WO2006110843A2 - Engineered deremal tissue particles and transplantation methods - Google Patents

Engineered deremal tissue particles and transplantation methods Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2006110843A2
WO2006110843A2 PCT/US2006/013712 US2006013712W WO2006110843A2 WO 2006110843 A2 WO2006110843 A2 WO 2006110843A2 US 2006013712 W US2006013712 W US 2006013712W WO 2006110843 A2 WO2006110843 A2 WO 2006110843A2
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microns
particles
method
wound
barrier
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PCT/US2006/013712
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French (fr)
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WO2006110843A3 (en )
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Elof Eriksson
W. Robert Allison
Christian Baker
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Applied Tissue Technologies Llc
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61LMETHODS OR APPARATUS FOR STERILISING MATERIALS OR OBJECTS IN GENERAL; DISINFECTION, STERILISATION, OR DEODORISATION OF AIR; CHEMICAL ASPECTS OF BANDAGES, DRESSINGS, ABSORBENT PADS, OR SURGICAL ARTICLES; MATERIALS FOR BANDAGES, DRESSINGS, ABSORBENT PADS, OR SURGICAL ARTICLES
    • A61L27/00Materials for grafts or prostheses or for coating grafts or prostheses
    • A61L27/36Materials for grafts or prostheses or for coating grafts or prostheses containing ingredients of undetermined constitution or reaction products thereof, e.g. transplant tissue, natural bone, extracellular matrix
    • A61L27/3604Materials for grafts or prostheses or for coating grafts or prostheses containing ingredients of undetermined constitution or reaction products thereof, e.g. transplant tissue, natural bone, extracellular matrix characterised by the human or animal origin of the biological material, e.g. hair, fascia, fish scales, silk, shellac, pericardium, pleura, renal tissue, amniotic membrane, parenchymal tissue, fetal tissue, muscle tissue, fat tissue, enamel
    • A61L27/362Skin, e.g. dermal papillae
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61LMETHODS OR APPARATUS FOR STERILISING MATERIALS OR OBJECTS IN GENERAL; DISINFECTION, STERILISATION, OR DEODORISATION OF AIR; CHEMICAL ASPECTS OF BANDAGES, DRESSINGS, ABSORBENT PADS, OR SURGICAL ARTICLES; MATERIALS FOR BANDAGES, DRESSINGS, ABSORBENT PADS, OR SURGICAL ARTICLES
    • A61L27/00Materials for grafts or prostheses or for coating grafts or prostheses
    • A61L27/36Materials for grafts or prostheses or for coating grafts or prostheses containing ingredients of undetermined constitution or reaction products thereof, e.g. transplant tissue, natural bone, extracellular matrix
    • A61L27/38Materials for grafts or prostheses or for coating grafts or prostheses containing ingredients of undetermined constitution or reaction products thereof, e.g. transplant tissue, natural bone, extracellular matrix containing added animal cells
    • A61L27/3804Materials for grafts or prostheses or for coating grafts or prostheses containing ingredients of undetermined constitution or reaction products thereof, e.g. transplant tissue, natural bone, extracellular matrix containing added animal cells characterised by specific cells or progenitors thereof, e.g. fibroblasts, connective tissue cells, kidney cells
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61LMETHODS OR APPARATUS FOR STERILISING MATERIALS OR OBJECTS IN GENERAL; DISINFECTION, STERILISATION, OR DEODORISATION OF AIR; CHEMICAL ASPECTS OF BANDAGES, DRESSINGS, ABSORBENT PADS, OR SURGICAL ARTICLES; MATERIALS FOR BANDAGES, DRESSINGS, ABSORBENT PADS, OR SURGICAL ARTICLES
    • A61L27/00Materials for grafts or prostheses or for coating grafts or prostheses
    • A61L27/36Materials for grafts or prostheses or for coating grafts or prostheses containing ingredients of undetermined constitution or reaction products thereof, e.g. transplant tissue, natural bone, extracellular matrix
    • A61L27/38Materials for grafts or prostheses or for coating grafts or prostheses containing ingredients of undetermined constitution or reaction products thereof, e.g. transplant tissue, natural bone, extracellular matrix containing added animal cells
    • A61L27/3839Materials for grafts or prostheses or for coating grafts or prostheses containing ingredients of undetermined constitution or reaction products thereof, e.g. transplant tissue, natural bone, extracellular matrix containing added animal cells characterised by the site of application in the body
    • A61L27/3869Epithelial tissues other than skin
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61LMETHODS OR APPARATUS FOR STERILISING MATERIALS OR OBJECTS IN GENERAL; DISINFECTION, STERILISATION, OR DEODORISATION OF AIR; CHEMICAL ASPECTS OF BANDAGES, DRESSINGS, ABSORBENT PADS, OR SURGICAL ARTICLES; MATERIALS FOR BANDAGES, DRESSINGS, ABSORBENT PADS, OR SURGICAL ARTICLES
    • A61L27/00Materials for grafts or prostheses or for coating grafts or prostheses
    • A61L27/50Materials characterised by their function or physical properties, e.g. injectable or lubricating compositions, shape-memory materials, surface modified materials
    • A61L27/60Materials for use in artificial skin
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61KPREPARATIONS FOR MEDICAL, DENTAL, OR TOILET PURPOSES
    • A61K48/00Medicinal preparations containing genetic material which is inserted into cells of the living body to treat genetic diseases; Gene therapy

Abstract

The invention relates to a novel method for introducing a biological substance into a human or non-human subject. The method generally involves harvesting dermal tissue; processing the tissue into dermal particles; genetically engineering a plurality of dermal cells of the particles; and transplanting the engineered particles to a receiving site on the subject to facilitate therapeutic treatment.

Description

ENGINEERED DERMAL TISSUE PARTICLES AND TRANSPLANTATION METHODS

CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

[0001] This application claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional Patent Application No.

60/670,592, filed April 12, 2005, incorporated herein by reference as if set forth in its entirety.

STATEMENT REGARDING FEDERALLY SPONSORED

RESEARCH OR DEVELOPMENT [0002] Not applicable.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

[0003] The skin is a desirable target for introducing genetic material, in that skin is readily accessible and the principal cellular components of skin, involved in mechanical stability and integrity of the skin, are receptive to genetic transformation and can secrete into the circulatory system biologically active substances encoded by transferred genetic material. These properties make such cells well-suited as recipients for recombinant genetic material that is transcribed and/or is translated to produce a peptide, a polypeptide or a protein having a desirable property, such as an epidermal wound healing activity. [0004] Novel and convenient methods for introducing exogenous genetic material into a subject are desired.

BRIEF SUMMARY

[0005] In a first aspect, the present invention relates to dermal tissue particles from a human or a non-human animal having dermal tissue, in which at least a portion of the cells in the particle are engineered to contain a genetic material not natively present in the dermal tissue. In a related aspect, the present invention is summarized in that the genetic material can be introduced into cells in the tissue using conventional gene transfer methods at an intact site on the subject. The tissue is then harvested from the site and is then processed to produce the particles containing the engineered cells. In another related aspect, the exogenous genetic material can be introduced using conventional gene transfer methods into cells in the tissue particles after the tissue is harvested from a donor site on the subject and processed to produce the particles. In yet another related aspect, the cells can be engineered twice ~ once in the intact tissue and again after harvesting and processing to produce particles having cells encoding a plurality of exogenous molecules.

[0006] The particles are reintroduced to the subject at an autologous particle receiving site, an enclosed space defined by a barrier and the subject's skin. It is alternatively contemplated as a form of engineering within the scope of the invention that harvested, but un-engineered, particles obtained from a donor site can be provided along with the genetic material in an appropriate vector at a particle receiving site, whereby the particles and genetic material are provided under conditions such that the genetic material is taken up by the cells for expression.

[0007] In each case, engineered or non-engineered particles can be maintained in vitro under non-drying conditions for several hours until the particles are introduced into the particle receiving site on the subject, as described herein.

[0008] hi still another aspect, the invention relates to providing engineered tissue particles having an average size on the longest length or width axis in the range of between about 100 μm and about 5000 μm. In some embodiments, the particles have an average size in a range of between about 200 μm and about 1200 μm, or in the range of between about 500 μm and about 900 μm., or between about 500 μm and about 700 μm, or about 600 μm. hi some embodiments, the engineered tissue particles have an average size in the range of between about 750 μm and about 850 μm. In some embodiments, the harvested dermal tissue and the engineered tissue particles can have a thickness (height from epidermal surface to inner surface) of up to about 1200 μm, or between about 130 μm and about 840 μm or between about 260 μm and about 450 μm. The particles can be generally cubic, being approximately the same length on all three axes (length, width and height), but particles can alternatively take the shapes of various polygonal solids such as rectangular or trapezoidal solids.

[0009] After introduction of the genetic material into the particles, it will be appreciated that the genetic material will be present in the particles to an extent sufficient to observe the effect mediated by the genetic material. A determination of the percentage of engineered cells in the particles, or of the spatial distribution of the engineered cells in the particles is not required, and the skilled artisan can determine using available methods whether sufficient genetic material is provided, for example by assaying for an encoded protein secreted by the particles. [00010] In another aspect, the invention relates to a method for reintroducing the tissue particles into the subject at the particle receiving site that provides access to exposed subdermal tissue, wherein the method includes the steps of delivering the engineered particles into the particle receiving site and providing a fluid-tight barrier at the periphery of the site. The barrier and the subject's skin together define an enclosed treatment space. The particle receiving site can be a pre-existing wound, such as a chronic wound, or can be a wound provided for purposes of dermal tissue particle transfer. In a related aspect, the particles can be placed directly on the particle receiving site and allowed to settle and the barrier can then be secured about the periphery of the site. Alternatively, a barrier that provides trans-barrier fluid access, e.g., a barrier having at least one portal, can be secured to the subject at the periphery of the receiving site to form the treatment space and the engineered particles can be introduced into the treatment space through the portal. [00011] In yet another aspect, the invention relates to engineered tissue particles, as described, where the exogenous genetic material introduced into the cells is a DNA molecule or an RNA molecule that encodes a peptide, polypeptide or protein (or a precursor of any of the foregoing) having a therapeutic, cosmetic or diagnostic effect proximal or distal to the receiving site. Alternatively, a genetic material introduced into the cells can encode, or can itself constitute, a molecule having a regulatory activity within or outside the engineered cells. The skilled artisan can readily envision the desirable aspects of a suitable genetic material, including transcriptional and/or translational promoter, terminator and the like having activity in the dermal cells into which the material is transferred. In a related aspect, it is particularly contemplated that a genetic material engineered into cells of a particle can encode a membrane-bound or secretable factor such as a growth factor having wound-healing activity proximal to or distal from the particle receiving site.

[00012] Unless otherwise defined, all technical and scientific terms used herein have the same meaning as commonly understood by one of ordinary skill in the art to which this invention belongs. Although suitable methods and materials for the practice or testing of the present invention are described below, other methods and materials similar or equivalent to those described herein, which are well known in the art, can also be used. [00013] Various objects, advantages and features of the present invention will become apparent from the following specification.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS [00014] Not applicable. DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS [00015] The present invention relates to engineered tissue particles that include a plurality of engineered cells that contain an exogenous genetic material. The invention also relates to methods for treating a disorder in a subject by treating the subject at a particle- receiving site with the particles. A particularly useful method involves transplanting the engineered particles into a wound by treating the wound with genetically engineered tissue particles that secrete from the engineered cells a factor having a wound-healing activity. The particles of the present invention are produced more readily than single cell suspensions, with less trauma to the cells and further provide an environment that supports more robust cell growth after reintroduction at a wound site.

[00016] One advantageous aspect of the invention relates to providing at the particle- receiving site an environment suited for short-term or long-term survival of the engineered cells. To prolong survival, the site containing the skin particles can be covered with a barrier attached to the subject at the periphery of the reintroduction site to provide an in vivo environment that can eliminate the need for in vitro cell culture. [00017] Various aspects of the invention are detailed below.

[00018] The Processing Apparatus

[00019] An advantageous aspect of the invention is the genetic transformation of cells in particles of dermal tissue before reintroduction to the subject. Dermal tissue can be harvested by mechanical separation from an area on the subject using, e.g., a dermatome or other suitable tissue harvesting device capable of harvesting tissue having a thickness of up to about 1200 μm, and can be processed to produce particles of a suitable size that can include both epidermal and dermal components. This processing eliminates complex tissue disruption methods that employ enzymes such as dispase for separating keratinocytes from the dermis and trypsin for separating keratinocytes and removing fibroblasts. By eliminating these steps, it is believed that the invention facilitates more efficient (easier and less time consuming) skin re-epithelialization and wound healing after delivery of cells to a receiving site.

[00020] In general, applicants note that the dermal tissue is processed so that tissue from a donor site can be expanded to cover a wound area larger than the donor site. The ratio of the wound area to the donor site area is called the expansion ratio. A higher expansion ratio is desirable to minimize the trauma of the donor site, and to aid patients who have only a small amount of dermal tissue available for grafting purposes. [00021] An apparatus useful for processing dermal tissue is described in U.S. Patent

Publication No. 2004/0230215 Al, incorporated herein by reference as if set forth in its entirety. The apparatus includes a housing presenting a handle having a gripping surface and a cutting head attached to the handle; a cutting assembly connected to the cutting head, the cutting assembly including a plurality of spaced apart blade tips that are configured to cut through the harvested tissue as the cutting assembly rotates along the cutting surface to produce sliced tissue; and a receptacle disposed downstream of the cutting assembly, the receptacle receiving the sliced tissue from the cutting blades. This apparatus is a simpler processing device that is inexpensive, disposable, and easy to use compared to conventional devices. It also allows the achievement of higher expansion ratios than conventionally achieved in order to improve cosmetic outcomes for healed wounds. The described apparatus can be used for processing harvested dermal tissue that is supported on a cutting surface. [00022] Dermal Tissue Particles

[00023] Dermal tissue particles are largely composed of epidermal keratinocytes, but can include fibroblasts, epidermal stem cells, connective tissue and extracellular matrix components. In accord with the invention, dermal tissue can be processed, using, e.g., the apparatus described above, to produce tissue particles. Although larger tissue particle sizes are contemplated, it is desired to have the particle size in a range between about 500 μm and about 900 μm, or between about 750 μm and about 850 μm. In addition, the particle thickness can range up to about 1200 μm, or between about 130 μm and about 840 μm, or between about 260 μm and about 450 μm. As used herein, "about" can mean 10% above or below an indicated value or a value at either end of an indicated range. The cells in the particles can be transformed either before or after processing. [00024] Genetic Transformation

[00025] In keeping with the invention, cells in tissue particles can be modified by introducing expressible genetic material into the cells to confer upon the cells a genetic template for producing one or more desired molecules, such as a physiologically active peptide, polypeptide or protein in a therapeutically effective amount. As used herein, a "therapeutically effective amount" is an amount of a molecule that is capable of producing a medically desirable result in a treated subject.

[00026] Such molecules include but are not limited to hormones, immunomodulators, clotting factors, growth factors, antigens, antibodies and other therapeutic proteins that can speed wound healing, promote wound healing in an otherwise unhealing wound, or correct another deficiency, such as parathyroid hormone deficiency, growth hormone deficiency, and other hormone deficiency, as well as a deficiency of a clotting factor such as factor VIII. Cells can also be engineered to not express, or to prevent expression of, a protein such as a protein involved in an immune response, for example, a human leukocyte antigen (HLA). [00027] It is envisioned that expression of such molecules can provide a local cosmetic, therapeutic or diagnostic effect to a wound treated in accord the invention. Such local effects can include but are not limited to reducing healing time, reducing pain, reducing wound-associated inflammation, or providing natural pigmentation of the skin to reduce scarring. It is further envisioned that a molecule of interest can be locally or systemically released to reduce opportunistic infections at a wound site.

[00028] The standard methods for introducing genetic material into cells are well known to those skilled in the art of molecular biology. As used herein, "exogenous genetic material" or "gene" is used broadly to refer to any segment of nucleic acid associated with a biological function, including recombinant DNA. Thus, genes include coding sequences and/or the regulatory sequences required for their expression. For example, "gene" refers to a nucleic acid fragment that expresses rnRNA, functional RNA, or specific protein, including regulatory sequences. Genes also include unexpressed DNA segments that, for example, form recognition sequences for other proteins. Genes can be obtained from a variety of sources, including cloning from a source of interest or synthesizing from known or predicted sequence information, and may include sequences designed to have desired parameters. An "allele" is one of several alternative forms of a gene occupying a given locus on a chromosome.

[00029] Applicants also envision that a therapeutic effect of genetically engineering the skin particles may be to suppress or silence the expression of an undesired protein or a peptide. In such a case, for example, suitable gene delivery vehicles may include, but are not limited to, small interfering RNA (siRNA) duplex molecules, which under physiological conditions can reduce targeted gene expression. SiRNA-mediated reduction in gene expression can be accomplished by transfecting cells with synthetic RNA oligonucleotides, see Elbashir et al., "Functional anatomy of siRNA for mediating efficient RNAi in Drosophila melanogaster embryo lysate," EMBO J. 20:6877-6888 (2001), or may silence only one allele of the targeted gene in a cell. U.S. Patent Application No. 2004/0241854, incorporated herein by reference as if set forth in its entirety.

[00030] Desired genetic material can be introduced into target dermal cells, either in intact tissue for subsequent harvesting and processing, or in processed tissue particles, by suitable gene delivery vehicles including non- viral or viral systems. Non- viral gene delivery vehicles may include for example: liposome-mediated transfection, chemical vectors such as cationic lipids, polybrene-mediated transfection, DEAE dextran-mediated transfection, receptor-mediated delivery systems, naked DNA or plasmid DNA, electroporation, calcium phosphate precipitation, microinjection, or velocity driven microprojectiles ("biolistics"). Viral gene delivery vehicles may include for example: viral vectors (retrovirus, adenovirus, adeno-associated virus, lentivirus, herpes simplex virus, HIV virus, and rotavirus among others). After gene delivery, the skin particles are transplanted into a receiving site, which can be a pre-existing wound or a surgically-induced wound, such as a conventional partial- thickness epidermal flap that can be sutured back in place before sealing the wound with the barrier.

[00031] The Barrier

[00032] In accord with the invention, it is desirable to contain the engineered tissue particles at the receiving site and to protect the site from a surrounding non-sterile environment by providing a site-surrounding barrier that is liquid-impermeable or that provides trans-barrier fluid access to the site. The barrier should be flexible and conformable to the receiving site, should enclose a predetermined surface area about the site, and should be securable (e.g., with an adhesive) at the periphery of the site. The barrier has no other structural requirements.

[00033] U.S. Pat. No. 5, 152,757, incorporated herein by reference as if set forth in its entirety, describes various flexible and conformable chambers that are suitably employed as barriers in the present invention to support maintenance of engineered tissue particles at the receiving site. The chambers of U.S. Pat. No. 5,152,757 are securable about the periphery of a wound and have an opening that can correspond to the size of the wound. Advantageously, the chambers can, but need not, have a bellows configuration that prevents the surface of the chamber from contacting the receiving site. Further, the chambers can include portals for introduction and removal of treatment fluids from the chamber, controls for treatment variables, and monitors for monitoring wound conditions. Treatment variables such as temperature, colloid osmotic pressure, pH, ion concentration and oxygen content can be controlled according to wound indications. The patent provides additional guidance to the skilled person for culture conditions that may be desirably employed in the present method. [00034] As those skilled in the art will readily recognize, a removable sheet for protecting the adhesive and maintaining the sterility of the interior of the chamber is desirable. The barriers may be stored in a sterile pack for years. The barrier can take many shapes in order to fit wounds of many sizes and shapes. It is important that the adhesive surface be sufficient to secure the barrier to the skin surface to ensure a fluid-tight, leak-proof seal.

[00035] As previously mentioned, treatment fluid and treatment additive introduction and subsequent extraction may be accomplished directly through the chamber walls by a needle and syringe. An alternative method would be to use inlet and outlet ports allowing the introduction and extraction of various substances into the chamber. In use, the barrier can be replaced periodically for reasons of hygiene, sterility or the like, as needed or desired. [00036] Preparation of Receiving Site and Transplantation

[00037] The receiving site for culturing tissue particles can be prepared by removing infected or burned skin from an existing wound, if necessary, or by creating an appropriate wound for transplantation of the engineered tissue particles. The skin adjacent to the wound is then cleaned so that there will be good adhesion between the barrier and the skin. The particles are placed onto the receiving site for a short period of time (suitably less than about two hours, or less than about ten minutes, say about five minutes). The barrier is then sealed about the site containing the particles. Then, a wound-compatible fluid, such as a saline containing an antibiotic agent, can be provided gently beneath the barrier after the particles are sufficiently adhered to the site such that the fluid does not disrupt the particles from their location at site (after more than about ten minutes, or more than one hour, or about two hours). The engineered particles need not be in any particular orientation. An unsealed portion of the barrier can be placed over the site, with adhesive securing the rest of the barrier to the skin.

[00038] A suitable treatment fluid can be introduced and then extracted in favor of fresh fluid in a continuous or batch process. Selected treatment additives can be introduced into the chamber continuously or at a predetermined time or at periodic intervals. Appropriate control of treatment variables is also effected. Monitoring can be accomplished by examining the subject and the fluid in the enclosed space beneath the barrier. In addition, samples of fluid can be extracted for analysis and diagnosis.

[00039] The barrier can be removed after the wound is at least partially healed. To determine whether or not the wound is healed, the protein content of the extracted fluid can be analyzed. When the protein content of the extracted fluid decreases to a level present under a control barrier placed above normal skin, the wound is healed. Methods for determining protein content are well known in the art and are inexpensive and fast. The types of protein and the relative amounts of the types of protein can also be determined to further evaluate healing and expression of the exogenous genetic material. [00040] The following examples are provided as further non-limiting illustrations of particular embodiments of the invention.

EXAMPLE

[00041] To demonstrate that wounds can be transplanted effectively with small particles of epidermal tissue, applicants conducted transplantation experiments on live pigs. Using the general method for transplantation of cells described in U.S. Patent No. 5,423,778, incorporated herein by reference as if set forth in its entirety, small particles of harvested and size-processed epidermal tissue (as opposed to the enzyme-treated, single cell suspensions described in the 778 patent) were transplanted into a wound, as described below. [00042] Epidermal tissue was harvested with a dermatome (a device using a flat blade to remove a sheet of skin approximately .014" thick). The sheet graft was placed on a sterile mat, and sliced or minced into particles using an apparatus for processing dermal tissue, as described in incorporated U.S. Patent Publication No. 2004/0230215 Al. This device has an array of thin spaced-apart circular blades having cutting edges, with approximately 600 microns between the cutting edges of adjacent blades. The device was operated over the skin graft first in one pass, and then in a second pass at a right angle to the first pass to produce particles of uniform size.

[00043] The tissue particles were placed into the wound. After a short time, between five and sixty minutes, a barrier was secured to the skin about the periphery of the wound. Air was removed from the enclosed space defined by the barrier and the skin, through a portal in the barrier. At an elapsed time up to about two days after the transplantation of the dermal particles, a treatment fluid containing normal saline and an antimicrobial agent was added to the enclosed space. About every two days thereafter, the barrier was exchanged for a fresh barrier. At each change, the treatment fluid and antimicrobial were also replaced. [00044] The transplanted particles remained viable in the environment established by the barrier. New skin cells formed on each skin particle, and growth continued until the wound was covered with skin. This process generally took approximately ten to fourteen days. Examination of the skin covering the wound revealed the presence of the original skin particles as well as new skin cells.

PROPHETIC EXAMPLE

[00045] Dermal tissue particles are obtained from a human or non-human animal as described above, and cells in the particles are genetically engineered by exposing the particles to genetic material using a gene delivery system. The genetic material contains at least one polynucleotide of interest that has a therapeutic effect in the wound. The genetically engineered particles are place into a wound and a barrier is secured to the skin about the periphery of the wound. Air is removed from the enclosed space between the barrier and the skin. A small amount of treatment fluid with antimicrobial is added to the enclosed space. The barrier is changed as necessary. The treatment fluid is changed as necessary. The skin particles grow together, and form new skin over the wound. Fluid extracted from the enclosed space beneath the barrier is analyzed to demonstrate production of a protein encoded by the genetic material.

PROPHETIC EXAMPLE

[00046] Genetic material encoding a protein of interest is delivered directly into cells at a site in intact skin of a human or a non-human animal subject by injection, microinjection or other method. Within a few days, generally less than about one week, skin from the site is harvested and minced to produce particles. The particles are placed into a receiving site on the subject, and a barrier is secured to the skin about the periphery of the wound, thereby defining an enclosed space. Air is removed from the enclosed space. A treatment fluid with antimicrobial is added to the enclosed space. The barrier and the treatment fluid are replaced as needed. The skin particles grow together, and form new skin over the wound. Fluid extracted from the enclosed space beneath the barrier is analyzed to demonstrate production of a protein encoded by the genetic material.

PROPHETIC EXAMPLE

[00047] Tissue particles are placed into a receiving site on a subject, and a barrier is secured to the skin about the periphery of the site, thereby defining an enclosed space. Genetic material and a treatment fluid are introduced into the enclosed space under conditions suitable for the uptake of the genetic material into a plurality of cells in the particles. The genetic material encodes a protein of interest that may have a local or systemic beneficial effect to the subject. The barrier and the treatment fluid are replaced as needed. The skin particles grow together and form new skin over the wound. Fluid extracted from the enclosed space beneath the barrier is analyzed to demonstrate production of a protein encoded by the genetic material. [00048] Although the foregoing invention has been described in some detail by way of illustration and example for purposes of clarity of understanding, it will be readily apparent to those of ordinary skill in the art in light of the teachings of this invention that certain changes and modifications may be made thereto without departing from the spirit or scope of the appended claims.

Claims

CLAIMSWE CLAIM:
1. A method for introducing a biological substance to a human or a non-human subject having skin, the method comprising the steps of: harvesting dermal tissue having an average thickness from the subject; processing the harvested tissue into particles having an average particle size and containing dermal cells; genetically engineering into a plurality of cells in the particles an exogenous genetic material that encodes a template for the biological substance to produce engineered particles; transplanting the engineered particles into the treatment space under conditions that support production of the biological substance in the wound; and peripherally attaching a barrier about a wound on the skin to define an enclosed treatment space beneath the barrier.
2. The method of Claim 1, wherein the dermal tissue is processed using a mechanical or electric powered apparatus.
3. The method of Claim 1, wherein the average particle size ranges between about 100 microns and about 5000 microns along a longest length or width axis.
4. The method of Claim 1, wherein the average particle size ranges between about 200 microns and about 1200 microns along a longest length or width axis.
5. The method of Claim 1, wherein the average particle size ranges between about 500 microns and about 900 microns along a longest length or width axis.
6. The method of Claim 1, wherein the average particle size ranges between about 500 microns and about 700 microns along a longest length or width axis.
7. The method of Claim 1 , wherein the average particle size ranges between about 750 microns and about 850 microns along a longest length or width axis.
8. The method of Claim 1, wherein the average particle size is about 600 microns along a longest length or width axis.
9. The method of Claim 1, wherein the average thickness is about 1200 microns.
10. The method of Claim 1 , wherein the average thickness ranges between about 130 microns and about 840 microns.
11. The method of Claim 1 , wherein the average thickness ranges between about 260 microns and about 450 microns.
12. The method of Claim 1, wherein the genetic engineering is performed using a gene delivery vehicle selected from the group consisting of a viral vector, a recombinant DNA plasmid, a liposome, electroporation, microinjection and particle bombardment.
13. The method of Claim 1 , wherein the biological substance is a protein.
14. The method of Claim 13, wherein the protein is selected from the group consisting of a hormone, an immunomodulator, a clotting factor, a growth factor, an antigen and an antibody.
15. The method of Claim 1 , wherein the barrier is a flexible, conformable chamber sealable about the periphery of a wound.
16. Genetically engineered dermal particles having an average thickness and an average particle size.
17. The particles of Claim 16, wherein the average particles size ranges between about 100 microns and about 5000 microns.
18. The particles of Claim 16, wherein the average thickness ranges between about 130 and about 840 microns.
19. The particles of Claim 16, wherein the average thickness ranges between about 260 microns and about 450 microns.
20. The particles of Claim 16 having an average thickness in the range of between about 260 microns and about 450 microns and an average size on the longest length or width axis of between about 750 microns and 850 microns.
PCT/US2006/013712 2005-04-12 2006-04-12 Engineered deremal tissue particles and transplantation methods WO2006110843A3 (en)

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US8088568B2 (en) 2001-11-05 2012-01-03 Medgentics, Inc. Dermal micro-organs, methods and apparatuses for producing and using the same
US8142990B2 (en) 2001-11-05 2012-03-27 Medgenics Inc. Dermal micro-organs, methods and apparatuses for producing and using the same
US8501396B2 (en) 2001-11-05 2013-08-06 Medgenics Medical Israel Ltd. Dermal micro-organs, methods and apparatuses for producing and using the same
US8685635B2 (en) 2002-11-05 2014-04-01 Medgenics Medical Israel Ltd. Dermal micro-organs, methods and apparatuses for producing and using the same
US8877175B2 (en) 2006-09-14 2014-11-04 Medgenics Medical Israel Ltd. Long lasting drug formulations

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