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WO2005027035A1 - Contactless transmission system, apparatus and method - Google Patents

Contactless transmission system, apparatus and method

Info

Publication number
WO2005027035A1
WO2005027035A1 PCT/SG2004/000292 SG2004000292W WO2005027035A1 WO 2005027035 A1 WO2005027035 A1 WO 2005027035A1 SG 2004000292 W SG2004000292 W SG 2004000292W WO 2005027035 A1 WO2005027035 A1 WO 2005027035A1
Authority
WO
Grant status
Application
Patent type
Prior art keywords
contactless
device
writer
reader
card
Prior art date
Application number
PCT/SG2004/000292
Other languages
French (fr)
Inventor
Mack Kalevi Palomaki
Boon Seng Lim
Original Assignee
Gold Fusion International Limited
Sony Electronics (Singapore) Pte Ltd
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date

Links

Classifications

    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06QDATA PROCESSING SYSTEMS OR METHODS, SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR ADMINISTRATIVE, COMMERCIAL, FINANCIAL, MANAGERIAL, SUPERVISORY OR FORECASTING PURPOSES; SYSTEMS OR METHODS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR ADMINISTRATIVE, COMMERCIAL, FINANCIAL, MANAGERIAL, SUPERVISORY OR FORECASTING PURPOSES, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • G06Q20/00Payment architectures, schemes or protocols
    • G06Q20/04Payment circuits
    • G06Q20/06Private payment circuits, e.g. involving electronic currency used among participants of a common payment scheme
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06QDATA PROCESSING SYSTEMS OR METHODS, SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR ADMINISTRATIVE, COMMERCIAL, FINANCIAL, MANAGERIAL, SUPERVISORY OR FORECASTING PURPOSES; SYSTEMS OR METHODS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR ADMINISTRATIVE, COMMERCIAL, FINANCIAL, MANAGERIAL, SUPERVISORY OR FORECASTING PURPOSES, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • G06Q20/00Payment architectures, schemes or protocols
    • G06Q20/30Payment architectures, schemes or protocols characterised by the use of specific devices
    • G06Q20/32Payment architectures, schemes or protocols characterised by the use of specific devices using wireless devices
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06QDATA PROCESSING SYSTEMS OR METHODS, SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR ADMINISTRATIVE, COMMERCIAL, FINANCIAL, MANAGERIAL, SUPERVISORY OR FORECASTING PURPOSES; SYSTEMS OR METHODS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR ADMINISTRATIVE, COMMERCIAL, FINANCIAL, MANAGERIAL, SUPERVISORY OR FORECASTING PURPOSES, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • G06Q20/00Payment architectures, schemes or protocols
    • G06Q20/30Payment architectures, schemes or protocols characterised by the use of specific devices
    • G06Q20/34Payment architectures, schemes or protocols characterised by the use of specific devices using cards, e.g. integrated circuit [IC] cards or magnetic cards
    • G06Q20/352Contactless payments by cards

Abstract

Disclosed is a wireless payment system wherein a wireless device has a contactless card able to interface with a wireless network and with a contactless smart card. Also disclosed is a wireless device comprising a contactless card for interfacing with a wireless network using an interface in the wireless device and for interfacing directly with a contactless smart card; and at least one of a keypad and a keyboard. The contactless card is a wireless reader/writer. Further disclosed is a method for payment and/or authentication by using a wireless device with a contactless card by interfacing the contactless card with a wireless network and with a contactless smart card to enable the contactless smart card to interface with the network using the wireless device; a method for payment and/or authentication using the device wherein an identity is transmitted by the device to a local station for authentication and payment is made by deduction from the contactless smart card by interfacing the contactless smart card directly with the contactless card; and a telecommunications cell antenna having a beam with the beam being shaped to provide a portion of the beam for transactions or events.

Description

Contactless Transmission System, Apparatus and Method

Field of the Invention

This invention relates to a contactless transaction system, apparatus and method and refers particularly, though not exclusively, to a contactless transaction system, apparatus and method for use in conjunction with a telecommunications infrastructure.

Definitions

Throughout this specification a reference to a transaction is to be taken as including a reference to a payment, funds transfer, security access, security clearance, entry access, departure clearance, exit approval, authentication, information exchange, transmission of digital data, reception Qf digital data, and digital data exchange.

Background to the Invention

At present there are many transaction systems in use for everyday events. Vehicle parking may require use of cash, coupons, special access cards, or special systems. Other transaction systems may use credit cards, loyalty points, memberships, subscriptions, and so forth. Use of a vehicle on highways may require special gantries, in-vehicle-units, cash cards, and so forth, for the paying of tolls. To use a public transport system may require use of a special, stored-value card. Together with security access cards for work and/or home, a person may have several cards, all used for specific purposes.

Not only does this become a burden to users, it causes a significant increase in cost due to the need for special, expensive hardware (e.g. toll gantries), and many inefficiencies due to needless creation of discrete systems for each application.

Such inefficiencies increase the cost of deployment and operation of a system, mainly due to the lack of economy of scale, and under utilisation of individual systems. Furthermore, contactless smart cards (i.e. contactless stored-value cards) are widespread and are commonly used. Although they may be used for payment, there is a lack of security, and no ability to authenticate the card holder.

Summary of the Invention

In accordance with a first aspect of the invention there is provided a contactless transaction system comprising a contactless device for interfacing with a contactless reader/writer that is able to interface with a telecommunications infrastructure.

In a further aspect there is provided a transaction method using a contactless device the method including the steps: interfacing the contactless device with a contactless reader/writer and interfacing the contactless reader/writer with a telecommunications infrastructure.

In another aspect, there is provided a contactless reader/writer for interfacing with a contactless device and a telecommunications infrastructure; the contactless reader/writer having a non-volatile memory, a module for authentication, a module for generating encryption keys, and a radio frequency application.

There is also provided a contactless device for interfacing with a contactless reader/writer by using a radio frequency application in both the contactless device and the contactless reader/writer, the contactless reader/writer being able to interface with a telecommunications infrastructure; the contactless device having a non-volatile memory, a module for authentication, and a module for generating encryption keys.

The contactless device radio frequency application may be read/write. The contactless device may be able to store personal data of a user, entitlements, values, data for other categories such as points, encryption and decryption keys, to store and operate applications including encryption and decryption applications, and to store other system-specified data. The contactless device may be in the form of a card, although other physical forms may be possible. Other physical forms may include a "Memory Stick" style of product, an implant, a watch, jewellery, and so forth, provided a radio frequency application was added. A suitable card is a "FELICA" card of Sony Corp., of Japan. In addition to other categories, the contactless device may include one of: a SIM card, a SAM card, a SIM card also having SAM card functionality, a SAM card also having SIM card functionality. The contactless device may be able to send to and/or receive from the contactless reader/writer one or more of: data, functionality, and applications. Data may include personal identification data for authentication of a user, and functionality and applications may involve one or more PIN codes and encryption/decryption, or other cryptographic functions including hashing, and message digest. The contactless device may be a contactless reader/writer; and the contactless reader/writer may be a contactless device. The contactless device may therefore have authentication capability, payment capability, and authentication and payment capability.

The contactless reader/writer may include one of: a SIM card, a SAM card, a SIM card also having SAM card functionality, a SAM card also having SIM card functionality.

The contactless reader/writer may interface with the telecommunications infrastructure using an interface having one of, but not limited to: a wired telecommunications interface, a wireless telecommunications interface, a wireless analogue communication infrastructure, and a digital data communication infrastructure. Wireless may be digital or analog.

The contactless reader/writer may be one of: mobile telephone, cellular telephone, hand telephone, personal digital assistant, tablet computer, notebook computer, laptop computer, or a specific contactless reader/writer having wireless or wired telecommunication functionality. It may also be a point-of-sale terminal, or other wired terminal.

The contactless reader/writer may have a retainer for releasably retaining the contactless device in close proximity to the contactless reader/writer to facilitate contactless communication between the contactless device and the contactless reader/writer. The retainer may be one of: a slot in a casing of the contactless reader/writer, an opening in the casing of the contactless reader/writer, a mechanical system for holding the contactless device to the casing of the contactless reader/writer, and a sleeve in a pouch for holding the contactless reader/writer and or from the contactless device. The contactless reader/writer may include an input device such as, for example: a keypad, a keyboard, voice interface, display, or other man-to-machine, and machine-to-machine, interfaces.

The transaction may involve using the contactless device such that an identity is transmitted by the contactless reader/writer to a local station for authentication, and payment is made by deduction from the contactless device, all by interfacing the contactless device with the contactless reader/writer. A PIN code may be required to be used before payment can be initiated. Payment may be by initially deducting a known cost, and subsequently crediting any unused amount. This is known as cash back processing.

The transaction may be by: (a) initially deducting an initial amount for an initial period;

(b) at the end of the initial period, deducting a further amount for a further period; and

(c) repeating step (b) until further transactions are not required or not able to be effected.

For vehicle parking entry, an entry station may interrogate an entering vehicle to ensure the entering vehicle has at least one of the contactless reader/writer and the contactless device.

For vehicle parking exit an exit station may interrogate at least one of the contactless reader/writer and the contactless device to obtain an identity, and compare that identity against identities for those that have paid all parking fees, before allowing the vehicle to exit.

For vehicle parking a determination may be made of a number of parked vehicles in a parking station, the number of parked vehicles in the parking station being deducted from a known number of parking spaces in the parking station to determine a number of vacant parking spaces in the parking station, the number of vacant parking spaces being displayed.

The display may be at an entry to the parking station. If the parking station has multiple levels, the display may be for and at each of the multiple levels. The display may be for vacant parking spaces for each level. Data for the display may be transmitted for display on the display of the contactless reader/writer.

Upon a stored value in the contactless device dropping below a predetermined value, the contactless reader/writer may forward a message to a telecommunication-enabled device to provide a low stored value alert.

The contactless reader/writer may be used to change transaction data. Changed transaction data may include at least one selected from the group consisting of: different vehicle and different parking space.

Payment and/or authentication may be for a transaction, including a transaction for at least one of: vehicle parking, vehicle parking entry, vehicle parking exit, security clearance, security access, loyalty points, subscription, entitlement, membership, purchase from a vending machine, micropayment, highway toll payment, and interface with a payment system.

The identity data may be one or more of: registration data of the vehicle, names, identity number, uniquely generated random numbers, and serial numbers. The identity data may be from the contactless device and/or the contactless reader/writer or by being entered using the input device of the contactless reader/writer.

A parking officer may use a mobile device to be able to interrogate a parking database to ensure that a parked vehicle is entitled to do so either by payment of adequate parking fees or through subscription.

In a further aspect there is provided a transaction system comprising a wireless transaction zone in which a transaction can occur, the wireless transaction zone being created by controlling at least one selected from the group consisting of: an output power of at least one participating transmitter, shaping of a transmitted beam, shaping of a received beam, using an antenna with desired characteristics, and using an antenna array with desired characteristics. The transaction may be at an entry location requiring payment and/or authentication and/or other business logic process. Where the transaction zone is a cell of a cellular system, a pico-cell may be provided so that the contactless device can interface with the contactless reader/writer and use the contactless reader/writer to provide access and/or payment.

A cell for receiving data from the contactless device may have a beam with the beam being shaped to provide a portion of the beam for transactions. The beam may be used to facilitate communication between the contactless device and the wireless infrastructure (and thus to a backend infrastructure), but when in the transaction or event zone of the beam, a PIN code or other authentication data may be required. The communication between the contactless device and the wireless infrastructure may be via the contactless reader/writer.

In a penultimate aspect there is provided a telecommunications transmitter with an associated antenna having a beam, the beam being shaped to provide a portion of the beam for transactions.

In a final aspect there is provided a computer usable medium comprising a computer program code that is configured to cause at least one processor to execute one or more functions to enable a device to perform one or more of the above methods.

Brief Description of the Drawings

In order that the invention may be fully understood and readily put into practical effect, there shall now be described by way of non-limitative example only preferred embodiments of the present invention, the description being with reference to the accompanying illustrative drawings in which:

Figure 1 is an illustration of one form of a prior art system;

Figure 2 is an illustration of a first embodiment of the present invention; Figure 3 is an illustration of a second embodiment of the present invention;

Figure 4 is an illustration of a third embodiment of the present invention;

Figure 5 is a flow chart of a first use case;

Figure 6 is a flow chart of a second use case;

Figure 7 is a flow chart of a third use case; Figure 8 is a flow chart of the fourth use case; and

Figure 9 is a flow chart of a fifth use case. Detailed Description of Preferred Embodiments

To first refer to Figure 1 , there is shown an existing payment system for a toll collection on a highway. Here, a gantry 10 is used to support several readers that communicate wirelessly with an in-vehicle unit 12, which is used with a cash card (stored-value card) 14. For the storage of data, card 14 normally has a magnetic stripe, or contacts with links to an integrated circuit. The magnetic stripe is usually on one face and parallel to but spaced from a side. The card 14 is usually a contact card.

Gantries 10 are relatively expensive with costs of at least $100,000 not being unusual. In-vehicle units 12 must be installed in the vehicle at considerable expense. They also interfere with the appearance of the vehicle, and incur not inconsiderable cost in manufacture, installation, and testing. The cash card 14 is the cheapest, and most portable part of the system. Gantry 10 is connected to back-end systems 16 by a digital link such as, for example, a wired connection, the Internet, or dedicated telephone line.

Figure 2 is an illustration of a first embodiment of the present invention. Here, a back end system 20 is connected to a wireless infrastructure 22 such as, for example, a cellular telephone network, by means of WiFi or the Internet 21 , or other wide area network.

The wireless infrastructure 22 connects with a device (not shown) that has a wireless interface 23. If the infrastructure 22 is a cellular telephone network, wireless interface 23, for example, may be a GSM interface. Associated with wireless interface 23 is a contactless reader/writer 24 for interfacing with a contactless device 25.

The wireless interface 23 and reader/writer 24 may be combined into the one device or piece of equipment. This may be by having the wireless interface 23 as having the same physical and electrical interface characteristics as a SIM (Subscriber Identity Module) card, and replacing or adding to the normal SIM functionalities with contactless reader/writer functionalities able to relay messages from the GSM device 26 to the contactless device 25. Alternatively, the wireless interface 23 may be another form of card such as, for example, a cash card, with added interface functionality. The contactless device 25 may have a built in cash card functionality, and radio frequency receive/transmit functionality. More preferably it has built-in some or all of the functionality of a SIM card. The GSM device includes wireless interface 23 and the contactless reader/writer 24. The GSM device 26 can therefore interface with both the infrastructure 22, and the contactless device 25.

A SIM card includes the two following functions: authentication, and generation of the encryption keys for voice and data. For the authentication function, the SIM card identifies itself as being legitimate. Therefore, the SIM card 26 can be used to authenticate a person. For cryptographic function, the SIM card 26 can also be used to be able to generate and temporarily store the keys that are used to encrypt data. The SIM card 26 can also be used to have additional functionality similar to that of a SAM (Secure Access Module) card and thus becomes a SIM/quasi SAM card.

Alternatively, a SAM card could be used. In such a case it could be altered by adding to its functionality the identification/authentication function, and encryption function, of a SIM card, to thus become a SAM/quasi SIM card.

The SIM/SAM card 26 may be in any telecommunication-enabled device 36 (Figure 4). The device may be a dedicated device with wireless interface, or a known wireless device such as, for example, a mobile/cellular/hand telephone, personal digital assistant (PDA), tablet computer, notebook computer, a laptop computer, or a combination of two or more of them. It may also be a wire device such as, for example, a point-of-sale terminal.

To facilitate ease of interface between the telecommunication network 22 via device 36 or SIM/SAM card 26, and contactless device 25, the telecommunication- enabled device 36 may be able to retain the contactless device 25 in a relatively fixed position relative to the device 36 so that SIM/SAM card 26 can communicate with the contactless device 25 reliably, and still allow a user to use the telecommunication-enabled device 36. Any suitable retainer may be used such as, for example, a slot or opening 37 in the casing 38 of the device 36, "Velcro", adhesive tape, lugs or clips 39, and so forth; or a sleeve or the like in a pouch, bag or envelope for holding the telecommunication-enabled device. In addition, the contactless reader/writer 26 may include at least one slot with contacts for a contact interface to enable a contact device (not shown) to be able to used in conjunction with the contactless reader/writer 26 and contact device 25. This may assist the use of contactless reader/writer 26, with or without contactless device 25, to be used to top up a stored value in the contact device; or for the contact device to be used to top up a stored value in the contactless device.

Preferably, the telecommunication-enabled device 36 has a keypad 40 (as in a mobile telephone) or keyboard (as in a PDA, etc) to enable a user to provide relevant and required input to the SIM/SAM card 26, and contactless device 25. For example, entering, updating or changing password data in SIM/SAM card 26; entering a new PIN code; in contactless device 25; entering data; providing instructions; entering vehicle registration number; and so forth.

If desired, SIM/SAM card 26 can transfer to the contactless device 25 some or all of the personal data and the authentication functionality so that contactless device 25 can provide not only transaction functionality and/or data, but also or alternatively can provide authentication/verification. The personal data may also be encrypted using the encryption functionality of SIM/SAM card 26, with the encryption/decryption functionality also being uploaded into contactless device 25.

By having the personal information stored in card 25 many additional functions can be added to the normal functions performed by card 25.

For example:

1. as shown in Figure 5, the contactless device 25 can be used for access to areas where a restricted access policy applies. This may be by direct interface of device 25 with a local station, or by use of the reader/writer 26 that in turn interacts with the local station (50). Some or all of the personal identification may be required to authenticate a user (51) and a PIN code may need to be entered (52). In addition, if there is a charge (e.g. car park) the contactless device 25 can be used to make the payment (53) so that in one transaction, security clearance/authentication can take place AND payment; 2. in Figure 6 there is shown a user being able to use the contactless reader/writer 26 with contactless device 25 in close proximity (within the RF range of SIM/SAM card 26 and/or contactless device 25) in step 60, to dial up a financial institution (61) for topping up the stored value in contactless device 25; and/or for debiting an account at the financial institution for the transaction. Account information stored in contactless device 25 will be downloaded by the financial institution (62), and may be authenticated (63) and a PIN code entered (64). The transaction can then be effected (65) and the process ends (66). Steps 62 and 63 may be in the reverse order, if desired or required, such that authentication (63) may take place before download (62).

3. in Figure 7 there is shown how to add, overwrite or delete applications/functionality from contactless device 25. This will allow user to have some control over the functionality they have on their contactless device 25. A contactless device 25 may be issued with functionality for a specific purpose and additional functionality can be added. This may be in addition to previous functionality or by overwriting one or more previous functions, and/or applications. Deletion of one or more functions/applications may also be performed. Relevant functions/applications may include, but not be limited to : banking for controlled access to accounts, car parking payment, authentication, security access, toll payments, and so forth. This allows the activation and/or deactivation of applications/functions associated with the stored personal data. After the device 25 is interfaced (70) with reader/writer 26, the user is authenticated (71), and PIN code entered (72) if required. A main menu is displayed (73) by scrolling, listing or otherwise, and the option is selected (74). This may be an option to update applications/functions. A sub-menu is then displayed and the user selects an option (76). This may be to add, delete or overwrite. The relevant function/application menu is then displayed (77). The data for the menu may be from the reader/writer 26, or from a database/web site/host with which reader/writer 26 is in telecommunication, or from the device 25. The required function/application is selected. A check is made at 79 to ensure the action is to proceed. If yes, at 80 it proceeds to perform the action (delete/add/overwrite) and then the process ends (81). If no at 79, the process reverts to one of steps 73, 75 or 72; and 4. to be able to view on a display 41 of device 36 the current status of contactless device 25 (including stored value), enter data for storage on contactless device 25, change a PIN code stored on contactless device 25, and so forth. This may be menu-driven in the same manner as for Figure 7, but a PIN code may not be required.

At authentication in Figures 5, 6 and 7 if the device 25 and reader/writer 26 both authenticate that the user is the same user (i.e. the owner/holder/named person of both), a PIN code may not be required for certain transaction forms (e.g. car park access) or level (e.g. transaction below predetermined value).

As shown in Figure 8, for car parking applications, a user can activate payment from within their vehicle when the vehicle is in the car park, if the car park has one or more antennas providing coverage of the car park. Preferably, the antennas provide total coverage of the car park. This may include WiFi "hot spots". The vehicle identify could be included in the personal details stored in the contactless device 25, or may be transmitted by entering the vehicle registration data (alpha, alphanumeric or numeric) using the keyboard/keypad 40 of the device 36. The parking may be paid for using the contactless device 25. This may require use of a PIN code, if desired or required. The payment may be by initially deducting the maximum cost for the car park. This may be defined by the car park operator. For example, a 24 hours period. The unused amount is credited when parking is terminated.

An alternative payment procedure may be that when parking, an initial amount for an initial period (both being defined by the car park operator) is deducted from contactless device 25. This may be, for example, an amount of $1.00 for the first half hour; $2.00 for the first hour; and so forth.

At the expiry of the initial period, and if parking hasn't ended, a further amount for a further period is deducted. This continues until car parking is terminated; or the contactless device 25 has its stored value exhausted, or such that a further payment cannot be made. This may be when the stored value is less than the required payment. 13

(98), the digital photograph image data being transmitted to the parking database (99) for storage (100). The transmission may be accompanied by one or more of the vehicle registration date, location, time and date, and parking officer identity. Alternatively, the download to the portable device may be of all validly parked vehicles, all other vehicles therefore being able to be "booked". The database may be linked to other databases such as, for example, a database of unpaid parking infringement notices.

By having sensors at all entrances to and exits from the car park, the total number of vehicles in the car park is known. Those who have paid are known. All others must be illegally parked and can therefore be issued with a parking infringement notice. The parking database could transmit a message to a parking offices portable device that illegal parking was occurring at the carpark thus alerting the parking officer to take relevant action.

For season parking, no payment would be required and thus the authentication function only would be required. If the season parking authorisation had expired or was to expire shortly, the payment function may be automatically initiated. This may be by deduction from a stored value in contactless device 25, or by using contactless device 25 and contactless reader/writer 26 to access an account at a financial institution.

Where payment and/or security is at an entry location to a car park or other location requiring payment and/or authentication (e.g. office, work site/location and so forth) a pico cell may be provided so that card 25 and/or SIM/SAM card 26 can interface with the pico cell to provide access and/or payment.

Any cell may have a beam with the beam being shaped to provide a portion of the beam for transactions or events. In this way the entire beam can be used for communication between SIM/SAM card 26 and the cell, but when in the transaction or event zone of the beam the PIN code or other authentication data may be required. This may be of assistance for, by way of example, use for purchasing products and services at a vending machine, mobile micropayments, interfacing with payment systems, and so forth.

For parking areas, be they single storey, multi-storey, open, or covered, the number of vehicles in the car park will be known. As the size of the car park is 12

In the latter case, the contactless device 25, via reader/writer 26, may arrange for an automatic top up of its stored value; or cease marking payments thus leaving the vehicle owner liable to a parking infringement notice. However, the reader/writer 26 may send a message (for example, by SMS) to a mobile telephone or the like of a user advising of the shortage of stored value to enable a user to top up the stored value. The message may be pre-programmed, and its sending may be automatic to a pre-entered account number.

The vehicle enters the car park (82) and is parked. The device 25 is interfaced (83) with local station if vehicle details (e.g. registration) are stored in device 25. If not stored in device 25, device 25 is interfaced with reader/writer 26 and reader/writer 26 interfaces with the local station. The keypad 4 of reader/writer 26 may be used to enter the vehicle registration, as may be voice input to reader/writer 26. In the latter case, voice recognition technology may be used to extract the vehicle registration details.

The user/vehicle is authenticated (84) and maximum payment deducted (85). Upon the vehicle commencing to exit the car park, the process is reversed - interface (86), authenticate (87) and then refund any unused amount.

As shown in Figure 9, a parking officer could use a suitable, wireless-enabled portable device to be able to interrogate the parking database to ensure adequate parking fees had been paid for a particular vehicle. This could be by the officer starting (90) and then entering the car park identity or vehicle registration data (91) using a keyboard or keypad of the portable device and transmitting it to the parking database (92) using the same antenna(s). Alternatively, input may be by voice with voice recognition technology being used to extract the required data. The database would extract start and end times for the paid period (93). This could be compared (94) to the actual time using a real time/clock and a determination made (95) if the paid car parking period has expired. A listing of vehicle registration numbers of those vehicles with expired parking may then be sent to the portable device (96). The parking officer could then print the parking infringement notices (97) using a printer in the portable device. The transmission from the parking database may include vehicle registration numbers so the printing would be using data from the parking database. Printing may be automatic to prevent corruption. Advantageously, the portable device will have a digital camera to enable the parking officer to record the vehicle with the parking infringement notice affixed known, the number of vacant spaces in the car park can be displayed on a display at or near the car park entrance. This may be for the entire car park, or portion of the car park. For example, for a multi-storey car park it may be for each storey. The display may also be on the display 41 of reader/writer 26. Furthermore, this would eliminate the need for barriers at the car park entrances, and the car park exits. If a pico cell is used, it may also be possible to determine where in the car park there are vacant spaces. However, a barrier at an entry may be provided so that when a vehicle approaches an entry station can detect the presence of reader/writer 26 and/or contactless device 25 and thus raise the barrier. Any vehicle not having reader/writer 26 and/or contactless device 25 may be denied entry as there would be no way to pay for the parking.

Similarly, a barrier may be provided at the exit to enable an exit station to check the ID of the exiting vehicle and/or its reader/writer 26 and/or device 25. If parking fees were not paid in full, exit may be denied.

Pico cells may also be used for toll collection either at toll booths; or by using a gantry, pole, or the like.

Entry of data when parking may include parking space number. Alternatively, if multiple antennas are used at different locations for a car park, they may be able to determine to a parking space location with a reasonable degree of accuracy.

Figure 3 shows a system that is the same as that the Figure 2 except that the interface 33 is a wireless interface such as, for example, a WiFi interface. Interface 33 communicates wirelessly with a network 32 such as, for example, a WiFi network. In all other respects its operation, capabilities and functionality is the same as for Figure 2.

Whilst there has been described in the foregoing description preferred embodiments of the present invention, it will be understood by those skilled in the technology that many variations or modifications in details of design, construction or operation may be made without departing from the present invention.

Claims

The Claims
1. A transaction system wherein a contactless device is able to interface with a contactless reader/writer, the contactless reader/writer being able to interface with a telecommunications infrastructure.
2. A system as claimed in claim 1 , wherein the contactless device has a nonvolatile memory, and radio frequency receive and transmit functionality.
3. A system as claimed in claim 1 or claim 2, wherein the contactless device is able to store data for authentication.
4. A system as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 3, wherein the contactless device includes at least one selected from the group consisting of: a SIM card, a SAM card, a SIM card also having SAM card functionality, and a SAM card also having SIM card functionality.
5. A system as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 4, wherein the contactless reader/writer includes at least one selected from the group consisting of: a SIM card, a SAM card, a SIM card also having SAM card functionality, and a SAM card also having SIM card functionality.
6. A system as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 4, wherein the contactless device is able to receive from the contactless reader/writer one or more selected from the group consisting of: data, functionality, and applications.
7. A system as claimed in claim 5, wherein the data includes personal identification data for authentication of a user.
8. A system as claimed in claim 5 or claim 6, wherein functionality and applications include at least one of PIN code and encryption/decryption.
9. A system as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 8, wherein the contactless device interfaces with the telecommunications infrastructure using an interface selected from the group consisting of: a GSM interface, a wireless interface, a WiFi interface.
10. A system as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 9, wherein the contactless reader/writer comprises at least one selected from the group consisting of: mobile telephone, cellular telephone, hand telephone, personal digital assistant, tablet computer, notebook computer, laptop computer, and point- of-sale terminal.
11. A system as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 10, wherein the contactless reader/writer has a retainer for releasably retaining the contactless device in close proximity to the contactless reader/writer to facilitate wireless communication between the contactless reader/writer and the contactless device.
12. A system as claimed in claim 11 , wherein the retainer is selected from the group consisting of: a slot in a casing of the contactless reader/writer, an opening in the casing of the contactless reader/writer, a mechanical system for holding the contactless device to the casing of the contactless reader/writer, and a sleeve in a pouch for holding the contactless reader/writer.
13. A system as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 12, wherein the contactless reader/writer includes at least one of: a keypad, and a keyboard, display, a man-to-machine interface, and machine-to-machine interface.
14. A transaction method using for a contactless device by interfacing the contactless device with a contactless reader/writer to enable the contactless reader/writer to interface with a telecommunications infrastructure using the contactless reader/writer to effect the transaction.
15. A method as claimed in claim 14, wherein the contactless device stores personal data of a user.
16. A method as claimed in claim 14 or claim 15, wherein the contactless device includes at least one selected from the group consisting of: a SIM card, a SAM card, a SIM card also having SAM card functionality, and a SAM card also having a SIM card functionality.
17. A method as claimed in claim 14 or claim 15, wherein the contactless reader/writer includes at least one selected from the group consisting of: a SIM card, a SAM card, a SIM card also having SAM card functionality, and a SAM card also having a SIM card functionality.
18. A method as claimed in any one of claims 14 to 17, wherein the contactless device receives from the contactless reader/writer one or more selected from the group consisting of: data, functionality, and applications.
19. A method as claimed in claim 18, wherein the data includes personal identification data for authentication of a user.
20. A method as claimed in claim 18 or claim 19, wherein functionality and applications include at least one of PIN code, and encryption/decryption.
21. A method as claimed in any one of claims 14 to 20, wherein the contactless device is a further contactless reader/writer.
22. A method as claimed in any one of claims 14 to 20, wherein the contactless reader/writer interfaces with the telecommunications infrastructure using an interface selected from the group consisting of: a GSM interface, a wireless interface, a WiFi interface.
23. A method as claimed in any one of claims 14 to 22, wherein the contactless reader/writer is selected from the group consisting of: mobile telephone, cellular telephone, hand telephone, personal digital assistant, tablet computer, notebook computer, laptop computer, and point-of-sale terminal.
24. A method as claimed in any one of claims 14 to 23, wherein the contactless reader/writer has a retainer for releasably retaining the contactless device in close proximity to the contactless reader/writer to facilitate wireless communication between the contactless device and the contactless reader/writer.
25. A method as claimed in claim 24, wherein the retainer is selected from the group consisting of: a slot in a casing of the contactless reader/writer, an opening in the casing of the contactless reader/writer, a mechanical system for holding the contactless device to the casing of the contactless reader/writer, and a sleeve in a pouch for holding the contactless reader/writer.
26. A method as claimed in any one of claims 14 to 25, wherein the contactless reader/writer includes at least one of: a keypad, a keyboard, a display, a man-to-machine interface, and a machine-to-machine interface.
27. A contactless device for interfacing with a telecommunications infrastructure for performing a transaction by using a contactless reader/writer, the contactless device having: non-volatile memory able to store identity data for authentication, a radio frequency transmitter/receiver, and a module for security.
28. A device as claimed in claim 27, wherein the contactless device includes at least one selected from the group consisting of: a SIM card, a SAM card, a SIM card also having SAM card functionality, and a SAM card also having SIM card functionality.
29. A device as claimed in claim 27 or claim 28, wherein the contactless reader/writer includes at least one selected from the group consisting of: a SIM card, a SAM card, a SIM card also having SAM card functionality, and a SAM card also having SIM card functionality.
30. A device as claimed in any one of claims 27 to 29, wherein the contactless device is able to receive from the contactless reader/writer one or more selected from the group consisting of: data, functionality, and applications.
31. A device as claimed in claim 30, wherein the contactless reader/writer includes a radio frequency transmitter/receiver.
32. A device as claimed in claim 30 or claim 31 , wherein functionality and applications include at least one of PIN code, encryption/decryption, cryptographic functions, generation of message digest, and generation of hashes.
33. A device as claimed in any one of claims 27 to 32, wherein the contactless reader/writer interfaces with the telecommunications infrastructure using an interface selected from the group consisting of: a GSM interface, a wireless interface, a WiFi interface.
34. A device as claimed in any one of claims 27 to 33, wherein the contactless reader/writer comprises at least one selected from the group consisting of: mobile telephone, cellular telephone, hand telephone, personal digital assistant, tablet computer, notebook computer, laptop computer, and a point-of-sale terminal.
35. A device as claimed in any one of claims 17 to 34, wherein the contactless reader/writer has a retainer for releasably retaining the contactless device in close proximity to the contactless reader/writer to facilitate wireless communication between the contactless reader/writer and the contactless device.
36. A device as claimed in claim 35, wherein the retainer is selected from the group consisting of: a slot in a casing of the contactless reader/writer, an opening in the casing of the contactless reader/writer, a mechanical system for holding the contactless device to the casing of the contactless reader/writer, and a sleeve in a pouch for holding the contactless reader/writer.
37. A device as claimed in any one of claims 27 to 36, wherein the device can communicate directly with a similar device within radio frequency transmission range of the device.
38. A transaction method wherein device as claimed in any one of claims 27 to 37, is used to transmit a token to a local station to effect the transaction.
39. A transaction method as claimed in claim 38, wherein a PIN code is used before the transaction can be effected.
40. A transaction method as claimed in claim 38 or claim 39, wherein the transaction is by initially deducting a known, predefined value; and subsequently crediting any unused amount.
41. A transaction method as claimed in claims 38 or 39, wherein the transaction is by: (d) initially deducting an initial amount for an initial period; (e) at the end of the initial period, deducting a further amount for a further period; and (f) repeating step (b) until further transactions are not required or not able to be effected.
42. A transaction method as claimed in any one of claims 38 to 41 , wherein the transaction is for at least one of: vehicle parking, vehicle parking entry, security clearance, security access, purchase from a vending machine, micropayment, payment of a highway toll, interface with a payment system, and loyalty programmes.
43. A transaction method as claimed in claim 42, wherein for vehicle parking entry, an entry station interrogates an entering vehicle to ensure the entering vehicle has at least one of the contactless reader/writer and the contactless device.
44. A transaction method as claimed in claim 42, wherein for vehicle parking exit an exit station interrogates at least one of the contactless reader/writer and the contactless device to obtain an identity, and compares that identity against identities for those that have paid all parking fees, before allowing the vehicle to exit.
45. A transaction method as claimed in claim 42, wherein for vehicle parking a determination is made of a number of parked vehicles in a parking station, the number of parked vehicles in the parking station being deducted from a known number of parking spaces in the parking station to determine a number of vacant parking spaces in the parking station, the number of vacant parking spaces being displayed.
46. A transaction method as claimed in claim 45, wherein the display is at an entry to the parking station.
47. A transaction method as claimed in claim 45, wherein the parking station has multiple levels, the display being for and at each of the multiple levels.
48. A transaction method as claimed in any one of claims 45 to 47, wherein data for the display is transmitted for display on the display of the contactless reader/writer.
49. A transaction method as claimed in claim 47, wherein the display is for vacant parking spaces for each level.
50. A transaction method as claimed in claim 41 , wherein upon a stored value in the contactless device dropping below a predetermined value, the contactless reader/writer forwards a message to a telecommunication- enabled device to provide a low stored value alert.
51. A transaction method wherein the contactless reader/writer is used to change transaction data.
52. A transaction method as claimed in claim 51 , wherein changed transaction data includes at least one selected from the group consisting of: different vehicle and different parking space.
53. A transaction method as claimed in any one of claims 39 to 52, wherein an identity is transmitted to the local station, the identity being registration data of a vehicle, the registration data being from one of: identity data stored in the device, or identity data entered using an input means of the contactless reader/writer.
54. A transaction method as claimed in any one of claims 38 to 53, wherein the local station is at least one of at least one antenna, a vending machine, and a point-of-sale terminal.
55. A transaction method as claimed in claim 53 or claim 54, wherein a parking officer uses a wireless-enabled portable device to be able to interrogate a parking database to determine if adequate parking fees have been paid for the vehicle.
56. A transaction method as claimed in any one of claims 38 to 55, wherein the transaction is at an entry to a location requiring payment and/or authentication, a pico cell being provided so that the contactless device can interface with the pico cell to provide authentication and/or payment.
57. A transaction method as claimed in any one of claims 38 to 56, wherein a cell for receiving data from the contactless device has a beam with the beam being shaped to provide a portion of the beam for transactions.
58. A transaction method as claimed in claim 57, wherein the beam is used for communication between the contactless device and the cell, but when in the transaction or event zone of the beam other authentication data is required.
59. A transaction method as claimed in claim 58, wherein the authentication data comprises a PIN code.
60. A telecommunications cell antenna having a beam with the beam being shaped to provide a portion of the beam for transactions.
61. A telecommunications cell antenna as claimed in claim 60, wherein the beam is used for communication between a contactless device, and the cell, but when in the transaction portion of the beam authentication data is required.
62. A telecommunications cell antenna as claimed in claim 61 , wherein the authentication data comprises a PIN code.
63. A computer usable medium comprising a computer program code that is configured to cause at least one processor to execute one or more functions to enable a device to perform the method of any one of claims 14 to 26 and 38 to 59.
PCT/SG2004/000292 2003-09-16 2004-09-13 Contactless transmission system, apparatus and method WO2005027035A1 (en)

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