WO2003071655A1 - Method for monitoring decentralised power generation plants - Google Patents

Method for monitoring decentralised power generation plants Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2003071655A1
WO2003071655A1 PCT/EP2003/001828 EP0301828W WO03071655A1 WO 2003071655 A1 WO2003071655 A1 WO 2003071655A1 EP 0301828 W EP0301828 W EP 0301828W WO 03071655 A1 WO03071655 A1 WO 03071655A1
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WO
WIPO (PCT)
Prior art keywords
power generation
network
frequency
local
amplitude
Prior art date
Application number
PCT/EP2003/001828
Other languages
German (de)
French (fr)
Inventor
Kolm Hendrik
Original Assignee
Retec Regenerative Energie Technik
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to DE10207560.3 priority Critical
Priority to DE2002107560 priority patent/DE10207560A1/en
Application filed by Retec Regenerative Energie Technik filed Critical Retec Regenerative Energie Technik
Publication of WO2003071655A1 publication Critical patent/WO2003071655A1/en

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Classifications

    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J3/00Circuit arrangements for ac mains or ac distribution networks
    • H02J3/38Arrangements for parallely feeding a single network by two or more generators, converters or transformers
    • H02J3/381Dispersed generators
    • H02J3/382Dispersed generators the generators exploiting renewable energy
    • H02J3/383Solar energy, e.g. photovoltaic energy
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J3/00Circuit arrangements for ac mains or ac distribution networks
    • H02J3/38Arrangements for parallely feeding a single network by two or more generators, converters or transformers
    • H02J2003/388Islanding, i.e. disconnection of local power supply from the network
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J3/00Circuit arrangements for ac mains or ac distribution networks
    • H02J3/38Arrangements for parallely feeding a single network by two or more generators, converters or transformers
    • H02J3/381Dispersed generators
    • H02J3/382Dispersed generators the generators exploiting renewable energy
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E10/00Energy generation through renewable energy sources
    • Y02E10/50Photovoltaic [PV] energy
    • Y02E10/56Power conversion electric or electronic aspects
    • Y02E10/563Power conversion electric or electronic aspects for grid-connected applications

Abstract

Local power generation plants increasingly supply a high-voltage energy supply network (4) in a parallel manner via a local network and a low-voltage local network transformer (3). To achieve this, each power generation plant has on the load side a respective switch-isolator (2), which is used to isolate the respective power supply plant from the local network. To monitor the local power supply plants for overloads or network malfunctions, the amplitude and frequency of the phase-to-phase low voltages are measured on the 3-phase low-voltage side of the local network transformer (3). The measured values that have been determined for the amplitude and the frequency of the low voltages are transmitted in the form of digitally encoded data signals (8) to all power supply plants via the local network. The amplitude and frequency of the 3-phase output voltage are measured on the load side of each power generation plant. The data signals (8) that are transmitted via the local network are received by each power generation plant and are evaluated together with its own measured values for amplitude and frequency, in such a way that the switch isolator (7) of the relevant power generation plant is opened if no data signal (8) is received, or if the measured values of said installation lie outside a predefined tolerance range.

Description

METHOD FOR MONITORING onsite energy systems

DESCRIPTION

The invention relates to a method for monitoring of distributed power generation equipment according to the preamble of the claim. Such a method is generally known.

In decentralized Enerieerzeugungsanlagen the low-voltage network of power supply company (PSC's) has the unintended islanding operation can be reliably prevented to maintain security. In the past, utility companies demanded this at all times zugängige for them disconnection, could separate the incoming feeder from the mains through the maintenance work or malfunctions of the switching authorization.

With an increasing number of decentralized power generating installations, in particular cogeneration plants (CHP) and photovoltaic systems, however, this disconnection is unprofitable. Place it in front of every single family would have installed a distributed generation system, as would be the reason, the VDEW demanded (Association of German Electricity Works) to automatic solutions. For this, first the method of three-phase grid monitoring was applied. As illustrated with reference to Fig. 1, is this is a purely passive method because the network variables are not affected by the meter. It monitors the amplitude of the phase voltage of the outer conductor 3, as well as the frequency. When voltage deviations outside the tolerance range 0.85 U nam <U <1.10 U neπ ,, and frequency deviations of +/- 0.2 Hz from the desired value (50 Hz in Europe), the energy generation system must be made within 0.2 seconds from the mains separate. This method is quite simple to implement and (for example, synchronous or Asynchrongerneratoren or Photovoltaic inverters) suitable for every type of power generation facilities. However, it has one major deficiency. Formed between the sum of the power generated and removed by local loads performance balance that does not lead to activation of the local network to change the monitored parameters voltage and frequency, whereby the system accordingly does not shut off and a - to be avoided under all circumstances - unintentional islanding operation forms, which represents a significant health hazard. For example, a fuel cell supplies an electric power of 4 kW el. and a downstream inverter feeds in parallel operation to the low voltage grid of the utility. At the same time the coverage area of ​​a resistive load (heater) of 4 kW is connected. Will be opened for maintenance of the local area network switch-disconnector, the consumer receives the power generated from the inverter by the power balance exists for the inverter no switch-off, so that power is present even after cleared from the local network, so-called unintentional islanding operation. Yet another disadvantage exists: This method is not intrinsically safe, ie the grid monitoring system is defective, the power generation plant is not switched off, so necessary for the function of repeat tests.

To avoid these disadvantages, it has also emgeführt the impedance measurement. As this illustrates with reference to Fig. 2, is this is an active method. The meter affect the network size, passing from the line impedance from. One possibility is the following:

In the area of ​​the zero crossing of the AC line voltage, the meter is a constant current value as a pulse on the network. The zero crossing now shifts in time extent to the mesh in turn compensated for by constructing the voltage of reverse polarity of this current becomes zero. This time shift is a measure of the line impedance and can be calculated.

The draft standard of VDE 0126 sees this method before and most reliable way of preventing unintended islanding, both in single-phase systems, as well as three-phase. The limits of network impedance are defined as follows:

ZNetz <1, 25 Ω before grid connection for 20 s stable

ZNetz <1.75 Ω during feeding into the grid

Impedance jumps of> 0.5 Ω lead within 5 seconds to shutdown.

This method has the advantage over the three-phase voltage and frequency monitoring the advantage that it reliably prevents unintentional islanding operation and is intrinsically safe, so repeat tests are unnecessary. However, the following problems:

, Because this method is an active, which is contrary to the requirement of power utilities, to supply 100% owned smusförmigen power into the grid if possible. With available today inverter technology, this is also completely unproblematic reach. So outmoded, it seems to distort the sine only for the purpose of network monitoring. For this reason, this method is not permitted, for example, in the US and the UK. Power generation plants that do not require inverter as z.Bsp. Cogeneration with synchronous generators or small hydro power plants would have to be specially equipped for very complicated network impedance measurement with a measuring device that is able to realize this impedance measurement.

The system impedances of 1.75 Ω during operation can not always be achieved in reality. Especially in rural areas supplied with larger distances from the injection point from the local network Niedersparmungsstromformator is expected to significantly larger values. If benefits (ie not in the supply of energy to's utility, but with acceptance by the RU have led much larger line impedances no major disruptions or other problems, which is why operators react now established feed-in systems with incomprehension if specially for the 1 kWp photovoltaic plant a new supply line to be laid over 3 km. For me it is not clear why this impedance value is fixed irrespective of the performance of the power generation plant, the line losses increase but with increase in the feed-in power. on the other hand, the value of 1.75 may be in a service area Ω quite already represent a limit. In my view, it is feared that it comes because of excessive line impedance during the continuous operation to unwanted false alarms. a recent run discussion with the regional utility TEAG confirms this assumption. it is incomprehensible when a Bet Reiber a 800 Wp Photovoltaic system with compensation claims threatened because of loss of feed, because its inverters for separating excessive line impedance from the grid, but he was on the other electrically powered for 18 years without any problems for his business with a connected load of 50 kW of TEAG

The problem of an unwanted false shutdown of inadmissible because of network impedance is exacerbated when you factored in the following circumstances:

If several inverters on the principle of impedance measurement (as provided for in the draft standard VDE 0126) operated at a service area, these devices can interfere with each other. Since the impedance measurement is done by connecting a current pulse from the meter to the inverter, all inverters need to be synchronized with each other, because if z.Bsp. two inverters simultaneously switch their current pulse on the net, the measured line impedance doubled. Particularly problematic is a synchronization of different makes of inverters, as their manufacturers would have to put their Sofwareprotokolle open.

The object of the invention is in contrast to provide a method for monitoring of decentralized

Power generation systems to create, which does not require Switching of Sfromimpulsen, thus avoiding distortions of the sinusoidal shape of the AC current.

This object is achieved by the characterizing features of patent claim 1.

The invention is explained in more detail below with reference to the drawings according to Figures 3 to fifth It shows:

Figure 3 is a block diagram of a local network having three decentralized power generation facilities and a local area network transformer, which connects the local area network with a high-voltage power supply network.

Fig. 4 is a block diagram of a arranged on the low-voltage input of the local network transformers measuring stations, and

Fig. 5 is a block diagram of a angordneten on the load side of each power generation plant measurement receiver.

. As shown in Figure 3, 3 is seen circuitry between the secondary winding and load break switches 2 is a measuring device 1 is arranged, which performs the following main function in the building of local area network low voltage transformer:

Measuring the concatenated 3 voltages of the outer conductor of the three-phase mains R, S, T (low voltage) a) measuring the frequency b) Digital transmission of the measured values ​​cyclically (eg. Ex. Every second) by PWL communication to all power generation facilities in the local network area 8

is at the power generating equipment, a measuring receiver 5 connected to the allpoügen switch as separating element (relay, contactor) is coupled 7 and following duties: a) measuring the concatenated 3 voltages of the outer conductor of the three-phase mains R, S, T (low voltage) 9 b ) measuring the frequency of 10 c) receiving and decoding the digital 8 measuring signals from the transmitter (in Trafohaus 13, 12, 11) d) shutdown of the power generation system when measuring signals 8 are not received from the measuring transmitter 1 or even measured values ​​for voltage and frequency other than tolerance 14 the principle of network monitoring explained above is based on a passive method, apart from the modulation of the supply voltage for the purpose of data transmission.

The measuring station 1 at the Trafohaus attaches directly to the secondary winding of the current transformer 3, the three-phase voltages in the local network, as well as the frequency. After analog / digital conversion 11, the measured values ​​are digitally transmitted to the measuring receiver 5 in the local service area 8. The frequency band for data transmission in the range of 95 kHz - 150 kHz. This is internationally released for data transfer for free use and is currently used for the operation of home automation devices. Operation of the devices on the low-voltage network, for the purpose of data transmission is in the standard EN 500 65 - 1 CENELEC controlled so that reference is made thereto. These data 8 can be received at all locations of the local network and dedektiert. About the three-phase transformer 3 out towards medium voltage level 4 of the transformer 3 acts as a band-stop, which is why the data flow is interrupted in that direction. Thus, the low-voltage network is a communications network that is available to any user to use open as long as the EN 500 65-1 CENELEC is maintained.

The measuring receiver 5 measure directly at the power generation plant (Photo-voltaic inverter, hydroelectric plant, cogeneration, etc.) the voltages of the outer conductor 9 and the frequency 10; In addition, they receive the transmitted data in cyclic intervals 8 from the measuring transmitter 1 in the transformer house. The measuring receiver 5 acts on the switching member (relay, contactor) 7, which connects the power generation plant to the grid.

The following criteria provide the measuring receiver 5 for the shutdown of the power generation plant:

1. Voltage out of tolerance (0.85 Uneπn <U <1.1 Unom)

2. Frequency out of tolerance (49.8 Hz <f <50.2 Hz in Europe)

(59.7 Hz <f <60.3 Hz in the USA)

3. Failure of the data stream 8 from the measuring transmitter 1 - (for example by opening the disconnector in Trafohaus)

4. voltage drop between feed-in and measurement transmitter 1 in Trafohaus> 10 V (suggestion)

The criteria 1) and 2) correspond to the three-phase voltage monitoring, as required by the task setting.

The criterion 3) then enters when either the measurement transmitter is faulty 1, the local network load break switch 2 has been opened causes, for example, for maintenance work by the RU, with line breakage, for example due to excavation work, or in the absence of medium voltage on the primary side of the local network transformers 4, with the result whereby the power supply of the measuring station is interrupted. 1 Thus the entire system is intrinsically safe. Function tests may be omitted.

The criterion 4) provides a way available to indirectly monitor the line impedance or line losses depending on the performance of the power generation plant and initiate appropriate actions. The measuring receiver 5, the actual value of the input current is provided to each phase.

The power generating device knows at any time your electricity fed Ie, still she knows her measured voltage at the feed, and the voltage across the transformer, which is transmitted through the measuring station. After the calculation basis.

RNetz = Uτr-Ue RNetz - resistive component of the network impedance Ie UTΓ - voltage at the transformer

Ue - voltage at the feed-Ie - Current fed Can in the event that all power fed the line impedance is provided to the transformer 3 are calculated. However, the absolute value alone is not a switch-off, because when the supplied power is taken off by local loads 6 directly at the feed-back, the absolute impedance between transformer 3 and the feed-only plays a minor role.

This variant takes into account that large infeed require lower line impedances, than smaller ones.

For example, if the line impedance 2 Ω, which according to VDE 0126 - draft would lead to long shutdown, then a 1 kWp system without shutdown can safely operate at single-phase network since 4.35 A x 2 Ω = 8.7 V under the cut-off voltage is. Only at 5 A feed stream and the resulting power of 1150 Wp, the shutdown would occur.

So far, the data flow within my description as a one-way street of measurement channels 1 (Trafohaus) was considered the measuring receiver 5, which can be safely accomplish the main function, prevention of unintentional islanding. It is also conceivable to equip the measuring station 1 with a radio clock, and also to send the real-time signals to the measuring receiver 5, resulting in network events üeßen monitor in real time.

it would also be possible from the measuring station 1 of data 8 of the power generation plant, such as type (CHP, PV, hydro), maximum power, current fed power .... query or load management to operate, what then takes the Kornmunikation over the network bidirectional, each transmitter is also the recipient and vice versa.

Disclosure of the data protocol (similar to the time signal transmitter Maiflingen PTB Braunschweig) will each device developers allows to participate in this traffic, thereby independence of the make and country regulations and different network systems (voltage, frequency) is achieved. Currently this is handled differently in each country. The cherished by the VDE desire to incorporate the draft standard VDE 0126 in a harmonized international standard that is currently not in sight. Although that principle proposed not reflected in a provision, it offers maximum safety and reliability, the apparatus technology expenditure is relatively low. In power generation plants without inverter avoiding ungewollen alone operation is possible at all by this method. Hereinafter, the embodiment of a measuring transmitter 1 on the basis of Fig. 4 will be described.

In the measuring station 1, the 3 phases of the secondary winding of the current transformer 3 RS and T and the neutral conductor are guided. From the phases of the measuring station 1 refers to its internal power supply 13 its supply voltage. The power supply unit 13 is equipped with phase couplers, such that the sent data to be transmitted 8 at all 3 phases simultaneously with the N as reference potential. The BG 9 prepares the amplitude of the 3-phase voltages for the microprocessor 11, so that the power amplitude of the 3 phases present after the A / D conversion in digital form. The frequency of monitoring 10 prepares the zero crossings of the mains voltage to so that they can be converted into a digital measurement signal from the microprocessor. 11 The microprocessor 11 cyclically sends bit serial a data frame through its T x D-line to the powerline modem 12, that depending on the operation generates a frequency or Amplitudenmoduüertes signal and modulated onto the mains voltage. This method is internationally approved in the EN 500 65 - binding rules 1 CENELEC. If the software side specified limits for the voltage amplitude (0.85 Unom <U <1.1 Uneπn) and the frequency (49.8 Hz <f <50.2 Hz in Europe) is not met, the microprocessor 11 interrupts the data stream 8. the data stream 8 is also interrupted when or if the power supply 13 of the signal generator 1 is not guaranteed because a defect vorüegt. If the load breaker 2 opens in Trafohaus for the purpose of maintenance or is between him and a measuring receiver 5, a pipe broke in front, the measuring station 1 continues to send While valid data, but then they do not arrive at the measuring receiver 5, which is detected by this as an error, whereupon it separates the power plant from the grid over the Koppelgüed 7th Thus, this method is intrinsically safe and requires no zusätzüchen repeat tests.

The following is an example of a measuring receiver 5 on the basis of Fig. 5 soue are described.

However, the components 9-13 are functionally identical to those of the signal generator 1 in Fig. 4. Zusätzüch has the measuring receiver 5 a power amplifier 15 to control the Koppelgüed (relay or contactor) to which the power generation plant (generator) disconnected from the network becomes.

The assembly 14 for current measurement is optional in receivers that are not part of an inverter. In the inverter, the phase currents are measured in any case, for external devices, however, an impedance computation can be performed by the Mitteüung the current phase currents. For the basic function of the ENS, the height of the phase currents is not relevant in an Inverter Integrated test receivers this impedance calculation is, however, realized since no additional hardware expense for current measurement is erforderüch.

Claims

PATENT cLAIM
A method for monitoring of local power generation plants which paraUel via a local area network and a low voltage local power transformer (3) supply network in a high voltage power (4) feeding, each power generation plant has, on its load side jeweüs a load break switch (2) which upon the occurrence of overloads or network faults separating the jeweüige power supply system of the local network, characterized in that the amplitude and the frequency of the concatenated low voltages are measured on the 3-phase low voltage side of the local line transformer (3), that the measured values ​​determined for the amplitude and the frequency of the low voltages in the form of digitally coded data signals (8) via the local network to all power generation facilities to be transmitted, that the amplitude and the frequency of the 3 -phase output voltage is measured on the load side of each power generation plant, and that of each Energieerzeugungsanl are age receive the data transmitted via the local area network data signals (8) and evaluated to determine together with their own measurement values ​​for amplitude and frequency, that the circuit breaker (7) of the respective power generation plant will be opened, if no data signal (8) is received, or the own measured values ​​outside a predetermined tolerance range.
PCT/EP2003/001828 2002-02-22 2003-02-22 Method for monitoring decentralised power generation plants WO2003071655A1 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
DE10207560.3 2002-02-22
DE2002107560 DE10207560A1 (en) 2002-02-22 2002-02-22 A method of monitoring decentralized Energieerzegungsanlagen

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AU2003214070A AU2003214070A1 (en) 2002-02-22 2003-02-22 Method for monitoring decentralised power generation plants

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