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WO2006040619A1 - Updating quality of service reservation - Google Patents

Updating quality of service reservation

Info

Publication number
WO2006040619A1
WO2006040619A1 PCT/IB2004/052099 IB2004052099W WO2006040619A1 WO 2006040619 A1 WO2006040619 A1 WO 2006040619A1 IB 2004052099 W IB2004052099 W IB 2004052099W WO 2006040619 A1 WO2006040619 A1 WO 2006040619A1
Authority
WO
Grant status
Application
Patent type
Prior art keywords
reservation
end
point
router
message
Prior art date
Application number
PCT/IB2004/052099
Other languages
French (fr)
Inventor
Charles Abondo
Original Assignee
Telefonaktiebolaget L M Ericsson (Publ)
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date

Links

Classifications

    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04LTRANSMISSION OF DIGITAL INFORMATION, e.g. TELEGRAPHIC COMMUNICATION
    • H04L47/00Traffic regulation in packet switching networks
    • H04L47/70Admission control or resource allocation
    • H04L47/72Reservation actions
    • H04L47/724Reservation actions involving intermediate nodes, e.g. RSVP
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04LTRANSMISSION OF DIGITAL INFORMATION, e.g. TELEGRAPHIC COMMUNICATION
    • H04L47/00Traffic regulation in packet switching networks
    • H04L47/10Flow control or congestion control
    • H04L47/15Flow control or congestion control in relation to multipoint traffic
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04LTRANSMISSION OF DIGITAL INFORMATION, e.g. TELEGRAPHIC COMMUNICATION
    • H04L47/00Traffic regulation in packet switching networks
    • H04L47/70Admission control or resource allocation
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04LTRANSMISSION OF DIGITAL INFORMATION, e.g. TELEGRAPHIC COMMUNICATION
    • H04L47/00Traffic regulation in packet switching networks
    • H04L47/70Admission control or resource allocation
    • H04L47/76Reallocation of resources, renegotiation of resources, e.g. in-call
    • H04L47/765Reallocation of resources, renegotiation of resources, e.g. in-call triggered by the end-points
    • H04L47/767Reallocation of resources, renegotiation of resources, e.g. in-call triggered by the end-points after changing the attachment point, e.g. after hand-off
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04LTRANSMISSION OF DIGITAL INFORMATION, e.g. TELEGRAPHIC COMMUNICATION
    • H04L47/00Traffic regulation in packet switching networks
    • H04L47/70Admission control or resource allocation
    • H04L47/78Resource allocation architecture
    • H04L47/783Distributed allocation of resources, e.g. bandwidth brokers
    • H04L47/785Involving several network domains, e.g. multilateral agreements
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04LTRANSMISSION OF DIGITAL INFORMATION, e.g. TELEGRAPHIC COMMUNICATION
    • H04L47/00Traffic regulation in packet switching networks
    • H04L47/70Admission control or resource allocation
    • H04L47/82Miscellaneous aspects
    • H04L47/824Applicable to portable or mobile terminals

Abstract

A method, an associated end point and an associated for updating a reservation established for a session between a first end point in a first administrative domain and a second end point in a second administrative domain wherein the reservation is valid in the first administrative domain between the first end point, an access router and a domain router. The method comprises the steps of detecting that the first end point connected to the access router needs to change toward a second access router, in the domain router, receiving an address modification notification related to the reservation from the first end point and issuing a first reservation message from the domain router on behalf of the second end point toward the second access router.

Description

Description

UPDATING QUALITY OF SERVICE RESERVATION

Technical Field

[1] The present invention relates to reservation of resources in a network and more precisely to reserving and updating quality of service reservation of resources on the network via a proxy node.

Description of the Related Art

[2] Historically, voice traffic in telecommunications network has been transiting over reserved circuit switching resources. Packet switched resources had been used for data traffic, but are now being genuinely used for voice traffic using, for instance, Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP). This is more efficient, but leads to new problems concerning the quality of service (QoS) guaranties since the IP packet switching protocols is a best effort network. In other words, IP networks do not provide QoS guaranties as such and mechanisms need to be added thereto to overcome the situation.

[3] Other challenges of the present telecommunications network include enabling efficient establishment and maintenance of the QoS guaranties (i.e. the establishment should not affect the perceived QoS). It must also be possible to establish the QoS guaranties between two end points located in distant networks not sharing the same ad¬ ministrative domain. For instance, the establishment of the QoS guaranties should be possible between two users of two networks owned by two different operators. In this example, as can be foreseen, each operator refrains the other operator from mo¬ nopolizing resources on its network without its consent (explicit or implicit).

[4] At the moment, reservation of resource in various networks can be done via the well known RSVP mechanism (IETF: RFC 2205). In RSVP, a reservation is defined between to end points for a given type of communication or protocol. The reservation mechanism of RSVP uses a first message (PATH) sent from the emitter of the com¬ munication toward the other end. Each network equipment on the way therebetween simply forwards the PATH message up to its destination. The destination replies with a reservation message (RESV) that follows the same path as the PATH message. The RESV message reserves the resources in each network equipment on its way back to the source of the PATH message. Since the reservation is valid for traffic transiting in only one direction, a typical conversation between two parties also requires the same reservation to be made by the other end (or destination) of the communication toward the emitter thereof. After establishment of the communication, each end needs to refresh the reservation at regular interval otherwise the reservation is abandoned by the network equipment. Important prerequisites to RSVP are that all network equipment between the end points need to be compatible therewith and they also need to agree on the interval at which the reservation need to be refreshed.

[5] Some attempts were done to enable RSVP to be adapted to networks where all network equipment is not compatible with RSVP. The principle applied in such cases is to use the last network equipment compatible with RSVP as a proxy of the end point. The proxy RSVP end point therefore answers the PATH message addressed to the end point with a RESV message on behalf of the end point. The result is that the emitter of the communication sees the reservation as valid up to the destination end point even though it is interrupted by the proxy RSVP end point. It does not address the need for a reservation to transit between different administrative domains.

[6] Another prior art solution aimed at reducing overhead created by the RSVP refresh procedure. It enables a shorter refresh message to be used in lieu of the one specified in the original RSVP. The solution also provided a mechanism to ensure reliability of the refresh messages by re-emitting lost messages. It does not address the need for a reservation to be maintained efficiently in different administrative domains.

[7] As can be appreciated, efficient establishment and maintenance of the QoS guaranties related to voice traffic transiting over packet switched resources for end points located in different administrative domains cannot be provided by the prior art solutions. The present invention provides such a solution.

Summary of the Invention

[8] A first aspect of the present invention is directed to a router in a first administrative domain of a telecommunications network wherein the first administrative domain comprises a first end point having a first address. The first end point is associated to a reservation for a session transiting through the router between the first end point and a second end point in a second administrative domain. The router comprises a quality of service (QoS) reservation module capable of receiving an address modification no¬ tification related to the reservation from the first end point through a first access router, wherein the address modification notification indicates that the first end point changes its first address for a second address since the first end point is changing from the first access router to a second access router and issuing a first reservation message on behalf of the second end point toward the second access router.

[9] Optionally, the QoS reservation module of the router may further comprise a reservation table and be capable of updating a first record related to the first end point and its first address in view of the address modification notification and receiving an acknowledge message addressed from the first end point issued from the second access router concerning the first reservation message.

[10] A second aspect of the present invention is directed to a method of updating a reservation established for a session between a first end point in a first administrative domain and a second end point in a second administrative domain wherein the reservation is valid in the first administrative domain between the first end point, an access router and a domain router. The method comprises the steps of detecting that the first end point connected to the access router needs to change toward a second access router, in the domain router, receiving an address modification notification related to the reservation from the first end point and issuing a first reservation message from the domain router on behalf of the second end point toward the second access router.

[11] Optionally, the method may further comprise the steps of updating a first record in a reservation table maintained by the domain router, wherein the first record relates to the first end point and receiving an acknowledge message addressed from the first end point issued from the second access router concerning the first reservation message.

[12] A third aspect of the present invention is directed to an end point having a first address in a first administrative domain of a telecommunications network. The first ad¬ ministrative domain comprises a first access router and a domain router. The end point is associated to a reservation for a session transiting through the first access router and the domain router toward a second end point in a second administrative domain and comprises a quality of service (QoS) reservation module capable of, upon detection of a need for a change from the first access router to a second access router, issuing an address modification notification related to the reservation toward the domain router, wherein the address modification notification indicates that the end point changes its first address for a second address since the end point is changing from the first access router to a second access router.

[13] Optionally, the QoS reservation module of the end point is further capable of, upon detection of a need for a change from the first access router to the second access router, obtaining the second address from the second access router.

Brief Description of the Drawings

[14] A more complete understanding of the present invention may be had by reference to the following Detailed Description when taken in conjunction with the ac¬ companying drawings wherein:

[15] Figure 1 is an exemplary network topology in accordance with the teachings of the present invention;

[16] Figure 2 is a nodal operation and flow chart of mechanisms in accordance with the teachings of the present invention; and

[17] Figure 3 is a modular representation of a router in accordance with the teachings of the present invention.

Detailed Description of the Preferred Embodiments

[ 18] The present invention provides a mechanism optimizing the reservation of resources best fitted for resource-limited networks by proxying the reservation es¬ tablishment, the reservation refresh and the reservation update. The terminology used in the following description could be seen as similar to the one used in the prior art RSVP, but do not limit the present invention to characteristics of the RSVP.

[19] Reference is made to the drawings where Figure 1 shows an exemplary network

100 topology in accordance with the teachings of the present invention. Figure 1 shows a mobile node (MN) 112 involved hi a session with a correspondent node (CN) 190 via various pieces of network equipment. The MN 112 is connected to a first access router (ARl) 116 through a link 114. In usual implementations, the link 114 is formed by multiple network equipment and, therefore, by multiple sublinks not shown for clarity purposes. The sublinks may also be completely or partly wireless. The ARl 116 is further connected to a Mobile Anchor Point (MAP) 140 through a link 118. Just like the link 114 and other other links 128, 138 and 192 shown on Figure 1, the link 118 is usually composed of multiple sublinks of various types not shown for clarity purposes. The MAP 140 is, in turn connected, to the CN 190 through the link 192. The ARl 116 defines a first coverage area 110 in which the MN 112 is located. Other access routers AR2 126 and AR3 136 further define respective coverage areas 120 and 130. The MAP 140 defines a first administrative domain 142 comprising the coverage areas 110, 120 and 130. The number of coverage areas and access routers in a typical network implementing the invention shown using the exemplary network 100 is higher than three, but this has been chosen as an illustrative example. The link 192 is shown in dotted line since it is unlikely that a direct link between the MAP 140 and the CN 190 could exist. The link 192, in typical implementations, would cross another admin¬ istrative domain's boundary (not shown) before reaching the CN 190. The MN 112 is further shown moving in time toward the second coverage area 120 (arrow 115).

[20] Reference is now made concurrently to Figure 1 and Figure 2, which shows a nodal operation and flow chart of mechanisms in accordance with the teachings of the present invention. The MN 112 , the ARl 116, the AR2 126, the AR3 136, the MAP 140 and the CN 190 are shown on Figure2. The MN 112 has three addresses LCoAl, RCoA and HoA associated therewith. LCoAl is an address, typical IPv6, valid within the first coverage area 110. The RCoA is an address, typical IPv6, valid in the admin¬ istrative domain 142. HCoA or HA is a home address, typically IPv6, that is associated with the MN 112 permanently. Various addresses and ways of assigning the addresses, which fall outside the scope of the present invention, can be used as long as the validity thereof is guaranteed within their respective applicable zone. Figure 2 shows three scenarios separated by dotted lines 210 and 220. All three scenarios work together in a typical implementation of the present invention. However, each scenario may be implemented independently from the others in view of the needs and the char¬ acteristics of the existing infrastructure.

[21] In the first scenario (above line 210), the MN 112 connects with the CN 190 in the session (step 2100). Various messages (not shown) may usually be exchanged between the MN 112, the CN 190 and various intermediate nodes. The present invention does not address these exchanges, but rather comes into consideration for QoS reservation related to the session (established already or currently establishing). In order to reserve the resources within the administrative domain 142, the MN 112 sends a first reservation message 2110 address to the CN 190 toward the ARl 116 to reserve resources for all traffic related to the session sent from the MNl 12 toward the CN 190. In typical implementations, the reservation message 2110 contains QoS requirements related thereto. However, it is possible that the QoS requirements to be implicitly applied in view, for instance, of other information exchanged during establishment of the session or in view of the identity (e.g. addresses, client authentication, etc.) of the end points involved.

[22] Upon reception of the first reservation message 2110, the ARl 116 may create a refresh state (step 2220), which is used in case of implementation of the second scenario shown between lines 210 and 220, as will be shown later. The ARl 116 further reserves the resources in view of the QoS requirements and sends a second reservation message 2112 toward the MAP 140. The MAP 140 then updates a reservation table (step 2119) containing a record to associating the QoS requirements of the session with the MN 112 as the source and the CN 190 as the destination. The MAP 140 further replies to the first reservation message 2112 with an acknowledge message 2114 on behalf of the CN 190 just as if the acknowledge message 2112 had been sent therefrom and forwarded on the link 192 up to the MAP 140 and, then, to the ARl 116 on the linkl 18. The step 2118 of updating the reservation table can be done before or after the step of sending the acknowledge message 2114 without affecting the functioning of the present invention. The MAP 140 then sends a third reservation message 2120 on behalf of the CN 190 toward the ARl 116 to reserve resources for traffic related to the session transiting from the CN 190 toward the MN 112. The ARl 116 may then reserve the relevant resources and send a fourth reservation message 2122 toward the MN 112. The MN 112 then replies with an acknowledge message 2124 addressed to the CN 190 toward the ARl 116, which is forwarded thereby toward the MAP 140 in an acknowledge message 2126. The step 2118 of updating the table may further comprise a step of updating or adding a record to associate the QoS requirements of the session with the MN 112 as the destination and the CN 190 as the source. Again, these steps could be done in various orders for various reasons without affecting the general results of the present invention. The MAP 140 may further optionally exchange messages represented on Figure 2 by the triple dotted line 2500 in order to establish reservation of resources in the whole or part of the link 192. This may not be necessary due to existing Service Level Agreements (SLA) existing between the MAP 140 and other entities. The type or need for such reservation fall outside the scope of the present invention. It is, however, interesting to note that the CN 190 could be located in a further administrative domain similar to the admin¬ istrative domain 142. In such a case, the present invention would enable a reservation to be made in the further administrative domain by a further MAP similar to the MAP 140 on behalf of the MN 112 even though no reservation between the MAP 140 and the further MAP exist.

[23] The second scenario is shown between lines 210 and 220. In order to refresh an es¬ tablished reservation, the ARl 116 could create a refresh state as shown earlier by the step 2220. The refresh state could comprise a refresh timer set from any of the reservation messages 2110, 2114, 2120 and 2122 or implicitly from configuration or the like. The ARl 116 determines that a refresh of the existing reservation from the MN 112 toward the CN 190 is needed upon expiration of the refresh timer or by any other ways (step 2210). It then sends a refresh reservation message 2230 toward the MAP 140 on behalf of the MN 112 and receives an acknowledge message 2240, related thereto, addressed from the CN 190. The ARl 116 may further update its own reservation upon sending the refresh reservation message 2230. The acknowledge message 2240 is sent by the MAP 140 on behalf of the CN 190 upon reception of the refresh reservation message 2230. The MAP 140 then sends a further refresh reservation message 2250 on behalf of the CN 190 upon determining that a refresh is needed for the reservation from the CN 190 toward the MN 112. The determination could be done, for instance, via a refresh timer of a refresh state similar to the refresh state maintained by the ARl 116 or may be triggered by the reception of the refresh reservation message 2230 addressed from the MN 112 received from the ARl 116.

[24] In the third scenario (below line 220), the MN 112 moves from the first coverage area 110 toward the second coverage area 120 under the responsibility of the AR2 126 (arrow 115). Since the LCoAl is valid only within the first coverage area 110, the MNl 12 needs to obtain a second address (LCoA2) valid in the second coverage area 120 (step 2310). This is usually achieved upon detection by the MN 112 or the ARl 116 or the AR2 126 that the MN 112 is leaving the first coverage area 110. When and how this is achieved is outside of the scope of the present invention. Moreover, the way LCo A2 is communicated between the MN 112 and the AR2 126 is also outside of the scope of the present invention. However, when the MN 112 receives the LCoA2, it needs to change the ongoing reservations. This may involve updating the reservations maintained in the MAP 140 even though the usual implementation would use the RCoA in identifying the reservations therein. The address modification needs to trigger the reservation of resources in the AR2 126. In order to do so, the MN 112 sends an address modification notification 2320 toward the MAP 140, which sends a reservation message 2330 on behalf of the CN 190. The AR2 126 sends an acknowledge message 2340 related to the received the reservation message 2330. The AR2 126 may further create a refresh state 2222 used in the the second scenario described between lines 210 and 220. The AR2 126 also send a further reservation message 2350 on behalf of the MN 112 toward the CN 190. The MAP 140 acknowledges the further reservation message 2350 with a further acknowledge message message 2360 sent on behalf of the CN 190 toward the MN 112. The AR2 126 does not need to forward the acknowledge message 2360 to the MN 112.

[25] Figure 3 shows a modular representation of a router 300 in accordance with the teachings of the present invention. The router 300 is a generalization of the MAP 140 and the ARl 116 (or AR2 126 and AR3 136). It comprises a quality of service reservation module 310 and, optionally, may comprise a reservation table 320 and a refresh state 330. The refresh timer mentioned in the second scenario could be maintained in the reservation table 320 (as shown by the dotted box) or may be comprised in the refresh state 330. The quality of service module 310 may be capable of implementing the present invention completely or partially as described above. More specifically, an example is taken where the router 300 is located in a first admin¬ istrative domain comprising a first end point. The first end point is associated to a session transiting through the router 300 between the first end point and a second end point in a second administrative domain. The reservation module 310 maintains the reservation table 320 associated with the session. The QoS reservation module 310 is capable of, upon reception of a first reservation message from the first end point addressed to the second end point, establishing a first reservation for traffic related to the session issued from the first end point to the second end point by adding a cor¬ responding first record in the reservation table 320. The first record comprises an address of the first end point as the source of the traffic, an address of the second end point as the destination of the traffic and a first associated QoS level in accordance with the received first reservation message. Further to this reservation message, the QoS reservation module 310 is further capable of replying with an acknowledge message confirming the first reservation back to the first end point on behalf of the second end point and sending a second reservation message toward the first end point on behalf of the second end point. In such a case, the second reservation message relates to traffic related to the session issued from the second end point to the first end point. The QoS reservation module 310 is also further capable of establishing a second reservation in accordance with the second reservation message by adding a cor¬ responding second record in the reservation table 320. Similarly to the first one, the second record comprises an address of the second end point as the source of the traffic, the address of the first end point as the destination of the traffic and a second associated QoS level in accordance with the sent second reservation message.

[26] The QoS reservation module 310 may also maintain the refresh state 330 and the refresh timer associated with the reservation. In such an example, the QoS reservation module 310 is capable, upon expiration of the refresh timer associated to the refresh state or in the reservation table 320, of sending a refresh reservation message toward the second end point on behalf of the first end point; and upon reception of a refresh confirmation message to the refresh reservation message, resetting the refresh timer of the refresh state without forwarding the refresh confirmation message toward the first end point. The QoS reservation module 310 may further be capable of, upon expiration of the refresh timer associated to the refresh state, refreshing the reservation in the router 300.

[27] Furthermore, the QoS reservation module 310 may be capable of receiving an address modification notification related to the reservation from the first end point through the first access router. The address modification notification indicates that the first end point changes from a first address valid with the first access router to a second address valid with a second access router since the first end point is changing from the first access router to the second access router. Thereafter, the QoS reservation module 310 is capable of issuing a first reservation message on behalf of the second end point toward the second access router. The QoS reservation module may further be capable of updating a first record related to the first end point and its first address in view of the address modification notification in the reservation table 320 and receiving an ac¬ knowledge message addressed from the first end point issued from the second access router concerning the first reservation message.

[28] In this last example, the end point having the first address needs to be capable of, upon detection of a need for a change from the first access router to the second access router issuing the address modification notification related to the reservation toward a domain router (MAP in the previous examples). The address modification notification indicates, as mentioned earlier, that the end point changes its first address for the second address since the end point is changing from the first access router to the second access router. This capability of the end point could be implemented in a QoS reservation module therein (not shown). The QoS reservation module of the end point may further be capable of obtaining the second address from the second access router . or the domain router prior to sending the address modification noitfication.

[29] Although several preferred embodiments of the present invention have been il¬ lustrated in the accompanying drawings and described in the foregoing description, it will be understood that the invention is not limited to the embodiments disclosed, but is capable of numerous rearrangements, modifications and substitutions without departing from the teachings of the present invention. For example, even though the figures present simple and linear scenarios to facilitate understanding, this is not to be construed as a pre-requisite thereof . Indeed, the solution applies to networks of arbitrary topology and is also fitted to large topologies. In general, statements made in the description of the present invention do not necessarily limit any of the various claimed aspects of the present invention. Moreover, some statements may apply to some inventive features but not to others. In the drawings, like or similar elements are designated with identical reference numerals throughout the several views, and the various elements depicted are not necessarily drawn to scale.

Claims

Claims
[1] A router in a first administrative domain of a telecommunications network, the first administrative domain comprising a first end point having a first address, the first end point being associated to a reservation for a session transiting through the router between the first end point and a second end point in a second administrative domain, the router comprising a quality of service (QoS) reservation module, the QoS reservation module being capable of:
- receiving an address modification notification related to the reservation from the first end point through a first access router, wherein the address modification notification indicates that the first end point changes its first address for a second address since the first end point is changing from the first access router to a second access router; and
- issuing a first reservation message on behalf of the second end point toward the second access router.
[2] The router of claim 1 wherein the QoS reservation module further comprises a reservation table, the QoS reservation module being further capable of
- updating a first record related to the first end point and its first address in view of the address modification notification; and
- receiving an acknowledge message addressed from the first end point issued from the second access router concerning the first reservation message.
[3] A method of updating a reservation established for a session between a first end point in a first administrative domain and a second end point in a second admin¬ istrative domain, wherein the reservation is valid in the first administrative domain between the first end point, an access router and a domain router, the method comprising the steps of:
- detecting that the first end point connected to the access router needs to change toward a second access router;
- in the domain router, receiving an address modification notification related to the reservation from the first end point; and
- issuing a first reservation message from the domain router on behalf of the second end point toward the second access router.
[4] The method of claim 3 further comprising the steps of:
- updating a first record in a reservation table maintained by the domain router, wherein the first record relates to the first end point; and
- receiving an acknowledge message addressed from the first end point issued from the second access router concerning the first reservation message.
[5] An end point having a first address in a first administrative domain of a telecom¬ munications network, the first administrative domain comprising a first access router and a domain router, the end point being associated to a reservation for a session transiting through the first access router and the domain router toward a second end point in a second administrative domain, the end point router comprising a quality of service (QoS) reservation module, the QoS reservation module being capable of:
- upon detection of a need for a change from the first access router to a second access router:
- issuing an address modification notification related to the reservation toward the domain router, wherein the address mod¬ ification notification indicates that the end point changes its first address for a second address since the end point is changing from the first access router to a second access router.
[6] The end point of claim 5 wherein the QoS reservation module is further capable of, upon detection of a need for a change from the first access router to the second access router, obtaining the second address from the second access router.
PCT/IB2004/052099 2004-10-14 2004-10-14 Updating quality of service reservation WO2006040619A1 (en)

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DE200460025521 DE602004025521D1 (en) 2004-10-14 2004-10-14 Service goods reservation update
PCT/IB2004/052099 WO2006040619A1 (en) 2004-10-14 2004-10-14 Updating quality of service reservation
EP20040770259 EP1807981B1 (en) 2004-10-14 2004-10-14 Updating quality of service reservation
ES04770259T ES2340386T3 (en) 2004-10-14 2004-10-14 Reservation upgrade service quality.
US11577242 US7599375B2 (en) 2004-10-14 2004-10-14 Updating quality of service reservation

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CHEN T ET AL: "A performance study of session state re-establishment schemes in IP-based micro-mobility scenarios", MODELING, ANALYSIS, AND SIMULATION OF COMPUTER AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS, 2004. (MASCOTS 2004). PROCEEDINGS. THE IEEE COMPUTER SOCIETY'S 12TH ANNUAL INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON VOLENDAM, THE NETHERLANDS, EU OCT. 4-8, 2004, PISCATAWAY, NJ, USA,IEE, 4 October 2004 (2004-10-04), pages 159 - 166, XP010736973, ISBN: 0-7695-2251-3 *
HESHAM SOLIMAN; ERICSSON CLAUDE CASTELLUCCIA; INRIA KARIM EL-MALKI; ERICSSON LUDOVIC BELLIER; INRIA: "Hierarchical Mobile IPv6 mobility management (HMIPv6) <draft-ietf-mobileip-hmipv6-03.txt>", IETF STANDARD-WORKING-DRAFT, INTERNET ENGINEERING TASK FORCE, IETF, CH, 15 May 2004 (2004-05-15), XP002333447 *

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