WO2004059755A1 - Cpp magnetoresistive device, method for manufacturing same, and magnetic storage having cpp magnetoresistive device - Google Patents

Cpp magnetoresistive device, method for manufacturing same, and magnetic storage having cpp magnetoresistive device Download PDF

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WO2004059755A1
WO2004059755A1 PCT/JP2003/016191 JP0316191W WO2004059755A1 WO 2004059755 A1 WO2004059755 A1 WO 2004059755A1 JP 0316191 W JP0316191 W JP 0316191W WO 2004059755 A1 WO2004059755 A1 WO 2004059755A1
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layer
magnetic
magnetoresistive element
insulating layer
magnetic layer
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PCT/JP2003/016191
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French (fr)
Japanese (ja)
Inventor
Keiichi Nagasaka
Yoshihiko Seyama
Hirotaka Oshima
Yutaka Shimizu
Atsushi Tanaka
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Fujitsu Limited
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G11INFORMATION STORAGE
    • G11BINFORMATION STORAGE BASED ON RELATIVE MOVEMENT BETWEEN RECORD CARRIER AND TRANSDUCER
    • G11B5/00Recording by magnetisation or demagnetisation of a record carrier; Reproducing by magnetic means; Record carriers therefor
    • G11B5/127Structure or manufacture of heads, e.g. inductive
    • G11B5/33Structure or manufacture of flux-sensitive heads, i.e. for reproduction only; Combination of such heads with means for recording or erasing only
    • G11B5/39Structure or manufacture of flux-sensitive heads, i.e. for reproduction only; Combination of such heads with means for recording or erasing only using magneto-resistive devices or effects
    • G11B5/3903Structure or manufacture of flux-sensitive heads, i.e. for reproduction only; Combination of such heads with means for recording or erasing only using magneto-resistive devices or effects using magnetic thin film layers or their effects, the films being part of integrated structures
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L43/00Devices using galvano-magnetic or similar magnetic effects; Processes or apparatus peculiar to the manufacture or treatment thereof or of parts thereof
    • H01L43/08Magnetic-field-controlled resistors

Abstract

A CPP (Current Perpendicular to Plane) magnetoresistive device comprises a GMR film (20) having such a structure where a magnetic intermediate layer (30) and an oxidized insulating layer (31) are formed between a fixed magnetization layer (28) and a free magnetization layer (33) via a lower nonmagnetic intermediate layer (29) and an upper nonmagnetic intermediate layer (32). Consequently, the resistance change rate can be improved by current-narrowing effect of the oxidized insulating layer (31) and interfacial scattering at the magnetic/nonmagnetic interface (BD1) between the magnetic intermediate layer (30) and the lower nonmagnetic intermediate layer (29). As a result, the CPP magnetoresistive device has a high resistance change rate and a high sensitivity and is suitable for a high-density recording.

Description

Specification

CPP magnetoresistive element and a method of manufacturing the same, a magnetic storage device art having a CPP magnetoresistive element

The present invention relates to a magnetic sensor, for example, relates to magnetoresistive effect element for reproducing information in a magnetic storage device, in particular using the so-called spin pulp layer, a sense current flows in the stacking direction of the spin pulp film CPP (Cu rr en It relates to a magnetoresistive effect element having a t Pe rp end i cu 1 arto P la ne) structure. BACKGROUND

Internet, with the rapid spread of digital TV broadcasting and the like, is rapidly increasing needs in a large-capacity storage device. Significantly improve the recording density, particularly Shin Piwo record annual 60-10 0% from the mid 1990s has in memory, for example Nono Dodisuku device having a large capacity. The technological advances that the meantime key, high coercivity and low medium noise of the magnetic disk, and the development of head to spin valve GMR as a head to read magnetic in head to magnetically.

Head to the previous spin valve GMR is, CIP (Cu rrent I nP l ane) structure, namely the sense current to the membrane plane direction of the spin-valve film, the fixed magnetization layer and the free magnetic layer constituting the scan pin valve membrane relative to correspond to the magnetization angle, electrons are scattered, the resistance value of the spin valve film changes. Currently resistivity change rate of 0.5%, recording density of about 50 Gb i Tzi n 2 are achieved.

For the next generation of 100Gb it / in 2 units of the recording density achieved, TMR (tunnel magnetoresistance effect) head, study of the head to the CPP (Cu rr en t Pe rp end i cu larto P la ne) one GMR It has been promoted. Head rate of resistance change to the TMR size les, Monono, resistance RA of several Omega mu m 2 size les, has the disadvantage that. - How, head is the CPP-GMR, resistance has an appropriate resistance value RA at 1 Omega m 2 or less, as element dimensions shrink, the resistance Heni匕率increases, element output increases has features, expected is a head to highly sensitive reproduction at high density recording apparatus, Ru.

However, CPP-in GMR heads, to achieve 1 0 OG bit / in 2 sets the recording density of the next generation, the resistance change rate is low, the sensitivity of the magnetoresistive element has a problem that it is insufficient.

For example, there is approach to miniaturize the element dimensions in order to improve the sensitivity. However, even by using a photolithography technique, element size is 1 0 0 nm X 1 0 about O nm is a limit, since the more significant miniaturization can not hope, that improve the sensitivity of the magnetoresistance effect element It can be a record,.

The disclosure of Patent Document 1 JP 2 0 0 2 1 5 7 7 1 1 No. INVENTION

Accordingly, the invention broadly object subjecting Hisage magnetic memory device having the above-described novel and useful CPP magnetoresistive element and a method of manufacturing the same to solve the problem, as well as CPP magnetoresistive element.

A more specific object of the present invention is a high sensitive resistance change ratio, CPP magnetoresistive element and a method of manufacturing the same suitable for high density recording, as well as magnetic memory device having a CPP magnetoresistive element it is.

According to one aspect of the 'present invention, a free magnetization layer, a fixed magnetization layer, and said free magnetic layer and a solid plurality of conductive non-magnetic intermediate layer formed between the constant magnetic layer, wherein any two non-magnetic intermediate layers among the plurality of the non-magnetic intermediate layer, CPP magnetoresistive element having including a magnetic layer is provided an insulating layer and the magnetic atoms.

According to the present invention, between the free magnetic layer and the fixed magnetization layer, a plurality of conductive nonmagnetic during layer is formed, the conductive sandwiched nonmagnetic intermediate layer insulating layer and the magnetic atoms including a magnetic layer is formed. In the insulating layer, electrons flowing through the CPP magnetoresistive element as a sense current, for example, electrons are locally concentrated in the easily flows portion, the path where electrons flow is constricted by extremely fine unevenness of the film quality of the insulating layer that. Constricted electrons than as possible arrival to the free magnetic layer or the pinned magnetic layer improves the probability of causing interaction with the magnetization of these layers, so that the resistance change ratio is improved. Also, considered between the magnetic layer and the nonmagnetic intermediate layer interface scattering at the magnetic / non-magnetic interface has occurred, the rate of change in resistance further increases. In particular, considered synergistic effect of electron confining effect and interface scattering effect is caused, the resistance change rate is further improved, can you to improve the magnetic field sensitivity.

The may be in contact insulating layer and said magnetic layer each other may be formed of a further oxide of the material of the insulating layer to form a magnetic layer. By the surface of the magnetic layer oxidation treatment, it is possible to easily form the insulating layer by oxidizing the material forming the magnetic layer. In particular, since the insulating layer and the magnetic layer are formed in close proximity, and the current constriction effect and interface scattering effect is believed to increased synergistically, the resistance change rate can be further improved.

The magnetic layer comprises a plurality of layers, the insulating layer may be sandwiched the magnetic layer. Small number of layers can form more magnetic / non-magnetic interface, it is possible to improve further the resistance change ratio in a small number of layers.

Wherein at least one of the free magnetic layer and pinned magnetic layer may have a stacked ferrimagnetic structure.

The magnetic layer may be a ferromagnetic layer, said magnetic atoms F e, may include at least one of C o and N i. Make it possible to increase the effect of the interface scattering at the magnetic / non-magnetic interface, it is possible to further improve the rate of resistance change. According to another aspect of the present invention, the any one of the CPP magnetoresistive element, a magnetic memory device and a magnetic recording medium is provided.

According to the present invention, the resistance change ratio is high, is provided with the highly sensitive CPP magnetoresistive device, thereby enabling high-density recording on a magnetic recording medium.

According to another aspect of the present invention, the free magnetization layer, a fixed magnetization layer, wherein the free magnetic layer and a fixed magnetic I arsenide layer sandwiched by a plurality of conductive «intermediate layer, said plurality of non-magnetic sandwiched between the intermediate layer, it shall apply in the manufacturing method of the CPP magnetoresistive element and a magnetic layer including an insulating layer and a magnetic atom, an insulating layer forming step of forming the insulating layer by oxidizing the magnetic layer method for producing a CPP magnetoresistive element provided is provided. According to the present invention, readily available and form child an insulating layer by oxidizing the magnetic layer, and a current constriction effect of the insulating layer, the interface scattering effect of a magnetic layer and a nonmagnetic intermediate layer, the resistance it is possible to improve the rate of change. In particular, improved since the insulating layer and the magnetic layer are formed in close proximity, to produce close the current confining effect and interface scattering effect, believed to increased synergistically effective, the more the rate of change in resistance can do.

The present inventor has between the free magnetic layer and the fixed magnetization layer, and through the non-magnetic intermediate layer of a conductive, by sandwiching the magnetic layer including an insulating layer and a magnetic atom, conventional in CPP magnetoresistive element no high resistance Heni 匕率 to have found that can be obtained.

Figure 1 is a imaginary view showing schematically the path of the electrons flowing through the GMR film of the present invention. Referring to FIG. 1, a sense current (electrons) flowing along the stacking direction of the GMR film 1 0 0. Here, it described as electrons flow into the fixed magnetization layer 1 0 2 from the free magnetic layer 1 0 1. First, electrons passing through the free magnetic layer 1 0 1 by the interaction between the magnetization of free magnetic layer 1 0 1, with the orientation of the information of the free magnetic layer 1 0 1 magnetization, lower the upper non-magnetic flow C u layer is an intermediate layer 1 0 3, down to the insulation layer 1 0 4. In the insulating layer 1 0 4, it is concentrated on the easy part 1 0 4 1 as electrons (e.g. conductive microscopically oxygen atom is deficient relatively good partial), portions spatial density of electrons is increased There is formed. In addition, at the interface BD of the magnetic layer 1 0 5 and the lower non-magnetic layer 1 0 6, interface scattering arising. The spatial density of electrons reaches the fixed magnetic layer 1 0 2 at a high state, electrons in accordance with the direction of 磁I匕 fixed magnetic layer 1 0 2 is scattered, the amount of electrons passing through the GMR film 1 0 0 It is defined. In the present invention, Te smell between the free magnetic layer 1 0 1 and the fixed magnetization layer 1 0 2, since the interface scattering at a current constriction effect as a magnetic / non-magnetic interface occurs, the resistance Heni 匕率 These synergies It believed to be growing. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

Figure 1 is a imaginary view showing schematically the path of the electrons flowing through the GMR film of the present invention. Figure 2 is a diagram showing the structure of a medium facing surface of the head to the combined magnetic.

Figure 3 is a diagram showing the configuration of a GMR film according to a first embodiment of the present invention. Figure 4 A to FIG 4 C are diagrams showing higher manufacturing E (Part 1) of the CCP magnetoresistive element according to the first embodiment.

Figure 5 A 及 Pi Figure 5 B is a diagram showing manufacturing process (part 2) of the CCP magnetoresistive element according to the first embodiment.

Figure 6 A 及 Pi diagram 6 B are diagrams showing manufacturing process (part 3) of the CCP magnetoresistive element according to the first embodiment.

Figure 7 is a graph showing the relationship between the thickness and the pressure-time product of the normalized saturation magnetization and the oxide insulating layer.

Figure 8 is a diagram showing the relationship between the thickness of the resistance change rate and the magnetic intermediate layer of the GMR film of the first embodiment. '

Figure 9 is a diagram showing the configuration of a GMR film according to a modification of the first embodiment. Figure 1 0 is a view showing the relationship between the resistance Heni 匕率 the thickness of the second magnetic intermediate layer of one embodiment of a GMR film according to a modification of the first embodiment.

Figure 1 1 is a diagram showing the configuration of a GMR film according to a second embodiment of the present invention. Figure 1 2 is a sectional view showing a main part of a magnetic memory device according to a third embodiment of the present invention.

Figure 1 3 is a plan view showing a main part of a magnetic memory device shown in FIG 2.

Description of reference numerals: 1 0 ... head to the combined magnetic, 1 1 ... inductive write element, 1 2 ... magnetoresistive element, 2 0, 5 0, 6 0, l OO 'GMR film, 2 6 ... antiferroelectric magnetic layer, 2 8 ... fixed magnetization layer, 2 9 ... lower non-magnetic intermediate layer, 3 0, 6 2 ... magnetic middle tier, 3 1, 5 2, 'and oxidation insulating layer, 3 2 · "upper non magnetic intermediate layer, 3 3 ... free magnetic 匕層, 3 4 ... protection layer, 5 1 ... first magnetic intermediate layer, 5 3 ... second magnetic intermediate layer, 6 1 ... 'insulating intermediate layer, 1 2 0. - 'magnetic storage device BD, BD 1, BD 2 -' best mode for carrying out the magnetic / non-magnetic property surfactants invention

Hereinafter, an embodiment of the present invention with reference to the accompanying drawings.

(First Embodiment)

Figure 2 is a diagram showing the structure of the medium facing surface of the writing and reading performed element head to the combined magnetic. In Figure 2, the rotational direction of the medium is the direction indicated by the arrow X. . Referring to FIG. 2, the magnetic having head 1 0 into a composite magnetic includes inductive write device 1 1 for writing which is located on the downstream side in the rotational direction of the medium, the CPP-type structure located upstream It is constituted by resistive element 12. Head 10 to the composite magnetic is information on a magnetic recording medium which inductive write element is more opposed to the magnetic field leaking from between the upper magnetic pole 13 and the lower magnetic pole 14 (not shown) is recorded. Further, a magnetic field leaking based on information magnetoresistive effect element 12 is recorded on the magnetic recording medium, detecting the resistance change.

Inductive write element 11 and magnetoresistive element 12, Ddosuraida substrate and comprising Al 23 -T i C is formed is laminated on a flat ceramic substrate 15 made of (athletic) to an insulator such as alumina It is covered by.

Inductive write element 11 includes an upper magnetic pole 13 having a width you corresponding to the track width of the magnetic recording medium to the medium facing surface, a lower magnetic pole 1 4 opposite to each other with respect to the write gap layer and an upper magnetic pole and the lower magnetic pole and connection to the yoke (not shown), made by such coil convolutions of yokes (not shown). The top pole 13, the lower magnetic pole 14 and ® chromatography click is made of a soft magnetic material, large made material saturation magnetic flux density in order to secure the recording magnetic field, for example, N i8oFe 2 o, Co Z rNb, FeN, Fe S iN, such as FeCo alloy is preferred.

Magneto-resistive element 12, on the alumina film 1 7 formed on the ceramic substrate 15 surface, the lower electrode 16, the lower sub-electrode 18, GMR film 20, upper electrode 21, such as the magnetic domain control film 22 is formed constituted It has become. Sense current for detecting the resistance change is flowed from the lower electrode 16 or the upper electrode 21, the terminal portion 21-1 of the upper electrode 21 connected to the connected lower sub-electrode 18 or the GMR film 20 to the lower electrode 16 sensing current is concentrated in the vicinity of the center of the GMR film 20, the sense current flows in the stacking direction of the GMR film 20. The sense current is concentrated in the vicinity of the center of the GMR film 20 can be improved resistance Heni 匕率. On both sides of the GMR film 20, the magnetic domain control film 22 is disposed. Fixed magnetic layer is a soft magnetic layer constituting the GMR film 20, aims to single domain I spoon of freedom magnetization layer (3), preventing the generation of Barkhausen noise. The lower electrode 16, since the lower sub-electrode 18 and the upper electrode 21, the doubling as function as a magnetic shield in addition to functioning as a flow path for the sense current, the soft magnetic alloy, for example, N i Fe (permalloy), CoF e etc. It constituted by.

Figure 3 is a diagram showing a GMR film according to an embodiment of the present invention. Referring to FIG. 3, GMR film 20 according to this embodiment, a single spin valve structure having a lower stratum 2 5, the antiferromagnetic layer 26, the fixed magnetization layer 28, the lower non-magnetic intermediate layer 29, magnetic intermediate layer 30, an oxide insulating layer 3 1, the upper non-magnetic intermediate layer 32, free magnetic layer 3 3, protective layer 34 has a sequentially stacked.

Underlayer 2 5 is formed by sputtering or the like on the lower sub-electrode 1 8 illustrated in FIG. 2, for example constituted by the thickness 5 nm T a layer and the thickness 2 nm of N i F e layer. Underlayer 25 is to facilitate promoting ordered alloy crystal growth of the antiferromagnetic layer 26 formed on this surface.

The antiferromagnetic layer 26 is formed by sputtering or the like on the surface of the base layer 25 of, for example, a thickness of 1 3 nm P d P tMn layer. Specifically, the antiferromagnetic layer 26 has a thickness of 5 nm~30 nm of R e, Ru, Rh, P d, I r, P t, C r, F e, N i, Cu, Ag 及 Pi of the group consisting of Au formed of antiferromagnetic material containing at least one element and Mn. The content of these Mn is preferably 45 atomic% to 9 5 atomic%. The antiferromagnetic film 26, an antiferromagnetic been ordered alloy by heat treatment in a predetermined magnetic field appears. The antiferromagnetic layer 26 is the interface between the pinned magnetic layer 28 formed thereon, for example by uniaxial anisotropy fixing the magnetization of fixed magnetic layer 28.

The fixed magnetization layer 28 has a laminated ferrimagnetic structure, and has a sequentially stacked structure of the lower ferromagnetic layer 35 / non-magnetic layer 36 / upper ferromagnetic layer 38. Specifically, the composition of these magnetic materials of the lower and upper ferromagnetic layers 35, 3 8 and similar, comprising a C o, F e, N i 及 Pico these elements with a thickness of L~30 nm soft ferromagnetic material, for example, can be used N i so F e 2 o, materials such as C 075F e 2 5. Or it may be constituted by a laminate thereof. Nonmagnetic layer 36 is, for example, selected from the thickness of 0.411111 to 2 11111, the lower and upper ferromagnetic films 35, 38 are antiferromagnetically coupling ^ is selected. Nonmagnetic layer 36, for example Ru, C r, Ru alloys, is constituted by C r alloy. With such a configuration, the lower ferromagnetic film 35, the direction of magnetization by uniaxial anisotropy of the antiferromagnetic layer 26 provided on the lower side is fixed, the upper strong the lower ferromagnetic film 3 5 since antiferromagnetically coupled magnetic layer 3 8, the magnetization of the upper ferromagnetic film 3 8 is secured to the magnetization and anti tO of the lower ferromagnetic film 35. The fixed magnetization layer 28, for example C o 75 F e 2 5 ( 20 nm) / Ru (0. 8 nm) / C 075F e 2 5 can be (12 nm).

Lower 及 Pi upper nonmagnetic intermediate layer 29, 32 is constituted by a pair of Cu layers sandwiching the following magnetic intermediate layer 30 及 Pi oxide insulating layer 31. Specifically, each formed by sputtering is formed by Cu layer having a thickness of 2 nm! /, Ru.

Magnetic intermediate layer 30, the formed by sputtering or the like on the nonmagnetic intermediate layer 29 is constituted by a C o F e B of a thickness of 1 nm. Magnetic intermediate layer 30 forms the lower non-magnetic intermediate layer 29 and the magnetic / non-magnetic interface BD 1, believed to resistance change rate is improved, the oxide insulating layer 31 formed on the surface of the magnetic intermediate layer 30 for having the function of current confinement, further resistance Heni 匕率 can be improved (the details will be described later.). Oxide insulating layer 31 is made of an insulating material about 1 nm thick oxidized by the oxidation treatment described below the surface of the magnetic intermediate layer 30. As mentioned above, oxidized insulation layer 31 leaves at making it possible to improve the further resistance change rate in order to have a function of current confinement.

Free magnetization layer 33 is formed by sputtering or the like on the surface of the oxide insulating layer 31 is composed of a CoF eB layer such thick 2 onm. Specifically, for example, a thickness of l nm~30nm Co, F e, N及Pico soft ferromagnetic materials comprising these elements, for example, N i 8oF e20, C o75F e 2 5, C such as o seventh SF e 20B2, or constituted by a laminate of these films. The magnetization of the free magnetization layer 33 is in the plane of the film, the magnetization direction is changed in accordance with the direction of the magnetic field leaking from the magnetic recording medium. As a result, the resistance value of the GMR film 20 in correspondence to the angle between the magnetizations of the fixed magnetic layer 28 of freedom magnetization layer 33 is changed.

Protective layer 34 has a formed by sputtering or the like on the surface of the free magnetic layer 33, Cu layer and the thickness 5 nm of R u layer having a thickness of 4 nm are sequentially stacked. Specifically, the protective layer 34, Cu layer is thick 1 nm~5 nm. Cu layer has thereby preventing oxidation of the free magnetic layer 33 during the heat treatment of the GMR film 2 0, also acts to enhance the rate of change in resistance by forming the free magnetic layer 33 and the magnetic Z nonmagnetic surface. Also, Ru layer is the 5 nm~30 nm thick, non-magnetic metals, for example Au, Al, may be W and the like. During heat treatment of the antiferromagnetic layer can prevent the GMR film 20 is oxidized. GMR film 2 0 is constituted by the above.

It will be described below in detail magnetic intermediate layer 3 0 and the oxide insulating layer 3 1. The magnetic intermediate layer 3 0, the soft magnetic material, the hard magnetic material may be used what Re Any ferrimagnetic material and the antiferromagnetic material, 4 d ferromagnetic element is the magnetic intermediate layer 3 0, include rare earth magnetic element It is to have material is used. In particular F e, a ferromagnetic material containing C o is rather more preferably, C o F e, C o F C o F e alloy mainly containing C o F e such e B, N i F e, N i F e alloy, F e S i a 1 soft magnetic material and the like are particularly preferred. C if the o F e is, C o ioo-xF e in the general formula representing the x X = 1 0~ 5 0 atoms 0/0 in the range of materials are especially preferred.

The thickness of the magnetic intermediate layer 3 0 0. Lnm~2 0 nm is preferable. However, the thickness Saga 0. 1 nm if any oxide insulating layer 3 1 which is in contact even less, you! / ヽ increased resistance variation rate from the evaluation results of the resistance change ratio indicated Te was observed in FIG. 8 to be described later , the increase is about 0. 7%. When the thickness is more than 2 0 nm, GMR film 2 0 whole is too large becomes thick, reading formic Yap length defined by the lower electrode 1 6 upper electrode 2 1 resulting in increased summer.

Oxide insulating layer 3 1, radical oxidation of the surface of the magnetic intermediate layer 3 0, plasma oxidation, is formed by a natural oxidation method, or the like. For example, plasma oxidation will become oxygen Ion or atomic state by exciting introducing oxygen into the processing chamber Burazuma (Raj Cal), intrusion-oxygen Ion and atomic oxygen O * is the magnetic intermediate layer surface the reaction to convert the oxide film of the magnetic intermediate layer. Oxygen ions, so are accelerated to collide with the magnetic intermediate layer 3 0 front surface, and more highly reactive, preferable in that it is possible to shorten the oxidation time. However, given the excessive acceleration energy oxygen ions damage the magnetic intermediate layer 3 0, leads to surface property and crystallinity degradation of the magnetic intermediate layer 3 0 surface, and further results in forming pinholes afraid there is also.

On the other hand, radical 窒I 匕法, due atomic oxygen O * only, since react with magnetic during layer 3 0 to not Chikaratsu accelerated, when the atomic nitrogen O * contacts the magnetic intermediate layer 3 0 not damaged. Therefore preferable because that can be converted into an oxide insulating layer 3 1 without impairing the crystallinity. However, since the oxidation rate is large, the natural oxidation method is inferior in controllability of the processing time, control of the treatment time, and more preferred in view of uniformity of the oxide insulating layer formed. For example, the magnetic intermediate layer 3 0 After forming by sputtering, transported from the film formation Champa one of high vacuum in the oxidation Champa one, by introducing oxygen gas at a pressure 1 P a~1 0 0 k P a set to perform the processing in the processing time 5 0 seconds to 1 0 0 0 seconds. This oxidation treatment, the surface of the magnetic intermediate layer 3 0 is acid I arsenide, an oxide insulating layer 3 1 of the non-magnetic is formed. Oxide insulating layer 3 1 is effective to confine electrons flowing GMR film 2 0. That is, the oxide insulating layer 3 1 has a locally hardly flows electron flow easily moiety portion, electrons are concentrated in the runny part. Locally spatially electron density when the electron flow concentrates, for example, even if the electrons flowing from the freely magnetized layer 3 3 is locally constricted by the oxide insulating layer 3 1 reaches the fixed magnetization layer 2 8, not spread and it is in a high state considered Erareru. Such a state is considered as the probability of mutually crucible 及 interactions and the magnetization (spins) of the fixed magnetization layer 2 8 increases, it considered the results MR ratio is increased. Further, according to this embodiment, by a magnetic Z nonmagnetic interface BD 1 of the vicinity of the oxide insulating layer 3 1 and the magnetic intermediate layer 3 0 and the lower non-magnetic intermediate layer 2 9 is formed, the electron interface scattering effect is considered to more effectively occur, the rate of change in resistance can be further and the child improved.

Figure 4 A to FIG. 6 B for explaining a manufacturing method of the CCP magnetoresistive element according to the present embodiment then, is a diagram showing a manufacturing process of the CCP magnetoresistive element according to the present embodiment. CCP magnetoresistive element is prepared by substantially the same manner as the previous process of the semiconductor integrated device.

In Figure 4 A step, sequentially forming a lower electrode 1 6 made of N i 75 F e 25 alumina film 1 7, by a sputtering method Ya plating by sputtering or the like on the ceramic substrate 1 5 Anorechikku.

Figure 4 further at A step, and putter Jung by resist 3 9 on the lower electrode 1 6, to form a pattern of the lower sub-electrode 1 8. Then forming the N i 75 F e 25 lower sub electrode 1 8 made by plated method.

Next, in FIG. 4 B step, the resist is removed to deposit by CVD, for example a § alumina film 4 0 to cover the structure of FIG 4 A. Then polished to lower the sub-electrode 1 8 is exposed by CMP (I 匕学 mechanical Migaku Ken) method to obtain a flat surface.

Next, in FIG. 4 C steps, so as to cover the entire structure of FIG. 4 B, formed from the lower strata 2 5 of the GMR film 2 0 to magnetic intermediate layer 3 0. Specifically, the base pressure is in the 1 X 1 0- 8 P a more capable of a high vacuum ultra-high vacuum film formation Chiyanba, magnetic intermediate layer 3 from the base layer 2 5 made of the above-described material 0 until it formed by sputtering. Then transports the substrate to the oxidizing treatment chamber one without releasing to the outside air. Prevent adhesion of particles and organic substances on the surface of the magnetic intermediate layer 3 0, have there between elements resistance suppresses variations between lots, can ensure long-term operation reliability of the magnetoresistive effect element 1 2 it can.

Figure 4 further at C process, an oxidation process of the magnetic intermediate layer 3 0 by natural oxidation. Specifically, the substrate is held in a room, by introducing oxygen gas into the oxidation chamber and foremost, to set the pressure to l P a~1 0 0 k P a. Treatment time 5 0 seconds to 1 0 0 0 seconds, exposing the magnetic intermediate layer 3 0 to oxygen gas, as shown in FIG. 5 A, the surface of the magnetic intermediate layer 3 0, oxidation magnetic intermediate layer 3 0 is oxidized insulating layer 3 1 is formed.

In the next Figure 5 B step, conveying the oxygen gas oxidation Chiyanba after air, again deposited Chiyanpa without releasing to the outside air. By sputtering in a film formation Chiyanba forming a nonmagnetic intermediate layer 3 2 consisting of C u to the protective layer 3 4.

5 Further, in B of step, heat treatment order to reveal the antiferromagnetic layer 2 6 ordered alloy antiferromagnetic. Specifically, a magnetic field in a predetermined direction 1. 6 MA / m (2 0 k O e) heat treatment 1 8 0 minute 3 0 0 ° C approximately is applied.

Next, in the step of FIG. 6 A, the GMR film 2 0 formed up to the step of FIG. 5 B is etched ring is ground to a desired width (corresponding to the read track width). Specifically, resist is putter Jung and ground until it reaches the alumina film 4 0 by dry etching.

Figure 6 further by A in step, the magnetic domain control film 2 2 is formed on both sides of the GMR film 2 0. Specifically, a resist is pattern Jung is formed by a sputtering method or the like provided with an opening in a portion magnetic domain control film 2 2 is formed. In this case, may be formed as the magnetic domain control film 2 2 is in contact with the GMR film 2 0, also it is provided with an insulating layer such as an alumina film in the magnetic domain control films 2 2 and the GMR film 2 0 Tonokai surface good. Figure 6 further by A in step, the resist 4 1 to Pataengu the immediately above portion of the GMR film 2 0, the upper electrode 2 1 of the terminal portion 2 1 - only 1 portion serving leaving resist 4 1. Then forming an insulating film 4 2 covering the entire structure. Specifically, a sputtering method to form a silicon oxide film or an alumina film due C VD method. Then, to planarize the surface of the insulating film by the CMP method.

Next, in the step of FIG. 6 B, after removing the resist 4 1, an upper electrode 2 1 made of N i 75 F e 25 by a sputtering method. CCP magnetoresistive element made form from above. Incidentally, inductive write element 1 1 is more formed by a known method on the structure of FIG 6 B.

Then prior to the evaluation of the GMR film 2 0 according to the present embodiment, KoTsuta the evaluation of the thickness of the oxide insulating layer acids I spoon formed by natural oxidation.

Samples for evaluating the oxide insulating layer, a high vacuum Champa within one described above, on a glass substrate to form a thickness of 1 0 11 111 Flip of o SSF e IOBS layer, then naturally Sani spoon processing Cham within one by oxidation, by setting the substrate in 2 0 ° C, while varying the time of exposure to the pressure of the oxygen atmosphere and oxygen atmosphere to oxidize the surface of the C o 88 F e ioB 2 layers. Then forming a protective layer made of T a for preventing oxidation in a high vacuum switch Yanba. At this time, a sample was prepared which does not perform the oxidation treatment at the same time. Samples KoTsuta measurement of the saturation magnetization by applying a VSM 2 maximum field 6 3 Ri by the (vibrating sample magnetometer) k A / m (8 k O e). Figure 7 is a diagram showing the relationship between the product of the thickness of the normalized saturation magnetization 及 Pi oxide insulating layer, and the time of exposure to pressure and oxygen gas of oxygen gas. In Figure 7, the horizontal axis represents the product of the time of exposure to the pressure of the oxygen gas (hereinafter, referred to as "pressure-time product.") Is. The pressure-time product corresponds to the number of collisions per unit area of the oxygen molecules impinging on C o ssF e ιοΒ 2-layer surface, generally the larger the collision count is considered that the thickness of the oxide insulating layer increases. The vertical axis is located (saturation magnetization Z oxidation of the sample was = acid I spoon treatment Shinare, saturation magnetization of the sample) TadashiTatsuki 匕飽 sum magnetization normalized by using the saturation magnetization of the sample without the oxidation treatment , oxidation Hff is one obtained by the reduction ratio of the normalized saturation magnetization, i.e. the oxide film thickness = the oxidative pretreatment C o ssF ei oB 2 layer having a thickness of X (1-TadashiTatsuki匕飽sum magnetization).

Referring to FIG. 7, when the pressure-time product to 增加, reduces the regulations 匕飽 sum magnetization, ie oxide film thickness increases. About 0 · 7 k P a · s at saturation magnetization I spoon represents saturated at a little 1 down to 0% from the initial value became constant by increasing the more pressure-time product. That is, 10% of the total film thickness 10 nm of the oxide insulating layer is C OS8F eioB 2 layers, i.e. 1. Onm so that the formed only. Further, it became the same as the relationship be oxidized by changing the pressure shown in Figure 7. That is, the substrate SJt was 20 ° C ^, oxide insulating layer formed by oxidation treatment is 1. onm. The thickness of the oxide insulating layer to increase the substrate temperature increased, also considered the composition of the magnetic intermediate layer thickness of the oxide insulating layer Ru is 增加 the F e element ratio increases.

Next, in order to evaluate the rate of change in resistance of the GMR film of the present embodiment, on the wafer, respectively thicknesses 1 0 nm, 4,011,111 Ding & layer 11 layer (lower electrode), respectively thickness 5 nm, 2 Ta layer ZN i Fe layer of nπl (the base layer), of a thickness of 1 311 111? (1? TMN layer (antiferromagnetic layer), a thickness of 3 nm of the C 088F eioB 2 layer Z of thickness 0. 8 nm Ru layer Z thickness 4 ^ 11.0 88? 61 0 8 2 layers (fixed magnetization layer), thickness 2 nm of Cu layer (lower nonmagnetic intermediate layer), C o 88F e ιοΒ 2 layer (magnetic intermediate layer), CoFeB O x layer (oxide insulating layer), the thickness of 2 nm Me Cu layer (upper nonmagnetic intermediate layer), Co 88 F eioB 2 layer having a thickness of 3 nm (free magnetic layer), thickness 4 nm of Cu layer / thickness of 5 nm of Ru layer (protective layer), respectively a 300 nm thick , 1 011111 of 11 layers / Ding & layer (upper electrode), but the are sequentially laminated structure, forming a GMR film and the thickness of the magnetic intermediate layer varied in the range of 0. 3 nm~2 nm, the to form an oxide insulating layer with oxidizing the surface of the magnetic intermediate layer by natural oxidation (pressure 3.1 00 sec exposure to an oxygen atmosphere of 5 P a).

Measurement of resistance Heni 匕率 used the following methods. The resistance value R, Flffi between the lower electrode and the upper electrode of the GMR film is by applying a current value that is 50 m V in the state of magnetization and the ¥ ^ net magnetization and the free magnetic layer of the fixed magnetization layer, the lower by detecting a voltage between the electrode and the upper electrode, one 39. 5 kA / m (-50 OOe) the magnitude of the external magnetic field ~39. 5 kA / m (5

Set to 0 ΟΟθ), The resistor Heni 匕率 is the minimum value of the resistance value R Rmin, the maximum value as Rmax, the resistance change rate (%) - (Rmax-Rmin) / (Rmax- Rmin) X and 100, and the product of the area a of Rmin and the GMR film RA value. Area A was 0. 1~ 1 μ m 2.

Figure 8 is a diagram showing the relationship between the thickness of the resistance change rate and the magnetic intermediate layer of the GMR film of the present embodiment. Referring to FIG. 8, the rate of change in resistance 0. 6 m or more increases to the resistance Heni 匕率 is Hi ¥, substantially it is seen that the saturated around 5 m 1.. The evaluation of the thickness of the oxide insulating layer by the above-described natural oxidation method, the magnetic tens raw intermediate layer C o 88 F e 10 thickness of B 2 layers 1. O nm or less in C (range A shown in FIG. 8) ossF e ιοΒ 2 layer is oxidized all, it has been converted to oxides of C OS8F eioB 2. The thickness of the C ossF eioB 2 layers of magnetic intermediate layer 1. O nm or more in (range B shown in FIG. 8), the laminated film of C ossF eioBs layer and C o 88 F e 10 B 2 oxide layer it is understood that the.

Therefore, an increase in the resistance change rate at 0. 6 μ m~ 1. 0 μ m, the effect due to local concentration of the sense current by Sani 匕絶 edge layer, i.e. considered as also by the current confining effect. On the other hand, the thickness of the C ossF e 10 B2 layers of magnetic intermediate layer is increased to about 2.9 5% or more 1 nm. Marked increase in the resistance change rate is in 增加 very significantly compared that l nm or less of the resistance change rate is a maximum 1.35%. This is the interface between magnetic intermediate layer and the lower Cu layer, that is believed to be due to the scattering effect of a magnetic / non-magnetic interface.

According to this embodiment, since the provided an oxide insulating layer and the magnetic intermediate layer between the fixed magnetization layer and the free magnetic layer, the resistance by the current confinement effect and the magnetic / non-magnetic interface scattering effect of the sense current the rate of change is significantly increased. Therefore it is possible to realize a highly sensitive CPP magnetoresistive element.

Explanation next regards a modification of the first embodiment. This modification, except that the formation of the magnetic intermediate layer further one layer oxide insulating layer is the same as the first embodiment.

Figure 9 is a diagram showing the structure of the GMR film of the present modification. In FIG. 9, the same reference numerals are assigned to portions corresponding to part component described above and the description is omitted.

Referring to FIG. 9, GMR film 50 of this modification, single spin has a pulp structure, the underlayer 2 5, the antiferromagnetic layer 26, the fixed magnetization layer 28, the lower non-magnetic intermediate layer 29, a first magnetic intermediate layer 5 1, oxide insulating layer 52, second magnetic intermediate layer 53, the upper non-magnetic intermediate layer 3 2, the free magnetization layer 3 3, protective layer 34 has a sequentially stacked.

The first magnetic intermediate layer 5 1 and the oxide insulating layer 5 2 is formed of the same material Contact Yopi manner as magnetic intermediate layer 3 0 and the oxide insulating layer 3 1 of the first embodiment.

The second magnetic intermediate layer 3 is formed by sputtering or the like over the oxide insulating layer 5 2, the thickness 1 ηπ! A ~ 30 nm, and is formed of the same material as the first magnetic intermediate layer 5 1. By providing the second magnetic intermediate layer 53, in addition to the first magnetic Z «soluble surface BD 1 as described above, the second magnetic intermediate layer 53 and the upper nonmagnetic during layer 32 formed thereon second magnetic Z nonmagnetic interface BD2 is formed of, by the scattering effect of the second interface, it is possible to further improve the rate of resistance change.

Then in order to evaluate the rate of change in resistance of the GMR film 50 of the present modification, the first magnetic intermediate layer, except an oxide insulating layer and the second magnetic intermediate layer 53 of the GMR film 10 of the first embodiment described above using the GMR film and similar GMR film used for the verification. The first magnetic during layer has a thickness of 1 to form a C ossF ei 0 B 2 layers of 2 nm, the oxide insulating layer 52 is formed by the oxidation treatment in the same condition as in the first embodiment, further formed different ones thicknesses in C o8sF eioB 2 layers 0. 3nm~l. 0 nm range of the second magnetic intermediate layer 53.

Figure 10 is a diagram showing the resistance change ratio in an embodiment and the relationship between capital of the second magnetic intermediate layer of the present modification. Referring to FIG. 10, the case without the second magnetic intermediate layer than in the (thickness onm), that Ru and the resistance Heni 匕率 who obtained when a second magnetic intermediate layer is 增加It can be seen. It is found that the resistance change rate increases gradually with further thickness of the second magnetic intermediate layer is increased from 0. 3 nm.

Here, provided Extrapolating Hff from 0. 3 nm 1. from 0 nm resistor Heni 匕率 in ^ i ¥ 0. 0 nm, the resistance change ratio becomes about 3.2%, the second magnetic intermediate layer 2. 0.7% higher than the 5% in the case of no. Accordingly, by providing the second magnetic intermediate layer is formed surface of the second magnetic / nonmagnetic believed resistance change rate by scattering effect of the second interface increases.

Therefore, according to this modification, it is possible to further improve the resistance Heni匕 rate by providing the second magnetic intermediate layer.

The film thickness is 1. 0. 3 nm increased 0 nm of the resistance change rate is considered to effect Parc scattering in the second magnetic intermediate layer. That can be improved further resistance Heni 匕率 by increasing the Atsushi second magnetic intermediate layer.

(Second Embodiment)

The second embodiment according to the present invention, the Ri 's exchange oxide insulating layer magnetic intermediate layer is oxidized, except that a layer made of an insulating material is the same as the first embodiment. Figure 11 is a diagram showing the structure of the GMR film of the present embodiment. In Figure 11, the same reference numerals are assigned to parts corresponding to the parts describes thereof will be omitted.

Referring to FIG. 11, GMR film 60 of this embodiment, a single spin valve structure having a base layer 25, the antiferromagnetic layer 26, the fixed magnetization layer 28, the lower non-magnetic intermediate layer 29, an insulating intermediate layer 61, magnetic intermediate layer 62, the upper non-magnetic intermediate layer 32, free magnetic layer 3 3, protective layer 34 has a sequentially stacked.

The insulating interlayer 61 is formed by sputtering or the like on the lower non-magnetic intermediate layer 29 is composed of an insulating material having a thickness of 0. 8 nm is, Ru. Specifically, the insulating interlayer 61, for example, can be used CoFeB, CoFe, N i Fe, oxides of the soft magnetic materials such as Fe S IAL or nitride I arsenide was like. Oxygen walking these materials may be deposited by reacting in a nitrogen atmosphere. The thickness of the insulating intermediate layer 61, 0.3! ~ 2. is set within a range of 0 nm. 0. 3 mu thin and does not appear the effect of current confinement than m, 2. resistivity becomes excessively high undesirable magnetic intermediate layer 62 of thick and GMR film than Onm is by sputtering or the like on the insulating interlayer 61 It is formed. Material of the magnetic intermediate layer 62 may Rukoto using the same material as the magnetic intermediate layer 30 in the first embodiment, the thickness is selected from a range of 1 nm~20 nm.

According to this embodiment, the electrons can be improved is constricted resistance Heni 匕率 the insulating interlayer 61, magnetic / non-magnetic interface BD at the interface between the magnetic intermediate layer 62 and the upper non-magnetic intermediate layer 32 1 is formed, it is Rukoto improve the resistance change rate by scattering effect of the interface.

In the present embodiment it has been described about the example in which the laminated magnetic intermediate layer 62 on the insulating interlayer 61 may be formed an insulating intermediate layer 61 on the magnetic intermediate layer 62. Further, in any embodiment, it may be provided a non-magnetic conductive layer between the magnetic intermediate layer 62 and the insulating interlayer 61, the material of the magnetic intermediate layer 62, each formed by laminating different films it may be.

(Third Embodiment)

Next, by referring to FIGS. 12 and 13 show a magnetic memory device according to a third embodiment of the present invention. Figure 12 is a sectional view showing a main part of a magnetic storage device. Figure 13 is a plan view showing a main part of a magnetic memory device shown in FIG 2.

1 2 and 1 3 Referring to magnetic storage devices 1 2 0 approximately housing 1 2 3 or Ranaru. The housing 1 Within 2 3, the motor 1 2 4, the hub 1 2 5, a plurality of magnetic recording medium 1 2 6, head 1 2 7 into a plurality of composite magnetic plurality of suspension 1 2 8, multiple arms 1 2 9 and § Chi Yu eta Interview knit 1 2 1 is provided. Magnetic recording recording medium 1 2 6 is attached to the hub 1 2 5 is rotated from the motor 1 2 4. Head 1 2 7 to the combined magnetic is more composed and inductive write element 1 2 7 A and the magnetoresistive element 1 2 7 B (not shown because it is small). Each composite magnetic head 1 2 7 is attached via a corresponding arm 1 2 9 suspension 1 2 8 to the tip of the. Arm 1 2 9 is driven by § Chi Yu eta unit 1 2 1. The basic construction of the magnetic storage apparatus is known, and detailed description thereof will be omitted herein.

Magnetic storage device 1 2 0 of the present embodiment, wherein there Ru to the magnetoresistive element 1 2 7 B. Magnetoresistive element 1 2 7 B may be used first embodiment, its modification, GMR film of the second embodiment. As described above, the force mow GMR film has a high resistance change rate, i.e., the detection sensitivity of the magnetic field is high. Therefore, the reading ability rather high, also the magnetic field leaking from the magnetic anti 繊域 of which 1 magnetic reversal corresponds to 1 bit of information is a infinitesimal, is readable, it is suitable for high-density recording.

Have been described in detail preferred embodiments of the present invention, the present invention is not intended to be limited to the specific embodiments, Oite within the scope of the present invention described in the claims, various modifications 'it is possible to change.

For example, although in the above embodiment describes the example in which the laminated ferrimagnetic structure in the fixed magnetization layer may be a laminated ferrimagnetic structure formed on the free magnetic layer, it is provided further in both the fixed magnetic layer 及 Pi free magnetic layer good. The present invention may be doubles pin valve structure provided two fixed magnetization layer. Industrial Applicability

As is apparent from the detail above, according to the present invention, a method of manufacturing a resistor Heni 匕率 high sensitivity in CPP magnetoresistive element 及 Piso suitable for high density recording, as well as CPP magnetoresistive element c capable of «a magnetic memory device having a

Claims

The scope of the claims
1. It has a free magnetic layer, a fixed magnetization layer, and a plurality of conductive non-magnetic intermediate layer made form between the free magnetic layer and the fixed magnetization layer,
Wherein the plurality of any two non-magnetic intermediate layers of the non-magnetic intermediate layer, CPP magnetoresistive element characterized by having a magnetic layer including an insulating layer and the magnetic atoms.
2. The insulating layer, CPP magnetoresistive element according to claim 1, wherein a part of and having a conductivity in the film thickness direction.
3. The insulating layer and the CPP magnetoresistive element according to claim 1 or 2, wherein the magnetic layer is characterized in that in contact with each other.
4. The insulating layer, CPP magnetoresistive element according to claim 3, characterized by comprising an oxide of a material forming said magnetic layer.
5. The insulating layer and the CPP magnetoresistive element according to claim 4, wherein the sum of J3li ¥ magnetic layer is characterized by a 2 0 nm hereinafter least 1 nm or more.
6. The magnetic layer comprises a plurality of layers, the insulating layer of the claims 1-5, characterized in that you are sandwiched between the magnetic layer, any force one term CPP magnetoresistive element according.
7. Of the preceding claims wherein at least one of the free magnetic layer Contact Yopi pinned magnetic layer characterized by having a stacked full We directory structure, CP according to any one claim
P magneto-resistance effect element.
8. The magnetic layer of the claims 1-7, characterized in that the ferromagnetic layer, have deviated force, CPP magnetoresistive element according one paragraph.
9. The magnetic atoms F e, C o and one of claims 1-8, characterized in that it comprises at least one of N i, Le, CPP magnetoresistive element displacement or one claim
1 0. The magnetic layer is C o F e or C o F e CPP magnetoresistive element 請 Motomeko 8, wherein a is an alloy.
1 1. Among the claims 1 to 1 0, a magnetic storage device including Les, a CPP magnetoresistive element displacement or one claim, and a magnetic recording medium.
1 2. And the free magnetic layer, a fixed magnetization layer, the sandwiched free magnetic layer and the plurality of non-magnetic intermediate layer sandwiched between the pinned magnetic layer and the plurality of conductive non-magnetic intermediate layer, the insulating layer and shall apply in the manufacturing method of the CPP magnetoresistive element and a magnetic layer containing a magnetic atom,
Method for producing a CPP magnetoresistive element characterized by comprising an insulating layer forming step of forming the insulating layer by oxidizing the magnetic layer.
1 3. The insulating layer forming step, the manufacturing method of the CPP magnetoresistive element according to claim 1 2, wherein the oxidizing a portion of the magnetic layer.
1 4 · the insulating layer forming step, the manufacturing method of at least 0. Of claim 1 2, wherein at least 6 nm thickness, characterized in that oxidation CPP magnetoresistive element of the magnetic layer.
1 5 - the insulating layer forming step, exposing the magnetic layer to oxygen gas, of claim 1 2-1 4, characterized in that the oxidation of the magnetic layer surface, CPP magnetoresistance according to any one claim method of manufacturing the effect element. 1 after 6-the insulating layer forming step, the manufacturing method of the CPP magneto resistance effect element according to claim 1 5, wherein further comprising a magnetic layer forming step of forming another magnetic layer covering the insulating layer .
PCT/JP2003/016191 2002-12-24 2003-12-17 Cpp magnetoresistive device, method for manufacturing same, and magnetic storage having cpp magnetoresistive device WO2004059755A1 (en)

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Citations (5)

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JPH1079305A (en) * 1996-09-04 1998-03-24 Toshiba Corp Magnetic device
JPH11177161A (en) * 1997-12-12 1999-07-02 Matsushita Electric Ind Co Ltd Magnetoresistance effect element and magnetic reluctance effect type thin film head
EP0973169A2 (en) * 1998-05-13 2000-01-19 Sony Corporation Element exploiting magnetic material and addressing method therefor
US6365286B1 (en) * 1998-09-11 2002-04-02 Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba Magnetic element, magnetic memory device, magnetoresistance effect head, and magnetic storage system
EP1328027A2 (en) * 2002-01-10 2003-07-16 Fujitsu Limited Magnetoresistive element

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JPH1079305A (en) * 1996-09-04 1998-03-24 Toshiba Corp Magnetic device
JPH11177161A (en) * 1997-12-12 1999-07-02 Matsushita Electric Ind Co Ltd Magnetoresistance effect element and magnetic reluctance effect type thin film head
EP0973169A2 (en) * 1998-05-13 2000-01-19 Sony Corporation Element exploiting magnetic material and addressing method therefor
US6365286B1 (en) * 1998-09-11 2002-04-02 Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba Magnetic element, magnetic memory device, magnetoresistance effect head, and magnetic storage system
EP1328027A2 (en) * 2002-01-10 2003-07-16 Fujitsu Limited Magnetoresistive element

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