WO2005116523A1 - Method of generating electrical power from non-traditional fuels - Google Patents

Method of generating electrical power from non-traditional fuels Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2005116523A1
WO2005116523A1 PCT/ES2005/000285 ES2005000285W WO2005116523A1 WO 2005116523 A1 WO2005116523 A1 WO 2005116523A1 ES 2005000285 W ES2005000285 W ES 2005000285W WO 2005116523 A1 WO2005116523 A1 WO 2005116523A1
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Prior art keywords
fuel
traditional
non
step
combustion
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PCT/ES2005/000285
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Spanish (es)
French (fr)
Inventor
Jeronimo Angulo Aramburu
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Sener Grupo De Ingenieria, S.A.
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F01MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES
    • F01KSTEAM ENGINE PLANTS; STEAM ACCUMULATORS; ENGINE PLANTS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; ENGINES USING SPECIAL WORKING FLUIDS OR CYCLES
    • F01K23/00Plants characterised by more than one engine delivering power external to the plant, the engines being driven by different fluids
    • F01K23/02Plants characterised by more than one engine delivering power external to the plant, the engines being driven by different fluids the engine cycles being thermally coupled
    • F01K23/06Plants characterised by more than one engine delivering power external to the plant, the engines being driven by different fluids the engine cycles being thermally coupled combustion heat from one cycle heating the fluid in another cycle
    • F01K23/065Plants characterised by more than one engine delivering power external to the plant, the engines being driven by different fluids the engine cycles being thermally coupled combustion heat from one cycle heating the fluid in another cycle the combustion taking place in an internal combustion piston engine, e.g. a diesel engine

Abstract

The invention relates to a method of generating electrical power from non-traditional fuels. The inventive method comprises the following steps consisting in: (a) combusting the non-traditional fuel in a combustion oven, with recovery of the heat in order to generate and/or superheat water vapour; and (b) supplying the water vapour from step (a) to a steam turbine which is connected to an electrical generator in order to produce electrical power. According to the invention, some of the power requirements in step (a) are satisfied using the waste heat from a motor-generator unit. In this way, it is possible to optimise the electrical yield of low-medium power electricity generating stations using non-traditional fuels.

Description

PROCEDURE FOR GENERATING ELECTRICITY FROM NON-TRADITIONAL FUELS

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

The present invention pertains to the field of power generation from non conventional fuels such as forest plant biomass or primary, secondary biomass (sawdust, bark, etc.), urban waste or comparable products, industrial waste, waste agricultural or agriculture or effluent treatment, etc.

These fuels typically have a low heat of combustion, often due to the percentage of water contained, often reaching proportions of 15-75% by weight.

The usual way of electricity generation from these non-traditional fuels is combusted in a furnace provided with a boiler for generating steam and electric turbine generator driven by the steam. The energy efficiency of these systems generally do not exceed 25% (expressed as percentage of electrical KWh generated regarding thermal KWh contained in the primary fuel), very unfavorable compared to the combined skies natural gas reaching yields of 50% or more.

These low energy yields are due not only to the limitations of the steam turbine system, but also a significant part of the combustion heat is consumed in drying the non-traditional fuel and in heating the combustion air. Some of these non-traditional fuels, for example, municipal waste or waste plastics containing certain chlorinated derivatives, produce highly toxic chemical compounds (dioxins, furans, etc.) which pollute the flue gas chimney. Furthermore, the combustion of hydrogen chloride which attacks the tube bundle steam generation is generated when the temperature rises to get supersaturated steam.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION Some of the aforementioned problems of power generation with no traditional fuels (moisture, low energy efficiency, production of toxic chemicals, corrosiveness, etc.) have been addressed through the use of traditional fuels (natural gas, diesel, fuel oil, etc.) as auxiliary fuels nontraditional.

For example, raising the temperature of the combustion gases of the furnace above 900 ° C, usually 1000-1200 ° C, for a post-combustion of traditional fuel, it can destroy toxic compounds, avoiding pouring into the atmosphere by the fireplace.

Also, the saturated steam generation at high pressure in the tube bundle of the boiler and overheating in an external exchanger with fumes from a burner of a traditional fuel, eliminate problems of corrosion in said tubular beam and improve energy efficiency steam cycle (patent ES 2006059, SENER

1989). The energy efficiency is further improved if the fumes of conventional fuel overheated saturated steam coming from a turbogenerator (patent ES 2010890, SENER 1989). It has also been used natural gas as auxiliary fuel in gas turbines, using hot fumes to dry the non-traditional fuel (US Patent 4,957,049, Electrodyne RESEARCH CORP, 1990) and to replace cold combustion air oven (US Patent 4,882,903, CH GUERNSEY CO , 1989). Furthermore, the use of natural gas as auxiliary fuel in gas turbines to generate hot gases and providing heat to a power generation system not to traditional fuel, has been described by several authors (those already mentioned above, WO 90/00219 and , Imatran Voima, 1990; US 4,852,344, Energy Economics AND DEVELOPMENT, 1989; US 5,623,822, MONTENAY INTERNATIONAL

CORP, 1997; US 5724807, MONTENAY INTERN. CORP., 1998, etc.), since in this way the energy efficiency of the combustion of natural gas to generate electricity and hot gases is improved simultaneously. However, the electrical performance of gas turbines drop significantly with its size, making them unsuitable for supplying auxiliary heat in electric generating non-traditional low-medium power (5-25 MWe) fuels as happens very often in the case of biomass, industrial waste, agricultural or livestock, where the availability of fuel or waste is limited.

So continue to exist in the prior art the need to optimize power generation facilities non-traditional fuels low-medium power for their electrical performance.

The present invention is based on the internal combustion engines operated with traditional fuels such as natural gas, diesel oil, fuel oil, etc., are machines that attain high electrical efficiency (45-48% up) also providing usable residual heat from the flue gases and cooling water shirts and turbochargers. Unlike turbines, internal combustion engines are applicable to the low power range getting high yields of power generation. The use of residual heat of the engine not only allows vapor that can be reheated with the fumes from the furnace to move a steam turbine, but preferably provide heat ranges lower and temperatures are fuel drying, heating combustion air furnace or heating boiler water.

OBJECT OF THE INVENTION

The present invention therefore aims to increase the energy efficiency of electricity generation from non-traditional, such as biomass, municipal waste, etc., using a traditional fuel auxiliary fuel such as oil and gas fuel fossil origin, for example. It is also an object of the present invention to integrate a power generation system using internal combustion engines with other generation system type combustion furnace-boiler steam, so that the residual heat of the first use in the second, resulting in better efficiency than would occur with both systems separately.

It is also an object of the present invention that the residual heat of the motor generator used in the energy needs of ancillary services or low temperature furnace-boiler system, so that the heat of combustion of this second system is preferably used in the high temperature services such as generation and superheating steam, resulting in a better utilization of residual heat.

It is also an object of the present invention to achieve maximum utilization of the heat contained in the flue gases and the cooling water of engines burning the auxiliary fuel.

It is also an object of the invention to achieve the improvement of energy efficiency is applicable to generation facilities low-average power, especially in the range of 5 to 25 MWe in which gas turbines lose performance.

It is also an object of the invention to reconcile improvement of energy efficiency caused by the motor generator in the areas of low temperatures, which can be achieved with other known systems in the area of ​​generation of saturated steam at high pressure and subsequent overheating, which act in areas of high temperatures.

Finally, it is object of the invention to have a sufficiently flexible and adaptable to the characteristics of the various non-traditional fuels process.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION The present invention provides a method for generating electrical power from non-traditional fuels comprising the steps of:

(A) combustion of non-traditional fuel in a combustion furnace with heat recovery to generate and / or superheating steam, and (b) supplying water vapor from step (a) to a steam turbine coupled to a electrical generator to produce electricity;

wherein waste heat from an engine generator is used to satisfy the energy demands of step (a).

In a particular embodiment, the method of the invention comprises, before step (a) combustion, a preliminary step of drying the non-traditional wet fuel, wherein the residual heat of the motor generator is used to satisfy some or all of the energy demands of such previous stage.

In another embodiment of the method of the invention, the residual heat of the motor generator is used for heating the combustion air of step (a), or heating the water for steam generation step (a), or in generating steam in step (a), or non-traditional drying fuel prior stage, or a combination thereof.

In another embodiment of the method of the invention, the waste heat of motor generator comes from the combustion fumes or water cooling the same, or both. In the present invention, the integration of an internal combustion engine fed with traditional fuel and coupled to an electric generator with a combustion system in a furnace with heat recovery (a furnace-boiler system, for example) that uses fuel not traditional, is achieved giving the heat of the flue gases and cooling water shirts and engine turbochargers combustion air oven, or water for generating steam (water boiler, for example), or generating medium pressure steam, or drying of conventional fuel or, preferably, a combination of these services. Depending on the size of the installation can be used one or more motor generators. Alternators connected to the steam turbine and the internal combustion engine generates electricity of the integrated system of the invention. The present invention allows various particular embodiments to optimize the type and characteristics of non-traditional fuel, the size in the plant, the type of traditional fuel and other circumstances of the specific implementation without descriptions are made below to constitute limitations scope of the process.

In a particular embodiment of the method of the invention, the engine waste heat is used for drying the non-traditional fuel and heating the combustion air and the water for steam generation (FIG 1).

Thus, in a particular embodiment of the process of the invention, the drying of the previous step is performed in a dryer by direct contact of non-traditional wet fuel with combustion fumes, or by direct or indirect contact of non-traditional fuel wet an intermediate medium.

The nature and characteristics of non-traditional fuel to dry determine the drying system. Thus, in a particular embodiment of the invention, the flue gases of traditional fuel does not directly contact the non-traditional fuel in the dryer, but do so with an intermediate fluid, such as steam or thermal oil, which transfers its heat to through exchangers or through oxygen-depleted air in closed circuit in direct contact with the product to be dried. Thus it prevents fumes traditional fuel and contaminated water collection of non-traditional fuel for recovery or treatment and disposal is facilitated.

In a particular embodiment of the process, applicable for example urban waste gases from the dryer are sent to a scrubber to remove odor emissions before emission through the chimney (not shown in the figures).

In another particular embodiment of the process, part of the combustion fumes of the motor generator or part of the flue gases of the furnace are introduced into the combustion furnace (not shown in the figures). Thus, part of the residual heat of said fumes is exploited, thereby increasing the energy efficiency of the system of the invention.

In another particular embodiment of the method of the invention, applicable to non traditional fuels with low water content, the engine waste heat is used to generate medium pressure steam (for example 10 Kg / cm 2) and heat the air oven (FIG. 2).

In a particular embodiment of the process of the invention heat is applied only to motor generator fuel drying or heating of the combustion air or both (FIG. 3). In this case, heating the water for steam generation can be made in an external installation in which the same also steam using part of traditional fuel overheats. By superheating the steam generated in the furnace outside the undesired corrosion problems are avoided. In a particular embodiment of the present invention, part of the fuel it is used in traditional burners to raise the temperature of the combustion fumes of the power generator or to increase the temperature of the combustion fumes of the furnace (not shown in the figures). Also, part of the conventional fuel can be used in burners for heating water for steam generation or to superheat the saturated steam or slightly superheated generated in the combustion furnace prior to delivery to the turbogenerator of step (b).

Thus, in a preferred embodiment of the process, the heat of the motor generator is applied to the drying of the fuel and air heating of a boiler-turbine-steam oven higher performance, system characterized in boiler saturated steam is generated at high pressure (about 100 atm) to about 500 overheats ° C with the heat of combustion of natural gas or other conventional fuel before I turbinarlo. In this case, preheating boiler water is integrated into the system superheat high pressure steam. In another preferred embodiment of the invention, part of conventional fuel it is used in a turbine or in an additional motor generator whose fumes are used to superheat the saturated steam or slightly superheated generated in the combustion furnace prior to delivery to the turbogenerator of step (b) (not shown in the figures). Thus, by coupling a turbogenerator or additional power generator system of the invention, the energy efficiency thereof is increased.

In a particular embodiment, the non-traditional primary or secondary fuel is biomass or an assimilable material thereof (forest biomass, plant biomass, energy crops, sawdust, etc.); or urban waste or assimilable materials, or industrial waste or assimilable materials, or a product or byproduct of waste water treatment, or a residue of agricultural origin (sludge, manure, chicken manure, vegetable water, alperujo, etc.) or an assimilable material or a residue or an assimilable automotive materials (used tires, light fraction fragmentation car, etc.), or a combination thereof.

Thus, in a preferred embodiment, it said non conventional fuel is a material selected from forest biomass, plant biomass, energy crops, sawdust, bark, sludge, manure, chicken manure, vegetable water, alperujo, used tires, light fraction of fragmentation automobile, or a combination thereof.

In another particular embodiment, traditional fuel is a gaseous or liquid hydrocarbon fossil, preferably gas-oil, fuel-oil or natural gas.

In another particular embodiment, it said traditional fossil fuel is replaced partially or completely by a traditional non-fossil fuels such as biogas, producer gas, synthesis gas, bioethanol, biodiesel or other assimilable motor fuel combustion.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE FIGURES

Figure 1 shows a diagram of the process of the invention wherein the engine waste heat is used for drying the non-traditional fuel and heating the combustion air and the water for steam generation.

2 shows a schematic of the process of the invention wherein the engine waste heat is used to generate medium pressure steam and air heating oven. Figure 3 shows a diagram of the process of the invention in which the heat of the motor generator to the fuel drying or heating of the combustion air or both is applied, while heating the water for steam generation is effected in a the same external installation in which also the steam is superheated using part of traditional fuel.

PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS OF THE INVENTION Figure 1 illustrates the process of integrating a motor generator traditional fuel (natural gas or fuel, for example) with a power generation system not traditional fuel (forest biomass, for example). The combustion furnace of non-traditional fuel is in this case a furnace-boiler system.

Biomass (1), stored in the silo (A) is dried in the dryer (B) reducing their moisture to levels below 15% water by weight. Drying is accomplished by contacting the biomass with the flue gas (7) from the combustion of conventional fuel (6) in the motor generator (H) which have previously yielded part of its heat content to the combustion air (10) the heat exchanger (I) and the water boiler (5) in the exchanger (J).

The dry biomass (2) is burned in the furnace (C), recovering the heat of combustion in the form of steam (4) produced in a tubular beam in the convection zone, fed with water boiler (5) preheated in changer (J).

Steam (4) moves the steam turbine (F), condenses in (G) and recycled to the exchanger (J) and the boiler. No fumes traditional fuel (3) is purified in (D) (here dedusting mainly) together with the fumes of conventional fuel (8) emitted by the fireplace (E).

The combustion air of the furnace (10) is preheated in the ntercambiador (K) using the water cooling engine.

As previously discussed, depending on the size of the installation can be used one or more motor generators. Alternators connected to the steam turbine and the engine generates electricity (9).

In Figure 2, the flue gases (7) of the motor (M) generate medium pressure steam in (J) and heat the combustion air (10) in (I) before leaving the chimney (E2); while the heat of combustion of non-traditional fuel (1) generated in the furnace (C), is used to generate high pressure steam which turbine (F1) and for superheating the medium pressure steam generated in (J) which turbine (F2). As other particular embodiments, the electrical energy (9) is generated in the alternators coupled to steam turbines (F) and the motor (H), which can be one or multiple units in parallel.

3 shows a particular embodiment in which the heat of the fumes (7) generated by a motor (I) with traditional fuel (6) the air (10) into the changer (J) and drying are employed in preheating untraditional fuel (1) in the dryer (B). Preheating the water for steam generation it is integrated into a system of overheating the saturated steam or slightly superheated generated in the furnace (C) as is the exchanger (H), wherein the steam is superheated with heat from a employing burner of the traditional fuel (6) before moving the steam turbine (F). The example described below is used for polishing the process of the invention, without implying limitations to its capabilities.

EXAMPLE 1 (according to Figure 1)

Processed 30t / h of urban waste, with 40% humidity and a lower calorific value of 2000 Kcal / Kg, in a unit of prior art to the present invention constituted by a grate furnace with recovery of superheated steam turbine condensation, generating 17,300 kWh / h with 25% yield.

The same amount of urban waste is processed into a unit as reflected in Figure 1, wherein the auxiliary fuel (6) is natural gas (35,500 kWh / h), of which residual heat (flue gas and cooling water) is 9650 KWh recover t / hour, drying of the residue in (B) (the humidity drops below 20%) and the preheating of combustion air (K) and (I). The electrical energy generated in the steam turbine is 19,700 kWh / h, to which must be added 16,000 KWh / time generated by the gas engine, i.e. a total of 35,700 kWh / hour.

With the process of the invention, power generation with no traditional fuel has increased 14%. The electric power efficiency of both machines with the process of the invention is 29.2%, while if they had not used the waste heat of the engine in the services (B), (K) and (I), of according to the present invention, the overall performance of both generation systems without integrating had been 27.2%.

Claims

What is claimed
1. A process for power generation from non conventional fuels, comprising the following steps: (a) burning fuel in a non-traditional combustion furnace with heat recovery to generate and / or steam superheating and ( b) supplying water vapor from step (a) to a steam turbine coupled to an electric generator to produce electricity; wherein waste heat from an engine generator is used to satisfy the energy demands of step (a).
2. Method according to claim 1 comprising, before step (a) burning a prior step of drying the wet fuel untraditional, characterized in that the waste heat of the motor generator is used to satisfy some or all of the energy demands of said previous stage.
3. Process according to claims 1 and 2, characterized in that the waste heat of the motor generator is used for heating the combustion air of step (a), or to heat water for steam generation step (a ), or the generation of steam in step (a), or non-traditional drying fuel prior stage, or a combination thereof.
4. Method according to claim 3, wherein the waste heat from the motor generator comes from the combustion fumes or water cooling the same, or both.
5. Process according to claims 2-4, wherein the drying of the previous step is performed in a dryer by direct contact of non-traditional wet fuel with combustion fumes, or by direct or indirect contact of moist fuel untraditional an intermediate medium.
6. Method according to the preceding claims, characterized in that part of the combustion fumes of the motor generator are introduced into the combustion furnace.
7. Process according to previous claims, characterized in that part of the flue gases of the furnace are introduced into said combustion furnace.
8. Process according to previous claims, characterized in that part of the fuel is used in traditional burners to raise the temperature of the combustion fumes of the motor generator, or to increase the temperature of the flue gases of the furnace, or to heat water for generating steam, or to superheat the saturated steam or superheated slightly generated in the combustion furnace prior to delivery to the turbogenerator of step (b).
9. Process according to previous claims, characterized in that part of the conventional fuel is used in a turbine or in an additional motor generator whose fumes are used to superheat the saturated steam or slightly superheated generated in the combustion furnace prior to delivery to turbogenerator step (b).
10. Method according to the preceding claims, wherein the non-traditional primary or secondary fuel is biomass or an assimilable material thereof, or urban waste or an assimilable material or an industrial residue or an assimilable material or a product or byproduct treatment of wastewater, or a residue of agricultural origin or an assimilable material or a residue or an assimilable automotive material, or a combination thereof.
11. Method according to claim 10, wherein the non-traditional fuel is a light material selected from forest biomass, plant biomass, energy crops, sawdust, bark, sludge, manure, chicken manure, vegetable water, alperujo, used tires, fraction fragmentation automobile, or a combination thereof.
12. Method according to the preceding claims, characterized in that the traditional fuel is a gaseous or liquid hydrocarbon fossil, preferably gas oil, fuel oil or natural gas.
13. The process of claim 12 wherein the traditional fossil fuel is replaced partially or completely by a traditional non-fossil fuels such as biogas, producer gas, synthesis gas, bioethanol, biodiesel or other assimilable motor fuel combustion.
PCT/ES2005/000285 2004-05-24 2005-05-20 Method of generating electrical power from non-traditional fuels WO2005116523A1 (en)

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ES200401238A ES2221816B1 (en) 2004-05-24 2004-05-24 Method for generating electric power from non-traditional fuels.
ESP200401238 2004-05-24

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Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO2010043921A2 (en) * 2008-10-17 2010-04-22 Shap Corp. S.R.L. Plant and method for producing electricity from oleaginous plant seeds and fruits
EP2686525A4 (en) * 2011-03-18 2015-11-25 Robert P Benz Cogeneration power plant

Families Citing this family (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
ES2366249B2 (en) * 2011-09-06 2012-04-26 Juan Berlanga Jiménez Method of generating energy? To thermal and electrical from various waste and system for putting into practice.

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US4852344A (en) * 1988-06-06 1989-08-01 Energy Economics & Development, Inc. Waste disposal method and apparatus
US4882903A (en) * 1988-04-01 1989-11-28 Ch Guernsey & Company Combined cycle waste-to-energy plant
US4957049A (en) * 1990-02-22 1990-09-18 Electrodyne Research Corp. Organic waste fuel combustion system integrated with a gas turbine combined cycle
US5623822A (en) * 1995-05-23 1997-04-29 Montenay International Corp. Method of operating a waste-to-energy plant having a waste boiler and gas turbine cycle

Family Cites Families (1)

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
ES2010890A6 (en) * 1989-03-15 1989-12-01 Sener Ing & Sist System for generating electrical energy from the combustion of solid and urban and assimilated waste.

Patent Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4882903A (en) * 1988-04-01 1989-11-28 Ch Guernsey & Company Combined cycle waste-to-energy plant
US4852344A (en) * 1988-06-06 1989-08-01 Energy Economics & Development, Inc. Waste disposal method and apparatus
US4957049A (en) * 1990-02-22 1990-09-18 Electrodyne Research Corp. Organic waste fuel combustion system integrated with a gas turbine combined cycle
US5623822A (en) * 1995-05-23 1997-04-29 Montenay International Corp. Method of operating a waste-to-energy plant having a waste boiler and gas turbine cycle

Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO2010043921A2 (en) * 2008-10-17 2010-04-22 Shap Corp. S.R.L. Plant and method for producing electricity from oleaginous plant seeds and fruits
WO2010043921A3 (en) * 2008-10-17 2010-07-08 Shap Corp. S.R.L. Plant and method for producing electricity from oleaginous plant seeds and fruits
EP2686525A4 (en) * 2011-03-18 2015-11-25 Robert P Benz Cogeneration power plant

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ES2221816B1 (en) 2005-09-16 grant

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