of an airplane is one of the key factors when operating the airplane. An important task is to illustrate the different weights in relation to each other and especially if any critical weight, such as the max structural weight, of the airplane is exceeded.

Another aspect of the invention relates to a method of providing information relating to operating an airplane, such as ensuring that said airplane is operated according to the actual weight of the airplane and that the airplane weight is within the limitations that are present for the airplane in the actual situation, the method comprising: providing information relating to a lowest (such as the so-called dry operating weight) weight of the airplane, providing information relating to a maximum performance limiting weight of the airplane.

- providing information relating to an actual or expected weight of the airplane, and displaying the information as information relating to a position of the actual weight on a scale bounded by the lowest and highest weights.

The maximum performance weight is the maximum weight whereby the airplane, in the present conditions, is able to perform a safe take of and flight. Limitations to this weight are affected by the APD the ED and the EL.

In a further embodiment of the invention, the max weight is based on the engine performance, runway length, and other factors that limit the weight for which it is possible to make a safe take off with said airplane. Here, the maximum take off weight may be a max performance take off weight, and this will be the weight that determines the max take off weight, if the max structural weight exceeds this weight. If not the limiting weight, the max take off weight will equal the max structural weight. In an embodiment of the invention, the scale is a linear scale. Such a scale could be limited by the minimum weight and the max structural weight and then with a bar running up the scale to the max maximum takeoff weight along with the actual weight. This gives the pilot a clear indication of how close the weight is to the critical or limiting weight.

A scale could also be made with the lower of the max structural weight and the max takeoff weight and the minimum weight giving the benefit that only one weight should be set on the scale, namely the actual weight.

In a further embodiment of the invention, the scale is a circular or semi-circular scale. On a circular/semicircular scale, the same principle as described on the linear scale applies. The minimum weight is positioned in a predetermined position, such as a vertically upright position, of the scale, the maximum weight is at another predetermined direction of the scale, and the actual weight is illustrated as a direction or a pie-shape from the minimum weight and toward the maximum weight (preferably in the direction of the watch). This type of scale could be made as a circle/pie like structure as shown in figures 8 and 9.

In a further embodiment σf rthe T invention^ the scale Further indicates a max landing weight. The maximum landing weight is the lowest of the maximum structural landing weight of the aircraft and the maximum performance limiting landing weight according to aviation legislation.

In case of e.g. an engine(s) failure(s) resulting in degraded aircraft performance, a SID (Standard Instrument Departure) limiting weight may be calculated and displayed enabling the operator to "at-a-glance" assess if the actual take off weight is below this SID limiting weight, in which case the aircraft has sufficient performance to follow the SID track and clear all constraints. The actual weight of the aircraft may be illustrated in relation to this SID performance limiting weight, in the circular/semicircular scale embodiment, as an outer circle or semi-circle starting from the direction of the minimum weight and toward a predetermined position of the SID performance limiting weight. It could be beneficial also to have the max landing weight on the same scale, as this could differ from the max takeoff weight and make pilots able to quickly determine whether a landing can be performed immediately in case of an emergency.

A further aspect of the invention relates to a method of providing information relating to a critical obstruction (such as terrain, mountains, hills, trees, or man-made obstacles, such as buildings, masts, power lines, bridges, or the like) in an expected flight sector after take off, the method comprising:

- providing information relating to obstructions in an area comprising the flight path of the airplane, and

identifying that of the obstructions having the largest angle from horizontal of a straight line between the runway and a top of the obstruction

Illustrating the flight sector as a schematic map of the sector, indicating said identified obstruction.

Preferably, the step of indicating the obstructions comprises indicating the obstructions' distance, height, and direction from a general direction of the runway, and direction from the end of the runway, although a poinrof take off could be used as well.

In a further embodiment of the invention, the illustration further illustrates a suggested flight path during normal conditions.

In a further embodiment of the invention, the illustration further illustrates an emergency flight path.

In a further embodiment of the invention the illustration further illustrate an emergency flight path back to the same airport.

In a further embodiment of the invention the largest angle is determined by comparing all such angles and determining the largest of these. This angle may be displayed in relation to expected/actual climb angles/gradients of the airplane in case of engine(s) failure(s) during actual conditions.

In one preferred embodiment of the invention, the result is presented on paper for the operator to use in the cockpit. Combination of APD, ED, EL and CID, that will enable the operator to bridge the results of APD and ED presented on paper into the real world setting. Runway symbols will provide the operator with a direct relationship of remaining runway when depicted on a runway model.

In one preferred embodiment of the invention, the method is to electonically present the information using a computer that will enable the operator to see graphics or pictures, either computer generated or real life of APD in relation to the ED. The operator will be able to "fast forward" and reverse pictures. Video features will enable the operator to simulate the APD before taking off or landing. Still pictures and video will show limits and margins, using EL and CID, now presented in an electronic medium.

In one preferred embodiment of the invention, the method uses a virtual or Head Up Display system/media that will allow operator to assert the APD directly presented in the ED, without presentation using EL It will be possible to simulate the performance before the actual execution^ It may also function as the active system during the execution.

The invention also relates to a method for making data available to a pilot, the method comprising the steps of evaluating:

• airplane performance data APD,

• environmental layout EL and

• environment data ED. providing instrument data for said pilot so as to give basis for adjustment of instruments in a cockpit interface and providing performance data for detecting margins during critical flight phases such as take off or landing,

c h a r a c t e r i z e d i n: that the step of giving instruments data to give basis for adjustment of said instruments in said cockpit includes the steps of: evaluating said instrument data according to the cockpit interface data CID such as placement and art of the instruments, - giving a direct relation between said instruments data and said cockpit interface

Further that the step of providing performance data includes the steps of

Evaluating the APD, EL and ED Giving a direct relation between said performance data and said margins

The airplane performance data or APD is variables in the airplane data that will affect the performance of the airplane, some are directly obvious such as airplane weight, but also factors such as Automatic restoration of thrust systems are important, the APD hereby includes but is not limited to:

• Aircraft weight

• Engine performance (incl. variation in with engine wear and meteorological conditions)

• Flight balance (center of gravity) • Aircraft brake systems

• wheel brakes

• thrust reversers

• brake parachute

• Aircraft thrust including additional thrust in case of engine failure • Aircraft system for reducing asymmetrical thrust in case of engine failure

• Aircraft control systems

• Automatic restoration of thrust

• Any kind of emergency thrust reserve.

The environmental layout, or EL, is the geography, topography as well as other factors, man made or natural. Obvious factors are runway placement but factors such as runway markings and aerodrome elevation (height above mean sea level) are here also significant factors. EL hereby includes but is not limited to

• Runway placement and direction, • Surface conditions such as material, grooving of the surface or other drainage method

• Aerodrome elevation

• Geographical location • Runway surface texture

• Runway surface texture combined with contamination and low/high temperature

• Runway width

• Runway length • Runway markings

• Runway lights

• Obstacles affecting wind, precipitation, temperature and contamination

The environment data ED is variables of the surroundings due to meteorological conditions and the consequences of this is, is considered to belong under the ED heading. The ED includes but is not limited to

• Precipitation: Rain, snow, hail, grains, slush, ice pellets, drizzle and any combination of the above, including sub zero temperature.

• type and depth of contamination on runway and aircraft • density

• temperature

• air pressure

• wind direction and velocity

• turbulence • windshear

The Cockpit Interface Data is the data that explains the layout of the cockpit; it is the placement and art of the instruments as well as the placement and art of the different adjustment switches dials or other. In general it is all data relating to the pilots workspace from seat adjustment over pedals to automatic pilot display, flight computers and keyboard.

Margins, or margins during critical flight phases, are values critical for decisions during the flight, the decision speed or the point on the runway where the stop/go decision is to be made are typical critical margins, settings related to obstacle clearance, settings related to climb performance also in case of engine(s) failure(s), actual Take off weight of the aircraft in relation to the limits, either structural or performance. Landing weight in relation to the structural and performance limits are critical margins along with several others. Besides supporting decision making, the display of margins allows the operator to perform threat assessment and management of these threats.

In one embodiment of the invention, the direct relation between the instruments and the cockpit interface is established as a direct graphical display of the actual instrument even displayed in relation to the rest of the instruments. This could be done by one of several methods, such as on printed paper, electronical displays, such as LCD displays, head up displays, or any other type of display suitable for making graphical illustration, virtual simulations or the like. Existing cockpit instrument display screens like EFIS (Electronic Flight Instrument System) could be used, results from the calculation could be set manually by the pilot or automatically.

Instruments data is the data that are given in various situations, for the pilots to make it possible to adjust the instruments accordingly. An example could be the code for the departure and arrival airport, but could also be a radio frequency or Take off -reference speeds (Vr and VR).

An quick and error resistant establishment of this relation relives the pilot of making this relation mentally. This has been proven to be of great significance in both critical and pre-flight duties.

In this invention, all the APD's, the EL's, the CID and the actual ED's are used to give the pilot the margins and instrument data that are needed, but as this is a overwhelming amount of data to relate to the actual cockpit interface and the EL, these are related to the cockpit interface to make the margins and the instrument data understandable and adaptable "at-a-glance".

In a further embodiment of the invention, the given relation between said instrument data and said cockpit interface is a graphical illustration of at least a part of the cockpit interface. This could be done as a recognizable figure that will relate and guide the pilot to the actual instruments and the pilot hereby will have an indication of how the instruments should look like when it is adjusted correctly and hereby ensure a very high security of the adjustment (prevent errors being made and make it more apparent if errors are made). It will enable pilots to "at-a-glance" check the instrument(s), and detect wrong adjustment(s) and setting(s) when compared to the related instrument data.

In a further embodiment of the invention, the graphical illustration is a computer print on paper.

A known and in many cases thereby very reliable way of making the graphical relation is simply to print pictures, symbols or figures on paper, hereby the related figure could be held against the real instruments and the relation will be significant and easy to detect and evaluate. This could be in colour or simple black/white print. As the computation is so complex and comprises so many steps and factors to consider that it in most cases this is only possible to do by computing means, the print would be done by the computer means as well.

The graphical illustration could be a computer graphical display of a type, such as LCD display, CRT, plasma screen, excisting cockpit screens or any form of on screen display, such as head up displays.

To ensure a better flexibility, one way of producing the graphical relation could be on a computer monitor of any kind; this would ensure that last minute changes in any of the input data especially in APD or ED, could be taken into consideration.

A known example of a last minute change that needs to be considered is in temperature. In a departure situation, the temperature could rise significantly from the time where the ED is given to the point of departure, because of the sunrise. In the state of the art, in these cases an estimate is made on how much the temperature will actually rise and hereby change the APD. In the present invention, such a recalculation could be done precisely and the changes that have to be made could be done with minimal risk of errors as the "at-a-glance" relation is very fast to establish and also specific as it relates to a model of the actual instrument. In certain situations, the changes might even be ignored as it can be established "at-a-glance" that none of the readjustments cause changes to performance. Another example could be a change in weight shortly before departure.

In a further embodiment of the invention, the instrument data relates to adjustment of the Air Speed Indicator (ASI) (this may be depicted as conventional dial instrument layour, speed tape or any other speed indication system installed) and that the relation is established by graphically model of the actual ASI in the cockpit by printing such on a computer printout.

This is a typical example of where the relations between the data and the adjustment of the Instruments are critical and the graphical relation will "at-a-glance" give an indication of how the instrument should be adjusted. After this, it is checked that the instruments are correctly adjusted. The relation could be done by means of any computer display.

In a further embodiment of the invention, the instrument data relates to an adjustment of the Air Speed Indicator (ASI) for landing at the take off airport and that the relation is established by a graphical model of the actual ASI in the cockpit by printing such on a computer printout.

This is valuable when the pilot for some reason is forced to abort the departure procedure after the airplane has taken off, and return for landing immediately at the Take off aerodrome, the time during such procedure are limited and a in a glance reading of important ASI data are crucial for safe operation.

This is not iimited to be done on paper; it can be shown on any display means. Using such means it will even be possible for the display to switch from the "Take off ASI" presentation to a "Landing ASI". This is useful when the time is limited, even if the display is of a head up guidance type.

In a further embodiment of the invention, the instrument data relates to an adjustment of the Air Speed Indicator (ASI) for landing in the landing airport and that the relation is established by a graphical model of the actual ASI in the cockpit by

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SUBSTITUTE SHEET (RULE 26) s«*wt_Jv-» I π u *~*ι tt- printing such on a computer printout. A computer display of any known art could be used.

In a further embodiment of the invention, the instrument data relates to the VSI (Vertical Speed Indicator) and an indication of the ROC (rate of climb) to clear the most critical obstacle as well as the ROC to comply with SID restrictions (noise, airspace or any other).

These indications are further related to the speed of the airplane. In one embodiment, the relation is made to fixed speeds such as the V2 (takeoff safety speed) or the VC|ean (the minimum speed without flaps and slats or clean configuration) or even a typical speed (V2+10).

In another embodiment of the invention, the relation is dynamic, such as when using a computer display and hereby being able to update the relation continually, the two critical ROCs (clear obstacles and SID) are related to the actual airspeed of the aircraft.

In a situation where the airplane for any reason during take off is limited in performance in such a way that the normal take off ROC is not possible, it is important for the pilot to be able to establish whether the possible ROC is higher than the ROC restriction for the specific aerodrome or obstacle. By relating the critical ROC to the actual VSI, the pilot is able to "at-a-glance! see if the ROC is sufficient to clear the most critical obstacle.

In one embodiment of the invention, the given relation between said performance data and said margins is a graphical illustration. In this embodiment of the invention, the margins are graphically illustrated to make the pilot able to comprehend and evaluate the margins "at-a-glance".

In one embodiment, the evaluation comprises: calculating the weight, thrust and other APD's together with length of runway and direction and other EL's and ED's as wind direction and force to calculate the point of decision (also know as the V1, even though this actually is a velocity) and providing these data in a direct relation to the runway point and length by showing a schematic picture of the runway indicating the decision point.

This gives the pilot a clear indication of where this critical point is located on this specific runway under these specific conditions when taking off in this specific plane. This allows pilots to monitor actual aircraft performance in relation to calculated performance.

In one embodiment of the invention, the graphical illustration is a computer print on paper. In many situations this is a practical way to have the margins illustrated, as it is a known medium and that the medium independent and can be distributed and shared by muliple pilots in the cockpit at different timing. When the print out is made, it can be folded and placed in the cockpit in many ways also in plain view, and after for example takeoff it can be placed in a less obvious place though still easy accessible.

In another embodiment of the invention, the graphical illustration is a computer graphical display of any type such as a LCD display, CRT, plasma screen or alternatively any on screen display means.

In one embodiment of the invention, at least a part of the graphical illustration shows the runway layout of the actual airport, including illustration of a length of different runways, directions of runways, and an indication of a chosen runway. Dependant of the graphical means, this could be done in several ways. A preferred way to illustrate the chosen runway is to have this in the center of the graphical means or at least that part of the graphical means that are to illustrate the runway layout, and to further have the chosen runway directed head up.

In a further embodiment of the invention, said graphical illustration comprises illustrating the chosen runway with inserted point of decision, calculated as a distance used from standstill to obtain decision speed Vi with the given input data. Such a point of decision could be inserted as a point or arrow but in a preferred embodiment, the point is inserted as a bar of a given length, the end of the bar illustrating the point of decision. In one preferred embodiment, the two points are inserted to indicate the point of decision using two different engine settings, one of which could use reduced thrust.

In one embodiment of the invention, the graphical illustration comprises illustrating obstacles in a departure sector on a schematic map over the departure sector. This could be done by, in the figures, showing a topographic map of the departure sector with the obstacles indicated either as natural obstacles (terrain) or manmade obstacles.

In a further embodiment of the invention, the illustration comprises showing said obstacles direction, normally as seen from a direction of movement of the airplane, and height.

In a further embodiment of the invention, the illustration comprises an indication of at least one critical obstacle being a limiting obstacle. The critical obstacle is always the obstacle that will require the highest ROC to clear with the prescribed margin, in some cases, this fact consequently will make two or more obstacles to be the limiting factors.

In a further embodiment of the invention, the flight path is shown as a line in the departure .sector. The flight path is the-path along which the normal departure is to be navigated. This path is determined from many factors, such as limiting obstacles, noise, departure aerodrome, departure route to fly, aircraft performance and any variation of this, other traffic and other considerations. The line could even be a 3 dimensional "tube" shown in the departure sector.

In a further embodiment of the invention, the emergency flight path is shown as a line in the departure sector. The emergency flight path is not always the same as the normal flight path. Firstly, the destination is normally not included in determining the emergency flight path; or rather in many cases the destination will actually be the aerodrome from which the Take off has just been performed. Further, the most important factor in determining the emergency flight path is the limiting obstacles and all other obstacles, in relation to reduced aircraft performance. The line could even be a 3 dimensional emergency "tube" shown in the departure sector. In a further embodiment of the invention, the illustration is made on a computer display, and the emergency flight path is highlighted when a failure during takeoff occurs.

In this way, when the emergency occurs, the emergency flight path will be directly available and easy accessible. This could be done by normally having the emergency flight path illustrated as a dotted line and the flight path as a bold line and when the emergency occurs, the emergency will be highlighted still as a dotted line but now in fat bold to ensure that the pilot realizes that this is in fact the emergency flight path.

In one embodiment of the invention, the illustration comprises showing the required climb requirements in the limiting of the take of segments defined by aviation regulations.

Detailed description of figures

Figure 1 shows the general view where the information is split into two sides the A and the B side.

Figure 2 shows the Location field:

The name ofJhe city associated with the airport and the four letter code. Both in font size 32.

To pilots, using letters to present the airport in question is the preferred presentation. The layout in known systems presents only the four letter ICAO code "LSZH". In this way, pilots mentally had to decode or couple the LSZH to Zurich. A pilot's position awareness is based upon the city or airport name; in this case Zurich is presented to the pilots, to provide additional information that supports the position awareness. Instead of struggling with decoding the four letters XXXX, the very specific city name is presented first, with the four letter code made available for cross checking. One example of how the four letter code must be decoded is: LSGG is Geneva and

ESGG is Gothenburg. Only the first letter L has changed to E, creating a completely different location. As the FMC (Flight Management Computer) allow the airport to be wrong (if performing the TODC too quickly after landing, the systems are not updated and the departure field from a previous sector is defaulted at departure station. This further emphasized that the display should be robust in its position presentation to account for automation surprise, by a system that updates slowly.

Figure 3 shows Aircraft registration: Aircraft registration, aircraft version and engine model. In bold captial letters font size 24.

Model and version as the engine thrust rating is dependent upon engine version the ability to check the correct aircraft is crucial. As registration and engines are tightly coupled, these three pieces of information are presented as forming a group. These three sets of data forms a "chunk" of text collected and put together for "letter matching". Text format is used as the words will provide the pilots the means to check aircraft individual; registration, version and engine rating, during preflight duties in the aircraft log. This task usually performed by the pilot. The aircraft log (including remarks and maintenance record) is checked to match the specific aircraft individual. Presenting the information on one line at the top of the screen, would help "matching the numbers", as a mismatch here would require a further investigation and new calculations.

Figure 4 shows Meteorological presentation:

Temperature presented as "TEMP" in bold font size 14 and a "traditional" mercury thermometer 17 mm tall, 2,5 mm wide with a small circular container at the bottom. Indexed with zero degree celcius as reference, actual temperature indicated both as a number with plus and minus indication and level of fluid in the termometer correspond to the temperature.

Air pressure presented with a "QNH" in bold font size 13 and as a circular display 10 mm in radius. Index is at vertical position with 1013 Hpa value (or 29,92 inch if other scale selected). Actual pressure presented in the centre of the circle with font size 12, followed by HPA or INCH according to scale. Small pointer 6 mm long will indicate pressure in relation to the 1013 index at vertical. If pressure below 1013 pointer will deflect left (counter clock wise), pressure above 1013 indicate by pointer deflected to the right (clockwise).

In order to facilitate the pilots ability to detect the meteorological input, the model uses a combination of pictogram expression of the "old model" thermometer and barometer, and at the same time it has specific information on the values in numbers.

The meteorological conditions to most pilots is taken at "face value", they are part of a larger more complicated context and that they, together with Runway Condition and Configurations, forms the basis for a concept, as they interact on each other, from top down. Once the temperature is determined, and conditions are known, the decision to switch on anti ice can be made. The sequence is determined by pilots' mental procedure and should support this structure or be chronological

The temperature is rich with information at three different levels.

Does the temperature correspond to the ambient temperature?

Is temperature close to freezing resulting in slippery runways?

Is temperature in a range where engine and/or wing anti ice would be required?

The level of the thermometer will enable the pilot to determine the temperature in relation to the zero degree reference and the proximity to zero degrees. Furthermore it can provide a "high/low level", representing high/low ambient temperature, with the ability to precisely read the numeric value also. The same effect has been utilized for the air pressure (QNH) model. The Standard Atmosphere value of 1013 Hpa, serves as a reference. A small pointer, indicates low or high in relation to 1013, with pointer at 8 o'clock position as the lowest possible QHN and 4 o'clock as the highest.

Affordance of the meteorological display is to enable pilots to read the graphic display to quickly distinguish high/low, and for more specific values the digital figures can be examined. The high/low indication will provide the pilot with information if weather conditions are above or below standard, and by that build an expectation of performance based upon their basic understanding of fundamental performances, if temperature goes up, performance goes down, and the reverse for air pressure.

Figure 5 shows the Runway condition:

Runway condition. "RWY COND" in bold font size 14. Horizontal line 50 mm long. A horizontal line will be divided into three parts, to display TYPE of contamination, DEPTH of contamination, Braking Action(BA) or Friction Coefficient(FC). The TYPE of contamination will be described by the following menu of contaminations from the Aircraft Operating Manual (AOM) or Flight Crew Operating Manual (FCOM) performance documentation and thus transferred into a TODC/LDC menu: DRY, WET, SNOW, WET SNOW, DRY SNOW, VERY DRY SNOW, SLUSH, ICE, DRY ICE, WET ICE. The DEPTH will be displayed as a miniature metering stick and numbers. One example 7 mm of DRY SNOW resulting in a Braking Action of 0,33 will be displayed as. DRY SNOW (font size 14), miniature metering stick 7 mm tall and "7 mm" next to it, BA 33 in font size 28.

When the runway condition is contaminated, it can affect the calculation dramatically, and thus influence the personal strategy being applied, as part of the Threat Management performed in the real life setting.

The task of the display is essentially dual.

Enabling the pilots to check DRY or NOT DRY, and in cases where the runway is not reported dry, the display should clearly communicate to pilots, contamination, depth and FC/BA(Friction Coeficient/Braking Action are terms defined by Aviation Authorities and meterological services) if reported. Pilots can apply their personal strategy to the input of contamination, based upon actual conditions and their

-experience, and the display makes the matching of inserted data with "real world" (or the values judged by the pilot) a task of comparing the depth of contamination in relation to the indicated scale used on the display.

The coupling of contamination, depth and FC/BA is essential as pilots use their experience and local knowledge to apply personal strategies that they had developed overtime and used in order to build a safety margin. The weather reported is subject to different external and local factors (different countries have different scales and equipment to measure FC/BA) that trigger the pilots into adjusting the numbers as they cannot always be taken at face value. As contamination and its impact on calculation is dependent on temperature. Temperatures close to zero can create adverse conditions. To allow pilots to crosscheck contamination-temperature relationship the meteorological field is located above the contamination. Figure 6 shows the System configuration:

System configuration will be described by menu from the Aircraft Operating Manual (AOM) or Flight Crew Operating Manual (FCOM) performance documentation and thus transferred into a TODC/LDC menu: The selection of air-conditioning packs and anti ice will affect the bleed air and thus the thrust developed by engines. The displays will serve as a reminder, and at the same time a quick way of pilot not performing the input to detect and correct the setting if wrong.

The decision to use anti ice, is governed by aircraft procedures, company policy and individual pilot strategy based upon the actual weather conditions. Together with weather and runway condition the configuration is the last member of the "family" of information that are tightly coupled.

The display serves as an annunciator to the pilot of different system modes, the available and selected. The ability to present the considerations of the pilot performing the input to the other pilot is critical, as the two pilots are not doing the input together or necessarily share the tactics used, but the result has an impact on the operation of an entire aircraft. In order to reduce the gulf of execution, the selected system or mode is presented as boxed, and in an attempt to reduce the gulf of evaluation the otherpossible system options are displayed, coupling the presentation of the system to the actual aircraft system.

Figure 7 shows the Technical System Status: Technical System Status will be described by menu from the Aircraft Operating Manual (AOM) or Flight Crew Operating Manual (FCOM) performance documentation and thus transferred into a TODC/LDC menu: Applicable aircraft layout in size 1 :150 in overview. Aircraft main wheels depicted at centre body, 1 mm wide and 3 mm long. Line connect to right hand wheel with text 1 BRAKE SYS. Inboard spoiler panels (INB GND SPOIL), adjacent to aircraft hull 2V2 mm wide and 7 mm long, line connects spoiler panel with text INB GND SPOILER. Auto ground (AUTO GND SPOIL) spoilers depicted outboard of ground spoilers 2Vz mm wide and extending outward on both wings, line connects to text printed below right wing AUTO GND SPOIL. Aircraft engines depicted according to aircraft type and model. HYD PUMP and REV INOP text can be printed 2 mm right of right engine. All text printed in font size 14 and capital letters.

Technical status can affect the calculation. When a technical system is un- serviceable it becomes an "event", as it is out of the ordinary (frequency low). To present a design that alerts pilots of something unusual (highlight events) and at the same time direct attention to the specific system in question, the aircraft layout has been selected. Before every flight pilots perform a "walk around" (exterior check of aircraft), this "flagging of system/location concept" conforms to the physical experience pilots reported when they "walk around the aircraft to detect any abnormalities", the known abnormalities are now presented in context (the right position on the model) and it will provide the same information to the pilot remaining in the cockpit.

It affords a significant change in presentation from a simple ALL SYS OPER, and allows the presentation of subsystems. In the event of mixed fleet flying the ability to show more engines etc. could contribute to the ability of different aircraft models.

To show contrasts, the display has two appearances, when all systems are functional an

"ALL SYS OPER" text is displayed alone.

Whenever a system is unserviceable, an aircraft model will appear to present a clear contrast to the ALL SYS OPER. The functionality of the aircraft model allows pilots to compare the location of the unserviceable system with their "mental picture" of the system, and the other pilot can in a glance obtain the same information even though not present during the input phase.

Figure 8 and 9 shows the Weight presentation:

Circle 13 mm in radius, index at vertical position indicating DOW (Dry Operating

Weight, aircraft ready for service weight). Maximum at 330 degree from vertical in clockwise rotation. Maximum indexed as aircraft MTOW (Maximum Take Off

Weight). Angular displacement or fill of black colour from vertical according to actual aircraft TOW (Take Off Weight). An angular displacement corresponds to one and only one specific TOW. Actual TOW will be depicted left of circle as "ACT TOW and on lower line the inserted weight in numbers. 2 mm wide outer band or ring, 1 Vz mm outside the circle, will indicate limiting weight. Indexed at vertical with DOW as reference. Angular displacement of ring determined by the limiting weight to fly the instrument departure one or more engines inoperative. End of ring will be announced with SID. All letters and numbers in font size 16.

As the possibility to mistake ZFW for TOW exists and has caused incidents over the years, the presentation of weight should facilitate a contrast effect in respect to illustrating if an abnormally low weight is used.

To reflect the strong need to check and share the understanding of weight, the presentation has been placed at the top in the present invention. Pilots will be able to locate the weight in the "beginning" (using a normal left to right, top to bottom reading style) and it provides information in a temporal context, as the pilots use the weight as reference to evaluate the later displayed results. The presentation of TOW formatted of a pie chart, an analog presentation that displays increasing weight in clockwise direction. The pie chart will indicate "full" when the weight is approaching maximum, affording the ability to check if the pie chart is empty or full.

Initially this is not about numbers but about size, to judge and place in relation to an 5 expected or anticipated value and limits. DOW (Dry Operating Weight) serves as a reference and most traffic loads will display at the 5-7 o'clock range. Abnormally low TOW (the possible misuse of ZFW) will be displayed at the 5-2 o'clock range, an extremely rare position, to visually provide the crew with a clue to examine the weight once again. 10

The analog presentation will show structural margins to pilots. By position of the ACT TOW index it will be possible to determine TOW in relation to the extremes, as low or high could attract pilot attention. This visual presentation will afford both high/low weight displays, low because there is a risk of ZFW being used instead of TOW and 15 high because performance will be close to absolute margins with a fully loaded aircraft.

High TOW will also be displayed by the TOW in the 8-11 o'clock position, contrasting the dial to be "almost full", as the weight increases close to maximum.

20 " ' " "SID limiting weight"

In order to reduce the complexity of flying, performing the emergency checklist, communicating with ATC and navigating the aircraft according to the "Engine Failure Procedure", a new concept called "SID Limiting Weight" is introduced. It will display

25 the maximum weight at which the aircraft performance makes is possible to fly the SID track with one engine out. Navigational task will be significantly reduced when the already loaded and briefed departure route can be followed.

The two weights that need to be examined are shown in tight coupling, and the pilot 30 can determine if TOW is less than the SID Limiting Weight, by comparing the arc of the two presentations and thus establish the margins that would allow SID to be followed.

Figure 10 shows relation made to Flaps & Speeds: Square 48 by 48 mm, with circle in center. Circle is 20 mm in radius index at vertical position with 0 airspeed value, airspeed and numbers increasing clockwise. In center of circle flap setting in numbers font size 28. Along perimeter of circle, airspeed reference bugs in font size 12 relate to airspeed on inner side of circle. Take off reference speeds are positioned according to calculated V1 , Vr, V2, V fl up, V si in and Vclean. Take off speeds in capital letters, bold and font size 13.

Alternative representation. Speed tape.

Rectangle 18 by 70 mm, bottom line indicating 60 knots airspeed. Along right side extending upward broken line with red and black colour indicate Minimum Speed. Take off reference speeds are depicted as lines on right side of box, V1 and R indicate appropriate speeds.

The current presentation present flaps in a manner that makes it difficult to do the coupling of weight/flap setting and speeds as well as presenting flaps in the context of the real life setting, with a tight coupling to the take off reference speeds. As the flaps setting changes the curvature of the wing, it has a direct relation to take off reference speeds. At the same weight using larger flap setting will result in lower take off reference speeds. Because of the range of weights and flaps it is an impossible memory task to memorize a weight-flaps-speed relationship. In an attempt to couple flaps to speed, and reduce the transpositioning error the flaps indication has been centered in a model of the Air Speed Indicator (ASI) used in the cockpit.

The cognitive task of determining if speeds are within expectations when they are displayed as numbers on the present layout has been reduced as the pilots now see the Vspeeds displayed in their natural context-the ASI.

The distributed cognitive effect of presenting the weight, take off reference speeds and flap setting, closely together (at the top of the display) will increase as these three sets of data is presented in a context. These three sets of data are used for "mental dead reckoning" or trying to perform a reasonable check, which they perform when the speed reference bugs are set. The flaps setting posses two threats during the take off phase. The absence of flaps during take off the aircraft will in most cases crash shortly after lift off. On a limited runway using one flap setting for calculation and selecting another for take off, can result in the aircraft not being able to become airborne on the runway or obstacles might not be cleared, both cases resulting in an incident or accident.

Figure 11 shows the TOW Index:

Vertical scale 90 mm long and 14 mm wide, indexed in 10 tabs each representing 2 tons of weight. Lowest tab will display DOW and "DOW" together with actual DOW will be displayed in font size 10. Index tabs will display increasing weights, weight in numbers presented in font size 20. Maximum landing weight and maximum structural TOW shown an appropriated index tabs with "MAX LAND" and "MTOW" in font size 10, together with actual weights. Actual TOW will be in bold, and shown with one digit.

In the design, extra features have been added to the Index. As the display is static, the index effect of different pages has been substituted by highlighting the TOW. The ability to display TOW in relation to an envelope is one important property afforded by the index range. By index location it provides meaning to numbers, even inexperienced pilots will be able to detect if a TOW is low i.e. 43-49 tons as these weights are located in the bottom part of the index, as the numbers increase vertically. Because the scale displays extremes it makes it easier for pilots to be able to detect and understand the envelope, and within this envelope the current status and margins "in a glance".

Take off performance is not a memory task. The structural limiting weights are fixed values for one specific aircraft, and pilots struggle to memorize these structural limitations, as several different aircraft models can be flown on the same type-rating.

The need to check these limiting weights often develop when performance is critical and in situations where it would be disturbing to consult the official documentation, it requires time and removes attention from the actual task. These weights (Maximum Structural Takeoff Weight (MTOW) and Maximum Landing Weight) are now displayed at their appropriate position along the index scale. Additionally the Dry Operating Weight (DOW) is displayed as one element for an "alternative" calculation or dead recognizing of actual TOW used by pilots. Adding the fuel loading in Kg and passenger weight to DOW will provide an eyeball figure that serves as some pilot's double check of weight, not at all as precise and complicated as the load sheet but as an easy and quick way of estimating weight within 1 or 2 Tons. Applying these limiting weights to the index scale, reduce the memory burden and at the same time display "hard limit" or structural limitations in the world i.e. on the artifact where people would naturally look for them. The cognitive burden related to the understanding and memory of weight increases as these limiting weights vary with aircraft model and versions. In the future, mixed fleet flying will increase, as airlines will be able to put together crews more flexibly. Mixed fleet flying means that aircraft hardware and handling are believed to be similar, enabling pilots to fly more than one aircraft type. Currently Airbus offers mixed fleet flying through-out the full range of models from A-319 to A-340 and Boeing on the B- 757/B-767. Previously the "mixed fleet flying" has been used within a specific aircraft type like the Boeing 737-300-400-500-600-700 and 800 models and MD 81 , 82, 83, 87 and 90 families. Situations where pilots one day fly aircraft models with a TOW equal to the fuel weight of the previous flight is mind stiking.

The TOW Index could be one such feature that will improve the pilot's ability to map their actual TOW into an envelope of weights that provide them with the ability to log margins and perform a reasonable check by visual cues.

In case of an emergency developing during Take off, to return to the departure aerodrome is often the pilot's preferred action. Displaying the MAX LAND (Maximum

Landing Weight) enables the crew to position the MAX LAND in relation to the TOW, as part of the Threat Assessment and thus determines which Threat Management to apply, an immediate return or burn fuel to get below max landing weight if conditions permit.

Figure 12 shows the Runway display:

Field a rectangle 68 by 95 mm

RWY in bold and font size 16 presented 2 mm down and 2 mm in from upper left corner. Runway limiting weight presented in font size 14 below RWY. ACC STOP DIST. at center position 2 mm below top line.

Selected airport runways depicted in overview. Selected runway presented 7 mm wide and 10 mm long for each 500 meters of actual runway length, divided into two 3 mm wide sections. These sections will indicate Accelerate stop distance, using conditions loaded. If take off thrust can be reduced using FLEX, the max and min FLEX temperature will be displayed 1 Vz mm left and right of selected runway, in capital and bold font size 13. Minimum FLX will be displayed on left section and maximum FLX on right side. Remaining runway in case of aborted take off at V1 will be displayed left and right of sections. At top of selected runway actual runway length from take off position to runway end will be depicted in bold letters font size 13 mm. The point along the runway where the V1 is calculated to be obtained. This point will be depicted on both sections, (the min. and max. FLX) Other runways on selected airport will be 3 mm wide, and length according to actual runway length (10 mm for each 500 meter actual length). Selected runway will be depicted in "head up" orientation. At bottom of runway a triangle 5 by 5 by 6 mm together with RWY XX will indicate actual runway designator in bold capital letters font size 13. Crossing taxi ways will be displayed on left and right side of selected runway by number or letter. Other positions available for take off at present conditions are depicted on other runway as triangles 5 by 5 by 6 mm.

25 mm in and 15 mm up from left corner, will be center of two circles 5 mm and 10 mm radius.

The "balanced field" scenario is the basis for most software models to optimize the performance calculation, however the "balanced field" scenario is hardly ever the case in normal operation. Introducing the "ACC-STOP BAR" will display "Accelerate- to-V1-and-STOP" distance on a model of the aerodrome seen in plan view. Plan view is used, as pilots recognize this view from their taxi and aerodrome layout charts. The orientation is "head up", to provide the coupling Runway display=Runway, looking out of the cockpit at the take off position.

Offering an overlaying effect, as the model will be a miniature of the real world i.e. the runway system or runway. Supporting the overall position awareness, and possibly reduce the risk of taking off from a wrong position, as layout corresponds to actual airport, as all runways are displayed. Taxiways are presented along the departure runway.

The contrast between black, as ACC-STOP distance, and white as remaining runway, represents the "available versus used" relationship. In the balanced field scenario the ACC-STOP field will cover the whole runway. The ACC-STOP bar will display "full" or"no room for more".

Total runway ahead of calculated position is presented at the far end of the runway. To afford flexibility the available take off positions at the airport are displayed, the full use of the software's ability to do multiple calculations will be presented on the plan view presentation with the "own ship" (triangle) symbol as used in the Navigation Display (ND).

Wind is a major factor both in relation to the calculation, and especially in case of an evacuation on ground, (the risk or presence of fire, will dictate in which direction the aircraft will be parked, to avoid flames and smoke engulfing the aircraft), the wind diagram is displayed "head up", to show the wind in a diagram provides pilots with means to detect crosswind components as well as wind relative to the runway and thus how to park the aircraft in a favorable position in case of evacuation.

The diagram is well known in the pilot community, as it is often used for cross wind displays and during basic navigation computations.

The ability of computer or automation to leave a trajectory for the pilot to monitor is provided by displaying the location on the runway symbol where V1 is calculated to be obtained.

During acceleration the flight crew will be able to monitor if actual performance match calculated performance, by observing the point on the runway where the V1 is obtained, (as the taxiways are observable and can be counted). Based upon the display the pilots will be able to evaluate if the predicted performance is equivalent to the actual, and provide feedback to be used when refining the strategies used.

Figure 13 shows Acceleration altitude: The height above MSL (Mean Sea Level) or AGL (Above Ground Level) in feet, where the aircraft is assumed to accelerate to retract flaps and slats. Printed in bold font size 32.

Acceleration altitude is defined by aircraft manufacturer or airline policy, in this case 800 ft Above Ground Level (AGL) rounded up to nearest 100 feet is used, so for "every day purpose" pilots set 900 feet above field elevation. As the SOP dictates "ACC ALT or CLEAN UP ALT" enabled pilots to anticipate what altitude to set, the ACC ALT is contained in the briefing of engine failure scenario, and thus reinforced by the print.

Figure 14 shows the Climb field:

CLB printed in bold font size 24 at upper left corner of 32 by 100 mm field to indicate Climb limitations. Climblimting weight will be displayed below, if this weight is limiting, it will be boxed. This field displays the four take off climb segments, and limiting segment will be printed in font size 24. Profile view of departure runway, calculated lift off point assuming an engine(s) failure(s). Limiting climb profile shown with shaded area below. Climb gradient shown as % and converted to aircraft ROC (Rate Of Climb) assuming speed V2, in font size 14. Calculated/expected climb gradient as well as ROC presented as a line with same angle as climb gradient, based upon take off thrust rating(s) in case the computer presents multible take off thrust ratings. Thrust rating and appropriate gradient, ROC will be displayed in font size 14.

Climb requirements after engine(s) failure(s) and subsequent climb performance on one engine, are situations pilots only experience in a simulator.

Climb gradient as an angle or % is not illustrated in the cockpit, it is an engineering term. In order to display margins and trajectory to the flight crew, a profile view has been selected. The profile view is a well known presentation, as all approach plates used during approach and landing contain a plan and profile view. The required climb performance is depicted as a baseline, with a shaded area from ground up to the required gradient. The start point of this baseline is where the calculated liftoff point will be, assuming maximum flex, and engine failure at V1 and "GO" decision. As the pilots are unable to obtain information related to the flight path angle, a presentation that will display this information is required to show pilots the climb requirement, and for this purpose, the calculated performance of the two different reduced take off thrust settings are displayed, both as a gradient of climb and Rate Of Climb (ROC). The margin to the limiting climb gradient (in this case the 2,4% requirement in 2nd segment) will be shown as a difference in X,X%, graphically as the "actual lines" will have a steeper angle and by comparing the ROC of the individual graphs. The ROC conversion allows the pilots to observe the actual performance during single engine operations, by checking the Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI) in the cockpit that displays ROC and thus be able to monitor if predicted/calculated performance matches actual performance.

Figure 15 shows the Obstacle field:

Field 120 by 110 mm. In upper left corner OBST presented in bold font size 16. Below limiting weight presented in font 14, if limiting "limiting" will be printed after weight and all text will be boxed. Small rectangle 1 by 7 mm will illustrate runway model, at beginning a triangle of 6 by 5 by 5 mm will illustrate the aircraft or "ownship". Extending out from the runway departure point will be two lines in 45 degree each line 60 mm, the two lines are connected via an arch. On this arc lines and numbers presents compass references. In total the arc will cover 90 degree, and center of arc will be runway direction. In the area between the two lines and the arc, the terrain and obstacles are presented in a 1:1 relation to the terrain from the approach plate from the airport in this sector. Terrain will be show as terrain lines and obstacles as chevron shape with height of obstacle or terrain presented in feet MSL printed in font size 14. Limiting obstacle will present in chevron and a box with two lines, lower line the height of obstacle in feet MSL, and upper line the calculated obstacle clearence assuming engine(s) failure(s) at V1 and continued take off. In lower left corner a 48 by 48 mm square with circle 20 mm diameter in center. "ASI" presented in top part of circle, in bold capital letters size 16. Line just below "LAND 56 T" in capital letters size 16. Along perimeter of circle index markings with same distance apart will indicate airspeed. On inner part numeric value of airspeed presented in font size 16, Ref 28 and Pclean in bold. On outer part of the perimeter, approach and landing speeds are depicted, corresponding to the numeric value on the inner part.

In lower right corner a 48 by 48 mm square with circle 20 mm diameter in center. "VSI" presented in top part of circle, in bold capital letters size 16. At 9 o'clock position zero value indicated, from this value moving clockwise will depict increasing VSI or ROC (Rate Of Climb), indexed by 1 , 2, 4 and 6 all in thousands of feet a minute. Counter clockwise direction will show ROD (Rate Of Descent) with same scale and index. On this perimeter one dotted line, and two solid lines origin from center of the circle are depicted. Dotted line origin from center of circle will indicate ROC required to clear obstacles in case of an engine(s) failure(s). Obst X1X % will be displayed outside of square but adjacent to dotted line. Solid lines represents ROC climb to conform with SID (Standard Instrument Departure) at Vclean and 250 kts, both depicted in bold font 16 outside of square but adjacent to respective solid line.

As most modern aircraft is navigated using IRS/GPS, the primary navigation display (ND) is in most cases configured in "MAP" mode, showing the selected route as a line. This configuration of ND is utilized from take off to final approach, so for the most part of a normal operation pilots are looking at the ND in MAP mode.

Pilots position awareness origin from both nave aids bearings and ND in map mode, the ND has been selected as the presentation media for the obstacle presentation. The arc presentation of the ND is able to present a model of the surrounding terrain that corresponds to the presentation of terrain and obstacles the pilots have available, from the plan view of the approach plate used during all approaches. Head up presentation in a 10 Nm range corresponds to the plan view, enabling the pilots to compare the two presentations. At the same time it provides obstacle and terrain information overlay to the SID, as this is not displayed on present SID plates.

Focus on the OBST field increases in case of an "engine failure-GO" decision, and the ability to clear obstacles is a critical success criteria. Based upon the presentation of the CLIMB performance, a miniature of the VSI will serve the purpose of presenting the required ROC to clear obstacles in case of engine failure as a thick dotted line, as well as the ROC to comply with SID restrictions on two engines (noise, airspace or any other).

In order to facilitate a quick return to the departure aerodrome in case of emergency, a model ASI is also depicted. Located far from the Take off Reference Speeds, this ASI added with "LAND XX T" will display approach and landing speeds for specific weight indicated. In this case the speeds displayed are relative to a gross weight 1 ton lower than TOW to account for fuel burn during departure and return.

Claims

Claims
1. A method of providing information relating to airport runway and an airplane to be taking of from said runway, the method comprising:
providing information relating to a length of the runway, providing information relating to weight of the airplane, providing information relating to a force or a thrust with which the engine(s) of the airplane are operatable, determining, on the basis of the length information, the weight information, and the force/thrust information, a stop distance required to accelerate the airplane to a predetermined velocity and decelerate to zero velocity, providing the information as a relation between the determined distance and the runway length.
2. A method according to claim 1 , wherein said relation is illustrated as a schematic runway with said stop distance indicated, in the same relation as the actual stop distance on the actual runway.
3. A method according to claim 2, wherein the schematic runway is shown on a graphical illustration that shows the runway layout of the actual airport, including an illustration of the length of at least the actual runway, direction of runways and indication of the actual runway.
4. A method according to claim 2 and 3, wherein at least two stop distances are indicated showing the stop distance for two different force/thrust configurations.
5. A method according to claims 1 to 4, wherein the method further comprises providing information relating to a condition of the runway, and wherein the determination of the stop distance comprising determining the stop distance also on the basis of the runway condition.
6. A method according to claims 1 to 5, wherein the force/thrust information is determined from information relating to the engine and information relating to the surroundings of the engine.
7. A method of providing information relating to operating an airplane, the method comprising: providing information relating to a lowest weight of the airplane, providing information relating to a highest weight of the airplane, airplane, the method comprising displaying the information as information relating to a position of the actual weight on a scale bounded by the lowest and highest weights.
8. A method of providing information relating to operating an airplane, the method comprising: providing information relating to a lowest weight of the airplane, providing information relating to a maximum performance limiting weight of specific airplane. providing information relating to an actual or expected weight of the airplane, the method comprising displaying the information as information relating to a position of the actual weight on a scale bounded by the lowest and highest weights.
9. A method according to claim 7 or 8, wherein said maximum weight is determined based on the engine performance, runway climb and obstacles limits and other factors that limit the weight for which it is possible to make a safe takeoff with said airplane.
10. A method according to any of claims 7 to 9, further comprising an indication of a relation between the actual weight of the airplane and a weight at which the airplane is able to fly with degraded performance.
11. A method according to any of claims 7 to 9, wherein said scale is a circular or semi-circular scale.
12. A method according to any of claims 7 to 11 , wherein the scale further indicates a max landing weight.
13. A method of providing information relating to a critical obstruction in an expected flight sector of an airplane, the method comprising: providing information relating to obstructions in an area comprising the flight path of the airplane,
identifying that of the obstructions having the largest angle from horizontal of a straight line between the runway and a top of the obstruction
Illustrating the flight sector as a schematic map of the sector, indicating said identified obstruction.
14. A method according to claim 13, wherein said illustration further illustrates a suggested flight path during normal conditions.
15. A method according to any of claims 13 or 14, wherein said illustration further illustrates an emergency flight path.
16. A method according to any of claims 13 or 15, wherein said illustration further illustrates an emergency flight path back to the same airport.
17. A method according to any of claims 13 or 16, wherein said largest angle is determined by comparing all such angles and determining the largest of these.
18. A method for making data available to a pilot, the method comprising the steps of: evaluating airplane performance data APD, environmental layout EL and environment data ED providing instrument data for said pilot so as to give basis for adjustment of instruments in a cockpit interface, and providing performance data for detecting margins during critical flight phases, such as take off or landing,
c h a r a c t e r i z e d i n that: the step of providing instruments data includes the steps of evaluating said instrument data according to the cockpit interface data CID, such as placement and art of the instruments, providing a direct relation between said instruments data and said cockpit interface, and
further that said step of providing of performance data includes the steps of evaluating the APD EL and ED, and giving a direct relation between said performance data and said margins
19. A method according to claim 18, wherein the given relation between said instrument data and said cockpit interface is a graphical illustration of at least a part of said cockpit interface.
20. A method according to claim 19, wherein said graphical illustration is a computer print on paper.
21. A method according to claim 19 or 20, wherein said graphical illustration is a computer graphical display of a type, such as LCD display, CRT, plasma screen or on screen display.
22. A method according to claim 20 or 21 , wherein the instrument data relates to at least adjustment of the Air Speed Indicator (ASI) before take off and that the relation is established by graphically model of the actual ASI in the cockpit by printing such on a computer printout.
23. A method according to any of claims 19 to 22, wherein the instrument data at least relates to adjustment of the Air Speed Indicator (ASI) for landing at the take off airport and that the relation is established by graphically model of the actual ASI in the cockpit by printing such on a computer printout.
24. A method according to any of claims 19 to 23, wherein the instrument data at least relates to adjustment of the Air Speed Indicator (ASI) for landing at the landing airport and that the relation is established by graphically model of the actual ASI in the cockpit by printing such on a computer printout.
25. A method according to any of claims 19 to 24, wherein the instrument data at least relates to the VSI (Vertical Speed Indicator) and indication of the ROC (rate of climb) to clear the most critical obstacle as well as the ROC to comply with SID (Standard Instrument Departure) restrictions.
26. A method according to any of claims 18-25, wherein the given relation between said performance data and said margins is provided as a graphical illustration.
27. A method according to claim 26 wherein said graphical illustration is a computer print on paper.
28. A method according to claim 26 or 27, wherein said graphical illustration is a computer graphical display of a type such as LCD display, CRT, plasma screen or on screen display.
29. A method according to any of claims 26 to 28, wherein at least a part of said graphical illustration shows the runway layout of the actual airport, including illustration of length of different runways, direction of runways and indication of chosen runway.
30. A method according to any of claims 26 to 29, wherein the step of providing the graphical illustration comprises illustrating the chosen runway with inserted point of decision.
31. A method according to claim 26 to 30, wherein the step of illustrating the graphical illustration comprises illustrating obstacles in departure sector on a schematic map over the departure sector.
32. A method according to claim 31 , wherein the step of providing the illustration comprises showing said obstacles direction and height.
33. A method according to claim 31 or 32, wherein the step of providing the illustration comprises indicating at least one critical obstacle being a limiting obstacle.
34. A method according to claim 31 to 33, wherein the flight path is shown as a line in the departure sector.
35. A method according to claim 31 to 34, wherein the emergency flight path is shown as a line in the departure sector.
36. A method according to claim 35, wherein the illustration is made on a computer display and the emergency flight path is highlighted when a failure during takeoff occurs.
37. A method according to claim 26 to 36, wherein said illustration comprises showing the climb requirements in the limiting of the take of segments defined by aviation regulati providing information relating to an actual or expected weight of the on.
PCT/DK2006/000405 2005-07-11 2006-07-10 Method of making data available to a pilot WO2007006310A2 (en)

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