WO2003088418A1 - Dual band antenna - Google Patents

Dual band antenna Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2003088418A1
WO2003088418A1 PCT/DK2003/000236 DK0300236W WO03088418A1 WO 2003088418 A1 WO2003088418 A1 WO 2003088418A1 DK 0300236 W DK0300236 W DK 0300236W WO 03088418 A1 WO03088418 A1 WO 03088418A1
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WO
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Application
Patent type
Prior art keywords
slot
resonance
antenna
tuning
element
Prior art date
Application number
PCT/DK2003/000236
Other languages
French (fr)
Inventor
Gert Frølund Pedersen
Simon Svendsen
Original Assignee
Maxon Telecom A/S
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date

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Classifications

    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01QANTENNAS, i.e. RADIO AERIALS
    • H01Q9/00Electrically-short antennas having dimensions not more than twice the operating wavelength and consisting of conductive active radiating elements
    • H01Q9/04Resonant antennas
    • H01Q9/0407Substantially flat resonant element parallel to ground plane, e.g. patch antenna
    • H01Q9/0442Substantially flat resonant element parallel to ground plane, e.g. patch antenna with particular tuning means
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01QANTENNAS, i.e. RADIO AERIALS
    • H01Q1/00Details of, or arrangements associated with, antennas
    • H01Q1/12Supports; Mounting means
    • H01Q1/22Supports; Mounting means by structural association with other equipment or articles
    • H01Q1/24Supports; Mounting means by structural association with other equipment or articles with receiving set
    • H01Q1/241Supports; Mounting means by structural association with other equipment or articles with receiving set used in mobile communications, e.g. GSM
    • H01Q1/242Supports; Mounting means by structural association with other equipment or articles with receiving set used in mobile communications, e.g. GSM specially adapted for hand-held use
    • H01Q1/243Supports; Mounting means by structural association with other equipment or articles with receiving set used in mobile communications, e.g. GSM specially adapted for hand-held use with built-in antennas
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01QANTENNAS, i.e. RADIO AERIALS
    • H01Q1/00Details of, or arrangements associated with, antennas
    • H01Q1/36Structural form of radiating elements, e.g. cone, spiral, umbrella; Particular materials used therewith
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01QANTENNAS, i.e. RADIO AERIALS
    • H01Q5/00Arrangements for simultaneous operation of antennas on two or more different wavebands, e.g. dual-band or multi-band arrangements
    • H01Q5/30Arrangements for providing operation on different wavebands
    • H01Q5/307Individual or coupled radiating elements, each element being fed in an unspecified way
    • H01Q5/342Individual or coupled radiating elements, each element being fed in an unspecified way for different propagation modes
    • H01Q5/357Individual or coupled radiating elements, each element being fed in an unspecified way for different propagation modes using a single feed point
    • H01Q5/364Creating multiple current paths
    • H01Q5/371Branching current paths
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01QANTENNAS, i.e. RADIO AERIALS
    • H01Q9/00Electrically-short antennas having dimensions not more than twice the operating wavelength and consisting of conductive active radiating elements
    • H01Q9/04Resonant antennas
    • H01Q9/0407Substantially flat resonant element parallel to ground plane, e.g. patch antenna
    • H01Q9/0421Substantially flat resonant element parallel to ground plane, e.g. patch antenna with a shorting wall or a shorting pin at one end of the element

Abstract

A dual resonance frequency inverted F antenna (PIFA) comprising an element defined by a first conductive layer (4), a ground layer (3) defined by a second conductive layer, a first open end slot (6) and a second close end slot (7), which second close end slot is connected to said first open end slot, a feeding connection (1) and a ground connection (2), said connections arranged in the vicinity of the closed end of said first open end slot (6), means for tuning the resonance frequencies separately for each band in the form of a first (31) and a second resonance part (32) provided in the element at each side of a first open end slot (6) and means for tuning resonance frequency for both bands thogether in the form of said first open end slot (6) and said second close end slot (7).

Description

Dual Band Antenna

The present invention relates to an antenna of a mobile terminal; and, more particularly, to a dual resonance frequency Planar Inverted F Antenna (PIFA) with 2 different resonance frequencies and a method for easy tuning such antenna.

Some mobile terminals need to communicate on different frequencies. For example, mobile cellulars need to be able to communicate on the frequency bands GSM 900 and GSM 1800.

In this application, the word band has to be broadly understood. A band can for example cover both the 1800Mhz and the 1900Mhz band. A dual band antenna is therefore an antenna with two different resonance frequencies, and the antenna can have a band width for one or both of the resonance frequencies that covers several frequency bands.

Due to the advantages of the PIFA, such as light weight and ease of adaption and integration into the device chassis it is often used as antenna in cellulars. The need for the antenna to have 2 different resonance frequencies makes it difficult to tune the antenna correct, because the tuning for one frequency relates to the tuning of the other frequency.

EP 1 0 79 462 describes a dual band planar antenna. The antenna has a slot consisting of two portions of different widths. One portion of the slot is close ended and the sec- ond portion of the slot is open ended. The feeding point is located in the vicinity of a closed end of the close ended slot. The change of the width of the first portion of the slot changes the resonance frequency of both frequencies, and the change of the width of the second portion changes both frequencies as well. The Iπαning process is therefore described as an iterative process, where the widths of the two portions of the slot are changed several times to achieve the correct resonance frequencies for both bands. EP 1 018 779 describes a dual band planar antenna. The antenna comprises an open end slot, and a feeding point and ground connection is located close to the open end of the slot. The antenna is a combination of two antenna principles, a PIFA element for the lower resonance frequency, and an aperture radiating element. It has the drawback that the lower resonance frequency is determined by the outer dimensions of the patch.

Also, this antenna is not straightforward to tune. When the one property of the antenna is changed, it affects both the resonance frequencies.

The object of the invention is therefore to achieve a PIFA which is easy to tune for 2 different frequencies, with a small volume and high performance. It is preferred that each resonance frequency can be tuned, without the resonance frequency of the other band being affected. Such an antenna can reduce the cost of the development of the antenna, because it will reduce the time spent on designing the antenna.

These objects are achieved by a dual resonance frequency planar inverted F antenna

(PIFA) comprising an element defined by a first conductive layer, a ground layer defined by a second conductive layer, a first open end slot and a second close end slot, which second close end slot is connected to said first open end slot, a feeding connection and a ground connection, said connections arranged in the vicinity of the closed end of said first open end slot, means for tuning the resonance frequencies for each band in the form of a first and a second resonance part provided in the element at each side of a first open end slot and means for tuning resonance frequency for both bands together in the form of said first open end slot and second close end slot.

By dividing the antenna in two almost separate parts, it is possible to tune each resonance part without affecting the other resonance part. This is done by changing the length of the relevant resonance part. The physical dimensions of the antenna are low, since there exist a capacitive coupling between the first and second resonance part. The width of the first slot has great influence of the strength of the capacitive cou- pling. It is therefore possible to tune both resonance frequencies in the same direction by changing the width of the first slot. For example, increasing the width of the first slot decreases the capacitive coupling between the two resonance parts, and the reso- nance frequency will increase, while the relative band width of the antenna will increase. An antenna with small width of the first slot can therefore be small, at the cost of a low relative band width By changing the length of the second slot it is also possible to tune both frequencies in the same direction. The element as well as the ground plane can have different shapes, for examples rectangular, triangular, circular, polygonal or a mixture of the former. The slots can also have different forms, for example curvature, zig zag or straight lines.

A further embodiment provides an antenna, wherein a feeding connection is provided in the element in the vicinity of the close end of said first slot, wherein a ground connection is provided in extension of said first slot and said feeding connection and in a distance from said end of said first slot. The ground connection can be located at an arbitrary distance from the edge of the element or on the edge of the element, but a ground connection located near the edge of the element has shown to be the most effi- cient.

This embodiment shows a way of establishing a division of the element in two parts by placing the feeding connection and the ground connection in an extension of the first slot.

A further embodiment provides an antenna, wherein at least one of the slots is a straight line. The use of straight lines will provide well-defined resonance parts, which is easy to simulate in the design process of the antenna. Furthermore, it is easy to manufacture prototypes with straight lines.

A further embodiment provides an antenna, wherein the second slot comprises a third slot which extends in an angle from the second slot.

In this embodiment the second slot is given the correct length by adding a third slot element to the second slot element. The use of an additional slot can keep the physical dimensions of the antenna low, even when a long slot is needed. A further embodiment provides an antenna, wherein at least two of the slots are orthogonally on each other. The use of well defined geometric structures, such as straight lines orthogonally on each others, makes the tuning of the antenna easier, because the resonance parts are well defined. Such an antenna is easy to simulate in the design process of the antenna.

A further embodiment provides an antenna, wherein the close end of the first slot is proximal to the feeding connection. This placement of the feeding connection gives an easy adjustment of the impedance of the antenna. Furthermore, production of the feed- ing is simplified, because the feeding connection can be made from the material, which is made available when the slot is made.

Furthermore, there is provided a method of tuning a dual resonance frequency planar inverted F antenna (PIFA) comprising an element defined by a first conductive layer, said element comprising a first and a second resonance part provided in the element at each side of a slot, comprising the steps of tuning both resonance frequencies together by adjusting the physical dimensions of said slot and tuning one resonance frequency independently of the other resonance frequency by adjusting the length of one resonance part.

This method can be applied to every planar inverted F antenna with two separate resonance parts. The slot can have different geometric shape. For example it can be T-L- or H-shaped. The change of the physical dimensions can for example be length, width or shape. Furthermore, this method is not limited to antennas where the feeding con- nection and the ground connection are located in the vicinity of the closed end of an open end slot, but can also be applied on antennas with the feeding and the ground connections located in the vicinity of the close end slot.

When the antenna is tuned, for example in the design process of the antenna, the nec- essary changes in the physical dimensions of the slot can be obtained by increasing the dimensions of the slot by simply removing material with a pair of scissors or a knife.

If too much material is removed, the dimensions of the slot can be decreased by apply- ing conducting material, for example copper tape. Copper tape can easily be joint by adhesive to the surface of the antenna, and can easily be removed again. The length of the resonance parts can easily be changed in the same manner by using a pair of scissors or copper tape. Other materials than copper tape can be used, but of course it needs to be made from conductive material.

When the optimal dimensions for the desired resonance frequency is obtained, the antenna can be manufactured directly with the right dimensions .

This method is advantageous because the tuning can be finished for each frequency, without problems with the following tuning having side-effects on the former tuning.

Furthermore, there is provided a method of tuning a dual band planar inverted F antenna (PIFA) comprising the steps of tuning both resonance frequencies by changing the length of the second slot, tuning one resonance frequency by changing the length of that particular part of the element which acts as resonance for that resonance frequency. It is advantageous that it is only necessary to change one physical dimension to tune the bands together and another single physical dimension for each band.

Furthermore, there is provided a method of tuning a dual band planar inverted F antenna (PIFA) comprising the steps of tuning both resonance frequencies by changing the width of the first slot, tuning one band by changing the length of one resonance part. This method has the same advantages as the method mentioned above, but shows another way of tuning the antenna for the frequency of the first resonance part.

The invention is described in more details with respect to figures, where

Fig 1. is a schematic view of the antenna, as seen from the side, Fig. 2. is a schematic view of the element of the antenna, Fig. 3 is a schematic view of a second embodiment of the invention with decreased length of the slot. Fig. 4. is a schematic view of a third embodiment of the invention where a non- essential part of the antenna is added.

In the text the frequencies used in the mobile cellulars, 1800Mhz and 900Mhz will be mentioned, even though the invention is not limited to the use of those particular frequencies, and can also be applied to other applications, where antennas is used.

In Fig 1., the antenna is seen from the side. The ground plane 3 is usually defined by the printed circuit board. Slightly elevated above the ground plane 3 is the element 4. The element 4 is the resonance part of the antenna. In this view, the ground plane 3 and the element 4 is parallel. This it not necessary, but the angle between them can be any given real value. Also, the element can be placed arbitrary above the ground plane and not just as shown. The element 4 is electrically connected to the ground plane 3 by a ground connection 2. In a first distance from the ground connection 2 is the feeding connection 1, where the RF-signal applies to the antenna. This figure applies to the prior art PIFA as well as the PIFA of the invention.

Fig. 2 shows the element 4 of the antenna of the invention. The feeding point 1 and the ground connection 2 is provided in extension of the first slot 6. The first slot 6 has an end which is not enclosed by the element. Such a slot, which is not enclosed by the element is called open ended and comprises both a close end and an open end. The first slot 6 together with the feeding point 1 and the ground connection 2 divides the element 4 in a first resonance part 31 and a second resonance part 32. The first resonance part 31 is the resonance part for GSM 1800, the second resonance part 32 is the resonance part for GSM 900. The second resonance part 32 is provided with a second slot 7 connected to the first slot 6. The second slot 7 is provided to make the electrical length of the second resonance part 32 longer. The second slot 7 is extended with a third slot 8 to achieve the correct length of the slot. The second slot 7 and the third slot 8 can be seen as one close end slot. The ground connection 2 is located at one end of the element 4, but can be located at an arbitrary distance from the edge. The feeding point 1 is located proximal to one end of the first slot 6. It is not necessary, that the feeding point 1 is proximal to the end of the first slot, but it needs to be located in the vicinity of said end. In this figure, the slots are straight lines, but the slots can have other forms, as long as the first slot, the feeding point and the ground connection together forms a division of the element. It is not necessary that the angles between the slot members are orthogonal as shown in the figure. The angles can have other values.

The element and ground plane can be of any arbitrary shapes, depending of the physical limitations of the application. It is also possible that an aperture can penetrate the antenna. Those features are advantageous, because it is possible to manufacture the antenna in a form, where all the available physical space in a cellular can be used for the antenna. The antenna can be given its maximal size, and a very good performance can be achieved. The band width can be high enough to provide a 4-band antenna, where the lower resonance frequency covers both the 850Mhz and 900Mhz bands, and the higher resonance frequency covers both the 1800Mhz and 1900Mhz bands used by cellulars in different areas of the world.

By using an antenna of this configuration, it is possible to tune one of the resonance frequencies without affecting the other by only changing one physical dimension of the antenna element and to tune both resonance frequencies together in the same direction by only changing another single physical dimension of the antenna element.

Moving the feeding point towards the ground point (positive z-direction) will result in a lower impedance of the antenna while a higher impedance will be obtained if the feeding point is moved further away from the ground point (This is valid if the distance between the two points is less than a quarter of a wave length). However, is the feeding point moved in the positive x-direction an increase in the coupling to the GSM

1800 resonance is achieved, while an increase in the coupling to the GSM 900 resonance is achieved if the feeding point is moved in the negative x-direction. The above is also valid for the ground point; however, the sign of the z-direction must be inverted. I.e. it is not necessary that the ground connection is at the edge of the element, as shown in the figures, it can as well be located at an arbitrary distance from the edge. The GSM 900 resonance can be moved without affecting the GSM 1800 resonance by tuning the length of the second resonance part 32. A longer 42 first resonance part is shown with dotted lines. This will imply a change in the length of the resonance part 32 and change the electrical length of the GSM 900 resonance and a tuning is ob- tained. This will have a minimal influence on the GSM 1800 resonance.

The GSM 1800 resonance can be moved without affecting the GSM 900 resonance by tuning the first length of resonance part 31. A longer 41 first resonance part is shown with dotted lines.

The tuning of the longer resonance parts 41 and 42 can of course also be done by shortening the length of the respective parts when appropriate.

Both resonance frequencies can also be changes by changing the width of the first slot element 6. By reducing the width of the first slot 6 the capacitive coupling between the two resonance parts of the element is increased and the electrical length of both resonance parts is also increased, whereby a reduction of the resonance frequency for both parts is obtained. This, of course is also valid the other way round, increasing the width results in a decrease of the coupling and in the electrical length of the resonance, i.e. the resonance frequency of both parts is increased.

Both resonances can also be tuned at the same time by changing the length of the second slot 7 or 8 if that is present. Making the length of the second slot 7 longer will increase the electrical length for both resonances and they are reduced in frequency. Shorten the length will increase the resonance frequency. This change will have greater influence of the lower resonance frequency than the higher resonance frequency.

In Fig. 3, a second embodiment of the element is shown. The antenna has a slot 7 without the third slot 8. The possibilities for tuning the antenna in an easy way is the same as in the first embodiment, because the only function of the third slot element 8 is to obtain the correct length of the slot for the desired frequency. In Fig. 4 a third embodiment of the element is shown. This embodiment is identical with the first embodiment with an area added to the left corner of the element. The added area are not essential for the function of the antenna, but can be added, if the mechanical limitations does not restrict the use of the area.

Claims

1. A dual resonance frequency inverted F antenna (PIFA) comprising an element defined by a first conductive layer (4), a ground layer (3) defined by a second conductive layer, a first open end slot (6) and a second close end slot (7), which second close end slot is connected to said first open end slot, a feeding connection (1) and a ground connection (2), said connections arranged in the vicinity of the closed end of said first open end slot (6), means for tuning the resonance frequencies separately for each band in the form of a first (31) and a second resonance part (32) provided in the element at each side of a first open end slot (6) and means for tuning resonance frequency for both bands together in the form of said first open end slot (6) and said second close end slot (7).
2. Antenna according to claim 1, wherein said feeding connection (1) is pro- vided in the element (4) in the vicinity of the close end of said first slot (6), wherein said ground (2) connection is provided in extension of said first slot (6) and said feeding connection (1) and in a distance from said end of said first slot (6).
3. Antenna according to claim 1 or 2, wherein at least one of the slots (6, 7) is a straight line.
4. Antenna according to claim 3, wherein the second slot comprises a third slot (8) which extends in an angle from the second slot (7).
5. Antenna according to claim 3 or 4, wherein at least two of the slots (6,7,8) are orthogonally on each other.
6. Antenna according to any of the claims 1-5, wherein the close end of the first slot (6) is proximal to the feeding connection (1).
7. Method of tuning a dual resonance frequency planar inverted F antenna (PIFA) comprising an element (4) defined by a first conductive layer, said element comprising a first (31) and a second (32) resonance part provided in the element (4) at each side of a slot (6), comprising the steps of tuning both resonance frequencies to- gether by adjusting the physical dimensions of said slot (6) and tuning one resonance frequency independently of the other resonance frequency by adjusting the length of one resonance part (31,32).
8. Method of tuning a dual resonance frequency planar inverted F antenna (PIFA) according to claim 1 comprising the steps of tuning both resonance frequencies by changing the length of the second slot (7), tuning one resonance frequency by changing the length of that particular part (31,32) of the element which acts as resonance for that resonance frequency.
9. Method of tuning a dual band planar inverted F antenna (PIFA) comprising the steps of tuning both bands by changing the width of the first slot (6), tuning one band by changing the length of one resonance part (31,32).
PCT/DK2003/000236 2002-04-10 2003-04-10 Dual band antenna WO2003088418A1 (en)

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DKPA200200527 2002-04-10

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